Worlds largest Elephant Toothpaste experiment 😳
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Science is a special type of human cognitive activity aimed at obtaining, substantiating and systematizing objective knowledge about the world, man, society and knowledge itself, on the basis of which a person transforms reality.
Knowledge is created and used in any sphere of human activity, but only in the field of science, the production of new knowledge is not only a means but also the main goal and main product of labor. At the same time, both the scientific knowledge itself and the process of obtaining it have a number of specific features, which, taken together, are not typical for knowledge obtained in other areas of activity.
1. Med school
2. Small things
3. This kid
Science is also understood as a historically developing set of results of intellectual activity systematized in a certain way and the social institution within which it is carried out. In the institutional context, the concept of "science" is used to refer to certain areas of scientific knowledge and the scientific disciplines that constitute them. Modern science is an extremely ramified set of individual scientific branches.
Science as a special kind of intellectual production has its own productive forces, production relations regulated by the relevant norms and standards, as well as the subject and product of labor, and includes many elements: the actual producers of scientific knowledge (scientists); historically determined forms of division and cooperation of scientific labor; conceptual and categorical apparatus of scientific disciplines; procedures for isolating the field of problems, methods and theories that can be defined as scientific; methods of scientific research, verification and systematization of acquired knowledge; scientific institutions; technical support of scientific production; system of scientific information and communications.
4. Stressed out
5. Made you cry
The direct functions of science are the study, description, explanation and prediction of reality. At the same time, science represents only one of the cuts of the diversity of the world, therefore it does not exhaust the entire culture (see Culture), but constitutes only one of the areas that interacts with other areas of human creative and cognitive activity: philosophical, artistic, empirical, religious, mythological, ideological and others. However, a clear explication of the specific features of science in the form of signs and definitions turns out to be a rather difficult task. This is evidenced by the variety of definitions of science, the ongoing discussions on the problem of demarcation between it and other forms of knowledge.
Science sets itself the ultimate goal of foreseeing the process of transforming objects of practical activity (an object in its initial state) into corresponding products (an object in its final state). This transformation is always determined by the essential connections, laws of change and development of objects, and the activity itself can be successful only when it is consistent with these laws.
Therefore, scientific knowledge is characterized by a focus on the object, on the identification of its own, immanent laws of functioning and development of the object under study. Arising from the needs of practice and regulating it in a special way, science aims to reveal the laws according to which objects can be transformed in human activity. Since any objects can be transformed in activity - fragments of nature, social systems and society as a whole (see Society), states of human consciousness, and others - to the extent that all of them can become subjects of scientific research.
Science studies them as objects that function and develop according to their own natural laws. It can also study a person as a subject of activity, but also as a special object. With regard to the processes of transformation of nature, this function is performed by the natural and technical sciences. The processes of change in social objects are studied by the social sciences. The orientation of science towards the study of objects that can be included in activity (either actually or potentially as possible objects of future transformation), and their study as obeying the objective laws of functioning and development, constitute the first main feature of scientific knowledge.
7. In our lab
8. Sad algae
9. The animal
This feature distinguishes it from other forms of human cognitive activity and determines the nature of scientific discourse, which is characterized by a claim to intersubjective significance (objectivity). So, for example, in art, the assimilation of reality always occurs as a kind of combination of the subjective and the objective, in which any reproduction of certain states of the world, man and society presupposes their emotional personal assessment. An artistic image always acts as a unity of the general and the individual, rational and emotional, and a work of art bears the stamp of a personal attitude to the world.
The scientific assimilation of reality differs from the artistic assimilation of reality by its orientation towards rational, logically substantiated and generalized objective knowledge. The products of scientific knowledge appear to be extremely cleansed of the personal component and open to criticism by any opponent who accepts the presumptions of science.
The sign of objectivity and objectivity of knowledge is the most important characteristic of science, but it is still insufficient to determine its specificity, since ordinary knowledge can also give separate objective and objective knowledge. In contrast, science is not limited to the study of only those objects, their properties and relationships that can be mastered in the practice of the corresponding historical era. It is able to go beyond the boundaries of each historically defined type of practice and open up new objective worlds for mankind, which can become objects of mass practical development only at future stages of the development of civilization.
The constant desire of science to expand the field of objects under study, regardless of today's opportunities for their mass practical development, is the system-forming feature that justifies other characteristics of science that distinguish it from ordinary knowledge.
10. Work hard
11. My thesis
12. Just a book stand
13. A sentance
First of all, it is the difference in their products (results). Ordinary knowledge creates a conglomeration of knowledge, information, prescriptions and beliefs, only separate fragments of which are interconnected. The truth of knowledge is verified here directly in actual practice, since knowledge is constructed in relation to objects that are included in the processes of production and social experience. But since science constantly goes beyond these limits, it can only partially rely on the available forms of mass practical development of objects. She needs special practices, with the help of which the truth of her knowledge is checked. Such a practice becomes a scientific experiment (see Experiment). Part of the knowledge is directly verified in the experiment, the rest are interconnected by logical connections, which ensures the transfer of truth from one statement to another. As a result, the characteristics of its knowledge inherent in science arise - their systemic organization, validity and proof.
Science, unlike everyday knowledge, involves the use of special means and methods of activity; it is characterized by the presence of a developed apparatus of methods and procedures used for rational justification, proof and verification of the knowledge gained. It cannot be limited to using only natural language and those tools that are used in production and everyday practice. In addition to them, it needs special means of activity - a special language (empirical and theoretical, created on the basis of natural language or created artificially) and special technical and instrumental equipment. It is the constant development of these tools that ensures the study of new objects, including those that go beyond the possibilities of existing production and social practice.
Related to this are the needs of science in the constant development of special methods that ensure the development of new objects, regardless of the possibilities of their current practical development. Such objects, as a rule, are not given in advance, are not fixed by the methods of everyday practice and production activities, since they go beyond their boundaries. The method in science often serves as a condition for fixing the object of study and determining its main features. Therefore, along with knowledge about objects, science systematically develops knowledge about methods.
17. Just medicine
18. Exam paper
19. Mom stuff
20. Moving a picture
27. Kelvin is cold
29. Due to the fact
34. What sort?
36. What was the reason?
39. Chemistry exam