Me getting over someone I never dated
We often hear from friends or even from a psychologist that relationships between a man and a woman must be built on trust, and it’s hard not to agree with this. Trust is a feeling of complete calmness, the absence of any doubts. Complete natural relationship. Trust is an open relationship built on confidence in the decency, and goodwill of the other person towards you. Trust knows no doubt, where doubt begins, trust dies.
Indeed, trust is the main component of harmonious relations, but where to get this very component? How to learn to trust each other?
At the very beginning of a relationship, there are usually no problems with trust. After all, initially, letting someone close to us and entering into a relationship, we give this person a certain credit of trust. While looking through these memes you can also read about trust in relationships. So let’s start!
1. Modern wedding
By the way, perhaps this is why it becomes more and more difficult to fall in love with age: we accumulate some experience in relationships, and often we no longer let new people in so easily (although there are, of course, exceptions!).
Sometimes this unwillingness to trust and, as a result, let someone into your life becomes the true cause of loneliness, although a person can attribute this to the lack of suitable partners.
But be that as it may, the initial trust established during the period of falling in love is not eternal. Over time, as the relationship loses its novelty, we begin to seriously study the partner and find out how trustworthy he is.
Indeed, during the candy-bouquet period, both a man and a woman behave a little differently and try to seem better than they really are. When it ends, we become ourselves again, all our previous experience floats to the surface, which largely determines our perception of relationships.
This is a very important period when you can build a truly trusting relationship, but often our past experience interferes with us. Once burned, we no longer want to experience pain, although we are well aware that without some degree of risk, a full life and full-fledged relationships are impossible.
Why is it so important to trust each other? We can say that trust is like a prism through which we look at our beloved. If the degree of trust is high, then we tend to interpret his actions from the best side and do not look for a double meaning in them.
5. Last relationship
7. Fix him
8. My friends
If there is no trust, then even the most innocent things can be perceived as a sign of betrayal, as indifference, as an attempt to offend, etc. But just take it and decide that from today, for example, you will trust and stop secretly reading SMS and email husband's mail, it will not work.
Trust is something that takes time and sometimes even effort. Let's try to figure out what affects our ability and willingness to trust a loved one.
On the forums, you can often find posts in the spirit of “Today I got into my husband’s phone, and there some Zhanna writes to him that she won’t be able to have lunch with him. Girls, what to do? Really, what to do? What if this Zhanna is her husband's mistress?
True, with the same success she can be a colleague. Everything depends, as we have already said, on trust, that is, on the very prism through which we look at the situation and at the person.
Although the very fact that a person did not disdain to get into the personal correspondence of another person (even the closest one), already suggests that the prism is somewhat ... dusty. But do not immediately blame the woman for everything.
In fact, the ability and willingness to trust depend on many factors - this is the relationship of parents, and the environment, and past experience ...
For example, how close psychologically you let your other half get to you is largely determined by what kind of relationship your parents had, how much they demonstrated trust in each other.
If the norm was secrecy or regular interrogation in the spirit of "Where were you (and) with whom", then there is a chance that you will unconsciously carry this same relationship pattern into your marriage.
11. No vision
12. Sleeping stuff
13. Chicken nuggets
Moreover, your half may have a completely opposite idea of what degree of trust should be between spouses, to what extent a woman should participate in the affairs of a man, and what are the boundaries of what is permitted in the behavior of spouses.
Of course, sometimes already on the first date it is clear that you are not on the way with some person, but most often such things are found out just in the “post-candy” period or already in marriage.
Another important factor is the environment, and it's not just about girlfriends or relatives. This includes the information environment, the media space, which, in turn, also shapes our understanding of what relationships should be.
Perhaps you will agree that in modern society there is a slightly perverted understanding of relationships. Sexual emancipation and emotional independence have become the ideal, and people who build marriage on mutual respect and trust and remain faithful to each other are considered almost hypocrites.
In addition, a fashion for open relationships has appeared, and in theory it probably looks great, but in reality it often turns out that one is satisfied with this and he openly enjoys freedom, while the other silently endures out of love for a partner and tries to come to terms.
It turns out some kind of game of trust: on the one hand, there are no secrets, on the other hand, the lack of true intimacy and, which is also important, the confidence that a loved one will not hurt (after all, cheating, he causes it regularly).
The self-assessment of partners also influences the formation of the “prism of trust”. Obviously, the lower a person evaluates himself, the less confident he will feel in a relationship.
Perhaps this is some kind of childhood trauma, due to which a person has a strong conviction that he is not worthy of love and cannot be the only one for someone. Often this is precisely what is behind the manic need to control a partner, read his SMS and e-mail, arrange various checks.
Thus, it turns out that trust and the degree of emotional closeness in a couple depend not only on how much you love and how much you want to trust.
16. Long time chilling
18. Mall in China
19. So me
20. Finding everything
21. Me as wife
24. Really like you
25. My soulmate
27. Helping each other
28. Don’t pack much
29. About no
30. Love forever
31. Little princess
35. Our shirt
36. Story time
37. Impress today
39. The future is here
41. Just always
42. Good message
44. Free for you
45. Not ready
47. Just trying
50. Be mad
Autumn is the time for romance, home comfort, the beauty of nature, warm blankets, and strong relationships. In autumn, in a rainy season, you want that person you will go through life cheerfully and boldly and whom you will love with all your heart.
How to understand that this is my man
Perhaps that is why people so often fall in love in such an environment ... but not all lovers can admit this to the object of their adoration. But he doesn’t have to admit it because it’s not so difficult to calculate for a woman, and we will give 20 signs indicating that someone nearby is breathing unevenly toward you.
The good news is that you can catch a lot of signs that will give away true feelings. And best of all, they are all scientifically based, so you can be sure they will be accurate! Here is a comprehensive list of signs a man is in love with a woman, from his subtle change in habitual behavior to apparent signals that he is head over heels in love with you.
1. He talks about a future together
If he talks about how fun your next vacation will be together, what kind of house you would like to live in, or your idea of a family, it means one thing: he has a vision for your future together and wants to talk about it!
Marisa T. Cohen, assistant professor of psychology at St. Francis College, says, "When partners push each other to answer these questions, it shows a certain level of intimacy." This doesn't necessarily mean he wants it right now, but he does show interest in your aspirations. This matters a lot because he wants to ensure your intentions are compatible.
2. He tries to make you happy
Although these gestures are lovely, this does not mean just giving you flowers and dedicating songs. He does everything possible to correct the situation when he sees that you are upset or sad. He might offer to cook for you when you're tired from work, or if he sees you're having a bad day, he might try to cheer you up with a surprise gift or an unexpected visit. He wants to make sure that your life is as comfortable as possible because he sincerely wants to see you happy.
3. He steps out of his comfort zone for you.
It's one thing to be nice, but it's another thing to go out of your way to try something new just because your partner wants it. Research published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology shows that if he is willing to try new activities or experience new experiences that he is not used to, he is trying to bring the relationship to a new, trusting level.
4. He looks into your eyes
One win-win method can help determine if a man has fallen in love with you - and this is his look. When a person is in love, his eyes naturally turn to another person's face; this is one of the bases of psychology and human behavior. So if he looks at you with dreamy eyes, as if he is trying to look into your soul, he may be in love with you!
5. He is not shy about revealing his intimate details in front of you.
Don't let the word "intimate" fool you. Sex certainly plays an important role, but it's just a component of what creates intimacy, according to Marisa T. Cohen. He may talk about his first kiss or favorite book as a child. Maybe it will be something more serious, like his biggest fears and secrets or his family history. It doesn't matter what it is - the point is that he opens up to you, and you see him as the most vulnerable, which means that he feels safe enough around you to reveal something that he has not told anyone before (or almost nobody).
6. He shows affection in public
A man in love will often not be able to take his eyes off you and his hands. They will unnoticeably end up on your shoulder, waist, or even your forehead when he removes a strand of hair from your face one day. He may even take your hand while talking to someone else, just like that, for no apparent reason.
7. He's become more optimistic lately.
If he's acting happier than usual, he has some strong feelings for you. A German study reports that stable relationships help us feel better about life and reduce our tendency to be irritable, anxious, and emotionally unstable.
8. He makes plans
Does he seem excited about what you guys are doing together? Does he remember your work schedule and try to align it with his so you can spend more time with each other? This is a sure sign that he is involved in a love game and wants to build something more for two.
9. He invests a lot of time in your relationship.
If you're curious to know if a man is in love with you, here's a little tip: check how much time he invests in your relationship. According to a study from Purdue University, we are naturally more likely to be committed to someone with whom we have a satisfying relationship. If he does his best to spend time with you, he is clearly in love.
10. He does everything for you.
You may have heard the saying, "You will know them by their fruits." When a man does something for you, it shows that he cares about your needs, wants to make your life easier, and helps you when he can. The best thing to do is not just thank him but ask him what he needs help with. This will show him that you also care about him and his feelings.
11. He thinks about you
He might tell you a funny story, ask you questions about himself, or comment on something you've posted on social media before. Or maybe he can mention a song, video, or something else that reminded him of you - all signs that he thought about you and would like to tell you about it.
12. He always puts you first.
We are not talking here about the fact that a man in love will leave all his friends so that you become his top priority for the rest of his life. That would be crazy, or at least not very healthy behavior. But you might start noticing that he lets you choose your next date, does things for you without much objection, and generally tries to do something that pleases you. Do you think it's disingenuous? Not always!
A study published in Europe's Journal of Psychology concludes that these small but selfless acts are clear signs of compassionate love, which correlates with romantic love.
13. When you laugh, he laughs too
This may seem like an obvious sign, but laughter is truly one of the best ways to connect with other people. Evolutionary psychology research shows that men use humor to gauge a woman's interest. If the two of you constantly laugh at each other's jokes, it's a sign that the love chemistry is natural and his feelings for you run deep.
14. You are already in love with him
When it comes to love, things are a little easier for women. A Spanish study found that women in love are more likely to get love back than men. The study goes deeper, theorizing that women tend to be more selective about their partners. Conversely, men tend to say they are in love, even if they know this feeling can be unrequited.
15. You can feel his heartbeat match yours.
The natural connection of partners is more profound than we think. According to a study from the University of Colorado Boulder, when two people in love sit close together, their heartbeats and breathing tend to naturally sync and match—the body does this unconsciously.
16. He says “we” all the time
It's one of those things that may not be easy to notice, but it indicates that he's in love with you. And he says this not only because he feels that he needs it but because strong couples sincerely consider both parties to be essential elements of the picture when they make plans or discuss with others something that concerns both of them. This is why the verbal shift towards "we" is so natural.
17. He stopped cleaning up after himself.
This may sound like a bad sign, but hear us out. When a relationship starts, we all try to be the best version of ourselves. Graceful, gorgeous, charming - whatever. But over time, once we begin to feel comfortable with each other, it's okay to let down our guard and show those sides of ourselves that aren't entirely pleasant, says Marisa T. Cohen. It's not a reason to be repulsive or disrespectful, but it does show that he's comfortable enough around you.
18. He reciprocates your interest
Sex and relationship expert Shan Budram explains that the way he interacts with you speaks volumes. Suppose he gives you his full attention when you're together, responds to your text messages at a relatively reasonable time, and doesn't cancel plans at the last minute. In this case, it is safe to assume that things are going in the right direction. Especially in the early stages of your relationship, he is already looking forward to spending time with you and wants to ensure that he does not miss any opportunities for intimacy or communication.
19. He interacts with your social networks
It's not necessarily a sign of love per se, but asking about your friends and family or commenting on your photos in an attempt to make contact means a lot in this age. Christy Overstreet, a clinical sexologist and psychotherapist, confirms that these are all great signs that what he feels for you goes beyond friendship.
20. He writes and mentions you
As soon as this happens, know - this is a vital sign! Shan Budram is sure that this is a clear signal that he is in love, as he is comfortable informing his closest friends and family about his feelings for you.
When you are just on the path to a new relationship or at the very beginning of one, it is essential to get to know your current/potential love partner as best as possible. After all, if you are serious and want to continue, and ideally go hand in hand all your life, it is essential to get to know your heart friend as best as possible: what he loves, what he does not accept, whether his worldview suits you and even whether you are suitable in terms of intimacy ... After all, many, blinded by the initial passion, bask in the rays of their feelings, not thinking about what's next ... And then there may be a dead end ... Or, on the contrary, a happy life with a person who is close in spirit.
How to get to know your new love better and reveal his inner world
Bemorepanda is ready to help you try to find out if you are compatible with the object of your passion. To do this, we have compiled a list of questions on various topics that you can ask on occasion. And there you can see whether this person is yours, whether he is worth your attention or if it is better not to waste time and spiritual resources on him.
1. What turns you on the most?
2. What is your favorite sex position?
3. How do you feel about one night stand?
4. What are your biggest flaws?
5. What is the maximum number of times you have had sex in a 24 hour period?
6. Where is the hottest place you have had sex?
7. How do you feel about the CCP (the CCP is a public display of love that does not include sex and caresses, but only hugs, light kisses, holding hands, and other forms of subtle touching)?
8. Have you ever had sex in public?
9. How old were you when you lost your virginity?
10. What was your first time like?
11. What is your favorite kind of porn?
12. What is your favorite sex toy?
13. Do you have sexual fantasies?
14. What do you miss from your childhood?
15. What do you like most about yourself?
16. What do you regret most in life?
17. What makes you happiest?
18. What would you say to your 15-year-old self?
19. What infuriates you about others?
20. How is your relationship with your parents?
21. Are you a believer?
22. What is the purpose of your life?
23. What's the worst thing about dating today?
24. When was your first kiss?
25. What was your first impression of me?
26. What will we do on our next date?
27. Do you like it when someone else makes the first move?
28. What do you find sexy?
29. Do you like to cuddle?
30. If you have a one night stand, do you prefer to stay the night or leave?
31. Do I make you nervous?
32. What is your best pickup line (dating for the purpose of seduction)?
33. What do you wear to bed?
34. What can ruin a relationship for you?
35. Do you want children?
36. What is the latest news you have read?
37. What are your favorite qualities in a friend?
38. What was your hardest breakup?
39. What is the #1 goal you still want to achieve in life?
40. What are you most proud of?
41. What are your views on marriage?
42. What are you most afraid of?
43. Have you ever cheated on your significant other?
44. Have you ever been cheated on?
45. What red flags do you have in a relationship?
46. What is your best joke?
47. If you were a cookie, which one would you be?
48. If you were / - an animal, what kind?
49. What is your biggest regret in fashion?
50. How would you prepare for a zombie apocalypse?
51. What superpower would you like to have?
52. What was your first email address?
53. What is the weirdest fun fact you know?
54. If you could do something right now without judgment, what would it be?
Questions to ask your crush to find out if he/she likes you
55. What are your favorite qualities in a partner?
56. What is your love language?
57. Am I your type?
58. Have you told your friends about me?
59. How do you feel about a serious relationship?
60. Would you change anything about how we met?
61. Would you like to have some coffee sometime?
62. What is your ideal date?
63. What do you like in a relationship?
64. Do you fall in love easily?
65. Do you believe in kindred spirits?
66. What do you like most about yourself?
67. What would you like to change in your next relationship?
68. What is the most romantic thing you have ever done for someone?
69. What is the most romantic thing someone has done for you?
70. Do you believe in monogamy?
71. What do you think we have in common?
Questions to ask during a chat
72. What was your favorite lesson in elementary school?
73. What was the last concert you attended?
74. What is your earliest memory?
75. What is your favorite city you have ever been to?
76. What was your most vivid dream?
77. Where do you want to go on your next vacation?
78. What TV show or movie could you watch forever?
79. Who is your favorite celebrity?
80. What's the best advice you've ever received?
81. Have you ever been in love?
82. Have you ever broken someone's heart?
83. What is your most memorable kiss?
84. Is there anything you refuse to compromise on?
85. Who will you scroll through automatically?
86. Are you a good kisser?
87. What was the worst date you have ever gone on?
88. What is your favorite body part of a romantic partner?
89. What scares you in a relationship?
90. Do you miss any of your exes?
Love is something abstract. It cannot be described in words; it can only be felt. Love is not subject to time, logic, or any laws. It is elusive. We each have our language and vision of love. Therefore, we will not try to understand this eternal question - "what is love?".
About love from the point of view of psychology
Instead, we will share 40 psychological facts that convince you that love is a fantastic feeling.
1. Most people fall in love through eye contact.
And this happens within the first 30 seconds. Love at first sight in action!
2. The heart can be broken.
Research has shown that severe traumatic events—breakup, divorce, physical distance, or the loss of a loved one—can cause physical pain in a person’s heart. This condition is known as broken heart syndrome. Deep emotional triggers upset the brain and weaken a person's heart, causing symptoms such as chest pain or shortness of breath. Generally, the syndrome is more common in women than men and can be mistaken for a heart attack.
3. When we look at a person we like, our pupils dilate by 45%. It makes us more attractive
4. A person gradually falls in love with someone with whom he spends a lot of time - for example, a classmate or colleague
This psychological phenomenon is known as the exposure effect. Thanks to it, people tend to be attracted to each other depending on the time spent together.
5. People are more attracted to those who are as attractive as they are.
This is called the matching hypothesis. Many social researchers point out that people choose their partners or romantic relationships according to a specific pattern. For example, if you are attractive, you would most likely want to be with the prettiest person in your neighborhood, at work, or school/university.
6. Holding the hand of a loved one will reduce mental and physical pain.
7. One look is enough to fall in love
After all, the eyes are the mirror of the soul. So be careful who you look at. When we look at someone, our body releases phenylethylamine, a chemical associated with the body's fight-or-flight response.
8. Giving freedom is a love paradox
The more independence you give your partner, the more attached he will be to you.
9. Sometimes, it can turn into an addiction.
If this happens, it is better to end the relationship.
10. Talkative women and silent men tend to make the best couples.
11. Men fall in love faster than women.
12. When a person sees someone he loves, his heartbeat involuntarily quickens.
13. People marry people they can't live without, not people they can live with for the rest of their lives.
14. If you love hugging, you'll be glad to know that hugging is a natural pain reliever.
When two people hug, their brain releases oxytocin, the hug hormone. Oxytocin reduces headaches and is a pain reliever for up to 4 hours. Therefore, hugs are a great alternative to painkillers if you feel tired, stressed, or in pain.
15. A photo of a loved one can also relieve pain.
Scientists have proven that the presence of a loved one helps a sick patient recover—the same works with his image. In a study conducted among people in pain, some participants were shown photos of their loved ones while others played with words (for distraction). The pain was significantly reduced in those who were shown pictures than in participants who alternatively played games.
16. Partners with similar interests and tastes are unlikely to last long in a romantic relationship.
It's the same with complete opposites, despite the widespread belief that opposites attract. As a rule, couples who are either too similar or too different cannot be together for long. According to the researchers, there should always be a solid basis for similarities and what both people can learn from each other.
17. People in love are chemically similar to those with OCD.
Studies have shown that couples in the early stages of love have lower levels of serotonin, which is associated with happiness and well-being, and higher levels of cortisol, the stress hormone. Similar rates are observed in people with OCD - obsessive-compulsive disorder. This is why we feel, act, or imagine ourselves differently than usual when we fall in love with someone.
18. Regarding long-term relationships, people usually prefer an attractive face to a beautiful body.
However, when people seek entertainment, the body wins - and it's all because of physical attraction.
19. Simply expressing gratitude to the people you love causes instant happiness.
20. The expression "butterflies in the stomach" is a natural sensation caused by the release of adrenaline.
21. Studies have shown that if people meet in a dangerous situation, they are more likely to fall in love with each other than if they meet in a peaceful environment.
For example, two people are more likely to fall in love if they meet on a white water rafting trip instead of in an office.
22. Women in red psychologically turn men on.
This color is closely associated with desire and attraction. For example, according to some reports, women are more likely to wear red clothes during the fertile phases of the menstrual cycle.
23. When you discover someone likes you, a small part of you starts to love him back.
Even if, before that, you did not have feelings for this person.
24. Some people can't bear the loss of loved ones and die months or years later due to mental or physical illness.
25. 64% of people change their appearance after a breakup.
26. Good relationships are about two things: firstly, you need to appreciate similarities, and secondly, you need to respect differences.
27. Research shows that long-distance relationships are just as satisfying as regular relationships in terms of communication, intimacy, and commitment.
28. The leading cause of depression is unsuccessful love stories.
29. Women are involuntarily drawn to cheerful men with a good sense of humor.
Girls like to be happy, so a man who makes them laugh attracts them like a magnet.
30. We always associate the person we love with our favorite songs.
31. They say trust is essential thing in a relationship.
But it's not. Time is what matters most. It is over time that trust, friendship, and eternal and inseparable bonds grow.
32. Happiness Is Contagious, Research Shows
It can be difficult for people to walk away from someone happy or not to love someone happy simply because such people are friendly to be around.
33. The more you ignore someone you like, the more you fall in love with them.
34. Men with a lower voice are more likely to sound attractive than males with a higher voice.
35. Women first experience pleasure psychologically before experiencing it physically.
For men, it's precisely the opposite.
36. It only takes 4 minutes for a person to understand whether he likes someone or not.
So if you want to make a good impression on someone, you don't have much time! It is believed that getting and holding someone's attention has more to do with body language, tone, and speed of your voice than what you say.
37. When two loving people look into each other's eyes for 3 minutes, their heart rate is synchronized.
38. Testosterone is a powerful male hormone that attracts women with its scent.
Cologne mimics the smell of testosterone can make a woman pay attention to a man.
39. Falling in love is like cocaine addiction: it causes the same chemical euphoria and almost the same effect on the human mind.
40. Twenty-year-old men feel more emotional pain after a breakup than women.
The Cold War ended over two decades ago, and many people have never lived in fear of nuclear annihilation. However, a nuclear attack is a genuine threat. Global politics is far from stable and human nature has not changed in recent years nor the last two decades. "The most constant sound in the history of mankind is the sound of the drums of war." As long as nuclear weapons exist, there is always the danger of their use.
Is it possible to survive after a nuclear war? There are only predictions: some say yes, others say no. Remember that modern thermonuclear weapons are plentiful and several thousand times more powerful than the bombs dropped on Japan. We don't fully understand what will happen when thousands of these munitions explode simultaneously. For some, especially those living in densely populated areas, trying to survive may seem ultimately futile. However, if a person stays, it will be someone who is morally and logistically prepared for such an event and lives in a very remote area of no strategic importance.
Make a plan.
If a nuclear attack occurs, you will not be able to go outside, as it will be dangerous. You should stay protected for at least 48 hours, but preferably longer. With food and medicine on hand, you can temporarily not worry about them and focus on other survival aspects.
Stock up on foods that are not perishable.
Such products can be stored for several years, so they should be available to help you survive after an attack. Choose foods high in carbs, so you get more calories for less money. Store them in a cool, dry place:
- White rice
- Powdered milk
- Dried fruits and vegetables
Build up your stock gradually. Every time you go to the grocery store, buy one or two items for your dry rations. In the end, you will stock up for several months.
Make sure you have a can opener with you.
You must have a supply of water.
Water can be stored in food-grade plastic containers. Clean them with a bleach solution and fill them with filtered and distilled water.
Your goal is to have 4 liters per person per day.
Keep ordinary chlorine bleach and potassium iodide (Lugol's solution) on hand to purify water in an attack.
You must have means of communication.
Staying up to date and being able to alert others to your location can be vital. Here's what you might need:
Radio. Try to find an option that works with a crank or solar power. If you have a radio with batteries, don't forget spares. Connect to a radio station that broadcasts 24-hour weather forecasts and emergency information.
Whistle. You can use it to call for help.
Mobile phone. Whether mobile communication will work is unknown, but you should be prepared if it does. If possible, find a solar charger for your phone model.
Read more: As president Putin of Russia is putting the Nuclear arsenal on high alert, people are asking google this 20 questions
Stock up on medicines.
Having the necessary medicines and providing first aid is life and death if you are injured in an attack. You will need:
Basic first aid kit. You can buy it ready-made or make your own. You will need sterile gauze and bandages, antibiotic ointment, latex gloves, scissors, tweezers, a thermometer, and a blanket.
First Aid Booklet. Buy a booklet from the Red Cross or another medical organization, or compile your material by printing it off the Internet. You should be able to dress wounds, perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and treat shock and burns.
Medications you take regularly. If you take a particular drug every day, try to build up a small supply.
Prepare other items.
Add the following to your survival kit:
- Flashlight and batteries
- plastic film and adhesive tape
- Garbage bags, plastic ties, and wet wipes for personal hygiene
- Wrench and pliers to turn off gas and water.
Follow the news.
A nuclear attack is unlikely to happen out of the blue. It will undoubtedly be preceded by a sharp deterioration in the political situation. Suppose a conventional war breaks out between countries with nuclear weapons and does not end quickly. In that case, it could escalate into a nuclear war. Even individual nuclear strikes in one region can escalate into an all-out nuclear conflict. Many countries have a rating system to indicate the imminence of an attack. In the USA and Canada, for example, it is called DEFCON.
Assess the risk and consider evacuation if a nuclear exchange looks realistic.
If evacuation is not an option, you should at least build a shelter for yourself. Assess your proximity to the following destinations
Airfields and naval bases, especially those hosting nuclear bombers, submarine-launched ballistic missiles, or bunkers. These places will be attacked even with a limited exchange of nuclear strikes.
Commercial ports and airstrips over 3 km long. These places are likely to be attacked even in a limited nuclear exchange and are likely to be shot in an all-out nuclear war.
Government buildings. These places are likely to be attacked even in a limited nuclear exchange and are likely to be shot in an all-out nuclear war.
Large industrial cities and most populated regions. These places are likely to be attacked in an all-out nuclear war.
Learn about the different types of nuclear weapons:
Atomic bombs are the main types of nuclear weapons and are included in other firearms classes. The power of an atomic bomb is due to the fission of heavy nuclei (plutonium and uranium) when they are irradiated with neutrons. When each atom splits, many energy and even more neutrons are released. This results in a swift nuclear chain reaction. Atomic bombs are the only type of nuclear bomb still used in warfare. If terrorists can capture and use a nuclear weapon, it will likely be an atomic bomb.
Hydrogen bombs use the ultra-high temperature of an atomic charge as a "spark plug." Under the influence of temperature and intense pressure, deuterium and tritium are formed. Their nuclei interact, and as a result, a massive release of energy occurs - a thermonuclear explosion. Hydrogen bombs are also known as thermonuclear weapons because deuterium and tritium nuclei require high temperatures to interact. Such weapons are usually hundreds of times more powerful than the bombs that destroyed Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Most of the US and Russian strategic arsenal is just such bombs.
Survival in the face of an imminent attack
Seek shelter immediately.
Aside from geopolitical warning signs, the first warning of an imminent nuclear attack is likely to be an alarm. If not, it will be the explosion itself. The bright light from the detonation of a nuclear weapon can be seen tens of kilometers from the epicenter. Suppose you find yourself close to the explosion (at the center). In that case, chances of surviving are practically zero unless you hide in a shelter that provides very (VERY!) good protection from the explosion. If you are several kilometers away, you will have about 10-15 seconds until the heat kills you and maybe 20-30 seconds until the shock wave hits. Under no circumstances should you look directly at the fireball. This can cause temporary blindness over very long distances on a clear day. However, the actual damage radius varies greatly depending on the size of the bomb, the height of the explosion, and even the weather conditions at the time of the blast.
If you can't find cover in a disaster area, find a low ravine or hole and lie face down, covering as many exposed areas of your body as possible. If there is no such cover, dig as quickly as possible. Even at a distance of 8 km, you will get third-degree thermal burns, and even at 32 km from the place of impact, the heat can burn the skin. The wave will reach 960 km / h and will not leave anything and no one alive in open space.
If this fails, hide in the building, but only if you are sure it will not suffer much from the explosion and thermal radiation. This will at least provide some protection from radiation. Whether this will help to survive depends on the design of the building and the proximity to the epicenter of the explosion. Stay away from any windows; it is preferable to find a room without them. Even if the building is not significantly damaged, a nuclear blast will blow out windows at a great distance.
If you live in Switzerland or Finland, check if your home has an atomic shelter. If not, determine where the nuclear cover is in your village/town/district and how to get there. Remember: anywhere in Switzerland, you can find an atomic shelter. When sirens sound in Switzerland, those who cannot hear them (e.g., the deaf) must be informed and then listen to the national radio company (RSR, DRS, and RTSI).
There should be nothing flammable or combustible near you. Nylon or any petroleum-based material will catch fire in the heat.
Remember that radiation exposure causes a large number of deaths.
Initial (fast) radiation. The radiation released at the moment of the explosion will be short-lived and most active at short distances. It is believed that this will kill the few who do not die in a blast of heat at the same length.
Residual radiation (radiation contamination). If the explosion was on the surface or the fireball hit the ground, a lot of dust and dirt would enter the atmosphere and then settle down, carrying dangerous radiation. The consequences could come in a deadly "black rain" that can reach extreme temperatures. Everything around will be infected.
Suppose you survived the explosion and the initial radiation (at least for now - the symptoms have an incubation period). In that case, you must find protection from the "black rain."
Understand the types of radioactive particles.
Before we continue, three different types of particles (and therefore radiation) should be mentioned:
Alpha particles. They are the weakest, and their threat practically does not emanate during the strike. Alpha particles do not live long in the air and, having traveled only a few centimeters, are absorbed by the atmosphere. Although the danger from external exposure to them is minimal, these particles will be fatal if swallowed or inhaled. Regular clothing will help you protect yourself from them.
They are faster than alpha particles and can penetrate further. Before being absorbed by the atmosphere, they have time to travel up to 10 meters. Exposure to beta particles is not fatal unless exposed for long periods. In this case, beta burns can occur, similar to painful sunburns. However, the danger to the eyes during prolonged exposure is excellent. In addition, they are dangerous if swallowed or inhaled. Regular clothing helps prevent beta burns.
Gamma rays. Gamma rays are the most dangerous. They can spread almost one and a half kilometers in the air and penetrate nearly any material. Therefore, gamma radiation causes severe damage to internal organs, even when affecting the body from the outside. Adequate protection is required.
The shelter protection index indicates how less radiation a person will receive inside the shelter than open space. For example, a score of 300 means that you will receive 300 times less radioactive radiation in a cover than in the open air.
Avoid exposure to gamma radiation. Try not to be exposed to radiation for more than 5 minutes. If you're in the countryside, try to find a cave or a fallen tree that's rotten inside that you can crawl into. Otherwise, just dig a trench lying down, leaving the excavated earth around as a fence.
Start fortifying your shelter with earth or whatever you can find.
If you're hiding in a trench, think of some sort of roof, but only if the materials are nearby: don't come out of hiding unnecessarily. Parachute silk or a tent will help protect you from radioactive fallout and debris but will not stop gamma rays. Completely protected from any radiation is impossible purely physically. You can only reduce its impact to an acceptable level. Use the following information to determine the amount of material that will allow you to minimize radiation penetration to 1/1000:
- Steel: 21 cm
- Stones: 70-100 cm
- Concrete: 66 cm
- Tree: 2.6 m
- Ground: 1 m
- Ice: 2 m
- Snow: 6 m
Plan to spend at least 200 hours (8-9 days) in your hideout.
Under no circumstances should you leave the shelter during the first forty-eight hours!
The reason is that you need to avoid the decay products produced by a nuclear explosion. The deadliest of these is radioactive iodine. Fortunately, radioactive iodine has a relatively short half-life of eight days (the time it takes for half of its natural decay into safer isotopes). Keep in mind that even after 8-9 days, there will still be a lot of radioactive iodine around, so you need to limit your exposure. It can take up to 90 days for radioactive iodine to break down to 0.1% of its original volume.
Other significant decay products are cesium and strontium. They have a long half-life: 30 and 28 years, respectively. These elements are very well absorbed by wildlife and can make food dangerous for decades. In addition, they are carried by the wind for thousands of kilometers, so if you think that you are not in danger in a remote area, you are wrong.
Handle food and water wisely.
You'll need to eat to survive, exposing yourself to radiation (unless the shelter doesn't have ample food and water supplies).
Processed foods can be eaten as long as the packaging is puncture-free and relatively intact.
Animals may be eaten, but the skin must be carefully skinned and the heart, liver, and kidneys discarded. Try not to eat meat close to the bone, as the bone marrow stores radiation.
- Eat the pigeons
- Eat wild rabbits
Plants in the affected area are edible; those that have edible root vegetables or tubers (such as carrots and potatoes) are best eaten. Check if the plant is edible.
Radioactive particles can get into open water, so it is not suitable for drinking. It is safer to take water from undergrounds, such as a spring or a well-sealed well. Think of building a solar distiller like you would when extracting drinking water in the desert. Only use water from streams and lakes as a last resort. Make a filter: Dig a hole about 30 cm from the water's edge and draw water from it as it fills up. Water can be cloudy or dirty, so it needs to be boiled to get rid of the bacteria. If you are in a building, then the water is generally safe. If the water supply is turned off (most likely), use the water left in the pipes. To do this, open the faucet at the house's highest point to let in air, and then drain the water at the lowest point of the house.
- Check out How to Get Drinkable Water from Your Water Heater in an Emergency.
- You must know how to purify water.
Dress to cover your skin as much as possible (wear a hat, gloves, goggles, a long-sleeved shirt, etc.).
This is especially important when you go outside as it helps prevent beta burns. To disinfect, constantly shake clothing and rinse exposed skin with water. Otherwise, the accumulated particles will cause burns over time.
Treat radiation and thermal burns.
Minor burns are also known as beta burns (although other particles can also cause them). Soak the burned area in cold water until the pain subsides (usually 5 minutes).
If the skin begins to blister, char, or tear, rinse with cold water to remove debris, then cover with a sterile compress to prevent infection. Don't pop bubbles!
If the skin doesn't blister, char, or tear, don't cover it, even if the burn covers most of the body (much like a sunburn). Instead, wash the burnt area and cover it with petroleum jelly or a solution of baking soda and water, if available. Moist (uncontaminated) soil will also work.
Severe burns, known as thermal burns, are caused more often by intense heat radiation than by ionizing particles (although they are also). They can be life-threatening and come with many risk factors: dehydration, shock, lung damage, infections, etc. Follow these steps to treat a severe burn.
Protect burns from further contamination.
If clothing covers the area of the burn, gently cut and remove the fabric from the burn. DO NOT attempt to remove tissue stuck or adhered to the burn. DO NOT attempt to pull clothing over the burn. DO NOT apply ointment to the burn! It is best, if possible, to seek qualified medical help.
Gently rinse the burnt area with water ONLY. DO NOT apply creams or ointments.
DO NOT use an everyday sterile medical dressing not explicitly designed for burns. Since non-adhesive burn dressings (and all other medical supplies) are likely to be in short supply, food-grade plastic wrap, which is sterile, will not stick to the burn, and is readily available, can be an alternative.
Shock must be prevented. Shock means insufficient blood flow to vital tissues and organs. If left unattended, it can be fatal. Shock can result from severe blood loss, deep burns, or even a reaction to the appearance of a wound or blood. Signs of shock are restlessness, thirst, pale skin, and a fast heartbeat. Sweating may occur even if the skin feels cool and clammy. When the condition worsens, breathing becomes frequent and intermittent, and an absent look appears. To help maintain a regular heartbeat and breathing by massaging the chest and helping the person regain calm breathing. Loosen any tight clothing and reassure the person. Be gentle but firm and confident.
Don't be afraid to help people with radiation sickness.
It is not contagious, and it all depends on the amount of radiation the person has received. The next step is an abbreviated version of the table.
Familiarize yourself with radiation units.
Gray (Gy) is an SI unit that measures the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation. 1 Gy = 100 rad. Sievert (Sv) is an SI unit that measures the effective and equivalent dose of ionizing radiation. 1 Sv = 100 rem (X-ray biological equivalent). For simplicity, it is generally assumed that 1 Gy is equivalent to 1 Sv.
Less than 0.05 Gy: no visible symptoms.
0.05-0.5 Gy: temporarily decreases the number of red blood cells.
0.5-1 Gy: reduced production of immune cells; susceptibility to infections; nausea, headache, and vomiting are common. After such exposure, you can survive without treatment.
1.5-3 Gy: 35% of those affected die within 30 days. Nausea, vomiting, and loss of hair all over the body.
3-4 Gy: severe radiation poisoning, 50% of those affected die within 30 days. Other symptoms are similar to that of a radiation dose of 2-3 Sv; after the latent phase, uncontrolled bleeding in the mouth, under the skin, and in the kidneys is observed (at a dose of 4 Sv, the probability is 50%).
4-6 Gy: acute radiation poisoning, 60% of those affected die within 30 days. Mortality increases from 60% at 4.5 Sv to 90% at 6 Sv (unless intensive medical measures are taken). Symptoms appear within half an hour to 2 hours after exposure and last up to 2 days. This is followed by 7 to 14 days of a latent phase, after which the same symptoms appear as at a dose of 3-4 Sv, but more intensely. At this dose of radiation, female infertility often occurs. Recovery takes from several months to a year.
The leading causes of death (within 2-12 weeks after exposure) are infections and internal bleeding.
6-10 Gy: In Acute radiation poisoning, mortality is almost 100% within 14 days. Survival depends on medical care. The bone marrow is virtually destroyed, so a transplant is required. The tissues of the stomach and intestines are severely damaged. Symptoms appear 15-30 minutes after exposure and last up to 2 days. This is followed by a 5 to 10-day latent phase, after which the person dies from infection or internal bleeding. Recovery will take several years and will probably never be complete. Devar Alves Ferreira received a dose of approximately 7.0 Sv during an accident in Goiania and survived due to the fractional nature of the exposure.
12-20 rem: mortality is 100%, and symptoms appear immediately. The gastrointestinal tract is destroyed. There is uncontrolled bleeding from the mouth, under the skin, and from the kidneys—fatigue and feeling unwell in general. The symptoms are similar but more pronounced. Recovery is impossible.
More than 20 rem. The same symptoms appear instantly and intensely, then stop for a few days. The gastrointestinal tract cells are rapidly destroyed with water loss and profuse bleeding. Before death, a person is delighted and falls into madness. When the brain cannot control bodily functions such as breathing or circulation, the person dies. There is no cure; medical assistance is only aimed at alleviating suffering.
Unfortunately, you have to admit that the person may soon die. Although it is hard, do not waste food and medicine on those dying from radiation sickness. Save everything you need for your health and ability to survive. Radiation sickness often affects children, the elderly, and the sick.
Try to save electrical equipment.
A nuclear explosion at a very high altitude will trigger a powerful electromagnetic pulse so strong that it can destroy electronic and electrical devices. The least you should do is unplug all appliances from electrical outlets and antennas. Place the radio and flashlights in the SEALED metal container ("Faraday Shield"). This can protect against electromagnetic pulse, provided that the devices inside do NOT come into contact with the case. The metal shield must surround the objects and must be grounded.
The devices you want to protect must be isolated from the conductive case. The electromagnetic field can induce a voltage in the boards. If you are far from the explosion, a metal rescue (thermal, space) blanket that wraps all devices, pre-wrapped in newspapers or cotton wool, can act as a Faraday shield.
Another way is to wrap the cardboard box in copper or aluminum foil. Place the appliances inside and ground the device.
Be prepared for subsequent attacks.
Most likely, a nuclear strike will not be a single one. Be ready for new strikes or the invasion of the enemy army.
Keep the shelter intact unless the materials used are necessary for survival. Gather as much clean water and food as possible.
However, if the attacking side attacks again, then most likely, this strike will fall on another part of the country. If all else fails, live in a cave.
Be sure to wash everything, especially food, even inside your shelter.
- Do not tell anyone precisely what and how much you have with you.
- Watch out for the military! Indeed the military will appear soon, people in biological protection suits, etc. Learn to distinguish tanks, planes, and other equipment of your country's armed forces from the enemy.
- Stay tuned for government information and announcements.
- Only leave the hideout if you have a hazmat suit and should be on the lookout for a new threat.
- Build a nuclear shelter in advance. A home nuclear shelter can be set up in a basement or cellar. However, new homes often do not have basements; if so, consider building a public retreat or a private one in your garden.