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20-people-who-seriously-influenced-the-course-of-history

Mankind is developing exponentially, and time, as well as the ever-increasing number of people, gives us a chance for development, accumulation of experience, and evolutionary development.

 

However, not all people in history leave behind the eternal, the good; some do not want a bright future at all, and on the contrary, they drag many generations back.

 

People who have not changed the world in the best way

 

Perhaps all of us living on planet Earth could be much more advanced if it weren’t for these 20 guys who didn’t change the world in the best way or at least influenced the world. Here are a few famous names that slowed down our common evolution.

 

1. Thomas Midgley Jr.

 

American chemist and mechanical engineer who invented tetraethyl lead to be added to gasoline and chlorofluorocarbons for use in refrigerators and deodorants. Author of over 100 patents.

 

The production of Midgley's inventions had a devastating effect on the ozone layer. According to historian John McNeill, the inventor "had the greatest impact on the atmosphere than any other living organism in the history of the Earth."

 

2. Robert Maxwell - the creator of the meme "British scientists"

 

This man commercialized research articles in British journals. Before him, articles were published in free scientific journals and were available to schools and universities. Robert Maxwell also proposed the practice of paid subscription, and for each individual article. As a result, many educational institutions could not afford expensive information, and the level of education in foggy Albion decreased.

 

But Maxwell got even richer. However, he was already a media mogul and a lord.

 

3. Guy de Chauliac

 

An outstanding French surgeon of the 14th century, who, despite his many merits and in fact the official title of "father of surgery" among modern surgeons, has one unpleasant incident that pushed the development of antiseptics back centuries.

 

He was the most famous surgeon of the 1300s and part-time a fierce opponent of the work of another surgeon, Theodoric Borgognoni. Theodoric was a surgeon who wrote about his theories of proper wound care and believed that the best thing to do with a wound was to keep it clean.

 

Guy de Chauliac literally hated what Theodoric wrote, because it directly contradicted the teachings of Galen, the ancient Roman surgeon, who believed that pus is the body's desire for self-healing.

 

The teachings of the medieval Aesculapius were widely accepted, and it is believed that his delusion set back the development of antiseptics in surgery by about 600 years.

 

4. The Mongols, the army of the Mongol ruler and commander Hulagu

 

When they destroyed the libraries in Baghdad that contained much of the past knowledge that set humanity back hundreds of years.

 

5. Tiberius Caesar, who ordered the execution of the inventor of flexible (vitrum flexile) glass

 

As a result, the secret of flexible (non-breakable) glass was lost forever. And the story was like this.

 

The glazier, whose name has not been preserved by history, came to the reception of Emperor Julius Caesar. The craftsman presented a unique bowl - seemingly made of glass, but which, as he claimed, could not be broken.

 

The emperor tried to do this, but to no avail. Instead of being shattered, the bowl only dented as if it were made of bronze, and the glazier simply took out a hammer and straightened the dent.

 

Then Tiberius asked if anyone else knew how to produce this type of glass, the inventor replied that he was the only one in the whole world. It was a sentence - by order of Caesar, the inventor was executed.

 

Why did the emperor act so cruelly and unjustly? He was simply afraid that such an amazing material could devalue gold and silver in the future.

 

6. Andrew Wakefield

 

Our contemporary, a former British doctor who made a name for himself after a rigged 1998 study that falsely claimed a link between the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism, and for his subsequent anti-vaccine activity.

 

To a certain extent, his “work” is directly responsible for what happened around the world with the advent of COVID-19 – distrust of vaccines, a decrease in vaccination rates (especially in the West). Opponents believe that he is directly responsible for thousands, tens of thousands of deaths.

 

Wakefield is believed to have intentionally rigged the results to fit his hypothesis. What for? For money! To sell "safe" vaccines and diagnostic kits.

 

7. Sultan Selim the Terrible

 

It was believed, for example, that the Holy Quran could only be copied by hand. Printing was declared blasphemy, and in 1517, during the era of the Ottoman Empire, Sultan Selim the Terrible, on pain of death, banned printing presses in the territory of the empire. The ban lasted 300 years.

 

The development of printing in the East stopped, but at the same time, the development of calligraphy was at a great height in the Islamic world!

 

8. Emperor Yongle of the Ming Dynasty in China ordered the burning of Zheng He's fleet

 

The largest trading and exploratory fleet of the time during his reign in the early 1400s fell under the onslaught of flames. This was the beginning of an era of isolation of Chinese imperial lands that would eventually lead to the collapse of imperial China.

 

In addition, the wealth of the world as a whole has decreased as a result of reduced trade with China, and if China had continued exploration, it is possible that they, and not the Europeans, would have colonized North America (instead of discovering it and then simply not telling anyone about this)…

 

9. Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji

 

In the 12th century, India had the largest university in the world called Nalanda, where intellectuals from all over the world studied. Then the Turks invaded India. They destroyed almost all the intelligentsia and destroyed the university. They burned the library. According to witnesses, the library continued to burn for 3 MONTHS. This must be the biggest loss for humanity.

 

10. Sir Mark Sykes

 

During the First World War, he was considered the greatest British specialist in the Middle East. Known for the fact that, together with the French diplomat Francois Picot, he signed the Sykes-Picot Agreement, according to which the eastern territories of the Ottoman Empire were divided mainly into British and French spheres of influence.

 

The problem is that the division of borders has passed along religious and tribal unions and formations. Differing cultures, languages, everything mixed up then, inevitably pushing nations into disputes and wars, the echoes of which we still hear.

 

Imagine the progress, level of education and cooperation that could become a reality if the Middle East were allowed to flourish unhindered, without divisions, naturally?

 

11. Edward Bernays

 

He created modern PR, which determined how to control the masses through deceit.

 

He made a significant contribution to the creation of the modern science of mass persuasion, based not on reason, but on the manipulation of subconscious feelings and impulses.

 

Bernays combined the ideas on crowd psychology of Gustave Le Bon and Wilfred Trotter with the psychoanalytic ideas of his uncle Sigmund Freud.

 

12. Cyril of Alexandria

 

He organized bands of assassins who went around Alexandria and killed everyone who was not a convinced Christian. This included almost all the great minds of that era. Among them, in particular, was Hypatia of Alexandria, one of the greatest minds in history.

 

13. The one who gave the order to burn the Library of Alexandria

 

14. Exxon scientists (one of the largest oil companies in the world) who first learned about man-made climate change in the late 70s and decided to hide this fact

 

15. The top should be Diego de Landa, who burned all the books of the Maya in the name of Christianity on July 12, 1561

 

16. Ea-Nasir, copper merchant

 

Our first written texts could have been amazing stories about what life was like at that time. Instead, the records contain people's complaints from the Bronze Age.

 

17. Queen Victoria is responsible for the deaths of about 60 million people in Brazil, China, India and Ireland

In all these cases, the British crown was involved in the removal of goods from starving areas and led campaigns to spread and aggravate poverty.

 

18. The one who took possession of all the chests and papers of Nikola Tesla after his death

 

19. In terms of sheer devastation, perhaps Genghis Khan… is estimated to have killed about 11% of the world's population in a very short period of time.

It's like killing 800 million people in modern times!

 

20. Charles Babbage - English mathematician, inventor of the first analytical computer

 

It is unlikely that he did this maliciously, but experts say he was the initiator of hindering the progress of computers for almost 100 years.

 

In the 1800s (Industrial Revolution), Babbage developed a working prototype of the computer, the Universal Digital Computing Machine. He had interested buyers, but no entrepreneurial spirit.

 

And what did he end up doing with all this? Nothing! The end product was not produced or sold, and the first prototypes of computers did not appear until the second half of the 1900s. Imagine what would be around us today if we were developing computers for another 100 years?

 

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top-80-dalai-lama-quotes-to-help-understand-yourself-and-others

Even if you are not a Buddhist, you have most likely heard of a Buddhist monk who is known for his wisdom in many areas of life and whose famous sayings are quoted all over the world. He became one of the most beloved and respected spiritual figures of the 20th century. We are talking about the Dalai Lama XIV, the spiritual leader of the followers of Tibetan Buddhism, who devoted his life to strengthening peace on Earth, establishing friendly ties between warring countries, and solving environmental problems.

 

Wise sayings of a world-famous monk

 

He is a leader who knows how to be compassionate and loving, which can be felt in his inspirational quotes, which are based on his accumulated wisdom throughout his life. And he shares his knowledge with the whole world all his life.

 

Over the past few decades, the Dalai Lama has opened many educational, cultural, and religious institutions and organizations that have enabled him to largely preserve the Tibetan identity and its rich past. And, despite his considerable age, even today he does not cease to carry the Buddhist teachings to the masses around the world. Despite his Buddhist views, values ​​, and Tibetan sermons, his sayings can be applied to every person, regardless of their religion or beliefs.

 

In the quotes of the Dalai Lama, everyone can find advice, inspiration, and even motivation. Aphorisms and sayings about life, peace and spirituality, taken from his many public speeches, which he delivered around the world, visiting more than 62 countries, serve as a universal code for humanity and a code of morality.

 

 

1. “Happiness is not something ready-made, but something that comes as a result of your own actions.”

 

2. "We will never establish harmony with the world around us until we come to terms with ourselves."

 

3. “Through hard trials, life sometimes becomes more meaningful.”

 

4. "Don't let the behavior of others destroy your inner peace."

 

5. “Remember that sometimes not getting what you wanted is wonderful luck.”

 

6. "Anger is the biggest destroyer of your peace of mind."

 

7. “The more you are driven by love, the more fearless and free will be your actions.”

 

8. "Never give up. Whatever happens. Never give up".

 

9. “Optimism leads to success; pessimism leads to defeat.

 

10. “Out of 6 billion people, troublemakers are only a handful.”

 

 

11. "We can live without religion and meditation, but we cannot survive without love."

 

12. "Learn and know the rules so you know how to break them."

 

13. "Give those you love wings to fly, roots to return to, and reasons to stay."

 

14. "The goal is not to be better than the other man, but to be better than the old self."

15. “My religion is very simple. My religion is kindness."

 

16. "The action of others should not determine your reaction."

 

17. "I find hope in the darkest days and focus on the brightest."

 

18. "With violence, you may 'solve' one problem, but you will sow the seeds of another."

 

19. "Open heart, open mind."

 

20. “Most people prefer a smile to a frown. This is human nature. Even dogs respond with tail wagging to smiles and other displays of affection.”

 

21. “Never mistake my silence for ignorance, my calmness for acceptance, or my kindness for weakness. Compassion and tolerance are not a sign of weakness, but a sign of strength.”

 

 

22. "A disciplined mind leads to happiness, and an undisciplined mind leads to suffering."

 

23. "Action is more important than meditation."

 

24. “Be kind whenever possible. And that's always possible."

 

25. “Proper use of time is very important. As long as we have this body and especially this amazing human brain, I think every minute is something precious and priceless.”

 

26. “Even in an animal, if you show sincere affection, trust gradually develops… If you always frown and act from a position of strength, how can you develop friendship?”

 

27. “Time is running out forever. When we make mistakes, we cannot turn back time and try again. All we can do is use the present correctly.”

 

28. “Friendship depends on trust, not on money, not on power, not on mere education or knowledge. Only if there is trust, there will be friendship.”

 

29. “Our main goal in this life is to help others. And if you can't help someone, at least don't hurt them."

 

30. “The best way to solve any problem in the world is to sit down at the negotiating table and talk to all parties.”

 

 

31. "Even when we have physical limitations, we can still be very happy."

 

32. “You have to be able to start giving first and expect absolutely nothing in return.”

 

33. “Pain can change you, but that doesn't mean you'll change for the worse. Take that pain and turn it into wisdom."

 

34. “Think of others and your own problem will seem insignificant; if you think only of yourself, then even a small problem will seem unbearable.

 

35. "If every 8-year-old child in the world is taught to meditate, we will eliminate the world's violence in one generation."

 

36. “Share your knowledge. It's a great way to achieve your immortality."

 

37. "Once a year, go somewhere you've never been before."

 

38. “When we feel love and kindness towards others, it not only makes those people feel loved and cared for, but also helps us develop inner happiness and peace.”

 

39. "Try to recognize the precious nature of each day."

 

 

40. “People walk different paths in search of fulfillment and happiness. Just because they're not in your path doesn't mean they're lost."

 

41. "The real hero is the one who conquers his own anger and hatred."

 

42. “Love and compassion are a necessity, not a luxury. Without them humanity will not survive.”

"In order to take positive action, we must develop a positive vision."

 

43. “Just one little positive thought in the morning can change your entire day.”

 

44. "Where ignorance is our master, there is no possibility of real peace."

 

45. “If you are afraid of some kind of pain or suffering, you should see if there is anything you can do about it. If you can, you have nothing to worry about; if you can't do anything, then there's nothing to worry about."

 

46. “Anger or hatred is like a fishhook. It's really important for us to make sure we don't get hooked."

 

47. "Smile if you want a smile back from the other person."

 

48. "Instead of asking WHY this is happening to you, think about why this is happening to YOU."

 

49. "Disagreement is okay."

 

50. “The world belongs to humanity, and not to some leader, that ruler, king, prince or religious teacher. The world belongs to all people."

 

 

51. "If there is peace in your heart, nothing can disturb you."

 

52. "The way to change the minds of others is love, not anger."

 

53. “What surprises me the most about our world is the “Man” because he sacrifices his health to make money. He then donates money to restore his health. And then he is so worried about the future that he does not enjoy the present; as a result, he lives neither in the present nor in the future; he lives as if he will never die, and then dies without ever truly living.”

 

54. "If you think you're too small to make a difference, try sleeping in a closed room with a mosquito."

 

55. “When you practice being grateful and always saying thank you, a sense of respect for others arises.”

 

56. “Optimism does not mean that you are blind and do not look at things with a real eye. This means that you stay motivated no matter what to look for a solution to any problems that arise.”

 

57. "I believe that the main source of blessings is within us."

 

58. “Since we all share this planet Earth, we must learn to live in harmony and peace with each other and with nature. It's not just a dream, but a necessity."

 

59. “I believe that in order to meet the challenges of our time, people need to develop more responsibility. Each of us must learn to work not only for ourselves, our family or country, but also for the benefit of all mankind. The responsibility of all of us is the key to our survival. This is the main foundation for world peace.”

 

60. “All the most common religions carry basically the same message - love, compassion and forgiveness. It's something that should be part of our lives."

 

 

61. “Be kind, honest and have positive thoughts; forgive those who harm us and treat everyone as a friend; help the suffering and never consider yourself superior to anyone: even if this advice seems rather simplistic to you, try to understand that with it you can find great happiness.

 

62. “A truly compassionate attitude towards others does not change, even if they behave negatively or hurt you.”

 

63. "When you realize you've made a mistake, take immediate action to correct it."

 

64. “Home is the place where you feel at home, where you are treated well.”

 

65. “When you are unhappy, you always want more and more and more. Your desire can never be satisfied. But when you practice contentment, you can say to yourself, “Oh yes, I already have everything I need.”

 

66. “There is no need for temples, there is no need for elaborate philosophies. My brain and my heart are my temples; my philosophy is kindness.

 

67. “There are only two days in the year when nothing can be done, and we cannot influence them. One is yesterday and the other is tomorrow. Today is the right day to love, believe, do and live.”

 

68. “You must lead a good life. And a good life is not just good food, great clothes, a good house. This is not enough. One must be able to sympathize, to live without dogmatism, without complicated philosophy; simply understanding that other people are brothers and sisters, and respecting their rights and human dignity.”

 

69. “Every day, waking up, think: today I am lucky that I am alive, I have a priceless human life and that I am not going to waste it. I am going to use all my energy to develop myself, to open my heart to others; achieve enlightenment for the benefit of all people. I will have kind thoughts towards others, I will not be angry or think badly of others. I will benefit others as much as I can."

 

70. “Whether you are rich or poor, educated or illiterate, religious or unbelieving, male or female, black, white or brown, we are all the same. Physically, emotionally and mentally we are all equal. We all have common needs for food, shelter, security, and love. We all strive for happiness and avoid suffering. We all have hopes, anxieties, fears and dreams. Each of us wants the best for our family, loved ones and relatives. We all experience pain when we experience loss and joy when we achieve what we want. At this fundamental level, religion, ethnicity, culture and language don't matter."

 

 

71. "Sleep is the best meditation."

 

72. "Judge your success by what you had to give up to get it."

 

73. "I defeat my enemies when I make them my friends."

 

74. “Happiness does not always come from striving. Sometimes it happens when we least expect it."

 

75. “Compassion is the radicalism of our time.”

 

76. “Human potential is the same for everyone. If the phrase “I’m worthless” is spinning in your head, then this is wrong. This is absolutely wrong. You are deceiving yourself. We all have the power of thought - so what are you missing? If you have the will power, then you can change anything. As they say, we are our own masters.”

 

77. “I think technology has really increased human capabilities. But technology cannot generate compassion.”

 

78. “We are just guests on this planet. We've been here for ninety or a hundred years at the most. During this period, we should try to do something good, something useful in our lives. If you contribute to the happiness of other people, you will find the true purpose, the true meaning of life.”

 

79. “When you speak, you are only repeating what you already know. But if you learn to listen to other people, you can learn something new.”

 

80. "Where ignorance is our master, there is no possibility of real peace."

 

 

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facts-about-sleep-what-is-the-10-3-2-1-formula-and-how-does-it-help-you-fall-asleep

Indeed everyone is familiar with the situation: you go to bed in the evening but can’t fall asleep. You start counting the camels, trying to get all thoughts out of your head, sometimes you hide, sometimes you open up... but, having rolled from side to side for several hours, you fall asleep only in the morning. Familiar? Surely yes. And this is not surprising because, according to various studies, people sleep much less than their body needs for proper rest. And hence often a brutal awakening, persistent drowsiness, poor concentration on current affairs, nervousness, etc. But the worst thing is that constant lack of sleep is fraught with health problems, particularly from the nervous and cardiovascular systems.

 

The rule that will give you good night and good morning

 

Therefore, we all need to learn how to properly prepare for bed, no matter how strange it may sound. And this is where the “10-3-2-1” formula comes in handy, adhering to which you can easily fall asleep and forget about insomnia. Moreover, this system is highly praised by specialists from medicine.

 

So, it's time to get acquainted with the formula "10-3-2-1" and sort through what all these numbers mean.

 

 

SHORT FACTS 

 

●Two-thirds of adults in the US and UK do not meet the recommended eight hours of sleep and instead get only six hours of sleep.

 

●Busy lifestyle and busy work schedule are the most common causes of lack of sleep.

 

●Somnologists welcome the 10-3-2-1 method, which helps to optimally prepare for sleep during the day.

 

●But that's terrible news if you're into caffeine, as the formula says to take it at least 10 hours before bed.

 

●And those who eat late will have to move their meal time three hours before bedtime. Otherwise, they risk lousy sleep.

 

●It is also recommended not to do strenuous work for two hours and avoid using technical devices.

 

For many modern people, the lack of sleep is very acute. So why are millions of us still suffering from this?

 

 

Studies show that two-thirds of adults in the US and the UK get less than the recommended eight hours of sleep, and the average American and Briton sleep about six hours.

 

Busy lifestyles and busy work schedules are the most common causes of sleep deprivation. But our obsession with technology, lack of exercise, and a culture of late eating have also been cited as why we get so little sleep.

 

Sleep medicine doctors have been raving about the 10-3-2-1 formula in recent years, a step-by-step guide on how best to prepare for a whole night's sleep.

 

But that's terrible news for those who love caffeine, as the method says it should be consumed at least 10 hours before bedtime. Fans of late meals will have to reconsider their habits and postpone their meal times by three hours before bedtime. Otherwise, they risk tossing and turning all night and eventually get unrested in the morning.

 

The guide also recommends closing your work email two hours before bedtime and avoiding phones, tablets, and laptops for an hour before bed.

 

But no less important is the proper awakening. According to mathematician Dr. Anne-Marie Imafidon, president-elect of the British Science Association, the morning should start to feel refreshed: we should get out of bed at 7:12 in the morning, exercise for precisely 21, and then take a shower for ten minutes.

 

LIMIT TO THE LAST CAFFEINE AT NOON

 

The expert-approved approach says caffeine intake should be stopped 10 hours before bedtime.

 

Since the average Brit goes to bed at 11 pm, this means no coffee, tea, or energy drinks after 1 pm.

 

The 10-hour interval is explained by the time it takes caffeine to metabolize in the body. Health officials say it takes 8 to 12 hours, an average of 10 hours.

 

Several studies have shown that caffeine can improve cognitive performance and temporarily prevent the effects of a poor night's sleep.

 

But, according to dozens of studies, the stimulant makes it harder to fall asleep and does not protect against the effects of prolonged sleep deprivation.

 

And a 2013 study by researchers at Wayne State University in Michigan found that drinking caffeine six hours before bed can shorten a person's sleep duration.

 

The scientists observed the sleep habits of 12 people who took tablets containing 400 mg of the stimulant, the equivalent of two or three cups of coffee, zero, three, and six hours before their usual bedtime.

 

 

Based on the results, those who took the pills six hours before bedtime got one hour less sleep than usual.

 

Experts also warn that drinking caffeine before bed can worsen sleep quality. A review by researchers at the University of Zurich detailed that the stimulant suppresses slow-wave sleep, the deep sleep that makes people feel alert.

 

If this is interrupted, people may lose sleep, meaning their memory, concentration, and mood will suffer.

 

HOW MUCH TIME SHOULD PEOPLE SLEEP?

 

Most adults need six to nine hours of sleep each night.

 

By going to bed and waking up at the same time every night, you are programming your brain and internal body clock to get used to the routine.

 

But few people manage to adhere to a strict sleep regimen.

 

To make it easier to fall asleep, the UK National Health Service (NHS) advises relaxing, such as taking a bath, reading, and avoiding electronic devices.

 

The medical service also recommends making the bedroom comfortable for sleeping by removing TVs and gadgets from the room and keeping it dark and tidy.

 

The NHS says keeping a sleep diary can reveal lifestyle habits or activities that contribute to sleepiness for people who struggle to sleep.

 

LAST SNACK OR GLASS OF WINE - BEFORE 20:00

 

Those who drink late at night or snack at midnight may be putting their sleep at risk. Based on the 10-3-2-1 formula, people are advised not to eat or drink alcohol three hours before their head touches the pillow.

 

Experts say this fasting period gives the body enough time to digest food, but it's short enough that people don't go to bed hungry. Quitting alcohol before bed has been linked to improved sleep quality.

 

But scientists have come up with slightly different rules.

 

Researchers at the London Sleep Centre analyzed 27 studies and found that those who drank just before bed fell asleep faster and slept deeper.

 

However, they experience slower eye movement in sleep, the stage in which dreams occur towards the end of the night. The nervous system is activated during this stage, which is a critical factor in preparing to wake up in the morning without feeling sleepy.

 

And research shows that the later in the day you eat, the less likely it is that the food is digested properly, leading to acid reflux and cramps, and also forces the digestive system to work at night, resulting in less restful sleep.

 

 

However, the data show conflicting results. A University of Michigan team detailed in a 2021 study of 13,000 Americans that those who ate within the hour before bed slept an average of 30 minutes more.

 

But eating before bed can affect more than just sleep quality. A 2016 Dokuz Eylül University in Turkey found that people who eat within two hours of sleep are more likely to have a heart attack or stroke.

 

The team, which followed 700 people, found that their blood pressure spiked and remained high when they ate for two hours before bed. Scientists explained this by saying that food releases stress hormones when the body should begin to relax. Those whose blood pressure remains high during the night have a much higher mortality rate from cardiovascular disease.

 

WORK - NO LATER THAN 21:00

 

Experts say the brain should rest for two hours before bed.

 

In this “window,” people should avoid all work-related activities such as emails, phone calls, and thoughts about the day ahead. People are even advised to write down any tasks that come to mind so they can switch off for the night.

 

This is because those who struggle to get a good night's sleep often blame it on stress and anxiety. Excessive exertion can cause shallow breathing, increase heart rate and blood pressure, and release hormones that make people feel more alert.

 

During this process, it can be nearly impossible to fall asleep, and researchers consistently find that those who struggle with sleep experience the most stress.

 

A team from the University of Indonesia who surveyed 450 people about their stress and sleep patterns found that tired people were almost five times more likely to have difficulty sleeping than those who were not stressed.

 

And a study of 800 medical students found that those who were not stressed were 28% more likely to get a good night's sleep, according to researchers at the King Saud bin Abdulaziz University of Medical Sciences.

 

But the results seem to go both ways - the lack of sleep contributes to stress.

 

A 2020 Chinese study in which more than 800 teenagers filled out questionnaires about their sleep habits found that those who fell asleep the fastest and tossed and turned the least were better at coping with stress.

 

NO NETFLIX IN BED AFTER 10 PM

 

Experts have long warned that electronic devices interfere with a person's biological clock. As the sun rises, your body releases the hormone cortisol, which makes you feel alert.

 

When it gets dark in the evening, the body produces melatonin, which causes a feeling of drowsiness.

 

But data shows that browsing phones, tablets, and laptops interfere with this process, meaning that late-night scrolling through social media or watching Netflix in bed can lead to sleep problems.

 

Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in New York have found that using phones, tablets, and laptops at maximum brightness two hours before bed makes it harder to fall asleep.

 

According to them, excess light stops the regular release of melatonin - a signal to the body clock that it's time to sleep.

 

Meanwhile, a University of Arizona team that studied hundreds of students' sleep patterns and tech habits found that people who surf the Internet in the last hour before bed were likelier to get less sleep.

 

And a University of California study of 700 Americans found that those who stared at a screen before bed reported higher levels of sleep disturbance.

 

Adding to these results, the Harvard Medical School team found that it's not limited to devices—even bright lights in the house or outside the window can interfere with melatonin production at night by as much as 90 percent.

 

 

 

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40-americans-honestly-and-without-embellishment-told-what-their-real-salary-is

How much do US citizens earn? This question interests a significant number of people. It is said that the average American is almost fabulously wealthy. But is it? Perhaps, everyone will answer this question for themselves, having read our material, collected from the answers of members of the BuzzFeed community, who spoke about their work and how much they earn.

 

What do people in the USA do for a living, and how much do they pay there?

 

 

Here's what people shared:

 

1. "I work in Louisiana doing HIV prevention (counseling). I have a bachelor's degree and make $43,000." — Anonymous

 

2. "I'm the founder/owner/CEO of a small craft brewery. I make $35,000 a year." — Anonymous

 

3. “I work as an actress and stuntwoman in the film industry. I make between $25,000 and $100,000 a year. The amount varies from year to year depending on the amount of work. I always have to be in touch in case a job comes up. I almost missed a role on the show because I was unavailable for a whole day...it was my wedding day. We no longer receive allowances due to streaming, and we still work more than 12 hours a day from Monday to Friday." — Anonymous

 

4. "Going into my sixth year of teaching elementary school. I make about $39,000. I live in Michigan and work at a school in a small town." — redbarklive

 

5. "I own and operate a design and marketing firm. On average, I make about $230,000 a year - sometimes a little less, sometimes a little more, depending on the projects under development." — millennialslayer

 

6. "I enjoy working as a psychotherapist, but it's a meager paying job. I make between $22,000 and $50,000." — Anonymous

 

7. “I dropped out of college and got a job as a paralegal nine years ago with a salary of $24,500 a year. Now I continue to work as a paralegal and make $80,000 a year without bonuses or overtime. It’s all about connections. I don’t have an education, and I'm on my way to a six-figure because someone I knew told me the law firm had an opening. Fake it till you get it, baby!" — Anonymous

 

 

8. "Real estate agent: $300,000 a year." — Anonymous

 

9. "I'm a gardener who grows vegetables for a restaurant (not my own business, but I'm considered a restaurant employee), and I make $20 an hour. Compared to my last job (managing a retail outlet at a garden center), I made only $14 an hour. I had to put up with rude customers, bad employees, terrible corporate executives, etc. $20 an hour to be alone, or my greenhouse is a dream. it's a good perk." jenm47faa724d

 

10. "Police detective in a decent-sized Midwestern city. $90,000 a year without overtime or benefits." — Anonymous

 

11. "I've worked as a milk and formula technologist for a year. I started at $15.25 an hour, and I'm currently making $15.65 an hour. My job is to prepare and distribute infant formula and breast milk among patients." — Anonymous

 

12. "Traffic Control/Signing. I control traffic for construction companies, and once construction is complete, we reinstall all signs. We also install fencing and other safety-related items. I only work eight months a year and earn about $65,000-$70,000 annually." — Anonymous

 

13. "$4,000 weekly as a line producer on a hit reality show. I manage budgets and schedules, hire staff, and handle travel and logistics, which are just part of my job. 24/7 job, pretty stressful, but I love it.". "— Anonymous

 

14. "Director of Conservation Education at a non-profit zoo. I oversee the education department, which handles bookings, curriculum development, animal training, etc. We also create and implement announcements throughout the facility. I've been in the position for almost ten years and am currently earning $47,000." — Anonymous

 

 

15. "I'm the manager of a candy store in a (wealthy) tourist area and make $50,000 a year plus tips. I'm in charge of planning, hiring, training, 75% of purchase orders and daily food preparation, and solving customer problems. "With what I earn in tips, I can easily add $10,000-$12,000 a year to my base salary. That sounds like a lot for a store manager, but given the cost of living here, it's a must." — Anonymous

 

16. "I'm a local insurance agent in North Carolina; I work 45 hours a week and make $40,000 a year. I work in the customer service department of a small agency, so I mostly answer phones and do the little things: change cars, answer questions about billing, deal with insurance matters and write new policies, mainly for home and auto insurance." — Anonymous

 

17. "I'm a 'literary slave' in writing serial fiction and an associate editor. I work as a freelancer for a serial novel publisher. I get paid by the number of words I write. I make about $1,500 monthly, plus additional royalties for a book I published last year. My monthly income is not always the same. I work remotely from home, dividing my time between writing and caring for two young children (3 years and three months)." — Anonymous

 

18. "This is my first year as a lawyer. I litigate labor plaintiffs, and I make $65,000 a year plus bonuses from time to time." — Anonymous

 

19. "I work as a customer service officer for a wealth management firm in New England. I make $70,000 a year (technically $33.65 an hour as I'm still paid by the hour). But with bonuses, overtime, and other benefits, my salary last year was about $94,000. I handle money transfers, opening accounts, regulatory compliance, working with brokerages, research, and more." — Anonymous

 

20. "MRI technologist. I operate the MRI machine, examine patients, and perform scans. I ensure the pictures are good, the doctor can read them, and I don't make a diagnosis. I work 32 to 45 hours a week. I earn $26 an hour, No sick days, no vacation, and no benefits. If I don't work, I don't get paid. I'm considered a daily employee even though I have a set schedule. Almost all imaging specialists (MRI, X-ray, and CT) have per diems, so employers don't have to pay us benefits or give us vacation days." — Anonymous

 

 

21. "I'm a retail banker in Houston, and I'm paid $38,000 a year. I hate this place." — Anonymous

 

22. "Assistant Summer Camp Director. I have nine years of experience in the field and have been paid no more than $34,000 a year. People don't know or understand about camp/vacation: you work 14-16 hours a day with 100-200 vacationers (6-16 years old) and 50 employees (18-22 years old) and are on call 24/7 for three to five consecutive months. You work 40 hours a week doing planning, recruiting, etc., all on a budget of almost zero. Camping is SO like education - underpaid, overworked, undersupported, and employers believe you're doing it all "for children" and manage without the necessary resources. — Anonymous

 

23. "I test masks for all staff at a major hospital on the island of Oahu. According to OSHA, all staff who see patients (receptionists or doctors) must have an annual mask fitting certification, which I am responsible for. I work hourly, and I get paid $24.28!" — Anonymous

 

24. "I'm a librarian, specifically an electronic resource librarian at a small private university in the Midwest. I recently received a salary adjustment and a job update. Now I make $59,000 a year. Librarians are usually underpaid, especially for jobs that require a master's degree." — Anonymous

 

25. "I live in Virginia and work in education. I started as a part-time assistant special editor and made about $11-$13 an hour; I got paid 29 hours weekly. Full-time gave me benefits, and I made between $18,000 and $21,000 a year in the three years I worked full-time. I'm now a library assistant and make about $27,000. All this BEFORE taxes/benefit payments." — Anonymous

 

26. "Nurse aged 18 making $44.83 an hour." — Megan Downey

 

27. "I'm the chief cultural registrar at an art museum. I take care of the art to make sure it's safe and that the museum can legally use the art. They pay $90,000 a year." — Anonymous

 

 

28. "I'm a junior lawyer in the Chicago office of a national law firm. $375,000 a year plus bonuses." — Anonymous

 

29. "Dental hygienist: $36 an hour." — Anonymous

 

30. "I'm a nanny/family helper. I always care for the kids and ensure the household is always in perfect condition. I buy groceries, do the laundry, and clean the house daily. I also took the kids for medical appointments, haircuts, etc., and if something is broken in the house (like a dishwasher), I call workers to fix it. I am always busy; my working hours are from 7:45 am to 6:00 pm: 00 pm Monday to Friday And I often work weekends and late when my parents want to go somewhere I make $30 an hour, but I live in a separate guest house, so I don't pay rent or bills It has Lots of pros and cons, but at the end of the day, I love my job." — Anonymous

 

31. “In 2012, I was an entry-level marketer for $56,000 a year. In 2022, I had to accept a $48,000 salary with ten years of experience. I sobbed when I signed my contract. This was after months of filing applications for vacancies and no responses". — Anonymous

 

32. "Accountant at a Marriott Signature Hotel: $70,000 a year." — Anonymous

 

33. "Architect from Seattle, Washington, with eight years of experience: $90,000 + annual bonus ($2,000-$3,000)." — Anonymous

 

34. "I work at a private boarding school for children with reading disabilities. I teach full-time from 7:30 am to 3:30 pm, five days a week. Once a week, I am on duty at the hostel from 3:30 pm to 10:00 pm. Four weekends a year, I have to be on campus duty from 9:30 am to 10:00 pm. I teach and live and eat with these kids. I live on campus for free in exchange for extra responsibilities because otherwise, I wouldn't be able to afford rent. With all my responsibilities, I work about 60 hours a week. I make $33,000 a year. The tuition fee for a resident student is $90,000." — Anonymous

 

 

35. "I've been a federal agency banking examiner for over 30 years and now make $153,000 a year. I study small public banks. It's a bit like an auditor's job." — Anonymous

 

36. "I'm a research scientist/product developer at a biotech start-up. I've been here for five years, making $85,000 - up from $60,000 when I started. This is my first job after high school. I have a bachelor's degree in biology without any degrees. I wish I could do more, but I know this is the best I can get right now as a non-degree biologist." — Anonymous

 

37. "Plumbing fitter/manufacturer. We manufacture and install equipment and tubing for food liquids such as juices, concentrates, and beer. $85,000 gross per annum." — Anonymous

 

38. "I'm a senior brand manager working in advertising. I'm the liaison between clients and creatives, managing big projects. $120,000 a year in Los Angeles, California." — Anonymous

 

39. Security engineer at a technology company (full remote): $174,000 per year + stock. — Anonymous

 

40. "An aerospace engineer is the lead in spacesuit assembly and integration. I make $135,000 a year." — Anonymous

 

 

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love-is-40-love-facts-you-might-not-know-before

Love is something abstract. It cannot be described in words, it can only be felt. Love is not subject to time, logic, and any laws. It is elusive. We each have our own language and vision of love. Therefore, we will not try to understand this eternal question - "what is love?".

 

Instead, we will share with you 40 psychological facts that will convince you that love is an amazing feeling.

 

About love from the point of view of psychology

 

 

1. Most people fall in love through eye contact. And this happens within the first 30 seconds. Love at first sight in action!

 

2. Heart and truth can be broken. Research has shown that major traumatic events—breakup, divorce, physical distance, or the loss of a loved one—can cause real physical pain in a person’s heart. This condition is known as broken heart syndrome. It occurs when deep emotional triggers upset the brain and weaken a person's heart, causing symptoms such as chest pain or shortness of breath. Generally, the syndrome is more common in women than in men and can be mistaken for a heart attack.

 

3. When we look at a person we like, our pupils dilate by 45%. It makes us more attractive.

 

4. A person gradually falls in love with someone with whom he spends a lot of time - for example, a classmate or colleague. This psychological phenomenon is known as the exposure effect. Thanks to it, people tend to be attracted to each other depending on the time spent together.

 

5. People are more attracted to those who are as attractive as they are. This is called the matching hypothesis. Many social researchers point out that people choose their partners or romantic relationships according to a certain pattern. For example, if you are an attractive person, you would most likely want to be with the prettiest person in your neighborhood, at work, or at school/university.

 

6. Holding the hand of a loved one will reduce mental and physical pain.

 

7. One look is enough to fall in love. After all, the eyes are the mirror of the soul. So be careful who you look at. When we look at someone, our body releases phenylethylamine, a chemical that is associated with the body's fight-or-flight response.

 

8. Giving freedom is a love paradox. The more independence you give your partner, the more attached he will be to you.

 

9. Sometimes love can turn into an addiction. If this happens, it is better to end the relationship.

 

 

10. Talkative women and silent men tend to make the best couples.

 

11. Men fall in love faster than women.

 

12. When a person sees someone he loves, his heartbeat involuntarily quickens.

 

13. People marry people they can't live without, not people they can live with for the rest of their lives.

 

 

14. If you love cuddling, you'll be glad to know that cuddling is a natural pain reliever. When two people hug, their brain releases oxytocin, the hug hormone. Oxytocin reduces headaches and acts as a pain reliever for up to 4 hours. Therefore, if you feel tired, stressed or in pain, hugs are a great alternative to any painkillers.

 

15. A photo of a loved one can also relieve pain. Scientists have proven that the presence of a loved one helps a sick patient recover. The same works with his image. In a study conducted among people who were in pain, some participants were shown photos of their loved ones, while others were played with words (for distraction). Pain was significantly reduced in those who were shown pictures than in participants who were alternatively played games.

 

16. Partners who have similar interests and tastes are unlikely to last long in a romantic relationship.

It's the same with complete opposites, despite the popular belief that opposites attract. As a rule, couples who are either too similar or too different cannot be together for long. According to the researchers, there should always be a solid basis for similarities, as well as what both people can learn from each other.

 

17. People in love are chemically similar to those with OCD. Studies have shown that couples who are in the early stages of love have lower levels of serotonin, which is associated with happiness and well-being, and higher levels of cortisol, the stress hormone. Similar rates are observed in people with OCD - obsessive-compulsive disorder. This is why we feel, act, or imagine ourselves differently than usual when we fall in love with someone.

 

 

18. When it comes to long-term relationships, usually people prefer an attractive face to a beautiful body.

 

However, when people are looking for entertainment, the body wins - and it's all because of physical attraction.

 

19. Simply expressing gratitude to the people you love causes an instant surge of happiness.

 

20. The expression "butterflies in the stomach" is a real sensation caused by the release of adrenaline.

 

21. Research has shown that if people meet each other in a dangerous situation, they are more likely to fall in love with each other than if they meet in a peaceful environment. For example, two people are more likely to fall in love if they meet on a white water rafting trip instead of in an office.

 

22. Men are psychologically turned on by women in red. This color is closely associated with desire and attraction. For example, according to some reports, women are more likely to wear red clothes during the fertile phases of the menstrual cycle.

 

23. When you find out that someone likes you, a small part of you starts loving him back.

 

24. Some people can't bear the loss of loved ones and die after a few months or years due to mental or physical illness.

 

25. 64% of people change their appearance after a breakup.

 

 

26. Good relationships are about two things: firstly, you need to appreciate similarities, and secondly, you need to respect differences.

 

27. Research shows that long-distance relationships are just as satisfying as regular relationships in 

terms of communication, intimacy, and commitment.

 

28. The main cause of depression is unsuccessful love stories.

 

29. Women are involuntarily drawn to cheerful men with a good sense of humor.

Girls like to be happy, so a man who makes them laugh attracts them like a magnet.

 

30. We always associate the person we love with our favorite songs.

 

31. They say the most important thing in a relationship is trust. But it's not. Time is what matters most. It is over time that trust, friendship, and boundless and inseparable bonds grow.

 

32. Happiness Is Contagious, Research Shows It can be difficult for people to walk away from someone who is happy, or not to love someone who is happy, simply because such people are nice to be around.

 

33. The more you ignore someone you like, the more you fall in love with him.

 

34. Men with a lower voice are more likely to sound attractive than males with a higher voice.

 

35. Women first experience pleasure psychologically before experiencing it physically.

For men, it's exactly the opposite.

 

 

36. It takes only 4 minutes for a person to understand whether he likes someone or not. So if you want to make a good impression on someone, you don't have much time! It is believed that getting and holding someone's attention has more to do with body language, tone, and speed of your voice than what you actually say.

 

37. When two loving people look into each other's eyes for 3 minutes, their heart rate is synchronized.

 

38. Testosterone is a powerful male hormone that attracts women with its scent. Cologne that mimics the smell of testosterone can make a woman pay attention to a man.

 

39. Falling in love is like a cocaine addiction: it produces the same chemical euphoria and almost the same effect on a person's mind.

 

40. Twenty-year-old men feel emotional pain after a breakup more than women.

 

 

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