Written by the Nina Gorman, an author from https://essays-panda.com/expert-thesis-writing
In this modern era of technological innovations, increased and tight competition in the labor market, there is a higher number of women making their way to paid employment in the corporate world. Nevertheless, progressing to top hierarchal positions of leadership and management has been very slow. Although many people perceive management and leadership as the same thing, they are clearly distinguishable as management is the art-science of implementing organizational or project goals through people, systems, and technology in an organization. Leadership is an act of use of power and influences in leading or intending to and making a significant difference, as well as achievement of a certain goal, mission, or objective.
Globally, a strong business argument is ongoing in a bid to attract the contribution of women-executives to the attainment of organizational objectives. Due to the industrial growth, changes in economical and social standards, competition in the global labor market, women’s participation cannot be disregarded any more. Considerable transformation will entail a devoted leadership attention to economic as well as broader performances that can be attained by drawing and maintaining women at leadership and management positions and optimizing their contribution. Labor market in the past few years has experienced stiff competition globally, and this has made the business world promote, employ, and retain women at executive positions. Many affluent companies have adopted globally accepted mechanisms to aid gender diversities within their labor force. This paper explores the need to have more women at leadership and management positions, their benefits, obstacles that hinder them in their full utilization of expertise, possible solutions, and examples of women already on top positions.
The Need to Have More Women in Leadership and Management Positions
According to Husu, Hearn, Lamsa, and Vanhala (2011), leadership that does not include women’s contribution wastes great talents, skills, and knowhow. In the United States, women are identified as one of the major factors that are accelerating the growth of the economy through raising the production power. Women have greatly elevated economic growth through expansion in the workforce and raising production from 1970 to 2009. Employment rate of women has increased by eleven percent, being equivalent to thirty eight million more women, which means that without them the today’s economy would be twenty five percent less that is equivalent to the GDP totals of only 3 states of New York, Illinois, and California. Economic growth is determined by the growth in labor force and increased productivity. Before diversity and women inclusion in the labor market, sixty-five percent of economic growth was driven by growth in labor force, but today about eighty percent of economic growth comes from the rising production. For the country to maintain leadership in the global economy and historical growth rate, research has shown that there is a need to increase production and advance the workforce (Barsh & Yee, 2011).
Therefore, since not the full potential of women has been exhausted and there is still a large number of unemployed, bringing more women will play a major role in labor force development and lead to innovations through their talent and skills. This will help in achieving the country’s goals, sustaining reliance in the fight to maintain historical GDP growth rates, tapping more women in the labor force, and employing experienced women at management positions in order to drive production forward.
Many studies have been carried out that clearly shows the benefits corporations derive from employing women and barriers women encounter that hinder them from unlocking all their capabilities. Developing a program that will aid women in unlocking their full potential and attaining economic goals remains a complicated task. Overall, there is a considerable prospective to raise the number of women in the labor force across the country. In the corporate world, there is a large number of highly skilled women who have secured middle level positions; they only require a chance to advance to leadership positions where they can exhaust their potential.
Even though key corporations have shown great effort in recruiting women, women remain underrepresented in the top corporate hierarchy, and it has not shown any improvements over the years. According to the catalyst, recent studies in the United State reveal that fifteen percent of corporate officer positions and board seats of affluent companies are held by women with 2.2 percent occupying CEOs positions in these companies, with many more graduating with business degrees and MBAs. In the United States, women went home with over a third of MBAs awards in 2010, and this trend has been increasing at a higher rate. Although the number of women in the corporate world is growing at an accelerating rate, they remain underrepresented on the executive level because women find it difficult to climb up to leadership positions in the atmosphere that is highly subjugated by men. For color jobs, the gap broadens with women holding about twelve percent of managerial and professional workforce with three percent Fortune 500 CEOs, among which only three of the five hundred directors are women of color (Catalyst, 2011).
On the other hand, the corporate business case for increasing, retaining, and putting more women at top leadership positions is strong and progressing well. Individuals are optimistic that there is still a chance to make major steps forward in increasing the number of women at leadership and management positions. Many corporations and companies are recruiting women in a greater number because they are turning to developmental programs that are designed specifically for women to respond to their market demands and remain competitive in the labor market. In addition, they have introduced a friendlier environment such as part-time working, parental leaves, and working from home using technology. Despite that, some remaining challenges are critical as involvement at key career positions can have enormous effects. For instance, if corporations focus on women on the middle management level and alleviate a number of women to the next level, they could significantly develop a better way of achieving gender balance on the leadership and management levels. Women on the middle management level have demonstrated adequate and greater expertise in leading and management skills than those fresh from school. In addition, young women with no or slight family concerns can be good leaders (Barsh & Yee, 2011).
Different researchers have pointed out different barriers that hold women back from exercising their right to secure top leaderships positions in the corporate context, which include gender bias, cultural beliefs, workplace structures, and interaction patterns. One of the most common barriers is a structural barrier when women lack informal networks to make significant connections. They fear being excluded from social networks. They lack female role models in the top management and support from male counterparts on the top level, although women put more effort to remaining more relevant for their colleagues than men do (Barsh & Yee, 2011).
Secondly, lifestyle issues, which relate to roles played outside job, but affect career choices, include overnight executive travel requirements and motherhood. For example, many organizations run towards financial returns, which are short-term and maintaining corporate performance. Short-term financials influence operations, leadership, and culture, which prevent the optimization of women’s contribution to organization objectives (Piterman, 2013).
Thirdly, institutional barriers, which entail institutional cultural practices that formulate the running of the company such as no part-time job or promotions, are done on merit and performance for women, but for men on a potential basis.
Finally, individual mindset, which is the worst enemy or challenge that hinders women’s advancement. It is the entrenched belief that men should dominate in some fields. Although many organizations worldwide have joined hands in the fight against gender inequality, empowering women, promoting women leadership and management through public outreach, and researching to improve labor market, in some companies women still experience discrimination. Both male and female managers believe or innocently communicate that women are not suited for leadership positions, assuming that women are better handling family responsibilities and should leave leadership roles to their male counterparts. In most cases, even women hold such beliefs and support men when leadership positions arise, thus underestimating their ability to lead.
According to Ibarra, Ely, and Kolb (2013), a person becomes a leader by internalizing a leadership quality and mounting it with a sense of purpose. Internalizing the logic of being a leader and taking a focused action are a central process of being a leader. The society or other people assert or oppose the action, thus supporting or discouraging the person or her followers. In the view of the fact that creating and internalizing leader identity is paramount in the process of becoming a leader, then gender bias may hold back women’s potential and diminish their self-confidence by hindering their identity, which is necessary for taking up leadership responsibilities. It results in women locking their potential and remaining underrepresented in leadership positions, thereby validating the norm and belief that support men in bids for leadership positions.
All these barriers and mindsets are always hard to eliminate, but it is clear that there is a need for a systematic and organizational transformation. Most companies that are welcoming transformations by changing their culture in order to maintain diversity balance remain competitive and enjoy economic benefits.
In addition, regardless of the barriers, a good number of women have done well on top leadership positions and, according to recent catalyst report, women have shown positive impacts that have greatly improved corporate performance. Companies with a large number of women on top leadership positions have been ranged the best in terms of financial returns. What spurs the growth of these female leaders is their confidence in changing the belief that some fields are male-dominated, changing their adversities to lessons, building networks and connections with sponsors, and showing willingness to move out of comfort zones with a strong belief that they are matching forward no matter the difficulty to make a difference. Women always work with passion, inspire, motivate, and love their work more than men.
Ways of Encouraging Women in Organizations
Companies have identified ways, which will lead them to achieve their goal of employing, retaining, and advancing women in the current market. These practices have supported many organizations, which are driving the change. First, leaders are acting as role models by accepting and welcoming gender diversity matters with open arms. Advocating for the issues openly support cultural changes and encourage others to change their mindsets.
Secondly, companies are appointing leaders with influence. Many companies that are doing well choose and appoint managers who are respected, courageous, and equipped with diversity issues to help and guide the company in the process of achieving gender balance. Thirdly, firms are creating strong networks and connections with sponsors and advocacy groups. Most sponsors have development programs, which assist highly skilled women by giving them opportunities for expansion and advancement and advocate for their promotions. Fourthly, corporations are recognizing talent management as an important pillar in attaining economic advantage, which is ending up with promoting women to the top management.
Finally, firms are having accountability and database where companies share performance dialogues with different management levels. These databases help talented women to be considered when a leadership position arises.
Examples of Women in Management and Leadership in Corporate America and their Roles in Management and Leadership
A number of women have taken leadership positions in the corporate America (InvestorPlace, 2012) and among them, the following are very prominent.
The 56-year-old Ginni was born in July, 1957 in the suburbs of Chicago. She received her first degree from the North-Western University with first class honours in computer science. On October 25, 2011, Ginni was appointed the chief executive officer of IBM Company. IBM is an internationally recognized company that deals with computer hardware and software, IT services, and IT consulting services. Currently, Ginni serves as the chairperson, president, and CEO of the company (CNN Money, 2013). In the company, Ginni plays an outstanding role in marketing and financial management of the company. Being in her second term as a CEO has greatly employed the company’s resources into commercializing the company’s various products. For the last two years, her leadership has resulted in significant sales opportunities across the world. She has also worked hard to acquire an extensive market for the company’s products in Africa. She has done this by selecting new clients in both marketing and finance in an effort to preserve the tech company that has been in the market for over 100 years (Aluise, 2012). This has seen the company stay ahead of the stiff competition in the computer services industry. According to CNN Money, Ginni was ranked the top most influential woman in the American corporate sector in 2012, maintaining rank number one. Currently, Ginni has spearheaded towards the shift of the company from hardware business to the provision of software services as well as consulting services. This has greatly increased the company’s global market and has ultimately led to high financial returns. In 2010, her leadership and management of the global markets stocked up approximately $100 billion in sales (MSN, 2012). Being a senior president of the company’s global business services, Ginna has raised a team of over one hundred specialists in consulting services. She has also incorporated PWC into IBM.
The 57-year-old Indra Nooyi is the chairperson and CEO of Pepsi CO, one of the world largest food and beverages company in the world and in America. Indra holds a BS in maths, physics, and chemistry from MCC and an MBA from ISM. She also holds a Master’s degree in public and private management from the Yale Management School. On October 1, 2006, she was appointed a CEO and chairperson of the Pepsi Company in America (CNN Money, 2013). Since her appointment, Indra has spearheaded the restructuring of the Pepsi Company that has been in the beverage market for 18 years now. Her leadership and management roles have seen the company lead in sales of Taco Bell, Pizza Hut restaurants, and KFC as well as the Yum brands. Indra also holds a tremendous reputation as one of the most confident and self-driven leaders in the American businesses profiles. In her tenure, she has presided for over twenty two billion dollar brands. These brands include Quaker, Tropicana, Pepsi-Cola, Gatorade, and Frito-lay. In her management functions, Indra has led the company’s takeover of Quaker Oats that was estimated to be worth over 13.4 billion dollars. Her tenure has also led to the acquisition of Tropicana worth over 3.3 billion dollars. Recently, Indra has played a great role in the expansion of the company’s market beyond the general domestic soda business by creating other more marketable products. For example, she has introduced Hummus and Yoghurt, which are some of the fast growing selling products in the market (MSN, 2012). Her excellent financial skills have seen the company’s fast growth in revenue generation and boast of over 22 billion dollar brands. Despite the stiff competition from their rivals, Coca-Cola, Indra is still anticipating company’s growth in the corporate world.
The 57-year-old Ellen Kullman is the head of the board and chief executive officer of DuPont Company. DuPoint is one of the largest chemical companies in America. Ellen was born in January 1956. She has a Bachelor of Science in mechanical engineering from the Tufts University as well as an MBA from the North-Western University. On October 1, 2008, Ellen was appointed the CEO of DuPont company (CNN Money, 2013). Ellen has been a great and visionary leader since her appointment. She has successfully seen her company survive one of the greatest economic recessions in America. She did this by centring on various company resources that the company could control to avoid unnecessary expenditures. During this season, she requested all the employees to take a two-week leave without pay voluntarily. All the executives were required to take an off that was to last for approximately three weeks. Her tenure witnessed the company reach over 70 percent of its time-off objective. This greatly lowered company’s expenditure by over 700 million dollars in 2009. Her leadership did not only see DuPont survive, but also rebound. Despite her tenure witnessing a great economic recession, Ellen’s leadership has witnessed a notable rise in stocks. Within her leadership, DuPont stock has risen to over 50 percent as compared to the Dow tenure that witnessed a 19 percent return throughout the same period. Ellen’s tenure has also witnessed 6.3 billion dollars takeover of Danish Enzyme Company. This has significantly improved the company’s extensive growth in the bio-fuels market (MSN, 2012). Recently, she has reset the company’s selling commodity units. This strategy has positively influenced the company’s growth, allowing it to move to high margin areas. Consequently, her decision has paid off, resulting in doubling of the stock with an over 86 percent rise.
The perception of gender and leadership makes women aspiring leadership positions create a developmental agenda that will aid in unlocking their potential and raising the rate of women in the leadership and labor force across the globe. Many corporations are recruiting women in a fair or higher number because they are turning to developmental programs designed specifically for women in order to respond to market demands and remain competitive. In addition, they have introduced a friendlier environment of part-time working and working from home.
In order to meet this growing demand, well-known business institutions such as Stanford, Harvard, and Simmons School of Management, which initiated women-only leadership programs in early 1970, have started a new program in leadership for women. More efforts should be made to ensure collective inclusion of women in top management and leadership in the corporate America. Such efforts will see more women like Ginni, Indra, and Ellen at top management positions. This will be possible if the barriers hindering women’s success are addressed without further delay. However, this might not be done sooner and, hence, it is the duty of every woman aspiring to be on the top to take personal initiative and campaign for those with weaker voices. Those already on top positions should use their powers to motivate women at lower levels and raise their concerns during corporate meetings. This way, more women might climb the corporate ladder and improve their world and that of those around them.
Facts about Xi Jinping - one of the most influential politicians on the world stage.
Xi Jinping is the President of the People's Republic of China, a talented politician, and a man who is called the "big dad" of the Chinese people. The latter fact demonstrates the respect with which ordinary citizens treat their leader. And this is no coincidence - Xi Jinping is famous for his intolerance to corruption and progressive opinion about public administration.
Xi Jinping’s childhood and youth
The biography of Xi Jinping originates from the ancient people of China called Khan. The future politician was born in Beijing in June 1953. His birthday is indicated differently in various sources: according to one information, it is June 1, according to another - the 15th. In China itself, it is customary to indicate only the month and year of birth.
Xi Jinping's father, Xi Zhongxun, was a close associate of Mao Zedong, the ruler of China, until the 1960s. Four children were brought up in the family of the future politician. Thanks to the position of his father, Xi Jinping's childhood was cloudless, but in 1962 the situation changed dramatically. Xi Zhongxun was exiled to Henan province, accused of treason against the state. The boy was sent to another province - Yanchuan so that he would not pick up seditious thoughts from his father.
The years spent in exile without parents were the most difficult in the fate of Xi Jinping. The boy lived from hand to mouth, spent the night in a cave, and was forced to work constantly to feed himself.
This torture lasted 7 years and hardened the character of the future politician, forming further communist ideas. Jinping perfectly understood the fate of the people, who in those years, like Xi himself, struggled to make ends meet.
In 1975, Jinping entered the university called Qinhua, which is considered the most prestigious in China. The young man chose the chemical-technological department. However, I did not have a chance to work in specialty C.
Xi Jinping’s personal life
Charismatic and tall (Xi Jinping's height is 180 cm and weighs 78 kg), the politician has always been of interest to women. Xi's first wife was the daughter of the Chinese ambassador to the UK, Ke Lingling. Unfortunately, this marriage lasted only 3 years: the couple divorced due to misunderstandings and disagreements in their personal lives.
At the age of 34, the politician married again. This time Xi Jinping's happy chosen one was the beautiful Peng Liyuan, a popular singer in China whose repertoire mostly consists of military songs. It is noteworthy that the wife of the Chinese leader has the military rank of major general. It is known that due to Peng Liyuan's busy touring schedule, the couple often lives apart.
In 1992, his wife gave Jinping a daughter, who was named Xi Mingjie. In 2010, the girl entered Harvard University, where she studied under a pseudonym so as not to reveal her origin and not attract undue attention from fellow students.
Xi Jinping prefers to spend his free time reading books or traveling. The politician is also interested in football and mountain tourism.
The residence of the leader of the People's Republic of China is located on the shores of Zhongnanhai Lake, in a quarter that is called the "new forbidden city." At the same time, according to official information, Comrade Xi's condition is rather modest. His annual salary is $22,256.
Xi Jinping’s politics
Xi Jinping's path in politics began in 1974 when he was accepted into the ranks of the Communist Party. In his youth, the future leader of the country proved to be excellent, and his career rapidly went uphill. Already in 1982, Xi Jinping took the post of secretary of the country's defense minister, and sometime later he was transferred to Zhengding County, appointing him the head of the local party committee.
There, Xi Jinping also showed excellent results. He succeeded in improving the tourism potential of Zhengding and attracting tourists. The result was an improvement in the financial situation of Hebei Province.
In the following years, politicians constantly changed the field of activity. Xi Jinping managed to work as Vice Mayor of Xiamen, Secretary of the Fuzhou City Committee, and Secretary of the Party Committee of Fujian Province. In 2000, Xi Jinping was elected governor of Fujian. His reign is considered to be the heyday of the province: the politician managed to attract investments from serious Chinese businessmen to this region.
After 2 years, the politician joined the members of the Central Committee of the party and also received the post of governor of Zhejiang province. Already in those years, he established himself as an uncompromising fighter against corruption, which earned him the trust and respect of the people.
The year 2006 was remembered by China as a high-profile scandal: Chen Lanyu, secretary of the Shanghai Party Committee, was convicted of misuse of the pension fund. The post of Chen Lanyu passed to Jinping, who again justified the trust.
A year later, the 17th Congress of the Communist Party of China took place, at which the future president was appointed a member of the standing committee of the Politburo. And a year later, in 2008, Jinping was appointed to the post of Vice Chairman of the People's Republic of China.
It seemed that power did not spoil the man. Even though the politician was entrusted with many important issues (preparation for the 2008 Olympics, leadership of the central party school, visits to foreign countries, preparation of reports and speeches), Jinping remained true to the principles of integrity.
Xi Jinping’s as China leader
Such brilliant successes could not go unnoticed: in 2012, at the next congress of the Central Committee of the party, Xi Jinping was elected general secretary of the country's Communist Party.
The new leader of China began the reign with a bright speech and formulated the principles of the so-called Chinese Dream - goals that he planned to realize in the coming years. So, by 2021, China plans to achieve general average prosperity, and by 2049, the Celestial Empire should be included in the list of advanced countries.
At first, such global plans evoked skeptical smiles from foreign politicians and even Xi Jinping's associates, but time has shown that the Chinese leader is serious about achieving his goals.
During the reign of Xi Jinping, he has already managed to carry out many reforms. Thus, the politician became the initiator of the creation of personal receptions of deputies, as well as Internet sites of governing structures. The banking structure of China has also changed: under Jinping, the creation of private banks became possible, a clear deposit insurance scheme appeared, and free trade zones were formed.
The social sphere also did not go unnoticed by the leader of China. Xi Jinping paid a lot of attention to programs for resettling rural residents in cities. In addition to housing, the politician provided people with medical care and full pensions.
Xi Jinping is also credited with allowing some families to have more than one child. It is worth recalling that earlier in China, couples were allowed to have an only child, which, due to several traditions and beliefs, led to the fact that illiterate villagers killed newborn girls.
Now, thanks to the efforts of the Chinese President, families can have two children if one of the spouses is the only child in the family.
The Secretary-General did not forget about the creation of protected reserves. Now China rightfully occupies the first line in the list of countries with developed domestic tourism. The people of China love to travel. In China, a trip to interesting places in your own country is considered no less prestigious than traveling abroad.
Such changes were not slow to have a positive impact on the Chinese economy and the standard of living of the country's citizens. The politician himself does not make a secret of his approaches to governing the country. In 2014, Xi Jinping published his book, where he described in detail the ideals that every leader of the state should strive for.
In the fall of 2017, photos of Xi Jinping appeared on the front pages of news outlets around the world. The politician was once again re-elected to his post. Vladimir Putin, Donald Trump, as well as leaders of other countries considered it their duty to congratulate the Chinese leader on this event.
Xi Jinping has successfully continued to implement economic reforms that have led China's economy to high-quality development. Thus, in 2017, the PRC recorded economic growth of 6.9%, while the global one was only 3.7%. In just 6 years, 70 million new jobs were created in the country, and the number of middle-income residents reached 400 million people.
Thanks to the achievements in the economy, Xi Jinping has been called a "visionary reformer" by the world media. In his statements, the PRC leader repeatedly drew attention to the fact that only socialism is the future for China that will lead the country to prosperity.
In 2018, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China published a package of amendments to the state constitution. Thanks to them, the leader of China had the right to indefinite rule. Despite the authoritarianism, which has been repeatedly mentioned by the Western press, the politician remains a beloved leader for his nation.
In 2019, Jinping met with Kazakh leader Nursultan Nazarbayev. The leader of the People's Republic of China presented the highest state award for foreign citizens, the Order of Friendship, to the president of a friendly state. A snapshot of the two chapters was published on the Instagram social network.
Xi Jinping now
In December 2019, China and the entire world community were shocked by the news of the emergence of a new coronavirus in the country. An outbreak of the disease was recorded in the city of Wuhan. The Chinese leadership was forced to take tough measures to prevent the spread of infection.
In March 2020, the leader of the state arrived at the epicenter of the spread of COVID-19 in order to inspect the work. Despite the danger to which the politician was exposed, he did not get coronavirus infection, even being close to the outbreak.
Nevertheless, France, Italy, the USA, and Russia began to report the presence of cases. Even though domestic flights in China were suspended, communication with other countries did not stop. Donald Trump noted this fact in his speech during the UN General Assembly. He called for China to be held responsible for the spread of COVID-19 in the world.
In turn, Xi Jinping noted that this topic should not be politicized. He called for cooperation in the fight against the disease and cooperation with WHO. The Chinese leader was supported by the Chairman of the State Council of the DPRK Kim Jong-un. In an oral message, he noted China's progress in the fight against COVID-19 and the prevention of this infection.
In the summer, the Chinese leader visited Russia. A delegation led by Xi Jinping arrived in the capital of the Russian Federation for a parade in Moscow. Despite the close relationship between the allies, Comrade Xi condemned the behavior of Vladimir Putin, who, after the outbreak of the pandemic, according to official data, moved into a bunker. He called the Russian president a coward but hoped that such behavior was a strategic plan.
In August, after the elections in Belarus, Xi Jinping congratulated the leader of the state, Alexander Lukashenko, on his victory.
The situation with the spread of the virus has shaken Jinping's status. The power struggle intensified in the circles of the Chinese Communist Party. The internal opposition there is represented by Premier Li Keqiang, who publicly proposed to restore the "street stall economy." Comrade Xi was dissatisfied with such an initiative: he spent several years eradicating free trade in cities and now he is not ready for its return.
In October 2020, the chairman of the Chinese Communist Party called on the army to prepare for war. In his speech to the Chinese infantrymen during the celebration of the 40th anniversary of the establishment of the first special economic zone in Shenzhen, Xi Jinping noted that it is necessary to step up the transformation of the corps and strengthen the combat capability of the soldiers. According to experts, such a speech by the leader of the PRC was due to increased tension between China and the United States.
Xi Jinping’s Awards
2014 - Order of "Jose Marti"
2015 - Order of Pakistan 1st class
2015 - Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Leopold I
2017 - Order of the Holy Apostle Andrew the First-Called
2017 - Grand Chain of the Order of the Star of Palestine
2018 - Order of Zayed
2018 - Knight Grand Cross of the National Order of the Lion of Senegal
2018 - Chain of the Order of the Liberator of San Martin
2019 - Order "Manas" I degree
2019 - Order "Zarrintoch" I degree
Other Interesting Facts about Xi Jinping
- The image of the cartoon character Winnie the Pooh has been banned in China since 2013. This decision was made by the country's leadership after a meme appeared on the network comparing the head of China and US President Barack Obama during their meeting with Winnie the Pooh and Tigger.
- Jinping's name has repeatedly been included in the ratings of the most influential people in the world, according to Forbes and Time magazines. For five years, he was in the top 10, and in 2018 he topped the Forbes list.
There are many interesting facts in the biography of Boris Johnson, which we will discuss in this article.
On July 23, 2019, Boris Johnson won the election as the leader of the Conservative Party and became the new Prime Minister of Great Britain, taking over from his predecessor, Theresa May. A master of ambiguous statements and deeds, an eccentric, a hooligan, a eurosceptic, a brilliant politician - with what associations the media did not honor him! We offer you to get to know Mr. Johnson better and reveal some interesting facts about his biography.
The stereotypical British politician has taught us to behave as politely as possible, does not make harsh public statements, and does not shock those around him. And if he shocks, then partly unconsciously, like Teresa May with a crazy robot dance. However, born Alexander Boris de Pfeffel-Johnson does not fit into these stereotypes in any way.
Origin of Boris Johnson
The origin of the current Prime Minister of Great Britain is a topic for a separate interesting conversation. On the paternal side, he is rooted in the Ottoman Empire: his great-grandfather, Ali Kemal, was in charge of internal affairs in the government of the last Grand Vizier of the empire, Ahmed Okday. His wife was an ethnic Circassian refugee Hanifa Fered from the Caucasus, she fell into slavery in the Ottoman Empire, but was ransomed by Ali Kemal, her future husband. Boris Johnson loves this story very much and has retold it many times with or without reason.
Johnson is no stranger to British monarchs. He himself spoke about this in a program about genealogy “What do you think about yourself?” on the BBC. It turned out that his grandmother Yvonne Eilynn Williams is a direct descendant of Duke Paul of Württemberg, who was a descendant of George II. Thus, Johnson is the great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandson of George II. Turkish and Circassian blood also flows in his veins. Boris's great-grandfather, a wealthy Turkish nobleman, married a Circassian slave in the 19th century, whom he bought at a bazaar in Istanbul.
On the mother's side, in the family of the future politician, there were not only Americans in the 9nth generation but also Jews. For example, the famous paleographer Elias Avery Levy was born on the territory of modern Lithuania and was Boris' great-grandfather.
Boris Johnson's early years
Boris Johnson was born on June 19, 1964, in Manhattan, New York. His full name is Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson. His family name was simply Al. His mother is a talented artist, his father worked at the World Bank and was a member of the Conservative Party of the European Parliament. Parents divorced when the boy was 11 years old.
As a child, Boris suffered from deafness. He has undergone several surgeries to restore his hearing.
At birth, Boris received two citizenships at once - British and American. But in 2016, having become a member of the British government, he refused the latter.
Boris is not the only child in the family, his sister Rachel has built a successful career in journalism, regularly appears on discussion panels, including TV projects Question Time and The News. Boris's brother Joe has been Minister of State for Higher Education in the UK since 2016.
He was educated at Eton. To the alma mater of future kings and presidents. It was there that they began to call him Boris, not Alex (the full name of the British Prime Minister sounds like Alexander Boris de Pfeffel-Johnson). After Johnson studied at Oxford, where his closest friend was, oddly enough, former Prime Minister David Cameron. Both were considered promising daredevils at the university: Johnson and Cameron were members of the so-called Bullingdon Club, which, was a society of alcoholics and brawlers. The buddies' favorite pastime was dressing up, getting drunk at a bar, smashing a restaurant, and then honestly writing a check for the damage done.
Boris Johnson's personal life
Johnson is married for the third time. With his first wife, a model, and the daughter of a millionaire landowner, Allegra Mostyn-Owen, he started acting weird at the wedding. Appeared at the altar in trousers belonging to Conservative MP John Biffen. And an hour after the ceremony, he managed to lose the wedding ring he had just put on his finger. The bad omen worked—the marriage barely lasted six years.
Just twelve days after the divorce, the eccentric blond married lawyer Marina Wheeler, with whom he studied at the European School in Brussels. Their union seemed quite prosperous until adultery was discovered - it turned out that Johnson had secretly met with journalist Petronella White for four years, who managed to have two abortions during this time. Upon learning of this, Wheeler refused to let her husband even on the threshold of their house. But later it suddenly cooled down, and the couple reunited. But in the fall of 2018, they nevertheless announced the final break in relations.
Alone, Boris was not bored for long and soon began a relationship with the daughter of The Independent co-founder Matthew Symonds Carrie. The couple is known for emotionally sorting things out - Symonds' neighbors once even called the police after hearing screams and noise. After becoming prime minister, Boris Johnson moved to Downing Street with his lover (but not his legal wife, which is a precedent for the UK). At the end of May 2021, Boris and Carrie played a secret wedding in Westminster Cathedral. Now they are raising a common son, born in April 2020.
On April 29, Boris Johnson became a father for the sixth time - the son of the politician's fiancee Carrie Symonds was named Wilfred Laurie Nicholas. As Symonds, herself explained: "Wilfred is after Boris's grandfather, Laurie is after my grandfather, and Nicholas is after Nick Price and Nick Hart, the two doctors who saved Boris's life last month."
It is also important to mention that Johnson has two unexpected hobbies at once. He enthusiastically watches Bollywood movies and enthusiastically studies ancient Greek and Latin. However, it never hurts to diversify your leisure time, so Boris took part in The Spectator competition for the most offensive rhyme against Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan. And he won, receiving a prize of a thousand pounds for his work.
Boris Johnson as Journalist
During the reign of Margaret Thatcher, Johnson was still far from big politics. In 1987, he began to earn all-around fame as a front-line reporter for the Daily Telegraph. Boris did not excite the audience in the same way that Alexander Nevzorov did in parallel in the perestroika USSR, but he nevertheless stood out against the background of the conservative journalistic workshop. His father's connections allowed the young journalist to get the prestigious position of special correspondent for the publication in Brussels, and upon his return, in 1994, the most popular political observer had the opportunity to take the chair of the deputy editor-in-chief.
Boris Johnson as Politician
With such a big name, it was possible to try yourself in a new incarnation. In 2001, Johnson had his first success in the general election - he was elected to the House of Commons from Oxfordshire. However, it was not enough for the fiery conservative to have a symbolic presence in Parliament, and it was still difficult to aim for more on the scale of the United Kingdom.
A few years later, Boris came up with a wonderful idea to become the mayor of London, because the overloaded capital lacked fresh, topical undertakings.
Boris Johnson as Mayor of London
Almost a decade of mayoral work was remembered first of all by the most successful holding of the 2012 Olympics. There were no infrastructural problems that were typical earlier for Beijing and later for Rio de Janeiro, the city treasury was replenished by a record amount due to the influx of tourists. Yes, and the transition to renewable energy at full capacity spun just under the leadership of an ardent opponent of environmental pollution and a fan of bicycles. The multi-million population remained quite satisfied.
Boris Johnson as Minister
And Boris would be the ruler and guide of grateful Londoners to this day, if not for new parliamentary elections. In July 2016, he was appointed foreign minister in Theresa May's cabinet and immediately took up the implementation of the "most important thing of a lifetime", that is, the UK's exit from the European Union. For the sake of Brexit, Johnson at some point was ready to risk even his political prospects and abandoned the portfolio two years after his appointment due to disagreement with the accepted procedure for renouncing EU membership.
Boris Johnson as Prime Minister
However, no steep dive happened. On the contrary, the British, even after some disappointment in the idea of separation from the European community of conservatives, still supported it. And it was Johnson, with the verbal support of Donald Trump, who replaced the resigned May as prime minister, at the same time gaining the powers of the head of the Conservative Party. As the head of the Cabinet, Johnson carried out Brexit - the UK almost completely left the EU.
Boris was nicknamed the "British Trump". But unpredictability and outrageousness did not immediately become the hallmark of the politician: as a child, he suffered from deafness, underwent four operations to restore the functions of the middle ear, so he was a very quiet child. Which, however, did not prevent him from dreaming of becoming the "king of the world" when he grows up.
Boris Johnson and Coronavirus
In 2020, the UK faced much more serious problems - the country was covered by a new type of coronavirus pandemic. They infected Prince Charles, Johnson himself, as well as thousands of Britons.
The Prime Minister announced his illness on March 27, 2020. The symptoms did not go away for 10 days and on April 5, Boris Johnson was hospitalized - after several days in intensive care, the politician recovered and was discharged.
The Prime Minister has already chosen a song for his funeral. Even though the politician is still quite young, he has already managed to think about such things. Johnson's choice fell on the song You Can't Always Get What You Want by the Rolling Stones, which he talks about quite openly.
Top Interesting Facts from Joe Biden's Life: Childhood, Youth, and the Career of the President of the United States
The most interesting facts about Joe Biden are collected here, as he has been a prominent representative of American politics for 50 years.
His career began in 1969 on Newcastle City Council, and today, at the age of 77, he is running for the presidency. The 77-year-old Democrat won the White House race, despite criticism that he had no chance because of his advanced age. Indeed, Joe Biden is the oldest American sitting in the seat of the most influential politician in the free world, but Donald Trump would have "gained" the same appreciation if he had won a new term, as he is now 74 years old.
Paradoxically, in 1973 Biden became a senator at the age of 30, being one of the youngest senators in the country's history. He served as Delaware's senator for 36 years, until 2009 when he ran for Democrats with Barack Obama.
This is not the first time Biden has wanted to become president of the world's most powerful economy. In both 1988 and 2008, Joe Biden ran for Democrats in the presidential race.
Facts about Biden's childhood and youth
Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. was born in Scranton, Pennsylvania, on November 20, 1942, the eldest of four children of Joseph Robinette Biden Sr., a lucky second-hand car dealer, and Catherine Eugenia Finnegan Biden. who was so protective of her firstborn that she told the future president at an early age, “No one is better than you. Everyone is equal to you and everyone is equal to you. "
Biden's parents moved the family from northern Pennsylvania to Claymont, Delaware, in 1953. He graduated from Archmere Academy in 1961 and entered the University of Delaware. He graduated in 1965 with a double degree in political science and history and attended Syracuse University Law School.
1. Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. was born in 1942 in Scranton, Pennsylvania (which is where the American comedy television series The Office takes place), into a middle-class Catholic family that was previously better off, but at some point faced financial difficulties.
2. Biden is the eldest of four children. He grew up in Wilmington, Delaware, where his father was a car dealer.
3. Biden played American football and baseball when he was in a Catholic school, and despite the poor academic performance, he was class president for the last two years. He later attended the University of Delaware and also graduated from Syracuse University in New York State.
4. In childhood, the President of America suffered from stuttering - as he later admitted in an interview, difficulties arose, in particular, with words starting with the letter "s". Biden's stuttering was likely because his maternal uncle also suffered from this speech disorder throughout his life.
5. During his school years, Joe Biden faced bullying from classmates and even teachers: according to the politician’s recollections, a nun from the Catholic school where he studied once distorted him when he read an excerpt from the book: “Mr. Ba-Ba-Ba-Biden, what word is it?".
6. Due to the nature of his speech at school, Biden felt a sense of shame. He is still friends with two schoolmates who teased him - in a recent interview with American journalists, they admitted that this could hurt his feelings, but they don’t remember that Biden even once filed because of this.
7. Biden declared his war on stuttering as a teenager: he stood in front of a mirror with a flashlight held up to his face and quoted lines from Yates and Emerson.
8. One of them, Biden said in an interview, he still remembers. This is an excerpt from the book Walden or Life in the Forest: “Young men grow up in libraries, timid in spirit, deeming it their duty to share the views held by Cicero, or Locke, or Bacon, and forgetting that Cicero, Locke, Bacon, when they wrote their books because they were also young men who grew up in libraries.
9. Thanks to this exercise, he was able to significantly improve his pronunciation and by the age of 20, he had practically overcome his stuttering.
10. A descendant of Irish Catholics who moved to the New World in the 19th century. His grandfather ran one of the divisions of the American Oil Company. Biden's father inherited a good fortune, but by the time Joe was born, he was on the verge of ruin a couple of times.
11. In the mid-60s, Biden received a bachelor's degree in history and political science from the University of Delaware.
12. A few years later, he additionally graduated from Syracuse University School of Law in New York State and 1968 received a doctorate in jurisprudence. Just think back in 1968, when many were not even in the plans yet, Biden had already received a Doctorate.
13. Biden, writing in his autobiography The Promises to Keep: About Life and Politics, said his mother was confronted by a seventh-grade nun at the Catholic Preparatory School Archmere Academy, who mocked her son for stuttering. "If you ever talk to my son like that again, I'll come back and tear that hood off your head. Do you understand me?" Biden remembered his mother.
Facts from Joe Biden's personal life
Biden married in August 1966, before graduating from law school. He had met his first wife, Neilia Hunter, on a spring break in the Bahamas. Biden graduated with a degree in law in 1968 and began working as a public defender in Wilmington, Delaware. He launched his career in politics, earning a seat on New Castle City Council at the age of 28. But he had much higher aspirations.
Biden took over from Republican Sen. J. Caleb Boggs in his 1972 election and won, making him one of the youngest people to win the U.S. Senate election at the age of 29. The following month, the wife and daughter of Biden's child Amy were killed when a trailer hit their station in Hockessin, Delaware. Two other children, Hunter and Beau, were seriously injured but survived. (Beau Biden died at the age of 46 in 2015 of a rare form of brain cancer.)
Biden almost gave up his political career after the deaths of his wife and daughter, but instead decided to take his seat in Washington, DC - and return home to Wilmington by train almost every night after working in the Senate.
14. The President of the United States does not drink alcohol - he revealed the reason to reporters in 2008. “There are enough alcoholics in my family,” Biden said.
15. The politician's father did not abuse alcohol, but Biden's maternal relatives were more prone to drinking. Frank Biden, the younger brother of the new US president, also had problems with alcohol.
16. The head of the White House prefers ice cream to alcohol. During his vice presidency, while visiting an ice cream company, he said, “My name is Joe Biden and I love ice cream. You all think I'm joking, but I'm not. I eat more ice cream at a time than three people you would rather be with [at this moment].”
17. Biden calls the 1981 British sports drama Chariots of Fire his favorite film.
18. In the field of literature, the newly elected President of America favors James Joyce, one of Ireland's leading writers. Biden himself also has Irish roots - according to the press, there is reason to believe that the politician is 5/8 Irish.
19. Notably, Biden's mother's maiden name is Finnegan. This is the name of one of the characters in Joyce's last novel, Finnegans Wake (Finnegans Wake, or the Finnegans Wake). The most famous book by the Irish writer, Ulysses, is one of the central works of modernist literature.
20. In 2008, Biden bought a German Shepherd puppy from a breeder in Pennsylvania - it was a gift from his wife Jill on the occasion of winning the election and being elected Vice President of the United States under Barack Obama. The puppy was named Champ - as Politico wrote, this nickname has a special meaning for Biden: his father often told him "Cheer up, champion!" When he was going through difficult times as a young man.
21. Biden loves German Shepherds - he had several of them, in the past, he even trained them. However, the decision to buy a puppy from a commercial breeder did not cause enthusiasm among politically active Americans who are in favor of taking animals from shelters (moreover, in the USA this is called adoption, that is, adoption, and the animal receives the name of its owner).
22. In 2018, Biden's daughter Ashley saw a Facebook post about German Shepherds at the Delaware Humane shelter looking for a new home. The Biden family adopted one dog named Major under the patronage and adopted it eight months later.
23. Joe married for the first time in 1966. He and his wife had three children: two boys and a girl.
24. In 1973, his family was in a car accident. The wife and daughter were killed, the sons were seriously injured.
25. Biden was in the hospital with his sons, and at that moment, right in the hospital, he had to take the oath to the post of the senator.
26. An interesting fact is that the wife and daughter died, the sons are on the verge of life and death, and we take the oath.
27. In 1977, he married a second time to a girl named Jill. They are still married.
28. Jill Biden taught English at Virginia Northern College even while her husband was vice president. Jill became the first Second Lady to continue her career.
29. In 2020, Jill took a break from her teaching career, which she has been doing since 1981, for the first time. The woman decided to leave her job to support Biden during the election campaign.
30. Biden's religion is Catholicism. He became the second Catholic president in America after John F. Kennedy. Biden has always declared his strict adherence to the Catholic faith. But it so happened that the majority of the Christian population in the United States are Protestants.
Facts from Biden's career
Biden has been active in the public sector for nearly half a century and has focused on this experience during the campaign, trying to position himself as a potential leader for the American people.
As the coronavirus crisis escalated, Biden tried to come up with ideas and proposals each time, making recommendations based on the views of experts in both the medical and economic fields. His suggestions include free mass testing. Moreover, he said that Americans should not take money out of pocket for the vaccine, according to the New York Times.
Joe Biden focused on health during the campaign and discussed the subject many times with a family note, as his first wife and daughter died in a car accident in 1972, and in 2015 his son Beau Biden died of a brain tumor.
Obama did not support Joe Biden's candidacy until it became clear that he would run for Democrat in the 2020 presidential race. American.
31. Joe Biden is an Irish American politician, United States Senator from Delaware (1973-2009), Vice President of the United States (2009-2017), winner of the 2020 presidential election.
32. At 30, Joseph Biden was elected as a senator and became the fifth-youngest legislator in US history. Subsequently, he was re-elected to this post five times and held it for 36 years (from 1972 to January 2009).
33. Back in 1974, the authoritative Time magazine included him among the "200 faces of the future who will make history."
34. In his 35 years in the Senate, Biden has never lost an election, but overall his political career has not been an easy one.
35. In 1988, at the age of 46, and then in 2008, he tried to get a Democratic nomination for the presidency, but both times he was inferior to his party competitors.
36. Biden announced his participation in the presidential race in April 2019. He hesitated for several months and took it when two dozen other candidates dropped out of the race, many of them young, more liberal or leftist, and much less politically experienced than Biden.
37. He first ran for the presidency of the White House at the age of 46, but he had to withdraw his candidacy due to accusations of plagiarism: in his speech, Biden used excerpts from a speech by the leader of the British Labor Party, Neil Kinnock, held in 1987. From 1973 to 2009, Biden served as Senator from Delaware.
38. In 2008, Biden ran for the second time but withdrew his candidacy after the first primaries - his competitors, Hillary Clinton, and Barack Obama, were too strong. In August 2008, Obama invited Biden to run for vice president, a position Biden held from 2009 to 2017.
39. In the mid-60s, Joe Biden received a bachelor's degree in history and political science, and a few years later - a doctorate in law.
40. Barack Obama awarded Joe Biden the highest honor in the United States, the Presidential Medal of Freedom with honors. The vice-president was awarded the prestigious award for "faith in fellow citizens and love for the country."
41. Joe Biden voted against the Gulf War but supported the invasion of Iraq. Biden later called his second decision a mistake and described George W. Bush's actions as incompetent.
42. In 2011, the Barack Obama administration discussed the advisability of the invasion of American troops in Libya, Joe Biden did not support this option.
43. Ultimately, Obama agreed to provide military support for the intervention in Libya, but later called this step his main presidential mistake.
44. Joe Biden came to Moscow for talks with Dmitry Medvedev and lobbied Congress for the ratification of the Treaty on Measures for the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms (START-3).
45. But after the conflict between Russia and Ukraine in 2014, Biden had a negative attitude towards Putin and supported a hard line in relations with the Russian Federation.
46. Since the Ukrainian Revolution of Dignity, Joe Biden has been a key figure in supporting Ukraine.
47. Politicians who have worked with Biden note that he is an open, sociable, honest, and frank person.
48. In 2014, Joe Biden was one of the least well-to-do civil servants - Biden ranked 501 out of 505 in terms of wealth.
49. In 1998-2009, Biden and his wife earned less than $300,000 a year. The family was able to increase that amount by about a hundred thousand after Biden stepped down as vice president.
50. Joe and Jill Biden received eight million for the publication of books, with this money the Democrat bought a house worth $2.7 million and rents a mansion for $20,000 a month.
A good laugh has great short-term effects. When you start laughing, the result is not only mentally, but there are also physical changes in the body. Here's what makes you laugh:
Stimulates body organs. Laughter improves oxygen-rich air intake, stimulates your heart, lungs and muscles, and increases the amount of endorphins released by your brain.
Calms the tension. Laughter can also stimulate the circulation and help to relax the muscles, both of which can help reduce some of the physical symptoms of stress.
Tension is the second word for 2022. A year full of tension and sad news. Try to smile at least once a day for your mental health and not only. We collected some memes so you can relax for some minutes today.
Humor can be learned. In fact, developing or perfecting your sense of humor can be easier than you think. Keep funny movies, books, magazines, or comedy videos handy when you need more humor. Look on the internet for joke sites. Write down some jokes that you can share with your friends.
Laugh and people will laugh at you. Find a way to laugh at your own life situations - stress will be lessened. Even if he feels forced at first, he laughs. It will do your body good.
It is wise not to laugh at the expense of others. Some forms of humor are not appropriate. Use your best judgment to distinguish a good joke from a less inspired one.
Let's try an experiment right now. Try to remember as many people in your environment as possible who love to laugh. Remember? Now think about whether they suffer from any diseases? Do you often hear complaints about their health from them?
Of course, it is unlikely that all the people who come to your mind are the owners of good health, because a lot of people still lead an unhealthy lifestyle, which leads to various kinds of sores. However, science today quite often claims that laughter is an excellent tool on the path to longevity. Is it true that laughter prolongs life? Let's understand this issue and approach it from a scientific point of view.
It would seem a rather strange question, the answer to which comes immediately: it is a reaction to something funny, cheerful; it is a manifestation of our joy. But what if we approach this issue from the prism of physiology? Then things get a little more complicated...
The history of laughter goes back to between 2 and 4 million years ago, when apes had a penchant for playful laughter during their transitory security. They did this, of course, not as skillfully and exquisitely as we now know how to do it, but it was this form of expression of a social role that became a kind of progenitor of modern humor, say biologists from Binghamton University . What is no less remarkable, about 2 million years ago, our ancestors were able to transform natural laughter into intentional, thereby giving it important social significance, for example, showing embarrassment, composing ridicule, relieving tension, etc.
Why did our grandparents laugh during hard days? As a rule, these were some kind of absurdities, accidental falls, when the members of the collective, when walking, switched from four limbs to two, etc. Thus, kindred within the same social group were amused by everything that put them in a stupid position, or, in other words, when the expected result did not coincide with the actual one. In principle, even now we can say that we quite often laugh at this situation of another person, and clowns in the circus, showing absurdities, deliberately falling and grimacing, still cause a flurry of joyful emotions not only in young children, but sometimes also in adults.
A person is always looking for the secrets of longevity, trying to solve many problems to find the truth, to find answers to riddles that have not been solved by past generations, and, of course, as a rule, these efforts are realized through science. What does she say on the way to discovering a new and very unpretentious way to prolong life - just laugh?
People usually say: "Laughter is a brother to strength." Indeed, based on the described studies and scientific work, we can conclude that laughter really prolongs life. There is also a saying among the people that 15 minutes of laughter prolongs life by 5 minutes ... Unfortunately, such accurate research results have not yet been achieved, but in any case, the fact is obvious: laughter has a positive effect on our health. And in general, considering it as a means of rapprochement, rallying with other people, laughter achieves its main social function - it allows a person to feel like a person, to belong to a group of creatures like himself.
A meme is not just a joke on the Internet, but a sociocultural phenomenon, a sign and a symbol that modern people use to communicate.
The invasion of the human brain by culture in the form of memes created the human mind, the only mind in the animal kingdom capable of comprehending distant objects and the future and formulating alternative goals. The prospects for developing a rigorous science of memetics are uncertain, but the concept itself provides a comfortable position from which to explore the complex relationship between cultural and genetic heritage. In particular, it is the fact that our minds are shaped by memes that gives us autonomy to overcome the power of selfish genes. Memes are the best when it comes to laughing. Today all the people laugh at memes. In 2022 we really need to laugh, due to the stress and tension in the world, try keeping your inner balance and smile at least five times a day.
17.Seems like this
25.Pretending to sleep
31.Work can be different
38.Cat vs dog
89.Keep calm Russia
92.Let me in
98.Do it with love