It turns out that each sign of the Zodiac has its own "patron" with brilliant edges and mesmerizing color depth. Want to experience its magic for yourself? Then trust the magical properties of emerald, chrysolite, opal, and other stones, which were known in ancient times.
It is interesting that such a “medal”, as usual, has a downside: a stone that does not suit your sign is not advised by astrologers to wear. The probability that it "does not take root" is too high, although knowledgeable people say that in this matter it is necessary to rely on, first of all, on intuition. In order not to tempt fate, read the generally accepted recommendations for choosing your precious "protector" and get on the path of positive changes in your life!
Why does each zodiac sign have several stones?
For each sign of the zodiac, indeed, many different natural stones are suitable. Their peculiarity is such that various stones, upon contact with representatives of various signs of the horoscope, activate certain properties. That is, the same stone can bring confidence to one zodiac sign, health to another, and a calming effect to a third. Therefore, ideally, acquire several amulets that will help in various life situations.
Is it possible to wear a stone of the zodiac sign every day?
Of course, if you have chosen a stone according to your zodiac sign, then you want to wear it every day. But the amulet can get tired, accumulate negativity in itself. In this case, be sure to let him rest. We have already written about how to clean the stone above. It is good to wear stones depending on the situation. For example, if you are in a stressful situation and need to calm down, wear a stone of your sign, which is responsible for calm and harmony. If, on the contrary, you need to be active and self-confident, then put on a talisman that brings success and confidence to your zodiac sign.
Stones for each zodiac sign
Aries (March 21 - April 20): Ruby
For the impulsive Aries, red, the color of passion, is like second nature. That is why the ruby is an unconditional recommendation for a representative of this fire sign. Ruby is a stone of winners, but it will bring good luck only to those whose thoughts are pure from evil. The magic of a ruby will help its owner achieve the desired goal, comprehend happiness in love and avoid serious danger: they say that when it approaches, the stone begins to change its color. In addition, you should trust the ruby if you are disturbed by disturbing dreams and spiritual anguish: it is a natural restorer of lost strength. Ruby is also believed to be an excellent healer: it has a positive effect on heart ailments and hypertension.
Taurus (April 21 - May 21): Emerald
Emerald embodies wisdom and insight - the latter is often lacking in stubborn Taurus. This stone balances the nature of Taurus, gives him the joy of life and develops natural talents. You just need to remember that the noble green stone is looking for a friend to match. The magic of the emerald is very strong: if it falls into the hands of an evil person, it instantly turns into his enemy. But the one who has good in his soul promises love - it is believed that its color becomes brighter if its owner is in love, and if the oath of allegiance is broken, the emerald can crack. The "green" stone restrains the bad habits of Taurus and pacifies the ardent temper. In addition, emerald is a stone of science: it improves memory and stimulates interest in research.
Gemini (May 22 - June 21): Topaz
It is sometimes difficult for such multifaceted natures as Gemini to find balance in life. Topaz can be an ideal amulet for them, the main thing is to find the one to which the soul lies. A truly “your” stone will relieve negative thoughts, dispel longing and reduce the likelihood of dangerous adventures. Transparent colored topaz has a beneficial effect on the emotional background of Gemini and relieves stress. The healing power of topaz is said to be to boost the immune system and speed up the fight against infections in the body. Topaz is a stone of thinkers: it develops intellectual abilities and gives enlightenment. Gemini women will double their beauty with this stone, men will learn wisdom.
Cancer (June 22 - July 22): Moonstone
Mysterious Cancers in the company often act as everyone's favorites, and alone with themselves they are immersed in thoughts about everything that exists. They are patronized by the Moon and its precious piece - the moonstone. Cancers, subject to mood swings, use it to stabilize emotions and reduce stress. It is believed that the moonstone suppresses nervous disorders; especially its effect is enhanced if it is in a silver frame. It is also a powerful love talisman: if you are looking for your love, its magical power will help force its appearance in your life and in general become more attractive to the opposite sex.
Leo (July 23 - August 22): Diamond
Leo's best friends are diamonds. Leo loves attention, and a diamond, like nothing else, is able to give him the desired glory. He strengthens the influence of Leo in society and endows him with unshakable self-confidence. In ancient times, a truly miraculous power was attributed to diamonds (diamonds): it was believed that it protects the owner from danger, physical damage and dark magic. There is an opinion that diamonds help to control anger. Diamonds were worn as a talisman by Julius Caesar, Louis IV and Napoleon. Today, these stones still attract successful business deals and strengthen love ties.
Virgo (August 23 - September 22): Chrysolite
Virgo is the best friend, mother and wife, but sometimes she is too categorical. The talisman of this sophisticated but assertive woman is chrysolite, which will help to avoid excessive vehemence and directness in judgments. This beautiful stone of an unusual light emerald hue is a powerful amulet that protects the owner from troubles and ailments. It is also said that chrysolite frightens fire: it reduces the likelihood of fire and burns. He also carefully preserves the family hearth, protects the love of spouses from evil influences and minimizes the likelihood of quarrels. For Virgo, who is constantly striving for new knowledge, it will also be useful that chrysolite develops the mind and facilitates the assimilation of new information.
Libra (September 23 - October 22): Opal
For changeable Libra, a stone is needed that would put their two "bowls" on the same level. Their balance will be provided by opal - a “rainbow stone”, corresponding to the palette of feelings and emotions experienced by each representative of this air sign. Opal neutralizes manifestations of laziness and passivity, helps to become more resolute and firm, relieves suspiciousness and depressive thoughts. He transforms any negative energy of Libra into creative, and also helps them fight addictions. Opal makes Libra extraordinarily lucky in any field, however, its magical power still has one “but” - the owner of the stone must independently get rid of all bad thoughts and intentions before wearing it, otherwise the effect of it will be diametrically opposite.
Scorpio (October 23 - November 21): Garnet
The garnet, the stone-mascot of Scorpio, has as many varieties as the faces of the character of the representatives of this sign. The color of this semi-precious stone varies from burgundy to yellow, and Scorpio is invited to choose "his" stone. Garnet enhances the natural charisma of Scorpio and attracts to him people who can be useful to this sign in the implementation of his plans. This is a stone of "pure intention": it holds the bonds of love and friendship, if the feelings of its owner are genuine. Garnet is extremely supportive of lovers. According to ancient beliefs, the purple stone cures migraines, lowers the temperature and heals a sore throat. With incessant "friendship" with pomegranate, Scorpio feels a surge of strength and is always in a great mood.
Sagittarius (November 22 - December 20): Turquoise
Turquoise is one of the most powerful talismans for Sagittarius. The Persian word "firuza", from which the name of the stone comes, speaks for itself: in translation - "stone of happiness." The ancients believed that turquoise brings incredible success in business and a good cash flow. Ambitious Sagittarians should remember that they will have to rely on their own strengths, but turquoise jewelry will “help” adjust everything so that circumstances play into their hands. A strong energetic, turquoise stone builds reliable protection around its owner, protecting him from negative events. It is useful for Sagittarius to consider his talisman stone: it is believed that this “charges” him with positive energy. Enamored Sagittarians with the help of turquoise double their charms.
Capricorn (December 22 - January 19): Onyx
Strong-willed Capricorns are advised by astrologers to take a closer look at onyx, which is called nothing more than a “stone of leaders”. The magical abilities of onyx turn Capricorn into a cunning strategist whose foresight will play into his hands in business matters. They say that such a magic stone makes Capricorn practically invincible, and his opponents, on the contrary, become more vulnerable: Capricorn, “armed” with onyx, can foresee their future moves. A charm with this stone protects its owner from misfortunes and "unpleasant surprises" of Fate, has a beneficial effect on the heart system and improves sleep. In addition, onyx helps Capricorn to have a happy personal life and successfully marry / marry.
Aquarius (January 20 - February 17): Amethyst
Aquarians are extraordinary natures, and they need an appropriate talisman. Choose amethyst - a beautiful stone with a whole galaxy of magical properties. He gives fidget-Aquarius attentiveness, insight and purposefulness. As a healer, it drives away insomnia and restores energy wasted during the working day. Interestingly, according to popular belief, amethyst is one of the most powerful "antidotes" for evil witchcraft. Amethyst has one absolutely amazing ability: it eliminates the breakdown and "picks up" after losses, forcing Aquarius to fight until complete victory. It is said that if amethyst is applied to the forehead, it helps to relieve headaches. This amazing talisman stone also stimulates creativity and reduces nervousness.
Pisces (February 18 - March 20): Pearls
Dreamy Pisces, when choosing a talisman, is advised to take a closer look at the snow-white pearls - a real treasure of nature. Jewelry with pearls gives its owner fidelity in love and happiness in family life, because this stone has long been considered the patron saint of lovers. Knowledgeable people say that a pearl ring can protect Pisces from robbers and dishonest people. If the pearl darkens, it warns that you need to be more careful about your health. If it literally "shines" - Pisces will be prosperous and prosperous. Pearls can multiply goodness and prosperity in the life of representatives of this water sign, as well as develop their intuition, which allows Pisces to give the most correct advice to loved ones.
How can you test your feelings with a stone?
There is one interesting way to test the feelings of your lover. Ask him to give you a ring with a stone for your zodiac sign. For example, a turquoise ring is suitable for Taurus. After that, wear the gift as often as possible. And, if suddenly something happens to the ring, it may mean that the beloved has cooled off towards you.
How to wear the stones of your sign?
Naturally, the most common way is in the form of decoration. It is very convenient, besides, you can not be afraid to look stupid, as in the case of carrying a solid stone just in your pocket.
If the stone is chosen as a way to treat an illness, then it is better to wear it closer to the affected area. If a stone is needed to attract wealth, then it is recommended to wear it in the form of a ring on the right hand. For fertility, it is best to wear long pearl beads.
Very often, picking up a stone, we evaluate only its appearance and do not attach importance to the power that this natural material is fraught with. And, as it turned out, only one color of a gem or mineral endows this natural fossil with a number of very important characteristics for humans. Of course, this also applies to the group of green minerals, of which there are a lot of hidden underground.
First of all, such stones symbolize life, development, and growth. They are also necessary for a person in order to achieve peace of mind, and harmony both with himself and with others. It is the green color that will never annoy its owner because it is considered neutral. Today, jewelry craftsmen offer original and beautiful jewelry that can adorn both a woman and a man.
The most famous green stones
Such gems are mainly chosen by men and women who are distinguished by kindness and generosity. Those who are always ready to sympathize and empathize love this stone. These natural resources help a person to maintain good composure. A green stone is not just a “psychologist” decoration, but also a very expressive and bright detail of the image. They are usually combined with precious metals such as gold and platinum. The tandem of green and silver will be good.
Such minerals and neighborhoods with other stones are not afraid. Do not lose their soothing properties and those stones that today can be used in construction. Typically, such materials are used for facing work. A person decorates his home with them, which means that he tries to surround himself with such a color. And this is a good solution, because the green stone will help you calm down, focus, quickly recover.
Actinolite is a relatively common amphibole from the pyroxene group. The best-known members of the pyroxene family are jadeite and nephrite, but it includes a whole series of minerals from iron-rich tremolite to magnesium-rich ferroactinolite. Iridescent actinolite is extremely rare, sometimes erroneously called "Cat's Eye Jade". Cat's eye actinolite is translucent or opaque, and is usually yellowish green in color, although occasionally white, colorless, yellow, grey, brown, and black. While of primary value to collectors, actinolite is hard enough to be used in most jewelry.
Agate is one of the most popular and affordable gemstones on the market today. It is incredibly versatile and comes in a variety of cuts and colors, including rich greens (both solid and textured). Agate is one of the many varieties of quartz, or more precisely, a layered form of cryptocrystalline chalcedony quartz. Some of the most intensely colored green agates come from South America, but buyers should be wary of stones with too much color - this can be a clear indicator that the stone has been tinted, although - unlike most gemstones - agate tinting is not usually affects its value. Like all quartz, green agate is great for any kind of jewelry.
Alexandrite is considered one of the rarest and most valuable colored stones. It is a chromium-rich, color-changing variety of chrysoberyl, which has excellent hardness and wear resistance, so alexandrite is suitable for any kind of jewelry. However, given that large examples are incredibly rare, most alexandrites are forced to be content with the role of only additional or accent stones that emphasize other large central stones. The color combination of alexandrite varies depending on the origin of the stone, but most often the color changes from emerald green in natural light to crimson red under incandescent light. The most valuable are alexandrites with pure shades and a pronounced color change.
Amazonite, or "Amazonian stone", gets its name from the South American Amazon River, which flows through the heart of Brazil. It is a green gem variety of microcline, which belongs to feldspars. Green Amazonite is known for its stunning "jade" color and glossy luster. Most amazonite specimens are speckled with uneven color distribution. Its green to light bluish green color is due to its iron content. Exquisite high-quality amazonite can be easily confused with valuable jade. Being a feldspar, amazonite is hard and wear resistant enough to be used in any type of jewelry. Amazonite looks best when set in silver or white gold. The most valuable specimens are considered to be amazonite with a very rich and evenly distributed color and an interesting pattern. Amazonite jewelry is extremely popular in South America. Like the larimar, many tourist destinations sell amazonite as a local curiosity.
Apatite is prized by collectors for its wide variety of colors and shapes. If we talk about the color of green apatite, then the most valuable are "neon" bluish-green apatite a la Paraiba and dull green apatite, known as "asparagus stone". Cat's Eye Apatite is another attractive variety that is particularly suited to cabochon jewelry. Apatite is actually a whole group of phosphate minerals, moreover, it is the most important source of industrial phosphate today. And although apatite is listed as a reference for a hardness value of 5 on the Mohs scale, it is still largely unknown to the general public and is rarely used in classical jewelry. However, thanks to recent finds in Myanmar (Burma), Brazil, Sri Lanka (Ceylon) and Madagascar, the popularity of apatite as a gemstone has increased markedly in recent years.
Aventurine Quartz (not to be confused with Aventurine Feldspar) is one of the few iridescent gem-quality green quartz varieties. Aventurine varies in color from light to dark green and is known for its "adventurescence" - an optical phenomenon that takes its name from the name of this stone, and not vice versa. The adventurescence can also vary, usually depending on the amount and size of the muscovite mica inclusions. In addition to the sparkling effect, aventurine can often show a silvery-green or greenish-blue glow. Well, like most quartz, regardless of size, samples of green aventurine are distinguished by excellent hardness, wear resistance and affordability.
Bloodstone is perhaps one of the most interesting quartzes in terms of history, so to speak, the most "legendary" quartzes. Its unique green color, due to densely spaced acicular inclusions of chlorite or hornblende, is often accompanied by reddish-yellowish inclusions of iron oxide that look like blood droplets. Bloodstone, sometimes called heliotrope, is one of the more unusual gemstone varieties of chalcedony quartz. It is quite affordable, and given the good hardness and wear resistance common to all quartz, green heliotrope is a great choice for any kind of jewelry. It was once considered the March stone, but was later replaced as such by aquamarine. To date, one of the main sources of bloodstone is Madagascar, followed closely by India and the United States (California).
Chrome diopside is a chromium-rich gem variety of diopside whose color ranges from emerald to grass green. Chromdiopside belongs to a large group of pyroxenes and is relatively rare. In fact, until recently, it was mined only in eastern Siberia. Once chrome diopside was first introduced to the international market, it quickly began to catch on, often being used as an affordable alternative to more expensive green stones such as emerald, chrome tourmaline and tsavorite. Diopside can have other colors besides green; on sale there is also such a rare variety of it as star-shaped diopside. The extremely rare and valuable diopside known as "tashmarine" is a sparkling yellow-green diopside found only in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and western China.
Chrome tourmaline, or chromdravite, is a rare variety of gem-quality chromium-containing dravite, mined in only one place on the planet - in Tanzania. In general, chromtourmaline and tsavorite are often found in the same deposits. Gem collectors and jewelers appreciate chrome tourmaline for its attractive color, which ranges from emerald green to grassy green, as well as its ability to be used as an affordable alternative to expensive emerald. Typically, chrome tourmaline is represented by small samples - the weight of most faceted stones does not exceed 1 carat. Exquisite specimens over 1 carat can be quite expensive.
Chrysoberyl and Cat's eye
The chrysoberyl family is best known for the color-changing alexandrite and, of course, the cat's eye chrysoberyl, but faceted chrysoberyl itself is beautiful in its own right. Chrysoberyl and Cat's Eye have an excellent hardness of 8.5 on the Mohs scale. It polishes well and has a very nice sheen. When the term "cat's eye" is used in trade on its own (without specifying the type of stone), it is always chrysoberyl that is meant. Chrysoberyls are highly valued for their excellent brilliance, and "cat's eyes" are famous for their pronounced iridescence (cat's eye effect).
Chrysoprase, or chrysoprase, is one of the rarest jewelry varieties of chalcedony quartz. Chrysoprase can come in many shades of green, from light mint green to dark apple green. Most green gemstones are colored with chromium or iron, but the color of this rare form of cryptocrystalline quartz is due to nickel impurities. Before the introduction of another rare green-blue chalcedony known as "precious silicate" or "chrysocolla chalcedony" on the market, chrysoprase was considered the most valuable of all quartz. Some of the finest specimens are rumored to come from central Queensland in Australia. Exquisite translucent Australian chrysoprase, with its brilliance and bright green color, can resemble high-quality jade.
Emerald is perhaps the most famous green gemstone, and certainly one of the rarest and most valuable. This is the most precious representative of the beryl group, it is also included in the "precious four" along with ruby, sapphire and diamond. In the world of colored stones, the green color of an emerald has no equal. It is determined by a small content of chromium and, in some cases. and I. Like all beryls, emerald has excellent hardness and durability, although some emeralds with more inclusions may be more brittle than others. Colombian emeralds are considered the highest quality emeralds, followed by Brazilian, Afghan and Zambian. Nearly all emeralds undergo a standard oiling process to enhance color and clarity, usually at the site of extraction.
Enstatite is another green representative of the pyroxene group, and it is extremely rare. Enstatite is considered one of the least known gemstones. While it is hard enough to be used in most jewelry, it is primarily a collectible stone. In its purest form, enstatite is transparent and colorless. Greenish brownish enstatite is colored by iron impurities. Enstatite has pronounced pleochroism, so depending on the angle of view, it can be brown or green. Many specimens have a pretty orange tint. Inclusions of iron oxide can give the stone a slight metallic sheen and bronze color - these special stones are sometimes called "bronzites". Enstatites Cat's eye and stellate enstatites are distinguished by a green-gray color, although they are quite rare. The chromium-rich variety of enstatite from South Africa is highly prized for its attractive emerald green color.
The garnet group is one of the most important groups of gemstones. There are many varieties of pomegranate, ranging in color from bright red to deep green, including everything in between. Among the most popular green garnets are demantoid and tsavorite, two of the most valuable garnet varieties commercially available today. Demantoid is a variety of andradite colored by chromium and iron impurities, while tsavorite is a variety of grossularite whose color is due to vanadium and chromium. Other green garnets include the color-changing garnet, the "regular" grossularite, and the exotic "hybrid" Mali garnet, mined only in the West African country of Mali.
Gaspeite is a relatively new stone that was first described in 1966 as a rare pale to bright apple green nickel carbonate belonging to the calcite group. Usually it is opaque, its hardness is only 4.5-5 on the Mohs scale. Gaspeite often exhibits interesting brownish veining and resembles green turquoise or maw-sit-sit from Burma in appearance. Due to its relative softness, gaspeite should only be used in protective-rimmed jewelry worn only on special occasions. It looks best in a silver setting, especially when paired with stones such as lapis lazuli or sugillite.
Hiddenite is a green, transparent gemstone variety of spodumene. Spodumene is also known for its lilac-pink variety known as kunzite. Like most green stones, Hiddenite is colored with chromium impurities, its color can be green-yellow, yellow-green or stunning bottle green or emerald green. Hiddenite is pleochroic, which means it has different colors from different angles. In order to bring out the best colors of the hiddenite, the facet of the table should be applied perpendicular to the main axis of the stone - this way the cutter reveals the thickest colors in the upper and lower parts of the crystal. Like other forms of spodumene, spodumene is quite hard and wear resistant, making it suitable for most jewelry.
Idocrase is rare in general, and a transparent material worthy of a facet cut is extremely rare. In mineralogy, this stone is usually called Vesuvian, "idocrase" being the trade name. Although it is most often colored in shades of green, there are examples of rarer colors such as pale blue or yellowish brown. Most idocrases today are opaque and resemble jade. Opaque idocrase has a greasy sheen, while refined transparent idocrase has a glassy sheen. Only slightly inferior to quartz in hardness, idocrase is quite suitable for most jewelry, standing out for its recognizable green color.
Although jade is best known for the green "imperial" variety, the term "jade" is actually a collective term that includes several varieties. There are only two pure forms of jade, jade and jadeite, with jadeite being rarer and considered more valuable. Recently, mixed varieties also called "jade" have appeared on the market, such as omphacite, jade-albite and chloromelanite. Jade is known for its green color and oily shine. com. In many cultures, green is considered a precious material, sometimes even more valuable than gold. Although green is considered its most desirable color, there are examples of jade in various shades of white, gray, lavender, orange and other colors. Burmese imperial jadeite is the most valuable and sought-after variety of jade, as well as one of the rarest of all colored gemstones.
Kornerupine is a rare green collectible stone named after its Danish discoverer Andreas Nikolaus Kornerup. What cornerupine is prized for is its most typical color, ranging from yellowish green to green-brown, although other rarer colors are also found. This stone is known for its strong pleochroism, which is manifested in the alternation of yellow and green or red and brown colors when viewed from different angles. Recently, deposits of cornerupine have been found in Africa, after which the demand for it has increased dramatically. It is considered relatively hard and suitable for most types of jewelry. Kornerupin Cat's eye is also found, although extremely rare. In the form of a cabochon, the green cat's eye cornerupine looks great in jewelry rings.
Malachite is an opaque copper hydroxide carbonate. It is closely related to blue azurite, blue-green turquoise, and the multicolored copper-bearing chrysocolla. Malachite is known for its rich green color and beautiful striped texture pattern. Although not particularly hard, malachite is highly polished and prized by jewelers and jewelry designers for its interesting patterns on the surface. The correct orientation of the crystal when cutting is of great importance in order to reveal the best, most interesting and, if possible, symmetrical design. The largest deposits used to be Russian (in the Urals), but today most of the malachite comes from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly known as Zaire).
Mau-sit-sit (mosit) can be safely called one of the most unusual, most exotic jewelry stones in the world. Even its name is outlandish: Mau-sit-sit is a village and, concurrently, the only source of this stone, located in northwestern Burma. Being an interesting gemstone, maw-sit-sit technically belongs to rocks, as it has a mixed composition. Its main components are cosmochlore (a mineral related to jadeite) and varying amounts of jadeite and albite feldspar. It is often classified as a variety of jade, although not as its pure form, unlike the same jadeite or jade. Sometimes maw-sit-sit is sold under the name "chloromelanite" or "jade-albite", but maw-sit-sit, as already mentioned, is mined only in Burma, and deposits of chloromelanite and jade-albite are also found in other places. Maw-sit-sit has a Mohs hardness of 6-7, so it is quite suitable for insertion into most jewelry.
Moldavite Moldavite is a rare natural glass belonging to the group of tektites. The term "tektite" refers to any natural glass formed as a result of a meteorite impact on the earth's surface. Tektites have only been found in four places on the planet that are known as "fields of scattering". Moldavite is an unusual olive or bottle green gemstone, advertised as "the only non-terrestrial gemstone known to science on earth." Moldavite does not have a crystalline structure, it is very similar to obsidian, another type of natural glass. The composition of moldavite is a combination of silicon dioxide and aluminum. Transparent faceted moldavite is a real rarity. Most specimens of moldavite are translucent or opaque, with a matte or vitreous luster. The most desired color of moldavite is considered to be a pure medium shade of green without a brown tint.
Opal is one of the most popular gemstones on the market today, despite its lack of hardness and wear resistance. Green is one of the most common colors of opal, as are shades of yellow and white. Green opal usually has an excellent play of colors with yellow and blue tints, although rarer specimens may also show red-violet tints. To date, green opals are mined in Africa and South America, although Australia is the leading supplier of precious and common opal. Opal is known for its "opalescence" and interesting play of colors. Most people confuse the play of colors with opalescence, but these are different optical effects. Opalescence is a form of adularescence, while play of colors is a form of iridescence. Green color
Peridot is one of the few gemstones today found in only one color - green. However, the unique color of peridot is not uniform: it varies from rich shades of yellowish green to dark brownish green. Peridot belongs to the olivine group and is a magnesium-rich gem variety of forsterite, as well as a rare specimen of idiochromatic stone. Idiochromatic gemstones are unique in that their color is due to an underlying chemical composition rather than minor impurities such as iron or chromium. Interestingly, peridot is considered one of the most "ancient" stones known to man: the first mention of it dates back to 1500 BC. The hardness of peridot is comparable to that of quartz. However, it is an affordable stone, and specimens are often quite large, so this green stone is an excellent choice for insertion into almost any piece of jewelry.
Prehnite is an attractive gemstone composed of calcium aluminosilicate. It is prized for its characteristic delicate apple green color and glass pearl luster. It is quite hard (6-6.5 on the Mohs scale) and affordable. Even large specimens of prehnite are surprisingly inexpensive when compared to other types of gemstones. For those looking for an unusual green stone, prehnite is an excellent choice and is suitable for almost any jewelry idea. Some samples of prehnite may show a cat's eye effect, but these are rare. Prehnite is most often cut into cabochons, but faceted transparent specimens can also be found.
Although green is considered the most traditional color of sapphire, this wonderful gemstone can come in many unusual colors, including several shades of green. In the past, green sapphire was often sold under the confusing name "oriental peridot", but that is no longer used today. Sapphire is a gem-quality variety of corundum, which means it has superior hardness and wear resistance second only to diamond. Green sapphire can even be slightly harder and denser than sapphires of other colors due to the high concentration of iron. Its color ranges from light lime green to dark grass green. Recently, green sapphire has become more and more popular, while remaining a rather rare stone. It is believed that the finest green sapphires come from Sri Lanka (Ceylon), but nowadays most of the stones on the market are of Thai or Australian origin.
Seraphinite is an iridescent green variety of the chlorite mineral clinochlore. Its "feather-like" iridescence is enhanced by silvery inclusions of mica. The unusual name of the stone comes from the ancient Greek word "seraphim", meaning angels of the highest rank, due to the similarity of the feather-like texture of the stone with the plumage of a bird's wing. Seraphinite can range in color from dark green to gray and is valued for its highly attractive contrasting silvery veins that sparkle in the light. Seraphinite is a fairly soft gemstone that is suitable for protective-set jewelry such as earrings, hairpins, or brooches.
The gem variety of serpentine is sometimes referred to as "noble" or "precious" serpentine. The unusual name of the stone is thought to derive from its green color, reminiscent of snakeskin, ranging from a light yellowish green to a darker brownish green. Serpentine often exhibits interesting attractive iridescent patches as well as marbling, mottled and veined patterns. The chemical composition of serpentine can vary greatly, with most stones containing up to 20 different components. Due to compositional variability, serpentine hardness can also vary, ranging from as little as 2.5 to 5.5 on the Mohs scale. Some higher quality specimens may be translucent and have a silky sheen reminiscent of jade.
Sphene is one of the few gemstones that has a higher light scattering coefficient than diamond. A high rate of light scattering is visually reflected in the form of a strong brilliance and sparkling radiance. The attractive green color of sphene is often accompanied by golden tones. There are quite large samples of sphene, often weighing 5 carats or more. Sometimes it is sold under the name "titanite", due to the content of titanium in the stone. Sphene is also distinctly pleochroic; usually one stone can be seen at least three colors when viewed from different angles. Sphene is quite soft, so its use as a jewelry insert should be limited to pendants, earrings or brooches.
Green tourmaline is one of the most popular and affordable green gemstones on the market today. Prices for it are quite moderate, large samples are often found. In addition, it has excellent hardness and wear resistance, so it is great for all kinds of jewelry. Green tourmaline is often referred to as "verdite", a trade name that only applies to green tourmalines. Tourmalines of other colors also often have their own names, such as red rubellite and Paraiba blue tourmaline. Green tourmaline can also have a cat's eye effect. Tanzania is known for its rare emerald green tourmalines, whose color is due to chromium impurities - such stones are sold under the name "chromedravite" or "chrome tourmaline". choosing the perfect green gemstone.
Variscite is a rare and little-known gem-quality phosphate. It is considered primarily a collection stone, although it is often used as an ornamental stone, and jewelry too, for example, in earrings. It is named after Variscia, the place of its first discovery, and was once even called eutalite, since its deposits were discovered in Utah, USA. Variscite is often confused with turquoise due to its similar coloration and black veining. Some samples of variscite are sold under the English name "variquoise", which can be translated into Russian approximately as "varuza" (variscite + turquoise). Variscite is somewhat softer than turquoise and is colored with chrome, while turquoise is one of the few gemstones colored with copper. The most valuable are slightly translucent samples of variscite of a uniform mint green color.
Sultanite or Tsarit (Color-Changing Diasporas)
Sultanite is a rare color-changing diaspore, commercially mined in only one place on the entire planet - in the Anatolian Mountains in Turkey's Muğla region. The name "sultanite" is actually a commercial one, which was given to the stone by a company that had exclusive mining rights in Turkish deposits. Diaspore has a good hardness, comparable to that of tanzanite, although it is not easy to find large pure specimens. Most specimens of color-changing diaspore weigh less than 1 carat and often have visible inclusions. The effect of color change is most pronounced in larger samples, in small ones it is hardly noticeable. The color-changing diaspore is usually kiwi green in natural light, often with yellow glints, but under incandescent light, the stone takes on a champagne color. Under more subdued light, such as candlelight, such a diaspore often gives a slight pinkish tint. It is also pleochroic, so that the same stone, depending on the angle of view, can be violet-blue, light green, pink or dark red.
When it comes to colored gemstones, color is critical. Today, many buyers prioritize color, while the type of jewelry stone they care less about, as long as its hardness is sufficient for their purposes.
However, finding gemstones by color can be very tricky, as sellers usually show in-stock items as a list of gemstone types or varieties rather than their colors. The first thing that usually comes to mind when talking about blue stones is sapphires, but there are a large number of other blue and light blue gemstones on the market these days.
Blue gemstones in the jewelry industry
The color range of the gemstone ranges from deep blue to pale blue.
Sapphire has been known since antiquity. According to biblical tradition, when Moses saw God on Mount Sinai, under his feet was "something like the work of pure sapphire and as clear as the sky itself."
Nowadays, precious sapphire is mined at large deposits in Kenya, Cambodia, Australia, Tanzania, and the USA. The most valuable are stones from deposits in Madagascar, Sri Lanka and Kashmir.
Agate is a variety of chalcedony quartz. He is known for a wide variety of texture patterns and possible colors, including many shades of cyan and blue. Some trade names for blue agate are Blue Lace Agate, Blue Mojave Agate, and Blue Banded Agate. Many agates today can be tinted, but unlike other types of gemstones, tinting usually does not affect its value. However, the seller is always obliged to openly report that the stone has been processed, whatever it may be. Agate is known for its hardness and durability, which currently makes it one of the most versatile blue gemstones.
Aquamarine is a member of the beryl family. Due to its low iron content, it can range from blue to bluish-green and is usually very delicate, especially when compared to the brighter, more intense blue tint of gemstones such as topaz. Aquamarine is one of the few natural blue rough gemstones (although some darker gemstones can heat up) that is exceptionally hard and durable. Rare specimens of aquamarine show the effect of a cat's eye. Aquamarine is officially considered the birthstone of March.
Apatite is made up of calcium phosphate, which is also what our teeth and bones are made of. Although it is a very common mineral, gem-quality specimens are extremely rare. Apatite is listed as a sample for a hardness index of 5 on the Mohs scale. It is known for its rich range of possible colors, including bluish green (à la Paraiba). Apatite is usually untreated, with the exception of one variety called "moroxite", which is usually heated to improve the color. Some rare specimens can show the effect of a cat's eye, which is why they are called: Cat's eye apatites.
Azurite is a gem variety of copper ore. There are two main copper carbonates: azurite and malachite. However, azurite is much less common. Its characteristic bright blue color is often referred to as "azure white" (hence the stone's name). Azure White is a unique deep color reminiscent of azure found in high quality azurite specimens. Azurite is also found mixed with malachite in the form of attractive blue-green stones. Azurite druze is also often used in jewelry and is much more durable due to the hardness of the parent rock.
Benitoite is one of the rarest minerals to date, first discovered in California by James Couch in 1907, which is an exquisite blue silicate of barium and titanium. Today it is one of the rarest gemstones. The dispersion of benitoite is higher than that of a diamond, it has excellent brilliance. Although deposits of the mineral benitoite have been found in various parts of the world, gem-quality material worthy of cutting has only been found in San Benito County (California, USA). Benitoite is the official stone of California.
Chalzdedon belongs to the mineral group of quartz. Technically, "chalcedony" is a generic term for all varieties of cryptocrystalline quartz. It features a rich variety of colors, sizes and patterns. In the professional trade, however, the term "chalcedony" is used in a narrower sense to mean "true chalcedony", i.e. a monochromatic, translucent gemstone that ranges in color from light white to bluish. It has recently been discovered that chalcedony is actually a combination of quartz and the polymorphic mineral moganite. Chalcedony is perfectly polished, the highest quality specimens have an attractive sheen.
Chrysocolla is a gem-quality copper hydrosilicate. Outwardly, it looks like azurite and malachite at the same time. And although its most famous colors are bright blue and aquamarine, in fact, chrysocolla can be dyed in the most bizarre, unique combinations of blue and green. The color of the mineral is due to copper impurities, it is often confused with turquoise due to its similar color and appearance. Determining chrysocolla by composition can be very problematic, since it does not have a clear chemical composition. Any bluish-green copper silicate that cannot be identified as something else is more likely to be recognized as chrysocolla. It is for this reason that most gemological laboratories will not be able to issue an identification conclusion for chrysocolla with an unambiguous conclusion.
Diamond (brilliant) is the hardest natural material on earth with a rating of 10 on the Mohs hardness scale of minerals. The name comes from the Greek word ἀδάμας ("adamas"), which means "indestructible". Diamond is made up of pure carbon, which is also made up of graphite, a common industrial material used, in particular, to make pencil leads. A diamond is usually irradiated to produce a blue color, although it is very rare to find completely natural blue stones that have not been processed. Most blue diamonds also have a secondary greenish tint. The blue diamond is valued for its rarity, exceptional hardness, and high refraction and light scattering (the ability to split white light into spectral components).
Blue Quartz with Dumortierite
Blue quartz is indeed rare, which is why dumortierite quartz is one of the rarest varieties of quartz commercially available. It is a quartz aggregate intergrown with the mineral dumortierite. Inclusions of the latter determine the characteristic unusual blue color of the stone, which varies from light blue to dark blue, and even - in rare cases - to reddish brown. Like all quartz, dumortierite has excellent hardness and durability, so it is suitable for any kind of jewelry. It is also often used to make porcelain and ceramics, as it turns pure white when fired.
Fluorite Fluorite is one of the most popular collectible stones in the world, second only to quartz. It is even often called "the most multi-colored mineral in the world." Fluorite is characterized by a variety of bright and saturated colors and patterns. It was first described in 1530 and was originally named "fluorspar". The term "fluorescence" comes from fluorite, as it was one of the first fluorescent minerals to be studied. Luminous colors of fluorite can be very different, but blue is common. Faceted fluorites are very rare and are usually cut into cabochons. The most valuable is color-changing fluorite, a rare variety that noticeably changes hue when lighting changes: from blue in daylight to purple in incandescent light.
Blue Hawk Eye
Hawkeye is a rare form of fibrous quartz that ranges in color from blue-gray to blue-green. In fact, hawk's eye is a pseudomorph of quartz that began to emerge as another mineral, blue crocidolite. Over time, the quartz gradually replaced the original blue crocidolite while retaining its fibrous form and, in part, the latter's blue color (depending on the degree of oxidation during formation). Hawkeye, also closely related to tiger's eye and pitersite, is usually colored with golden stripes or covered with wavy patterns. It is known for its iridescence (the so-called "cat's eye" effect, more precisely, in this case, "bird's eye"). Iridescence manifests itself in the form of small light rays reflected from the surface of the stones even, and even on flat sections.
Hemimorphite is one of two rare zinc silicates, formerly called calamine. Hemimorphite is closely related to another blue or bluish green gemstone known as smithsonite. For a long time, hemimorphite and smithsonite were classified as one mineral, called calamine, due to the great similarity of their appearance and gemological properties. Hemimorphite has a hardness of 5 on the Mohs scale. This mineral can be colored in various shades of blue, green and white, but most often the color of hemimorphite is in the range from blue to bluish-green and resembles the color of chrysocolla. The most valuable is Sky Blue and Swiss Blue hemimorphite, which often has blue stripes with white veins. And although it is more of a collection value than jewelry, hemimorphite can still be used to make unusual jewelry, the main thing is to choose the right frame and exercise due care when working. Hemimorphite drusen are also very popular in jewelry, and they are also more wear resistant due to the hardness of the parent rock.
The history of iolite goes back thousands of years, but as a gemstone it is quite "young" and little known. Iolite is a transparent gem-quality variety of cordierite mineral. Its hardness is 7-7.5 on the Mohs scale, so it is quite suitable for jewelry. Iolite is highly pleochroic, often showing violet-blue, yellow-gray, and blue hues in the same stone depending on the angle at which the stone is viewed. When cut appropriately, iolite is typically purple or violet-blue in color.
Kyanite is a unique gemstone, famous for its unique color. Its name comes from the Greek word meaning "blue", although its coloring can be very diverse. The most valuable color of kyanite is considered to be sapphire blue, but most stones have a distinct color zoning with a division of areas into light and dark, and there are also whitish streaks and spots. It is attractive with its glass-pearl luster. In addition, kyanite is known for its varying hardness: when cut perpendicular to the long axis, it is 6-7 on the Mohs scale, in parallel - only 4-4.5. It is very important to understand these hardness features of Kyanite in order to properly position the stone when cutting.
Labradorite belongs to plagioclase feldspars. Its base color, which ranges from dark smoky to grey, is accompanied by a remarkable metallic sheen of usually royal blue. Some particularly fine examples of labradorite can play with all the colors of the spectrum in the form of iridescence, such stones are known as spectrolites. The hardness of labradorite, equal to 6-6.5 on the Mohs scale, is sufficient for making almost any kind of jewelry.
Blue Lapis Lazuli
Lapis lazuli, or simply "lapis", is one of the most popular gemstones of all time. It has been used as a decorative material for jewelry for thousands of years. The finest lapis lazuli is believed to have been mined in northern Afghanistan for over 6,000 years. Technically, lapis lazuli refers to rocks, not minerals. Many examples of lapis lazuli can contain up to 15 different minerals in a single stone. In addition to lapis lazuli, the main components of the stone are lapis lazuli, calcite and pyrite. Lapis lazuli gives lapis lazuli a rich blue color, calcite is responsible for the white "marble" veins, and pyrite, represented in lapis lazuli with characteristic golden flecks, gives the stone a shine. Lapis lazuli is considered to be quite soft with a rating of 5-6 on the Mohs hardness scale, yet it remains a very popular gemstone.
Larimar is a gemstone variety of pectolite, ranging in color from blue to turquoise blue. The name "larimar" is a trademark. Larimar is mined in only one place on the planet - in the Dominican Republic. The characteristic color of larimar is due to the replacement of calcium with copper impurities. Larimar often has inclusions of calcite and hematite, which can give it very interesting shades of blue, from white and light blue to moderate sky blue and "volcanic" blue (the most valuable color of larimar). This is a fairly soft stone (only 4.5-5 on the Mohs scale), but it is still often used to create jewelry. Larimar is very popular in the Caribbean, but very hard to find anywhere else.
Blue Moonstone and Blue Rainbow Moonstone
Moonstone is the best-known variety of orthoclase potassium feldspar, but "rainbow moonstone" is technically not "moonstone" at all. Rainbow moonstone is the trade name for a special variety of labradorite, a plagioclase feldspar, that exhibits a bluish adularescence similar to that of potassium feldspar moonstone. However, for simplicity, most consider both minerals to be the same stone. The name "moonstone" refers to the effect of a bluish-white glow on its surface, which resembles the light of the moon in the night sky. An optical phenomenon known as "adularescence" is due to the unique features of the structure of the mineral. And while most moonstone specimens are bluish-white in themselves, adularescence reveals many other colors in the stone. A moonstone, on the surface of which an optical phenomenon occurs, iridescence (the effect of a cat's eye), is rare, but still also occurs. Iridescent moonstone is known in the jewelry trade as star moonstone.
Sapphire Sapphire is the most famous blue-colored gemstone (although there are actually many colors of sapphire). The blue color of sapphire varies from light blue to deep blue. Because sapphire is a gem-quality variety of corundum, it is incredibly hard and wear-resistant (9 out of 10 on the Mohs hardness scale). It is also considered to be one of the most precious gemstones on the market today. Some blue sapphires can exhibit interesting optical properties such as asterism (starry) and color change. Today, blue sapphires from Sri Lanka (Ceylon) are considered the most valuable, but earlier stones from Kashmir and Mogou in Burma were considered the most noble. Blue sapphires from Cambodia (from the province of Pailin) were also famous for their purity. Many even believe that Pailin sapphires are close in quality to Kashmiri, Burmese and Sri Lankan (Ceylon) sapphires. Among sapphires, there are stones with amazing properties, for example, rare color-changing sapphires, as well as outlandish iridescent star sapphires. The blue star sapphire is in high demand and is especially prized by collectors and jewelers alike. Sapphire is also one of the amulet stones of September.
Smithsonite is a rare gem-quality zinc carbonate closely related to blue hemimorphite, as mentioned above. Smithsonite is sometimes referred to as "zinc spar". Its color usually ranges from bluish green to greenish blue, similar to that of the hemimorphite. Due to its rarity, smithsonite is a very popular collectible stone. It got its name in honor of James Smithson, a famous chemist and mineralogist. The famous Smithsonian Institution is named after James Smithson, who, in his will, ordered to transfer funds for its construction. Like hemimorphite, smithsonite is rarely used in jewelry due to its rarity, but with the right choice of setting and due care in work, smithsonite jewelry is very effective.
Sodalite is a deep blue gemstone that gets its name from its sodium (soda) content. Like lapis lazuli, sodalite is characterized by a very dark blue color, often speckled with interesting white streaks or spots formed by calcite inclusions. Sodalite is sometimes referred to as "alomite" or "ditoite". Hackmanite is an exceptionally rare variety of sodalite known for a special color-changing effect called "reverse photochromism" or tenebrescence. Unlike other color-changing stones, this rare form of sodalite can fade to grayish or greenish-white in sunlight, but after a long enough time in the dark, it returns to its original color.
For centuries, blue and red spinel were mistakenly considered blue sapphire and red ruby, respectively. In terms of its gemological properties, spinel is very similar to sapphire and ruby corundums. The colors of spinel, as well as the colors of corundum, can be very diverse. Some spinel colors are considered rarer and, as a result, more expensive than others. In general, the noble red spinel is considered the most valuable, followed by the rare blue spinel. The most sought after shade of blue spinel. considered cobalt blue. Like diamond, spinel is a single refractive mineral, so its color is very pure. The best blue spinel should have a medium to medium dark shade of color, similar to that of a noble blue sapphire. Unlike sapphire, blue spinel, as a rule, is never processed and is only slightly inferior to it in hardness, while in any case it is considered a very hard and wear-resistant stone. Therefore, it is ideal for any kind of jewelry.
Tanzanite is one of the most popular gemstones today. It is a gem variety of deep purple-blue zoisite, which is mined in only one place on the planet - on the Merelani plateau in Tanzania, near Mount Kilimanjaro. Tanzanite's characteristic vibrant violet-blue color is unparalleled in gemstones, but like many other blue and blue stones, tanzanite gets its radiant color through a standard heat treatment process. Tanzanite is not very hard compared to many other gemstones: its hardness index is 6-7 on the Mohs scale, which, however, is sufficient for most types of jewelry. It was recently officially listed by the AGTA as one of the amulet stones for December.
Blue topaz is the second most popular gemstone in all time (according to Colored Stone magazine, sapphire is in first place). With a hardness of 8 on the Mohs scale, blue topaz is considered one of the most affordable gemstones. Like many stones of our time, topaz acquires radiant shades of blue through the process of artificial refinement by irradiation. The color of blue topaz is usually divided into three different "levels", or shades. Topaz London Blue has a rich dark blue color, which is considered the most valuable and sought after. The medium blue Swiss Blue topaz is the second most popular, followed by the light blue Sky Blue topaz. Blue topaz is recognized as one of the official stones of December.
Blue tourmaline is the general name for two rare varieties of tourmaline: Paraiba tourmaline and indicolite. Pure blue tourmaline is extremely rare, as most of these stones have a pronounced secondary green tint. Tourmaline Paraiba is considered the most valuable variety of tourmaline, which got its name from the place where it was first found in Brazil. The neon green-blue color of Paraiba Tourmaline is due to its copper content. Technically, tourmaline in any other shade of blue (from light to dark) can be called "indigolite". In any case, blue tourmaline is considered very rare, especially stones over 1 carat. Tourmaline has good hardness (7-7.5 on the Mohs scale) and wear resistance. Cat-eye tourmalines are not considered particularly rare, but still come across infrequently, therefore they are of great interest to collectors. It should also be noted that tourmaline is one of the stones of October.
Turquoise is one of the most famous gemstones. By the way, the turquoise color got its name from the name of the stone, and not vice versa. Pure blue turquoise is quite rare. Like many blue gemstones, turquoise usually has a noticeable greenish tint that is more pronounced than blue in most turquoise specimens. Sky blue turquoise with a minimum of veins is traditionally considered the most valuable, although in some countries blue turquoise with black veins or intricate patterns of the parent rock is most sought after. The blue hue of turquoise is due to the content of copper, green - to the content of iron. Despite the relative softness of turquoise compared to other gemstones (5-6 on the Mohs scale), it is very often used in jewelry. Turquoise belongs to the December stones. In recent times, it has become increasingly difficult to find untreated turquoise, as most specimens are refined by tinting, waxing, impregnating, or stabilizing.
Blue zircon is the most "sparkling" blue gemstone. Its refractive index is higher than that of sapphire, tanzanite and spinel, the coefficient of light scattering (the ability to split white light into spectral color components) of blue zircon is also very high. Zircon is considered to be quite hard (7-7.5 on the Mohs scale), but brittle, so the edges of facets of a faceted stone wear out over time. Being a pleochroic stone, zircon often exhibits a slight greenish tint. Zircon is a naturally occurring mineral, but blue zircon is obtained by heating brownish zircon from Cambodia or Myanmar (Burma). Zircon should never be confused with an artificial synthetic diamond simulant, cubic zirconia, called "phianite" in Russia, which has nothing to do with natural zircon.
When to wear blue gemstones?
The blue color of precious stones is the color of the air and water elements. Therefore, blue stones are credited with a powerful effect on a person, supported by the forces of nature:
- blue gems soothe and relieve stress, just as contemplation of the sea surface or the blue sky relieves stress;
- people who wear jewelry with blue stones attract success, fully realize their creative abilities;
- some even awaken psychic powers from wearing blue gemstone jewelry;
- it has been observed that blue stones accelerate recovery from inflammatory and other diseases, and have a positive effect on health.
The living nature of our planet is surprising - both in its diversity and in the characteristics of each creature. Some animals appeared on the earth relatively recently. One of the youngest species can be called humanity. But other inhabitants of the planet are exceptionally ancient creatures that have lived here for millions and hundreds of years, practically not changing at all. Which of today's living creatures can be called the most ancient? You can list many creatures whose ancestors lived in very ancient times. Many of them are surprised by their appearance.
First mammals - marsupials
Due to its isolation, Australia has preserved the most ancient mammals - marsupials and cloacae. The first category includes the koala and kangaroo, and the second - is the platypus and echidna. Such creatures flourished in the Mesozoic, and they first appeared 190 million years ago. The evolutionary process led to more complex mammals that could produce fully formed young that did not need a pouch. They displaced their primitive ancestors, who remained only in Australia. Echidna and platypus lay eggs but are not birds. And kangaroos and other marsupials give birth to young in an embryonic state, which then grows to the nipples in the pouch, thus continuing the development in utero in other mammals.
Ants, and in particular, Martialis heureka
Ants appeared a long time ago, using the collective mind as they do today. The species Martialis heureka differs from most of its contemporaries, retaining its archaic features. He does not even have eyes, but there is a well-developed system of hairs on the body. Each inch is sensitive to vibration, pressure, and other indicators, allowing insects to move confidently and engage in their activities.
Sharks, including the frilled shark
Sharks appeared more than 150 million years ago. These fish were and remained successful predators because their anatomy has changed little. Today, there are no vast megalodons left in the oceans, but there is a frilled shark that can live at a kilometer depth. The creature looks like an eel. Like all other sharks, it has a cartilaginous skeleton, and the only full-fledged bones in its body are its teeth. The anatomy of megalodons almost completely corresponds to the structure of the modern great white shark, only the size of our contemporaries is 2-3 meters more modest.
Even more ancient creatures are shields, which are rightly attributed to the ancestors of modern crustaceans living in fresh waters. These creatures inhabited the fresh waters of Pangea when all the continents were brought together. The creatures are distinguished by their small size, which ranges from 2 to 4 mm, and their fantastic vitality also determines them. Laid eggs can remain in the mud for years, waiting for optimal conditions for hatching; adult shield bugs are omnivorous up to cannibalism.
Sturgeon fish Continuing the consideration of freshwater inhabitants, it is necessary to note the antiquity of sturgeon fish species. Their age is more than 200 million years, and they have acquired an expansive habitat, including Europe and North America. Of all freshwater fish, they remain the largest. This is one of the oldest branches of bony fish, and today many of its species are on the verge of extinction due to valuable caviar, even though the law protects ancient and rare creatures.
Crocodiles - contemporaries of dinosaurs, appeared 250 million years ago. But dinosaurs died out, and crocodiles are alive - they turned out to be more tenacious and adapted to changing environmental conditions. Crocodiles have not changed much over the past millions of years. They can hibernate under adverse conditions and not eat for six months, but if there is food, eat it in tens of kilograms. The giant crocodiles of the past have died out, but there are three-meter Nile crocodiles that were the embodiment of one of the local ancient gods. They live on different continents and miniature caimans.
Latimeria is an even more ancient creature with about 400 million years. It has an old body structure that can tell about the times when the oceans' inhabitants were just trying to conquer the land. This fish was considered irretrievably extinct, but then it was rediscovered in the Indian Ocean.
Coelacanths grow to almost two meters in size. They have a developed system of electrosensory organs that allow them to study everything around them. The bladed fins have no analogs in the modern world. In the distant past, many fish had just such a structure, and then some of them became lungfish, began to explore the land, continuing to develop fins in their limbs. So evolution began to bring living beings to new territories hitherto unknown.
Horseshoe crabs could have appeared before dinosaurs. Officially its age is equated to 450 million years. An unusual creature, also called a horseshoe crab, is classified as an arachnid, and a trilobite is recognized as its relative. The creature grows up to 50-60 cm and has a shell, protective coloration, and a tail with a unique device that helps maneuver and search for food. The appearance of horseshoe crabs surprises and amazes.
Nautiluses can be up to 500 million years old. These creatures have lovely and durable shells, which have allowed them to survive today. Nautiluses feed by helping themselves with numerous tentacles, which also help cope with enemies.
Another ancient creature living today is the jellyfish. They are arranged very simply. They do not have a brain, and the nervous system is diffuse, but they can be poisonous. Their age is estimated at 550 million years. These jelly-like creatures have sensory organs and a digestive system but are 90 percent water.
Sponges appeared on Earth, whose age is estimated at 580 million years. These creatures are so primitive that they look more like plants. They have no organs as well as body parts. All the cells that make up such a structure are of the same type. These creatures live in fresh sea water. Today their diversity is estimated at 8 thousand species.
The most ancient inhabitants of the planet should be considered cyanobacteria - this is the conclusion scientists have come to. They have existed on Earth for about 3.5 billion years, remaining the most ancient inhabitants. The bacterium can release oxygen during photosynthesis. It is a by-product of vital activity. It was likely cyanobacteria that saturated the planet's atmosphere with oxygen, preparing it for the existence of all subsequent inhabitants who needed this gas for breathing. Without them, all those fantastic creatures that ruled land and seas at different times would not have arisen. There would be no people either. Thus, many ancient animals that have survived from past eras live on the planet. Each of them is worthy of study because they were able to survive and survive the epochs only thanks to their perfection.
The ancient Egyptians are well known for their distinctive architecture, artwork, and a large pantheon of exotic gods. Belief in the afterlife and all aspects of its manifestation made the Egyptians famous. When viewing many works of art from those years, you can see all people and gods depicted in profile. Drawings do not apply perspective. There is no "depth" in the image.
Existence of Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt formed in 3000 BC. King Menes united the Egyptian lands, creating the Old Kingdom. And the following years, he was engaged in the establishment of structures and the development of cities. In the period from 2700 to 2400 BC., the first pyramids were built, which are one of the world's wonders. In those years, Egypt tried to develop its technologies and accumulate knowledge. But 150 years later, the country fell apart again, only in 2040 BC.
Mentuhotep I united it again, so the Middle Kingdom appeared. It continued to develop in various fields of science to invent valuable technologies. In 1551 BC, the New Kingdom emerged. From that moment on, Egypt paid more attention to military potential. For 15 centuries, the state took part in many wars, which significantly weakened its influence. In 30 BC, when Cleopatra lay down in a coffin, Rome annexed Ancient Egypt to its possessions.
Why did ancient Egyptians draw people strangely?
One would think that the point was just that the only way they knew how to draw in ancient Egypt. That was a very, very long time ago. Remember, for example, rock art in caves - it seems. They knew how to paint realistic pictures in Egypt. The most famous example of ancient painting is the Fayum portraits of the 1st-3rd centuries AD. Many historians and art historians break their spears over the artificial primitivism of Egyptian artwork.
And here are some ideas:
1. At that time, the “three-dimensionality” of the image had not yet been invented
All drawings of Ancient Egypt are made "flat," but with small details. PerhaMost ts were impalpable of creating complex compositions with people in realistic poses. Therefore, they adopted standard canons: the heads and legs of all people and gods are depicted in profile. Shoulders, on the contrary, are turned straight. The Intentional simplification as a social aspect
The Egyptians invented a great way to get rid of the third dimension and used it to represent the social role of the people depicted. As they imagined in those years, a pharaoh, a god, and a commoner could not be depicted side by side in the picture because this exalted the latter. Therefore, all the figures were made in different sizes: pharaohs were the largest, dignitaries were smaller, and workers and enslaved people were the smallest. But then, realistically, drawing two people of varying status side by side, one of them would look like a child. It is better to depict people schematically.
3. A direct look is considered a challenge
In the animal kingdom: animals avoid eye contact. A direct look is considered a challenge. See how the dogs fight. Weak - turned to a strong opponent in profile or exposed his neck. The gods are so lofty and sacred that a person, even an artist, has the right only sideways to observe the life of the omnipotent. Only Death, an equally angry god, look straight into the eyes. Therefore, a person can only watch and certainly not participate in the sacraments of divine liturgies.
4. The second answer could explain image technology.
Painted or carved in stone figures are very similar to daguerreotypes, and even shadow theater, which has survived from ancient times.
Remember how we all loved to play with hand shadows since childhood. Daguerreotypes are easier to perceive in profile. Ancient masters used shadows cast on the walls of the pyramids from a torch or the setting sun for templates. This technology made it much easier for them to depict majestic giant figures. Therefore, the artists were exclusively priests, Egyptians of elite circles. Not to use the shadows of a despicable enslaved person for the contours of the deity?
Having mastered the daguerreotype technique, the Egyptians may have gone further. How beautifully and naturally movement is depicted in the frescoes. Where does the ability to transfer a step or direction come from? Didn't their weak analogies with today's film distribution, cartoons, or the Shadow Theater exist in the past? Perhaps we do not know everything about the pastime of young pharaohs, their holidays of worshiping deities and initiations. It is symbolic that the gods of Egypt do not look us in the face. Or we don't look at their faces.
5. Religious version
According to another version, the Egyptians deliberately made drawings of people two-dimensional, "flat." This is especially noticeable in the paintings where animals are present. Their ancient masters colorfully wrote out, giving realistic and elegant poses.
With their worship of the afterlife, the ancient Egyptians believed that the human soul could travel. And since the drawings were mainly made in tombs and tombs, they could “revive” the three-dimensional pictorial image of a deceased person. To avoid this, the figures of people were drawn flat and in profile. So the human face is more expressive and easier to portray similar.
In order not to revive the image, the Jews went even further. They generally banned human images, and therefore. Subsequently, many Jewish artists (not all) painted people with distorted proportions—an example of a Chagall painting. Later, Muslims borrowed this prohibition from the Jews.
Some versions, of course, intersect with each other, but which one seems most likely to you? Or do you know another version?
What do Egyptian symbols mean?
Resting this summer in Egypt, I was faced with a rather interesting situation. As a guide in Luxor, sellers of souvenirs were completely unwilling (or could not) to talk about the symbols offered to tourists in one form or another.
When I allowed myself to note that, judging by the turn of the head, the figurine depicts not Isis, but her sister Nephthys, for some reason, they simply shied away from me.
So, for everyone who has already visited Egypt, or is just going there, a small review of traditional Egyptian symbols - in order not to buy something that the soul asks for. The main Egyptian characters on which the souvenir industry is based today are the Lotus, Isis, Ankh, Scarab, and the Eye of Horus.
But suppose the meaning of the Lotus and Isis by the Egyptians is transmitted more or less close to mythology and traditional Egyptian symbolism (just remember that the face of Isis should always be turned in the direction of the sun). In that case, very few manage to get a detailed description of the remaining symbols. So:
Ankh (Egyptian cross, ankh, crux ansata). In any jewelry-papyrus-souvenir shop, you will be told that this symbolizes longevity and wealth. However, it's not all that simple. So, only the form of this symbol itself has several interpretations, several levels:
1. The most straightforward interpretation is as a symbol of Egypt, where the oval symbolizes the Nile Delta, and the rest is the river itself, which made life in the desert possible.
2. The following interpretation of the Egyptian cross is the symbolism of the rising sun, the birth of a new day. So, in the “Egyptian Book of the Dead” (papyri of Ani and Kenna), an image of Djed (a tree trunk that supported Osiris) was preserved, on both sides of it kneeling Isis and Nephthys. From Jed grows an ankh with human hands holding the Disk of the Sun.
3. The Egyptian cross is a combination of male and female symbols of Osiris and Isis, as a union of life-producing principles - Heaven and Earth, and as a result - a symbol of the new birth;
4. The sign combines the cross as a symbol of life, and the circle, as a symbol of eternity. Together they denote immortality. Alternatively, an oval could mean eternity, and a cruciform expansion in the longitudinal and transverse planes could represent a transition from infinity to space.
Thus, the ankh symbolizes life and life at all its levels. The Egyptians depicted ankh on amulets to prolong life on earth; with this amulet, they were buried to ensure that the dead were waiting for life in another world. On a material level, this sign is considered to attract longevity, eternal health, and thus a long and happy life. However, it is the key to opening the gates of paradise in the other worlds and to unity with the Higher Forces. In many images, the gods hold the ankh in their hand or pass it on to people. Here we are talking about the breath of life that has become visible, the divine spark, so to speak, thanks to which life, in general, can arise.
This symbol is also borrowed by Coptic Christians and is used as a traditional cross.
Scarab. Sellers seeking to impose any product on you are interpreted as a symbol of prosperity.
The scarab works the shapeless, soft mass of dung, rolling it in front of him until it is a nearly perfect sphere. Having laid eggs in a rotting ball, the scarab moves it from east to west and, having pulled out a mink, hides it for 28 days. On the 29th day, the beetle digs up a ball, throws it into the water, and small scarabs appear from a lump of dung. It was believed that a small beetle follows the path of the Sun, which is resurrected from the world of light. The Egyptians believed that even the deceased's body carries in itself the germ of a new life - an immortal sacred soul, which, after the death of the body, freeing itself, resurrects in another world, continuing its journey along the paths of heaven. The scarab has always been a symbol of the impulse that the soul receives for a heavenly flight, for rebirth in the spiritual world, after everything material begins to die and decompose. He personified the hidden power of the Heart, which a person had to awaken in himself to be reborn, hunger, and rise again, overcoming any obstacles that await in life and after death.
The scarab symbol had another reading in Ancient Egypt. This little beetle has become the embodiment of a philosopher on his way to wisdom. Just as the scarab tirelessly and persistently transforms the formless, astringent mass of manure into a ball to plant the seed of life in it, the philosopher who follows the path of wisdom must transform the amorphous and astringent mass of his shortcomings and limitations into an ideal, perfect, fiery and transparent sphere—, which displays the light of the Spirit.
At the same time, it was believed that all scarabs were males in Egypt. It was a symbol of male power and a fertilizing life principle. Thus, this is not a very good sign for a woman, and it should be used as carefully as possible.
Eye of Horus, with the light hand of Egyptian souvenir merchants,
With the light hand of Egyptian souvenir merchants, the Eye of Horus turned into a banal amulet from the evil eye. At the same time, among the ancient Egyptians, the eye of Horus had a highly complex symbolism. The Eye of Horus was a very popular amulet in Egypt, as it embodied its universal harmony that always returns to circles. According to the myth, the envious god Seth tore out the eye of his nephew Horus in a duel after he killed and cut into pieces his brother Osiris. The wise moon god Thoth cured Horus. Horus then gave an eye to his father Osiris to awaken him to new life. The eye and eyebrow of Horus signify strength and power. The two winged eyes are the North and the South as the two divisions of the heavens, the Sun and the Moon, the celestial space. The left eye of Horus signified the moon and thus the perceiving feminine forces and the past, while the right eye embodied the active, creative, and masculine passions of the sun and the future. The lunar eye of Horus, looking into the unconscious, symbolizes the fantastic ability to look into the depths of the human soul, to return to a person a sense of integrity and inner unity.
The eye of Horus in the ancient Egyptian papyri depicts both Horus himself and the full moon, during which Osiris was reborn, and Horus was born. By the way, similar eye images can be found in ancient Egyptian drawings and even on modern American dollar bills.
Thus, the meaning of ancient symbols is much deeper than explained in souvenir shops. And when buying this or that symbol, it should be remembered that its illiterate use can do more harm than help.