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Basketball is an Olympic sport, a sports team game with a ball, the goal of which is to throw the ball into the opponent's basket more times than the opposing team does at the set time. Each team consists of 5 field players.
The history of the emergence and development of basketball
In 1891 in the United States of America, a young teacher, a native of Canada, Dr. James Naismith, trying to "revive" gymnastics lessons, attached two fruit baskets to the railing of the balcony and offered to throw soccer balls into it. The resulting game only remotely resembled modern basketball. There was no question of any management, the players threw the ball to each other and then tried to throw it into the basket. The team that scored the most goals won.
A year later, Naismith developed the first rules of basketball. The very first matches under these rules caused their first changes.
Gradually, basketball from the United States penetrated first to the East - Japan, China, the Philippines, and then to Europe and South America. After 10 years at the Olympic Games in St. Louis, the Americans organized a demonstration tour between the teams of several cities. The Basketball Association of America (BAA) was formed in 1946. The first match under her auspices took place on November 1 of the same year in Toronto between the Toronto Huskies and New York Knickerbockers. In 1949, the association merged with the US National Basketball League to form the National Basketball Association (NBA).
In 1967, the American Basketball Association was created, which for a long time tried to compete with the NBA, but merged with it 9 years later. Today, the NBA is one of the most influential and well-known professional basketball leagues in the world. The International Amateur Basketball Federation was founded in 1932. The federation includes 8 countries: Argentina, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Portugal, Romania. Sweden, Czechoslovakia. Based on the name, it was assumed that the organization would lead only amateur basketball, however, in 1989, professional basketball players received admission to international competitions, and the word "amateur" was removed from the name. The very first international match took place in 1904, and in 1936 basketball entered the program of the Summer Olympic Games.
Basketball rules (briefly)
The rules of the game of basketball changed several times until 2004, when the final version of the rules took shape, which is considered relevant to this day. Basketball is played by two teams. Usually a team consists of 12 people, 5 of which are field players, and the rest are considered substitutes. Basketball dribbling. Athletes in possession of the ball must move around the field, hitting the floor with it. Otherwise, "carrying the ball" will be counted, and this is a violation of the rules in basketball.
Accidentally touching the ball with a body part other than the hand is not considered a foul, unlike purposeful play with the foot or fist.
A basketball game consists of 4 periods or halves, but the timing of each half (play time) varies depending on the basketball association. So, for example, in NBA a match consists of 4 halves of 12 minutes each, and in FIBA each such half lasts 10 minutes.
Short breaks are provided between periods, and between the second and third periods, the break time is increased. The ball thrown into the basket can bring a different number of points to its team. If the ball is scored during the free throw, the team earns 1 point.
If the ball is thrown from an average or close distance (closer than the 3-point line), then the team is given 2 points.
A team earns three points if the ball is scored from behind the three-point line. If in regular time both teams scored the same number of points, then a 5-minute overtime is assigned, if it ended in a draw, then the next one is assigned and so on until the winner is determined.
The 3 second rule is a rule that prohibits any player on the attacking team from being in the free throw area for more than three seconds.
The two step rule in basketball. The player is only allowed to take two steps with the ball, after which he must either shoot or pass.
The playing field for basketball has a rectangular shape and a hard surface. The surface of the site must not have any bends, cracks or any other deformations. The size of the basketball court must be 28 meters long and 15 meters wide (standard). The height of the ceiling must be at least 7 meters, and on professional sites, ceilings are raised to a height of 12 meters and above. The lighting on the field must be designed so as not to interfere with the movement of the players and must evenly cover the entire court. Until the end of the 60s, tournaments could be organized outdoors. However, now basketball games are played only in closed areas.
Limit lines. Pass along the entire perimeter of the site (2 short front lines and 2 long side lines).
Central line. It is drawn from one side line to another and at the same time it is parallel to the front lines.
The central zone is a circle (radius 1.80 m) and is located exactly in the center of the basketball field. Three-point lines are semi-circles with a radius of 6.75 m, drawn to the intersection with parallel (front) lines.
Free throw lines. The free-throw line is drawn 3.60 m long parallel to each end line so that its far edge is located at a distance of 5.80 meters from the inside edge of the end line, and its middle is on an imaginary line connecting the midpoints of both end lines.
The basketball is spherical, painted an approved shade of orange, and has a pattern of eight inlays and black stitching.
Basketball hoop and backboard dimensions
The height of the basketball hoop from the floor level is 3.05 meters (standard). The diameter of the basketball hoop ranges from 45 cm to 45.7 cm. The ring itself must be painted bright orange. A special net with a length of 40-45 cm is attached to the ring. The basketball hoop is located at a distance of 15 cm from the backboard.
The shield to which the ring is attached also has a number of important parameters. Basketball backboard size: width - 1.8 m, height - 1.05 m. Modern basketball backboards are made of tempered glass.
Refereeing in basketball
At the basketball game there are: senior referee and referee; timekeeper; Secretary; assistant secretary; operator 30 seconds.
Other interesting facts
Judge uniform: gray shirt; long black trousers; black basketball shoes.
Popularity in Europe: Basketball is the national sport in Georgia and Lithuania. Basketball is the national summer sport in Latvia, as ice hockey is the national winter sport.
Basketball in the Olympic program: Basketball became part of the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, Germany. As of 2013, gold medals in basketball have been won by: the USA - 14 times, the USSR - twice, #Argentina and Yugoslavia - once each.
The author of the idea for the game: James Naismith is a #Canadian-American sports coach who, after landing a job at Springfield College, Massachusetts, was tasked with developing a set of winter exercises that would help athletes stay fit. In his creative thinking process, Naismith laid the foundation for the game that is known today as basketball.
The original rules of the game: Recent #historical finds indicate that in the first version of Naismith's game, before throwing the ball into the basket, it had to be rolled on the floor.
The new idea that changed everything: The idea to add to the game the ability to pass the ball by throwing it in the air belongs to Lambert Will, director of the YMCA in Herkimer County, New York.
Basketball basket: The original basketball baskets had a closed bottom, so after each pitched ball, the referee had to climb a ladder and retrieve it.
Naismith rules: The first official game of basketball under Naismith's rules took place in 1892. The court was half the size of a modern basketball court and only one ball was scored during the entire game.
Dribbling in basketball: Re-hitting the ball on the floor (dribbling) was prohibited by D. Naismith's original rules.
Injury of the game: Only in the US in 2011 in hospitals 249650 ambulances were provided to children aged 12-17 who were injured while playing basketball.
American football vs basketball: Statistical studies indicate that among all sports, American football alone has more injuries than basketball.
Basketball color: The color of the ball was not always orange: in the beginning, basketball was played with a brown ball, but later it was decided to change the color of the ball to a brighter one.
Creation of the NBA: The NBA (National Basketball Association) of America was founded in 1949 by the merger of the NBL (National Basketball League) and the BAA (Basketball Association of America).
Soccer ball: Until 1929, basketball was played with an ordinary soccer ball.
Michael Jordan: Michael Jordan is considered one of the best basketball players in the world. He went down in history with a career-high 5,987 career playoff points.
The appearance of the shield: The basketball backboard was added to the hoop for a very interesting reason: some match-goers from the balconies tried to catch or throw the ball during the teams game.
Forbidden slam dunks: In 1967, slam dunking was banned, but such a spectacular part of basketball was returned and legalized again only nine years later.
Women's basketball: In 1892, women also began to play basketball, but special changes in the rules were developed for them.
Boston Celtics dominance: The Boston Celtics have won the most championship titles in the NBA (17 in total) and 7 of those titles were won in a row (from 1960 to 1966).
Most Valuable Player: Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, who played 20 seasons in the NBA, holds the all-time scoring record. During his career, he scored 38387 points.
100 points per game: On March 2, 1962, Wilt Chamberlain scored 100 points in one game. This is the highest number of points a player has scored in a single game.
Who invented the three-point shot?: The NBA only started counting three-pointers in the 1979-80 season. This idea was borrowed from the ABA (Adriatic Basketball League).
Chicago Bulls game: The Chicago Bulls have won every NBA Finals they have competed in (6 in total).
The tallest and shortest player: Most #male basketball players are at least 1.90m tall and have an average weight of 100kg. The tallest player in history is Manute Bol of Sudan at 2.31m and the shortest is Mugsy Bogz at 1.60m.
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