Scientific progress shows that the boundaries between imagination and reality are blurred. Robots have ceased to be science fiction. Today they are indispensable assistants in many areas of activity. This article will look at what the most advanced robots can look like and what they can do.
It is easy to see why the most urgent need for humanoid-looking robots is now in Asia, mainly Japan and South Korea. The fact remains: development in this direction is most active there, and the public perceives with an explosion all the new items there - Japanese Aibo dogs, of which over 200 thousand have been sold worldwide, established mainly in Japan. The whole point may be in the specific perception of the world around us.
Smartest robots today and how they impress
Some researchers associate the phenomenon with the fact that the Japanese are interested in robots just as partners assistants and see their roots almost in the Japanese tradition of creating mechanical Karakuri dolls for tea ceremonies in the Edo dynasty (1600-1868). Maybe that's why in most cases, as a result of Japanese developments, we don't get an abstract mechanism of screws and pieces of iron, but rather an alloy of new technologies and design discoveries, whether we're talking about creating a complex humanoid robot, a stylized toy dog or even a simple vacuum cleaner.
Curiosity rover - the Gale crater researcher
It is the most advanced third-generation rover to date. NASA spent ten years and 2.5 billion dollars on its development to obtain a great researcher in the end. It is an independent chemical laboratory on wheels, the size of a small car that can research the crater. It was created specifically for the study of the Gale crater. Curiosity is stuffed with instruments and sensors that can do almost everything, from high-resolution photos to spectral analysis of solid ground rocks.
Geminoid DK - the humanoid robot
This is one of the most realistic humanoid robots. It was built by Hiroshi Ishiguro and his colleagues from Japan's Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International. The appearance of this robot is an exact copy of Professor Henrik Scharfe from Aalborg University. The Geminoid DK can be controlled remotely using advanced motion capture technology. It allows the machine to imitate facial expressions and accurately repeat movements.
Baxter - security robot
Baxter is no ordinary industrial robot, although it looks pretty standard. Such models can be found in almost all more or less modern machine-building enterprises. Its main feature is increased security and checking things to be ok. Ordinary industrial robots do not differ at all in this feature. If a person is unfortunate enough to fall under their mechanical pincer hands, everything can end sadly. But not with Baxter. In his "head," a camera makes sure that there are no foreign objects in the field of activity. If they come across, then the ultrasonic motors that control the grips of mechanical "hands" automatically release the "pliers".
Paul - the drawing master
Paul, perhaps, is the least like a robot in the usual sense. But what he does is fantastic. This is a real robot artist, consisting of only one mechanical hand holding a pencil or fountain pen. The drawing process is straightforward: a person sits down in front of a camera that scans his face, and then Paul's "hand" begins to draw a portrait. Moreover, the robot does not draw according to a template; each picture of even the same person turns unique. There is a specific style in his drawings.
Wild cat - the stable robot animal
The development of Boston Dynamics. This is a reconnaissance robot capable of moving over rough terrain and, in gallop mode, which can accelerate to 25.7 km / h. Yes, this robot can gallop. And stop abruptly and turn around. WildCat is incredibly stable.
S One - the best worker
Rescue robot from the Japanese company Schaft, which Google eventually bought (as well as Boston Dynamics). S-One is a small, stocky, highly stable, and robust robot. He can lift weights, wield a drill, easily cope with valves and doorknobs. Thanks to the particular latest developments, the robot's creators managed to achieve incredible speed and smoothness in completing the tasks.
Sub1 - Rubik's cube master
Two US software developers, Jay Flatland and Paul Rose created this robot. The robot consists of 6 stepper motors, four webcams, and a small number of publicly available parts. And his main task is to solve the Rubik's cube. And he does it, just think, in less than one second. Among people, the record for the fastest assembly of the Rubik's Cube now belongs to the American teenager Lucas Etter. In the fall of 2015, he solved the cube in 4.9 seconds. The Sub1 robot took only 0.887 seconds.
Row-bot - the best cleaner
This is the latest development of scientists from the University of Bristol. Row-bot is a prototype robot designed to move around the surface of polluted water bodies and eat microbes that make the water dirty. It is noteworthy that Row-bot uses the “eaten” microbes as biofuel to generate energy and continue to work.
M-2000iA/1700L - the strong buddy
The Japanese company FANUC has developed the most robust robot in the world. His name, of course, is not very harmonious, but the possibilities are awe-inspiring. A strongman robot with an arm span of 4.7 meters can lift objects weighing 1,700 kg. The previous most powerful robot on the planet, Titan, could manipulate objects weighing up to 1 ton, but its “arm” was also slightly longer - 6.5 meters.
Atlas - the snow runner
Boston Dynamics recently unveiled a new generation of its Atlas robot to the general public. B his abilities are simply unique. A bipedal humanoid robot quickly walks through a winter forest with challenging terrain. At the same time, he maintains balance even when his feet fall into the snow. But if it does fail, the robot can independently rise from almost any position.
Actroid DER2 (ho-ho, Dramatic Entertainment Robot) - the realistic girl
Developed by Kokoro Company (Sanrio Group), this actress (actress + android. Wow, a term from the newspeak of the future!) It has more refined hand movements and improved facial expressions than the 2005 model. Facial expressions are pneumatically controlled.
This model can already be programmed to choreograph the movements of the legs and arms to transmit gestures synchronized with the voice. Amazingly accurate transmission of facial expressions and natural skin tones, Actroid DER, is called silicone coating, corresponding to a soft and silky voice. Kokoro rents Actroid DER2 for events to various companies, with a base rate of approximately $ 3,500 for five days, plus some minor royalties and maintenance fees.
Geminoid - professor's best friend
Regarding the development of facial expressions, Hiroshi Ishiguro, a professor at Osaka University and a developer of ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories, is perhaps the most distant. Its double is called Geminoid (Gemini in Latin is just "double, twin", and "-old" is the well-known suffix of the reflection of "similarity"). The robotics made as an exact copy of the teacher - the body with 46 degrees of freedom was copied by at Ishiguro and created by the Kokoro company - the one that produces "stars", and the shape of the skull is made after a volumetric scan of his head.
Moreover, the android Geminoid also inherited some of the ways of its "parent" twin. Leather material - soft silicone material. Geminoid is connected by a network of power cords and cannot get up from the chair alone. But given what has been achieved in a short time - it took only six months to develop the body and three months to build the software; we can say that the development prospects are very bright.
Robovie-R - moving friend
The third version of this robot costs about $ 41,000 or about 1.4 million rubles. It can communicate with other robots through a local network and is intended for use in museums and malls. Its height is 108 cm, and its weight is 35 kg.
All 17 degrees of freedom of the robot give it high mobility, interaction with users, and understanding of the environment. Due to the large flow of people that can move simultaneously in a small space, the Robovie-R mission becomes difficult but not impossible. A laser rangefinder has been integrated into the robot to determine the safest path to follow. The robot is sensitive to touch due to the 11 touch sensors integrated into its structure.
Titanium may not be something you encounter every day, but this chemical element is quite common in all areas. You can use titanium for phone calls, you can even use it to brush your teeth - it is a resource that offers a lot of flexibility.
Titanium is also one of the most interesting elements on the planet. Represented by the atomic number 22 and the chemical symbol "Ti", it is often used in compounds rather than on its own. Titanium is a low density, but extremely strong and durable silver-white metal! What do you know about titanium?
Interesting facts that will help introduce you to titanium
Where can you find most of the natural titanium in the world? Why is it so popular? Here are some fantastic facts about the element to remember.
Short facts about titanium
1. Atomic number (number of protons in a nucleus): 22
2. Atomic symbol (in the Periodic Table of the Elements): Ti
3. Atomic weight (average mass of an atom): 47.867
4. Density: 4.54 g/cm³.
5. Phase at room temperature: solid
6. Melting point: 1670 °C
7. Boiling point: 3287 °C
8. The most common isotopes are Titanium-46, Titanium-47, Titanium-48, Titanium-49, and Titanium-50.
Where the titanium is found
9. After titanium was first discovered, it took 119 years to isolate it into a pure sample.
10. It is never found in its pure form in natural conditions, it can only be found in conjunction with other elements.
11. Another notable characteristic of titanium is its high corrosion resistance. The resistance is so great that it is estimated that titanium can only corrode to the thickness of a sheet of paper after 4,000 years in seawater!
12. Titanium is found in almost every living being. It is the 9th element of the earth's crust in terms of abundance, titanium is relatively rare.
13. Studies show that strong and light metal makes up only 0.63% of the earth's crust.
14. With so little available, titanium is more expensive to harvest and produce than other metals. Of course, its unique properties—strength, lightness, and natural corrosion resistance—make titanium a worthwhile investment in certain applications.
15. Most of the titanium on Earth is found in igneous (volcanic) rocks.
16. Almost every volcanic rock contains titanium.
17. The Guggenheim Museum in Spain is covered in titanium.
18. There is a large amount of titanium on the earth, however, it costs a lot of money to extract it from the bowels. For development, the iodide method is used, the author of which is Van Arkel de Boer
19. The total amount of the world's titanium reserves is more than 700 million tons. If the rate of production remains the same, titanium will last another 150-160 years.
20. Titanium is present in meteorites, the sun, and other stars.
21. The human body contains up to 20 mg of titanium.
22. Most titanium in the spleen, adrenal glands, and thyroid gland. In these organs, the content of element No. 22 does not change with age, but in the lungs, over 65 years of life it increases by more than 100 times. Of the representatives of the flora, Ciliophora algae are rich in titanium: the content of this element in it exceeds 0.03%.
23. It was discovered in 1791 by the mineralogist William Gregor but was named only 4 years later by the chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth.
24. The name titan comes from the titans of Greek mythology. China produces the most titanium in the world, followed by Russia.
25. Titanium is generally as strong as steel but half as light. Titanium is about twice as strong as aluminum. Titanium is assigned the atomic number 22 and its symbol is Ti.
26. The Kroll process is the main method for the production of titanium and consists of many steps.
27. Titanium powder and shavings are highly flammable.
28. Countries stored titanium during the Cold War.
29. There are several versions of why the metal got its name. According to one theory, he was named after the Titans, fearless supernatural beings. According to another version, the name comes from Titania, the queen of the fairies.
30. Titanium can only melt at temperatures above 3200 degrees. And it boils at a temperature of 3300 degrees.
31. Metal closes the top ten "Most common metals in nature." Large deposits were found in South Africa, China, and Russia, a lot of titanium in Japan, India, Ukraine.
32. The largest producer of the hardest metal in the world is the Russian enterprise VSMPO-Avista, which satisfies a third of the world's demand for this metal.
33. The mechanical density of the metal is 6 times higher than that of aluminum, 2 times higher than that of iron. It can combine with oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen. When paired with carbon, the metal forms incredibly hard carbides. The density of titanium is 7200kg/m3.
34. The thermal conductivity of titanium is 4 times less than that of iron, and 13 times less than that of aluminum.
Where titanium is used
35. Titanium is commonly used in medical implants and body jewelry because its characteristics make it safe - it is non-toxic and easily accepted by the body. It can also "osseointegrate" which means that it can bind to bone tissue. Burns in nitrogen.
36. Titanium anodizing allows for interesting color effects.
37. Titanium is so versatile that it is used in a wide variety of applications, from jewelry to knives and firearms, from dental implants to military and commercial aircraft components, from sports equipment to architecture.
38. Although titanium is used in many products, almost 95% of the metal being refined is used to produce titanium dioxide TiO2.
39. Titanium dioxide is a white pigment that is used in paints, sunscreens, cosmetics, paper, toothpaste, and many other products. It is becoming more common in various fields due to its amazing strength to weight ratio.
40. It is believed that only in 1925 titanium was isolated in its pure form, which became one of the most demanded metals in industry. It is proved that the Russian scientist Kirillov in 1875 managed to extract pure titanium. He published a pamphlet detailing his work. However, the research of a little-known Russian went unnoticed.
41. Titanium is actively used in the military, medicine, and jewelry. He was given the unofficial name "metal of the future". Many say that it helps to turn a dream into reality. Today, the main consumer of titanium products is the aircraft industry. The design of a modern aircraft can contain up to 20 tons of titanium alloy.
42. This metal has a low density, which is important in the shipbuilding industry. Titanium products are light, which means that the weight of the ship is reduced, its maneuverability, speed, and range are increased. If the ship's hull is sheathed with titanium, it will not need to be painted for many years - titanium does not rust in seawater (corrosion resistance). Most often, this metal is used in shipbuilding for the manufacture of turbine engines, steam boilers, and condenser tubes.
43. This metal is in high demand in the medical industry. Most surgical instruments are made of titanium - lightweight and comfortable.
44. Titanium perfectly "combines" with the human body. Doctors called this process "true relationship."
45. Titanium structures are safe for muscles and bones, rarely cause an allergic reaction, and do not break down under the influence of liquid in the body.
46. Prostheses made of titanium are resistant and withstand enormous physical loads.
47. In the natural environment, chromium does not occur in its pure form, but only in the form of chromium iron ore, a double oxide.
48. Titanium is non-magnetic and not very good at conducting heat or electricity.
49. Even in high doses, titanium remains non-toxic and has no natural role within the human body, usually passing through it without being absorbed.
50. About 95% of all titanium is used to make the compound titanium dioxide, which is a very bright and refractive white pigment that is used in paints, plastics, toothpaste, sunscreens, sports equipment, and paper.
The Distinction Between Pain and Suffering
Most of the serious diseases usually cause common negative perceptions among the patients. While some people can feel extreme pain, others undergo unbearable suffering in the course of the illness. Though the notions of pain and suffering are likely to denote similar states of health, in many cases they can mean different phenomena.
Despite the relation between pain and suffering, these concepts are distinct in many aspects. In the first attempts to clarify this idea, pain was considered to be rather a physical issue expressing a mechanical reaction to a negative stimulus. Contrarily, suffering was mostly said to have emotional nature. Such a strict separation between these two senses thereby presupposed that human mind and body are divided as well (Nelson 19).
Meanwhile, the new fields of research, such as psychoimmunology, developed an idea that mind and body are closely connected. Thus, the new definition of pain presents it as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience (Nelson 19). In fact, emotions can either intensify or reduce the perception of pain. In its turn, suffering is only a psychological or personal dimension of pain (Coulehan 227). In other words, pain causes suffering, as people always suffer from the sensation of extreme pain. Even if the cure is hardly possible, there are always some ways to relieve pain by means of medical treatment. However, it is not so easy to diminish suffering, as it differs in various personalities, diseases, surroundings, and the relation between all these factors (Finn 6). Suffering can become less perceptible only after influencing its root causes, whether it is pain, affliction, or loss.
To sum up, the concepts of pain and suffering are intertwined and in some cases even stand for one common notion. However, pain mostly corresponds to physical experience, while suffering stands for the emotional state as a respond to enduring negative conditions. Consequently, one can find the treatment to reduce pain, but there is no medical cure to ease suffering.
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