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50 cute facts about giant Pandas that will make you fall in love with them

1 year ago
50-cute-facts-about-giant-pandas-that-will-make-you-fall-in-love-with-them

The giant panda is considered the most valuable species of the bear family. For its specific culinary preferences, it is usually called the bamboo bear. Researchers initially assigned these animals to the raccoon family and only towards the end of the 20th century was it finally assigned to the bear family. Pandas are considered a jewel of China, rare animals and are carefully protected by the state. In this article, we will introduce our readers to interesting facts related to these funny animals.


1. The first time the giant panda was caught only in 1916 with the participation of local residents, but she quickly died. Only 20 years later, one American woman managed to buy a bear cub and bring it to America.


2. The giant panda is one of the rarest animals in the world. She lives only on the territory of the PRC. The main habitat is Sichuan province. Zoologists suggest that pandas may also have remained wild in Gansu province and parts of the Tibetan mountains.


3. The first panda that appeared in a foreign zoo was called Su-ling. She has lived in several zoos in the United States. Only after a fairly long period, after a long search, two more individuals were brought to America, and a little later these bears appeared in London.


4. In the Soviet Union, the first bamboo bear appeared in 1957 in the Moscow Zoo. The panda was a male named Pin-Pin. In 1959, the administration of the Moscow Zoo managed to find another individual for reproduction. The newly acquired panda was named An-An, and she turned out to be a male.


5. For the first time in the zoo, a panda was born in 1963, in Beijing. The bear cub was given birth by a female named Li-Li. The calf's weight was 142 grams. The bear was nicknamed Min-Min. A year later, Li-Li brought another cub, then scientists were able to establish that the period of bearing offspring in pandas is about one hundred and forty days.




6. The peak of activity of pandas is in the evening and at night. The animals are extremely clean and quiet. Bears cannot stand the rain, and try to hide from it.


7. Bamboo bears are extremely careful animals and try to avoid humans. Despite this, Buddhist monks living in the highlands often tame young animals. Pandas often come to monasteries for food alone and in groups.


8. Pandas love to roll head over hills, they have acquired this habit, fleeing from predators. Plus they run surprisingly well. The main natural enemies for bears are leopards.


9. Under natural conditions, the main diet of a bamboo bear is young bamboo shoots and fresh leaves. Besides, pandas love to feast on insects, fish, small rodents.


10. The closest relative of the bamboo bear is the spectacled bear that lives on the western slope of the Andes in the South American continent.



11. The genetic code of a panda and a human is 68% identical, and that of a dog and a bamboo bear is 80% identical.


12. In the summer season, in search of coolness, pandas climb the highlands, located four kilometers above sea level, and in winter they sink eight hundred meters.


13. Adult bears grow up to one and a half meters long and weigh 150 kilograms.


14. Every day panda spends about twelve hours on food and absorbs up to 15% of its own mass.


15. The body of the animal assimilates up to 20% of the absorbed feed.




16. The giant panda, unlike other bears, does not require hibernation.


17. Pandas often reproduce twins, but they feed only one bear cub. The second cub usually dies.


18. After birth, the cub spends with its mother for about three years.


19. The total number of pandas in their natural habitat is approximately 1600 individuals.


20. In China, bamboo bear hunting has been banned since 1962. Violation of the prohibition is punishable by death.



21. The giant panda is considered a national treasure of the PRC.


22. The Chinese government leases pandas to overseas reserves for one million US dollars a year. Moreover, all born panda cubs are considered the property of the Celestial Empire.


23. A newborn bear cub weighs 800 times less than its mother.


24. Pandas have a specific sixth toe, which is the transformed carpal bone.


25. The panda is listed in the Guinness Book of Achievements as the cutest animal on earth.



26. The red panda and the giant panda share the same habitat and diet, and both animals are also endangered.


27. According to legend, the panda was once an all-white bear. When a small girl tried to save a panda cub from being attacked by a leopard, the leopard killed the girl instead. Pandas came to her funeral wearing armbands of black ashes. As they wiped their eyes, hugged each other, and covered the ears, they smudged the black ashes.


28. Pandas can stand upright, but their short hind legs aren’t strong enough to support their bodies. 


29. Little pandas are born white, but after a week they acquire their recognizable black and white color.


30. Pandas rely less on visual memory than they do on spatial memory to locate a mate’s home range area and preferred patches of bamboo



31. Pandas are slow creatures, they are capable of developing a very low speed, comparable to a quick step of a person, no more. Although this is still an order of magnitude faster than sloths move (see interesting facts about sloths).


32. The size of an adult giant panda is comparable to that of a brown bear.


33. A baby panda weighs only 150-200 grams at birth.


34. Many Chinese philosophers believe that the universe is made from two opposing forces, the Yin and Yang. The panda is one symbol of this philosophy.


35. For a full and calm life in its natural habitat, an adult giant panda needs about 10 square kilometers of space.




36. In the wild, giant pandas live for 15-20 years, in captivity - a little more. But they are very reluctant to breed in captivity.


37. China does not sell giant pandas but leases them to zoos around the world. Renting one panda brings China about $ 1 million annually.


38. A panda's tooth is 7 times larger than that of a human


39. Every day the panda is busy eating for more than 12 hours and eats about 12-15% of its weight.


40. A panda fur is worth between $60,000 and $100,000 on the illegal trade market.



41. Although a giant panda’s fur looks silky and soft, it is quite thick and wiry.


42. Pandas often give birth to twins, but after giving birth, the panda mother chooses a stronger baby, and the second, left unattended, soon dies.


43. A panda’s throat has a special lining to protect it from bamboo splinters.


44. Pandas have lived on Earth for two to three million years.


45. There are only about 1600 pandas left in the wild.



46. ​​Hunting pandas has been completely banned since 1962, and killing a panda in China can be punishable by death.


47. The word “panda” may have developed from the Nepalese word poonya, which means “bamboo-eating animal” or “plant-eating animal.


48. In summer, pandas can move to an altitude of 4000 meters, fleeing the heat. In winter, they do not hibernate and do not equip a den.

 

49. An adult panda eats up to 30 kg of bamboo per day.


50. A panda’s entire mating process takes only about two or three days.



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reddit-is-now-valued-at-more-than-10-billion-top-10-interesting-facts-that-made-it-a-success

We know for sure that even today we can't really define it, and any topic that starts with "Reddit" raises the question "What is this?". Today, Bemorepanda is trying its best: to explain Reddit and show you why this site can mean the other internet to you.


Reddit, the self-proclaimed "home page of the Internet," says it is now valued at over $ 10 billion after raising another $ 410 million in funding, with the final round expected to grow to $ 700 million. The company continues to grow and improve its business while eliminating racist, misogynistic and other controversial communities as it prepares to go public at some point in the future.


How do you use Reddit?


You can find something interesting on the internet: a picture, a video, a clip or a news article. Want to promote it beyond your Facebook or Twitter page Enter Reddit and choose a subreddit (a subcategory) to enter that post. You put the link and give it an attractive headline (like the front page of a newspaper). Your post is voted by users through Upvote and Downvote.


If your post is very popular and users appreciate it, it will reach the front page of the subsection or main page of Reddit, from where it will be distributed and voted on by hundreds of thousands of people. For this effort you receive points in the form of Karma. The more karma you have, the more popular your posts are and whether your style is appreciated by other users.



What is Reddit? 


The downside of Reddit to many uninitiated is the way it looks. It is not a site that is based on design, but on content. It is pure content. The links are posted on the site, and there readers comment and vote. The popular mechanism for promoting news, images or videos makes a material that is the first a kind of balance of popularity.


It's hard for something to be popular on Reddit and not elsewhere. Reddit is thus a kind of social aggregator of news and content, which is based on the popular vote. The community is known to be very pretentious and tough, but the entry is harder, because Reddit catches on quickly, through the addiction it creates. What can be uploaded to Reddit? Almost anything. At the end of this material we have put some links to subreddits, i.e. subcategories of the site, based on common interests. But these are a tiny part.



Anyone can open a Subreddit and moderate it. It is important that users come to it. Indeed, the site is controversial because there are many subcategories that are quite difficult to digest, where even harsh images from road accidents or simply ... disgusting images are presented. But no one is forcing you to get there. What is erotic or porn is marked as such, what is boring or cliché is marked as such. Usually, what gets on the front page is very interesting. One of the most popular categories is IAmA, meaning Ask Me Anything, where over time many personalities have come to answer the questions of the rulers.


Bill Gates and Barack Obama were among the most popular sessions, with the US president even blocking the site due to the large number of visitors. Fascinating moments in Reddit history Some moments on Reddit were truly amazing, showing how powerful the internet is. Redeemers can donate money for certain causes with the help of Reddit Gold, and fundraising campaigns have been very successful if they have been well motivated. In December 2010, members of the Christian community on Reddit decided to raise funds.



Those in the subreddit of atheists wanted to give them a pleasant competition and they also raised money for Medecins sans Frontieres and the Clean Water Fund. The Islamist subreddit also raised money. In three weeks, the three communities raised $ 200,000. Also on Reddit is the biggest Secret Santa or Secret Santa program.


Every year since 2010, redditors come into play and receive another member for whom they will become Secret Santa. A total of 18,000 users participated and $ 662,000 was donated. In January 2010, Reddit donated $ 185,000 to the Haiti State Aid Fund.



If our explanations were not enough, we discovered this infographic on socialmouths.com and we need to share it with you.


Top 10 interesting facts why Reddit is successful.


- All memes that have appeared on the internet are from 4chan or Reddit.

- Everything that reaches the front page of Reddit is monstrously popular, with hundreds of thousands of views.

- Reddit has 2.5 billion monthly views.

- 34.9 million unique visitors enter Reddit.

- 8.3 million comments were given.

- A Reddit ad costs $ 20,000.

-Average income on Reddit is $ 25,000 - $ 50,000.

-Roughtly 55% of Reddit users are male.

-Creativity is king on Reddit.

-The average number of unique visitors is 34.9 million monthly.


More in the infographic below:




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17-facts-about-foxes-habits-bloodless-hunting-and-other-interesting-unknown-things

Despite the fact that foxes do not live with humans, they do not need special introduction. Thanks to folklore, children already at an early age get acquainted with a small animal, which compensates for weakness with cunning, but does not miss its own, if it is possible to offend a weaker one. Of course, it is worth separating the image of the fox, formed in our imagination under the influence of children's fairy tales and cartoons, from the real lifestyle of the fox.

 

As one of the most famous researchers, Charles Roberts, wrote, it is always difficult for a person describing the habits of highly organized animals to resist endowing them with some human traits. The notorious fox's cunning in real life appears only when the animal leaves the chase. At this time, the fox very skillfully winds around, confusing tracks, and can disguise itself in an instant, disappearing from sight.

 

On the hunt, foxes are quite straightforward. They operate according to the scheme “detection of prey - lightning attack - end of the hunt”. On average, foxes range in size from half a meter to a meter in length. The tail, which is approximately two-thirds of the body length, is counted separately. The maximum weight of foxes is 10 - 11 kg, while it is subject to significant seasonal fluctuations. Foxes are by no means exclusively forest dwellers. Rather, even, they can be conditionally attributed to the inhabitants of the forest-steppe and woodlands - it is in these natural zones that fox food lives and grows.

 

The fox is not only nicer than the fox hunter, he's a deal more useful –  archive, 1982 | Hunting | The Guardian

 

Geographically, foxes are found almost everywhere in the Northern Hemisphere, with the exception of extreme climates. In the Southern Hemisphere, foxes live only in Australia, where humans have successfully introduced them. However, the success of fox breeding in Australia is relative - they were turned on, desperate to cope with rabbits, but foxes, finding themselves on the smallest continent, preferred to hunt smaller fauna. The rabbits, to the desperation of the farmers, successfully continued to breed. Bemorepanda presents you some interesting facts.

 

1. Despite their small size, foxes are rarely hunted by larger animals. Of course, a wolf, bear, lynx or wolverine will not refuse the opportunity to catch a gaping fox. However, such a chance appears very rarely - foxes are attentive and fast. Purposefully, they practically do not hunt adult foxes. Young animals are in great danger. Even birds of prey hunt on it, not without success.

 

Taking into account the human factor - and the hunters, if possible, knock out foxes by the thousands - the average life span of a fox does not exceed three years. At the same time, foxes do not die at all because of the exhaustion of the body's resources - in captivity, cases were recorded when foxes lived for 20 - 25 years.

 

2. Foxes are practically not afraid of humans, so they are well studied and take root in captivity, allowing people to breed new subspecies. People living in rural areas naturally do not like foxes - red-haired beauties often destroy birds and small livestock. However, zoologists argue that the damage from foxes is often exaggerated.

 

3. English "Fox Hunting" fun did not come about because the villagers lacked entertainment. England is so densely populated that the last wolf was killed at the beginning of the 16th century. The disappearance of wolves has led to an unprecedented breeding of foxes, who have lost their last natural enemy. The consequences for the farmers were clear. Angry peasants began to organize massive fox hunts. They managed to kill some animals, but the noise raised by the crowd of “hunters” was more important.

 

American red fox - Wikipedia

 

The first mention of such a hunt dates back to 1534. The technology turned out to be more than successful - by 1600, specially bred dogs were required to hunt foxes. At the same time, economic processes were going on in England, which led to the deprivation of the peasants of free non-agricultural land, and fox hunting became the property of the nobility. It turned into a whole ritual with lush ladies' toilets, old-fashioned hunter's costumes, etc. At the beginning of the 21st century, after a short debate, the British Parliament banned fox hunting with the help of a pack of more than 3 dogs. One vote in the House of Commons was enough to abolish the age-old tradition.

 

4. There is a hunt for foxes without the death of these animals. This is still the unofficial name for sports radio direction-finding competitions. The role of foxes is performed by constantly working transmitters hidden in rough terrain. Athletes are armed with receivers. Their task is to find all transmitters in the shortest possible time (usually there are 5 of them). Fox hunting competitions were very popular during the Cold War.

 

The essence of the competition is very close to counterintelligence work to identify and eliminate intelligence channels of communication. Therefore, state structures, primarily the military and counterintelligence, supported the athletes in every possible way. The end of the Cold War and the rapid development of information technology devalued "fox hunting", and now only enthusiasts are engaged in this sport.

 

5. The caution and quickness of foxes forced hunters to invent several methods of hunting these animals. The fox is lured with a bait. The carcass of an animal or a large piece of meat is left in a well-shot place, and the hunters hide nearby. The fox is lured with decoys, and in recent years, two-module electronic decoys have gained popularity.

 

In them, the control path is in the hands of the hunter, and the luring sounds are emitted by an external loudspeaker. This design allows you to take the fox to a place convenient for shooting. Large companies of hunters practice hunting with a salary, with flags. Hunting dogs are used, both hounds and greyhounds, chasing foxes in the field (greyhounds also strangle fugitives themselves) and burrowing dogs, driving the fox out of the hole.

 

6. Despite the fact that fox hunting is popular wherever these animals are found, even the most successful hungry hunter will not be able to feast on fox meat in Russia. The fox is a very active predator, so there is practically no fat in the fox meat. This makes it extremely tough, fox meat is much tougher than the meat of other predators.

 

The refreshed carcass emits a very unpleasant odor, which is weakened, but does not completely disappear even after 12 hours of soaking in vinegar and salt. Finally, the rodents that make up the fox's diet are packed with parasites. Foxes have developed a very powerful immunity that humans do not have. Therefore, the meat must be subjected to long heat treatment. When boiling, the unpleasant odor reappears, so the only way to cook fox is stewing with a lot of seasonings and spices. The Scandinavians, striking everyone with their surstroemming - pickled herring - distinguished themselves here too. In Sweden and Denmark, foxes are raised for meat on special farms and even some of the products are exported. At retail, fox meat costs about 15 euros per kilogram.

 

Wilder Things: Modern Life Among the Foxes and Coyotes ‹ Literary Hub

 

7. Around the middle of the 20th century, foxes began to be bred and domesticated as pets. On a scientific basis, Dmitry Belyaev's group in Novosibirsk worked on this. A careful selection of the most intelligent and affectionate individuals gave results only after many years. D. Belyaev became an academician, a nice monument was erected to him and one of his pupils in the Novosibirsk town - the scientist and the fox sit on a bench, stretching out their hands to each other. But even many years of efforts did not lead to the development of a new breed. Scientists who continue to work on improving the behavioral qualities of foxes refer to their pets as “population” only. That is, it is just a large group of individuals living in a limited area.

 

8. Unscrupulous “breeders” of foxes have long managed to instill in cheating buyers the idea that a fox is the same dog, only a cat. In a sense, the animal is very loyal to the owner and, at the same time, cleanly and independently. And if the animal does not behave the way the owner wants, then this is the owner's problem. Only with the development of mass communications did the hapless fox breeders manage to share with the world the delights of keeping a fox as a pet. The character of the fox does not depend on the place of purchase, whether it is a special nursery, a reseller, or even the side of the road on which a potential pet was hit by a car.

 

Regardless of whether you got a rather extravagant pet for free, or you paid 10 or 80 thousand rubles for it, it will have extremely unpleasant behavioral features. He will shit anywhere; gnaw and dig wherever possible; make noise at night and stink around the clock. It is the smell that is the most serious negative property of the fox. It can be somehow accustomed to the tray (the contents of which will have to be changed at least twice a day), but the fox will never get rid of the habit of secreting the secret of the paranoid glands, which is unpleasant and painful in the eyes, with any strong emotion from love to fear. Therefore, keeping a fox pet is best in a spacious enclosure in a private house, but not in an apartment. But in any case, you need to take care of rubber gloves and strong detergents in commercial quantities.

 

9. Foxes adapt to almost any environment. There is little animal food - foxes easily switch to vegetable food, without suffering from this at all. It gets colder - we grow, to the delight of hunters, a thick undercoat. It gets warmer - the undercoat falls out, and the fox looks like a sick puppy. Even the color of foxes' fur depends solely on the environmental conditions.

 

If there are many predators in the habitat, foxes dig deep holes with branched passages and a dozen, or even more, exits. Such holes in area can reach 70 square meters. m. There are relatively few predators - and the hole will be short and shallow, and two or three emergency exits will be enough. In cold regions, the main entrance of the burrow faces south, in warm and hot regions - to the north, and in deserts and steppes - to where the winds blow less often.

 

Foxes have been scavenging from humans for 42,000 years - BBC Science Focus  Magazine

 

10. "Fox hole" for some reason is called a type of residential buildings, similar to a hole, except for the location of the entrance on the slope. Modern "fox holes", projects of which are proposed by many construction companies, may not go deep into the ground at all - they are just structures, the walls of which are heaped with earth. Human "fox holes" have both advantages and disadvantages, but they have nothing to do with foxes, except for the name.

 

11. The tightening of hunting rules and environmental legislation everywhere leads to the fact that foxes are gradually approaching human habitation. It is much easier to find food near people than in the wild, than foxes enjoy and enjoy. On the territory of the countries of the former USSR, by and large, only residents of villages and small settlements located near forests suffer from them. It is impossible to fight thieves who destroy small animals. The law expressly prohibits shooting within populated areas only at rabid animals. To do this, you need to confirm the disease, which cannot be done without killing the fox - a vicious circle.

 

In Europe, foxes are firmly established in the largest cities. According to estimates of epidemiologists, about 10,000 foxes live in London. 86% of the townspeople have a positive attitude to the red-haired robbers who fight with dogs and cats, gut garbage bags, and shit wherever they have to. Humans, it turns out, feel guilty about animals that have been bullied for hundreds of years. In Birmingham, foxes became such a disaster that a special team had to be created to capture them.

 

The team did a great job, catching a hundred animals. They were taken to the nearest forest and released - it is inhumane to kill. The foxes returned back to the city (and it's good if they didn't bring friends and girlfriends with them) and continued their dirty deeds. The careless attitude of the townspeople towards foxes is surprising - foxes endure the most terrible infections, including rabies.

 

12. The sea fox is a stingray of a sizeable size (up to 1.2 meters in length). It lives off the coast of Europe, including the Black and Azov Seas, and along the entire Atlantic coast of Africa. Fox sharks can also be found in the water column. These are three species of predators, ranging in size from 3 to 6 meters. In theory, fox sharks are considered shy and not dangerous to humans. Flying foxes also belong to foxes solely by name. These are the largest fruit bats in the world, until recently they were combined with bats. The body of a flying fox reaches a length of 40 cm, and a wingspan of one and a half meters.

 

13. The English word “fox” - “fox” has nothing to do with the familiar phrase “Fox is the 20th century film company”. “Fox” in this case is the surname of an enterprising Hungarian whose name was either Wilhelm Fuchs, or even Vilmos Fried. Having arrived in the USA, the Hungarian changed his name for the sake of euphony and founded a film company. In 1930, the company was taken away from him during a hostile takeover. Fox - Fuchs - Freed fought but lost. From him the film company remained, as the song says, only the name.

 

14. "Desert Fox" - German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, who in 1940-1943 successfully commanded German troops in North Africa. However, Rommel did not use any special cunning in the command. Like all successful German military leaders of World War II, he knew how to concentrate forces on a narrow sector of the front and break through enemy defenses. When there was nothing to concentrate, "Desert Fox" abandoned troops in Africa and went to Hitler to ask for reinforcements.

 

Red foxes, piping plovers battle for survival along N.J. coast - WHYY

 

15. “Fox's tail and a wolf's mouth” - this is how some jokingly and some shaking with fear called the policy of General Mikhail Loris-Melikov in Russia at the end of the 19th century. Under Emperor Alexander II, Loris-Melikov, who became famous in the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878, was simultaneously the Minister of Internal Affairs and the head of the gendarme corps. The authority of the Ministry of Internal Affairs at that time included practically all domestic politics, from the basic sectors of the economy to the care of the weak and orphans.

 

In this post, Loris-Melikov had a "fox's tail" - he advocated the weakening of laws, the growth of public initiative, etc. Having moved to the office of the chief of the gendarmes, the general used the "wolf's mouth", not letting the revolutionaries go (in his understanding) ... The fox tail involuntarily outplayed the wolf's mouth - on March 1, 1881, Emperor Alexander II was killed, and one of the captured terrorists said that their leader had been arrested before the assassination attempt, but Loris-Melikov's charges did not receive any evidence from him about the impending assassination attempt.

 

16. Foxes are firmly included in the mythology of dozens of peoples, and their influence on a person can be exactly the opposite, regardless of the place of residence of the peoples. Koreans, Chinese, and Japanese compete in the degree of fear experienced by foxes. The transformation of an animal into a seductive woman with the subsequent torture of the victim through pleasures is not yet the most terrible outcome that lies in wait for a Far Eastern man. Kitsune (in Japanese "fox") spread the life of those to whom they came in the form of a beauty, to smithereens - they ruin merchants or drive rulers into disgrace. It is difficult to imagine what they did in medieval Japan with the men to whom Kitsune appeared in the form of a handsome young guy.

 

At the same time, in India, the North American Indians and a number of European peoples, the fox symbolizes prosperity, good luck or wealth. Christians already at an early stage identified the fox as Satan's accomplices - beautiful, wagging its tail, and even wool the color of hellfire. Nevertheless, some peoples, including the Slavic, have retained a negative but complacent attitude towards the fox. “We know, the fox, about your miracles”, “And the fox is cunning, and they sell its skin”, “The fox takes care of, the cat curls up to it” - these proverbs clearly indicate that people have long imagined the nature of the red predator.

 

17. Employee of the Voronezh Zoo Tatiana Sapelnikova told a very interesting case. Zoo workers had to determine the concentration of small animals such as mice in one of the forest areas. During a routine procedure, zoo workers set traps for mice. However, the work of scientists was greatly hampered by the foxes living in the district. For several years, zoologists set up identical traps, and the number of mice caught in them determined the size of the population.

 

Fox family makes for great observation | News, Sports, Jobs - Times  Republican

 

However, over time, the tracks showed that someone was reducing the number of mice trapped in the trap by carefully removing them and eating them nearby. Zoologists realized that the fox is no longer guided by mice, but by the smell of people setting traps. After a short game of "catch me" they managed to lure the fox - the zoologists originally nicknamed him Ginger - into a kind of aviary. The fox was absolutely not worried about bondage. When the scientists managed to carry out the necessary experiment with mice, Ryzhik was released. He did not run far, and even two chanterelles appeared nearby. They themselves did not figure out how to find the mice and take them out of the traps, but they unmistakably appreciated the extraordinary abilities of the future groom.


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20-times-people-stumbled-upon-something-that-they-knew-nothing-about-but-they-were-enlightened-on-the-internet

While some are trying in every possible way to escape from knowledge, others are only looking for an excuse to learn something new. Since you are reading this, it means that you are definitely one of the latter. Sometimes, to find something interesting, you don't have to go far, just look around your grandmother's closet or the basement of your house. All the curious gizmos that can be found there have only one problem - sometimes it is difficult to understand what it is. With such questions, users often contact the “What is this thing” community on Reddit, where other users, whenever possible, try to tell about the origin of a particular find. We have again put together a collection of fascinating questions and answers for our beloved inquisitive readers, and we hope you miss your new knowledge 💖

 

Question: “What are these liquid vests worn by Olympic sailing athletes for? They featured Dutch athletes Annemik Beckering and Annette Duez during a post-race interview. "

08-19-09-1627920546571575433

 

Answer: "These are cooling vests." These vests were

08-19-09-16279205461367951957

first talked about in 2020, when they were worn by nurses who were forced to wear poorly ventilated clothes during the pandemic, suffering from the heat. These same vests allow athletes to carry the Summer Olympics more comfortably and not overheat 🦺

 

Question: “What is this thing on the bar at my work? Made of metal, hollow inside "

08-19-09-1627920546776755389

 

Answer: “This is an old-fashioned bottle opener on the bar. I saw a lot of these in old pubs. ”

08-19-09-16279205462037045446

There is a special part behind the metal contraption, which is intended for opening bottles. Usually, after opening, the cork falls into a special container, although there may be an ordinary trash can below 🧺

 

 

Question: “A small curly spoon with a hole in the bottom. I think this is some kind of kitchen utensil, but I have no idea what it is. Help!"

08-19-09-16279205461109225594

 

Answer: "This is a fancy melon"

08-19-33-16279219801741611073

scoop.Works like an ice cream spoon.

 

Q: “My partner went to a yard sale and came back with an old can full of these things. Hard metal, measuring spoon for scale "

08-19-09-16279205471889692207

 

Answer: "This is a fastener for curtains that do not have special slots or loops" The

08-19-09-1627920547272048156

sharp part goes through the curtain fabric, like a safety pin, and the other clings to the rings 🧷

 

 

Question: “There is a microchip in my new bra, which I bought on the Internet. In my opinion, it is fake, but I cannot determine exactly what it is and why it was inside. "

08-19-09-1627920547345155398

08-19-09-16279205481015339036

 

Answer: “This is something of the" healing "things of the modern world. From the category of magnetic bracelets "

08-19-09-16279205483351270

Now some Chinese lingerie manufacturers sew in such magnets. They are designed to improve blood circulation, and most often they can be found in underwear for "weight loss" 🏃♀️

 

Question: “I just bought a house by the lake and found three of these in the water next to the pier. Cross stack of corrugated tubing, wrapped in plastic mesh, with weights attached "

08-19-09-162792054991985151

 

Answer: “This is the so-called fish nursery. They help the fry hide from predatory fish. They also improve fishing, as predatory fish will swim around these things in the hope that some babies will emerge from there. "

08-19-09-1627920549661470764

 

Question: “I just moved to a new house. The former tenant left it in the freezer. One-piece stainless steel cylinder, just over 15 cm long, rounded at one end and internally threaded at the other. Anchovies for scale. What is this thing? "

08-19-09-16279205491613704376

 

Answer: “This is a wine cooling stick with a lost second part. Freeze it in the freezer, then put it in a bottle of wine. "

08-19-13-16279207962075552243

 

Question: “What is this small camera or some kind of detector on the ceiling? I noticed waxing in the salon "

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Answer: "This is an indicator that the ceiling lamp has an emergency backup battery and is fully charged."

 

Question: “This thing with a lot of handles. Mainly made of wood, has been in a thrift store in Mossel Bay, South Africa for years and no one ever knew what it was. Google doesn't know either "

08-19-09-1627920553132393257

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Answer: “This is the control panel of the electrical slimming device. Something like an EKG machine, with the help of it an electric current was passed through certain points, and this was supposed to stimulate the muscles and give the same results as the exercises. "

08-19-09-1627920551607863288

 

Question: “A small metal object (about 10 cm) with various mechanical parts on one side. There is a spare gear inside the lined case. Age unknown, but possibly antiques. "

08-19-09-16279205562044560067

 

Answer: "This is a drawing tool for drawing dotted lines"

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Typewriter part dipped in the ink, then the device had to be news along the lines that it has abandoned the dotted line or, as in this case, point.

 

Question: “A large cubic object attached to some channel near the dam. Usually found underwater. It looks like it's made of a translucent material? "

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Answer: "This is a filter for the intake of water, which is drawn into a reservoir."

At this point, the filter is visible because the water level has dropped. Most likely, there are more such underwater.

 

 

Question: “Metal pins with round heads and rotating tubes in a wooden board. Most likely antiques. What?"

08-19-09-1627920558420683507

 

Answer: "This is a vintage tie hanger."

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Question: "Heavy ball and flimsy wire ... Some kind of holder?"

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Answer: "This is a holder for napkins, moreover, from IKEA"

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Question: “Two rubber cups at the ends of the plastic arms that do not touch. What it is?"

08-19-09-16279205631049110565

 

Answer: "This is a shock massager for the back."

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During a blow to the back, they hit the ball against another, adding additional vibration.

 

Question: “What is this thing that I found at a thrift store? It looks like a ceramic tray that stands on the table and holds something. "

08-19-09-162792056797621681

 

 

Answer: "A flower vase, also known as a flower frog"

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Often used to hold artificial flowers.

 

Question: “Small round clip with thumbs up. Stretches, but maintains a round shape "

08-19-09-162792057059409305

 

Answer: "This is a phone holder"

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meet-the-cute-giant-panda-cub-born-at-smithsonians-national-zoo-in-washington

At the Smithsonian National Zoological Park in Washington, DC, a giant panda named Mei Xian gave birth to a cub on Friday. This was reported on the zoo's website. According to his employees, mom and baby are doing well.


Specialists will voice the sex of the newborn a little later. It is noted that the artificial insemination operation took place back in March.

Pandas are very demanding on the conditions of detention and practically do not breed in captivity. Mei Xian became the oldest giant panda in the United States and the second in the world to give birth to offspring. Previously, she already became a mother three times.


The giant panda is a rare animal listed in the Red Book and an unofficial symbol of China. They live in the mountainous regions of central China: Sichuan and Tibet. These animals actually eat only bamboo, only occasionally including other types of plants in their diet. An adult panda eats up to 30 kg of bamboo and shoots per day.



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oktoberfest-2021-top-100-most-interesting-facts-about-beer-part-2

Because a refreshing event is approaching, namely Oktoberfest, the Bemorepand team decided to find the most interesting, useful and, in some places, funny curiosities about one of the most popular drinks in the world - beer.


Blonde, brown, unfiltered or wheat, with summery and fresh aromas - these are just a few features of beer, a drink that, by the way, in limited quantities, can take care of your thirst and health this summer. From the boundless space of the internet, Bemorepanda gathered the most interesting and unusual curiosities about beer.


Here comes the second part of Top 100 facts about beer. Here you can view the first part.


51. Sometimes brewers use the secondary fermentation method called kreusening. Fresh fermenting wort is added to the already poured chilled beer. An additional portion of yeast speeds up the fermentation process, cleans up the by-products released during fermentation and improves the taste of the beer, as hops and other additives retain flavor and aroma longer. 


51. Hops are one of the classic beer ingredients, although not required for fermentation. It has been used in Europe since the 8th century, but it's real heyday came during the Reformation. If you put hops in the wort during boiling, the beer will get a characteristic bitterness, since when the plant is heated it releases resin. If you add it already during fermentation, when the beer “reaches” in a vat or barrel, the drink will take only aroma from the hops - this process is called “dry hopping”. Brewers only use bumps of female plants - they can be bought dried, in pellets or even briquettes. Hops, by the way, are poisonous: fresh buds can irritate and discomfort their pickers.

Виды хмеля, которые используются в пивоварении. Некоторые из них придают напитку более горький вкус, тогда как другие, например, Liberty, скорее используют для придания ароматаThe types of hops that are used in brewing. Some of them impart a more bitter taste to the drink, while others, such as Liberty, are more likely to be used for flavoring.


52. Previously, beer was aged in wooden barrels, but with the transition to industrial brewing, manufacturers began to choose steel vats. With the flourishing of crafting, wood has regained its popularity: firstly, wood absorbs the tastes and aromas of aged drinks, passing them on to the next. Secondly, it gives the beer a special woody flavor, which sometimes contains notes of coconut, vanilla or caramel. And thirdly, the wood allows air and microorganisms to pass through, which also change the taste of the wort. Modern brewers don't always use barrels - instead of vats, they can use oak chips, cubes, or spirals. Sometimes the wood is even burned if they want to achieve a drink with a strong and toasty "character".


53. In Africa, where traditional crops grow poorly in subtropical and prairie conditions, sorghum is grown, which easily adapts to different soils. It is from sorghum that local beer is brewed, which is called differently in different countries: in Benin and Togo - chukutu, in Tanzania - mtama, in Sudan - merissa, and in South Africa - kaffir. Although the brewing process is similar to the European one, the taste of beer is very different from the usual lagers and ales due to the use of specific raw materials and a large amount of lactic acid bacteria entering the vessels. Although sorghum beer is traditionally used during festivals and rituals, many Africans prefer to buy European varieties because they contain more alcohol and the brewing process is more hygienic. The drink is loved by the poorest segments of the population, as it perfectly saturates due to its high calorie content.

Так выглядит фиолетовая кукуруза, из которой готовят чичу морадуThis is what purple corn looks like, from which chicha morada is prepared.


54. Chicha - a beer-like drink from South America made from corn. It is especially popular in Bolivia and Peru, where this cereal is actively growing, and its strength varies from 2 to 12 degrees. In ancient times, corn was chewed and then spat into a vat, where it was fermented under the influence of saliva, and the starch was broken down into simple sugars. This method exists to this day, moreover,, resort to it even craft breweries, which have special equipment for pasteurizing the drink. Chicha morada is made from purple corn with the addition of pineapple peels, sugar, cloves and cinnamon, which makes the drink look like mulled wine. In addition to corn, South Americans chew cassava, sweet potatoes, and other fruits.


55. Sake, which has been produced for over 1,300 years, is very often called rice vodka or wine, although it is closest to beer because it is made by fermenting grain. For the drink, not all the grain of rice is used, but only its most starchy central part: for this, the rice is polished, removing the bitter shell and upper layers. Although there are special varieties of rice for sake, the specific variety is not so important because during the manufacturing process the producers try to make the drink so pure that it does not leave the grain flavor in it. After the polishing of rice, moisture evaporated, and then added to the koji spores of the fungus, which is known for its taste "umami",as the rice grain has no enzymes. The resulting drink is filtered after fermentation, and two types are distinguished - a slightly filtered unclear nigori and a crystal clear "imperial" one. The strength of sake reaches 20%, but it is often diluted with water up to 15%.


56. In the 19th century in Germany, they began to brew beer from potatoes: raw potatoes were grated, heated to 156 degrees together with water to a state of thick gruel, then a thick syrup was obtained from which the drink was prepared. Potatoes are great for beer, as they are high in starch, which means they are an excellent raw material for yeast. Today, potato beer is not uncommon, and besides the classic varieties,are also used in brewing sweet potatoes, yams and cassava.


57. During the colonial era, pumpkin was widely eaten in North America, which still occupies a significant part of the US gastro culture, especially in the fall. In addition to pies and pumpkin puree, the pilgrims brewed beer: grated vegetable pulp was an excellent source of sugars, replacing cereals, most of which were sent to bread. In 1771, the American Philosophical Society published a recipe for a pure "pompion ale," as it was then called. With the development of cereal crops, the popularity of pumpkin beer gradually faded away, the malt drink we were already familiar with began to be imported from Europe, and the vegetable was no longer used in production. In the wake of craft brewing in the United States at the end of the 20th century, pumpkin was again remembered: it is believed that Bill Owens discovered the recipe in the works of George Washington and tried to implement it. They began experimenting with the vegetable in every possible way: for example, they added nutmeg, cinnamon and cardamom to the wort, imitating the taste of pumpkin pie. Pumpkin porters, stouts and lagers emerged and are now popular in the United States.

В США очень много пивоварен готовят тыквенное пиво. Например, Rouge сама выращивает овощи для пива, собирает их в августе, высушивает, и к сентябрю на полках появляется свежий тыквенный эль / Фото: RougeThere are a lot of breweries in the USA that make pumpkin beer. For example, Rouge itself grows vegetables for beer, picks them in August, dries them, and by September fresh pumpkin ale appears on the shelves 


58. Kvass was known in Russia back in the 11th century - at that time it was more alcoholic and looked much like beer. Strong kvass is called melted, that is, boiled, and not arbitrarily fermented. It was prepared from wheat and barley malt or rye bread, adding wormwood, hops, cumin and St. John's wort for flavor and aroma. A little later, kvass was distilled, which is why the amount of alcohol in it increased. Interestingly, there was a disease called "yazya kvass", in which a headache was severe - most likely such an ancient diagnosis was made to those suffering from a hangover after excessive drinking. Now kvass is not considered an alcoholic drink, although according to GOST its strength can reach 1.2%; and the past of the drink reminds us of the verb "ferment", that is, "get drunk."


59. Honey is added to some types of beer, but there is mead - a completely separate brew drink, which does not contain malt. Honey can be anything you like - buckwheat, lime, orange, because of this, the drink turns out to be different in color, density and strength. To taste, it can be not only sweet, but also semi-sweet and even dry. In Russia, nutritious honey was already known in the 10th century: they were both boiled and set, that is, they were left for natural fermentation. Mead was available to ordinary people, since the farm often had its own apiaries, but with the spread of stronger alcoholic beverages, for example, vodka, they practically stopped drinking it. Although you can now buy a drink at any store, industrial meads have little in common with ancient Russian honeys. Besides Russia, mead is popular in the USA and Europe. The American Mead Association notes that new companies are constantly opening in the states that brew different styles: melomel (mead with fruits), metheglin (mead with spices and herbs), kesira (mead with apples), piment (mead with grape juice) and others.

Один из крупнейших медоваренных заводов в России находится в Суздале — промышленная история медоварения началась здесь ещё в XIX векеOne of the largest mead plants in Russia is located in Suzdal - the industrial history ofbegan here in the 19th century.


60. Braggot is a mead with malt, but it is classified as beer. The drink got its name from the ancient Celtic word bracis, meaning the shape of the grain from which it was made. In England braggot often passed off as pure mead that was condemned even by the Church, so gradually that it is highlighted in a separate style. Initially, braggot was made by mixing mead and ale, then it was seasoned with pepper, ginger, cinnamon, galangal and cloves. It became a traditional wedding drink in some British regions, but its popularity declined in the 17th century.


61. Cider is neither beer or wine, although it is often tried to be included in the classification of these drinks. Cider is made from apple juice that is fermented naturally or by adding yeast. Although it is preferable to prepare the drink from special coarse varieties of fruits rich in tannins, sometimes ordinary table apples are taken. There are many styles of cider produced all over the world: dry and sweet, yellow and pink, highly carbonated and quiet, with added spices, herbs, other fruits and hops. Cider analogs - Poiret or Perry - are made from pears.


62. There are several hundred beer styles in the world, however, craft breweries often transcend traditional and well-known recipes, making it nearly impossible to create a complete guide to all styles. Craftsmen can take as a basis classic beers from Belgium, Germany or the UK, add strange, unusual ingredients to them, or change the brewing process. Also, styles don't just happen: for a trendy new beer to become a style, it has to be made by more than one brewery, so the process takes time. The most recognized guide in the world, American Brewers Association, changes every year, with new varieties being added and definitions of old ones rewriting.


63. Most styles can be divided into two types: ales, or top-fermented beers, and lagers, or bottom-fermented beers. During top fermentation, which occurs at higher temperatures (about 20 degrees), and therefore more ancient, the yeast rises to the surface. During bottom fermentation (about 10 degrees), which spreads when refrigeration machines appear, the yeast is concentrated at the bottom of the container. In the modern world, the second type of fermentation is most often used.


64. Lager is the most popular beer style. 87% of the beer market in the United States Lagers like Corona and Budweiser account for, and the most common type of lager is Pilsner, named after his hometown of Pilsen, Czech Republic. Beer brewing in Pilsen began in the 1200s, but it was the light golden lager that was first made by the Bavarian Josef Groll in 1842. Since then, it has been marketed under the brand name Pilsner Urquell, which prides itself on using Saaz hops, which give the beer a particularly mild flavor, and is named after the Polish town of Zatec.

Несмотя на то, что шварцбир — чёрный, это лагер, хотя привычнее видеть лагеры золотистымиDespite the fact that Schwarzbier is black, this is a lager, although it is more common to see lagers as golden.


65. Lagers are made on all continents. The Bavarians are very close to the Czech Republic, so they quickly adopted the Pilsner brew, modifying it - the German Pilsners are fresher and more bitter, due to the fact that they use different hops there. Lagers are actively made in the USA, Austria and Japan - in the latter can be to them , rice, potatoes, soybeans and corn added. The public is more accustomed to seeing light lagers, but there are also black ones, such as Schwarzbier, one of the most popular beers in Germany. This beer is a great example of how a dark beverage can be light and refreshing: it has a mild roasted flavor with very clean notes of caramel and coffee. The German brewery Köstritzer is best known for its Schwarzbiers, which has almost five hundred years of history. In addition, such unusual lagers as India Pale Lager are brewed in the world with hopping like IPA or brut lagers, which the amylase enzyme gives sparkle like champagne.


66. The German town of Einbock was a major brewing center in the late Middle Ages: since it was part of the Hanseatic League, local artisans exported most of their produce before the Hanseatic fell into decay in the 16th century. Almost half of the inhabitants of the city made beer: the malt was dried in attics, and it was brewed in a special mobile boiler, which belonged to the city and was brought into the courtyards one by one. This interesting practice, among other things, is evidenced by urban architecture: in many houses, instead of gates, there were huge arches. There is a legend that one of the Bavarian dukes Maximilian was so fond of Einbeck beer that he could not survive the interruptions in supply, so he called the local brewer Elias Pichler to his place to ensure that the drink was always available. Initially, bock - and this is exactly what this beer was called - was made by top fermentation, but Pichler adapted it to Bavarian tastes and over time this style began to be brewed in a larger way. It is believed that the block was the favorite style of theologian and reformer Martin Luther. There are several sub-styles of the bock: a stronger and denser doppelbock, a light tee, and a dark.


67. Not all brewers agree with the strict division, which is why they lager / ale brew hybrid beers. These are ales brewed at typical lager temperatures and vice versa. Or ales that used lager yeast. This brewing method conveys the characteristics of both beer categories, and their styles are nearly impossible to classify. There are several varieties that are produced in this manner. For example, Altbier (old beer) is a typical Düsseldorf style, a bottom-fermented bitter variety, although in many respects it is similar to lagers. Or steam beer, which has been brewed in the States since the 19th century. Initially, it was a lager, which was fermented at unusual temperatures for speed - because of this, its quality deteriorated, but the price became low. Why it was named "steam" is unknown: according to one version, this is due to the fact that it was exposed to the street for rapid cooling, and it emitted steam. On the other, there was so much carbon dioxide in the barrels that it had to be released as steam. 


68. Everything that was produced in the German city of Cologne used to be called Kölsch. However, at the beginning of the 20th century, this word was firmly entrenched in local beer - light, highly fermented, hopped, top-fermented, produced in accordance with the Law on Purity. To protect the name and outline the main conditions for the production of the variety, in 1985 24 Cologne breweries signed the Kölsch Convention, which specified the requirements for packaging, labels, advertising, as well as the rules for sale, sale and cooperation with intermediaries. Today, in Cologne bars, köbs - waiters in traditional blue cardigans - pour kölsch into long narrow 0.2-liter glasses and serve it on a special tray with a handle - a kölsch-kränz.

Кёльнский официант кёбс с кёльш-кранцем в руках / Фото: Пивная кухняCologne Köbs waiter with a Kölsch fender in hand 


69. Barleywine is a strong, dark, almost black English ale, around which a lot of controversy arises. The term Barley Wine was originally used as a poetic synonym for ale. Beginning in the 1870s, a beer that began to be sold in Britain the brewers themselves called Barleywine, such as the Bass Brewery in Burton-upon-Trent. According to researcher Martin Cornell, there is no difference between barleywine and traditional strong aged ales - this is just a marketing ploy that has spread since the 20th century. In barleywine, alcohol can reach 12%, so it was traditionally sold in small bottles. Perhaps in order to give the beer a more wine-like flavor, in accordance with its name, it was aged in barrels from port, whiskey or bourbon. 


70. Due to the numerous British wars at the end of the 17th century, there was a sharp increase in taxes and prices in the country, including for brewing raw materials. It became particularly expensive because of malt, which is why its share and the quality of the product fell sharply.But on hops recently imported from the mainland, taxes did not rise as quickly, so the amount in beer increased. However, for the British, such a drink was too strong and sour, because they were accustomed to the traditional swedish ale, therefore, to save money, they began to mix two types of beer, and then leave for a long exposure - over time, the taste softened and the bitterness of the hops disappeared. The new dark drink became very popular with the working class and was named "porter" after the porters and stevedores who loved to drink it. While it is widely believed that porter was invented by London brewer Ralph Harwood around the 1720s, mixing several different varieties with each other, documents found indicate that porters were known to the British in the past. Due to the possibility of long-term storage, the porter could be imported to other countries, where it took root in its variations. In Poland, for example, a Baltic porter has emerged, which is made with yeast for lagers rather than ales. In pre-revolutionary Russia, this style became known as "imperial stout" because it was loved at the court of Catherine II. Today, the most popular American porters, which are craft brewers, revived after the repeal of "Prohibition" in the United States.


71. Initially, any strong beer was called a stout, and a little later - a stronger porter. In the second half of the 19th century, less black malt than porters and more brown malt began to be added to stouts, giving the stouts a drier flavor. Today, between them there are practically no technological differences, except for the one that is usually used for porters solozhony barley, and for stouts - nesolozhonyzhzhony,but even this rule has exceptions. Inside the stouts, oats (with the addition of oats), Irish, grown from Guinness porters on roasted malt, sweet tropical, made for export to hot countries, and others are distinguished.


72. Tax increases for raw materials has led to the appearance of the Paleales.In the early 18th century, it became cheaper to brew beer at home than to buy it in pubs and shops; in addition, at home it is easier to control the quality of the ingredients, and hence the quality of the drink. When people moved around the country, they were looking for something similar to their familiar home-brewed beer. This led to the fact that artisans began to experiment with beer, trying to find the very taste - and so a highly hopped bitter pale ale, brewed with light malt, was born. The public got tired of the porter, and with the proliferation of transparent glasses, there was a demand for a beautiful, non-cloudy beer that was more difficult to counterfeit. So pale ale became a real British hit. Especially popular was the pale ale from Burton-upon-Trent, a small town in Staffordshire that was formerly known for its quality brown ales. The mineralization of the local springs was believed to be ideal for preparing light strong ales.

Бёртон-на-Тренте не один век известен своими пивоварнями. Здесь располагается Национальный пивоваренный центр, где можно познакомиться с историей изготовления напитка в городе / Фото: Weekend Notes Burton-upon-Trent has been famous for its breweries for centuries. Here is the National Brewery Center, where you can get acquainted with the history of the drink in the city 


73. By the 19th century, the British East India Company gradually colonized India, discovering unhindered trade in the country. Brewers also drew attention to this market, and the most notable among them was James Hodgson: from the 1780s he practically monopolized the supply of various beers, united under the name Indian Ale, to the colony. However, already in the 1820s, other companies and artisans were able to win the true love of the local public with a brighter beer. Burton brewers sent their pale ales to India. At that time, the transportation of products was possible only by sea and took about six months, and during this time the beer fell into disrepair. Only heavily hopped varieties could preserve their freshness and taste, but porter, although it was familiar to British soldiers, who were full in the country due to national uprisings against the colonialists, was too dense and heavy for the hot climate. Pale ales, on the other hand, are bright, sparkling, with a bitter taste - perfect for quenching thirst and refreshing. Like many other styles of beer, India Pale Ale or IPA virtually disappeared during the World Wars of the 20th century, but reemerged in America in the 1970s with the rise of craft beer.


74. Already in our time, a new style of pale ale was born - NEIPA, which most often stands for New England India Pale Ale. Even though NEIPA emerged in the 2000s, it's hard to say who came up with it. It is believed that the Alchemist and Hill Farmstead breweries in Vermont, and then TreeHouse and Trillium in Massachusetts, began brewing it at about the same time. This style is cloudy, sweet, light, like a tropical juice, while the IPA is clear and very bitter due to the high hop content. NEIPA also has hops, but it is added at the very end of the boil, so it gives its aroma to the drink, without having time to make it bitter. This style is very popular in the USA, where even small artisans brew it.


75. Before hops became one of the most important ingredients, the Netherlands, France, Belgium, Germany and other northern countries used gruit, a mixture of herbs to add flavor and aroma to beer, usually including wormwood, wild rosemary, horse and dog mint, yarrow, juniper, rosemary, marsh myrtle and other plants. The composition of this mixture depended on local traditions and the available plants, many of which are poisonous or known for their psychotropic effects, making the drink highly intoxicating. The first mention of fruit dates back to the 10th century, when the German king Otto II granted the right to trade in the mixture to some churches: at that time, when buying beer raw materials, a tax had to be paid, so only bishops, nobles or large farmers could sell gruit. In many cities there were special people - gruyters who made the mixture and sold it to the brewers. Over time, the Catholic Church practically monopolized the sale of gruit, and hops became an increasingly common ingredient without paying for it. The last nail in the coffin of the herbal mixture was the Protestants. They promoted austerity and abstinence, which influenced the adoption in the 16th-18th centuries of a number of laws prohibiting the use of psychotropic additives in brewing. But the main reason for the disappearance of gruit was religious politics and the decline in the influence of Catholicism in the northern countries. Now gruits are also boiled, but very rarely.


76. In some bars you can see the Sauer - it's not exactly a beer style, but rather a general name for all kinds of acid.Lambics, Gueuze, Gose, Flemish ales, Berliner Weisse or smoked German ales - Liechtenheiners can be hiding here. The latter were once common throughout Germany, but now they are very rare. They are brewed with wheat or barley smoked over an open fire, which give the beer a smoky aroma. And the sour taste appears due to lactic acid bacteria. By the way, in Germany there is another famous beer that is brewed with smoked malt - rauchbier.

Раухбир исторически изготавливался во Франконии, в городе Бамберг Rauchbier was historically made in Franconia, in the city of Bamberg


77. Lambic is made according to the old technology of "spontaneous fermentation": the wort for lambic is boiled, and then left to ferment in an open vessel, without adding special brewer's yeast there.can enter the vessel Any microorganisms, so it is impossible to accurately predict the taste of the resulting drink, however, it cannot be called completely unpredictable either, since brewers still observe the temperature regime and limit the ingress of some bacteria into the mash. The special sour taste of lambics is largely attributed to the yeast strains of Brettanomyces, the most famous of which are B. bruxellensis and B. lambicus, named after the Belgian capital and local style. If in the barrels the beer still tastes too different, then it can be mixed with each other so that the batch is homogeneous. It is believed that real lambic, like champagne, is made only in the Senne river valley - the Pajottenland region and near Brussels, and everything else is just beer "in style".



78. Lambic began to be brewed around the 17th century, but by the 19th it had become a hit. By 1900, there were about 80 breweries in the vicinity of Brussels, specializing in lambic. It became an everyday drink, and farmers often took a bottle with them to work in the fields. From the middle of the century, the popularity of the style began to decline: large players appeared on the market who offered a simpler and more understandable to the consumer light lager, and the popularity of soda with a lot of sugar influenced the mass love for sweet beer. Some breweries closed, others began to sweeten their product on purpose, and as a result, the quality of the lambics dropped. It wasn't until the 1990s that a revival began, fueled by a general interest in local production, especially craft beer, the proliferation of the internet, and the publication of books such as Tom Webbs' LambicLand. Brewers began to come up with cultural events to promote lambics: interactive production tours, tastings, and festivals. Currently, this style of beer is perceived by the Belgians as one of the elements of the country's cultural heritage.


79. Gueuze is a type of lambic for which young (about a year old) and old (about 2-3 years old) beer is mixed. After filling in a bottle, the drink is fermented and becomes highly carbonated. Gueuze is called "Brussels champagne": it is believed that when Napoleon's troops occupied Belgium, a general fashion for sparkling wine began. An enterprising brewer from Geuzenstraat collected empty champagne bottles and poured lambic into them - the beer was so successful that it gained popularity and got its name from Geuzen Street. Although the Lindemans company, which is famous for its lambics, believes that the name comes from the French gazeux, that is, carbonated. Gueuze is usually sweetish in taste with a strong sour aftertaste.

Карта фестиваля Toer de Geuze, который проводился в 1997 году. Это фестиваль в регионе Пайоттенланд, проходящий дважды в год, во время которого можно попасть на бесплатные экскурсии и дегустации гёзов и ламбиков в местные пивоварни / Фото: Lambic.infMap of the 1997 Toer de Geuze festival. This is a festival in the Pajottenland region, held twice a year, during which you can get free guided tours and tastings of gueuze and lambics at local breweries


80. Cherry lambic is called scream. It is also made by blending two lambics of different ages with the addition of overripe sour Morello cherries: according to tradition, they are not crushed, but dipped into a barrel of beer, either whole or with a slightly damaged skin. In addition to cherry lambic in Belgium, other types of lambic are made - framboise (raspberry), peche (peach), cassis (black currant) and faro, to which caramelized sugar is added.


81. Gueuze is often confused with gosé - a German beer with a thousand-year history, which is also produced by spontaneous top fermentation with the addition of coriander and salt. It began to be brewed in the city of Goslar in Lower Saxony, but this style gained particular popularity in Leipzig, where by 1800 there were about 80 taverns specializing in gose. Despite strong love, it remained a regional drink, as lagers supplanted almost all ales, and may have completely disappeared due to the wars, but its recipe has survived. The style revived at home at the end of the 20th century and continues to develop now, including among craft breweries on the Russian market.

Область распространения сахти и других скандинавских пивных напитков / Фото: Pivo.byThe area of ​​distribution of sahti and other Scandinavian beer drinks 


82. Sahti is a type of beer produced in Finland based on barley, rye, juniper and baker's yeast. It was originally brewed for home use rather than commercial sale, so the recipe has remained largely unchanged over the years. Most often it was made for family events like weddings. Sahti was especially common in western Finland, while in the eastern regions of the country, low-alcohol kalya beer was preferred, whose traditional recipe has practically disappeared. Interestingly, saunas were often used to malt the grain, in which it was possible to maintain a high temperature for a long time. Usually sahti is infused in barrels, not steel vats, protected from oxidation and not filtered - the beer tastes sweet with hints of milkshake. Today in Finland there are only six breweries that brew this style, but for none it is the main one.


83. Berliner Weiss is a cloudy wheat beer with noticeable sourness and high carbonation. It contains only about 3% alcohol. This style is shrouded in many legends. Someone says that Berliner Weiss was inspired by the Huguenots who moved to the German capital from France in the 18th century and missed their usual wine. Someone that one famous 16th century brewer Kord Broyhan from Hanover, while traveling in Hamburg, tasted a previously unknown beer and tried to copy it at home. There is a widespread story that Napoleon called this beer "Northern Champagne". Today Berliner Weiss is very popular in Berlin and is often drunk at dinner, adding various syrups such as raspberry or apple. Berliner has a protected geographic name and can only be produced in the German capital and the surrounding area; however, it is prepared only in two companies - Berliner Kindl and Schultheiss.

Rodenbach Grand Cru  — один из эталонов кислых элейRodenbach Grand Cru - one of the benchmarks for sour ales


84. Flemish or Belgian red ales have their roots in experiments with porter. In the early 1870s, Fleming Eugene Rodenbach studied at a brewery in England, from where he returned home with recipes for this rich dark beer. He began to brew ale, aging it in oak barrels for several years and adding to the yeast lactobacilli, which gave the drink a characteristic sour taste. Later, he founded the Rodenbach Brewery, which sold ready-made blended yeast to other artisans within 50 km of Roeselare, and these breweries produced their own Belgian red and sour brown beer from it. Although the practice of yeast blending spread throughout Europe, Rodenbach is still considered the benchmark for red ales.


85. Brown is another classic Flemish ale. In 1829, Dr. Jean-Baptiste Vrankin wrote that "a dark beer that burns the palate and constricts the throat" is poured in Flanders, and a little later the brewer Georges Lacambre noted its "bitter, rough and tart taste." The popularity of brown beer gradually grew and by the end of the 19th century it became a hit of sales: it was thanks to it that Liefmans, after the damage to its buildings during the First World War, was still able to become the 21st largest brewery in Belgium in terms of production. At that time, these ales tasted quite sour, so they were compared to wine. Over time, it softened: brewers indulge the tastes of the public, addicted to Coca-Cola and other sweet sodas, which, as in the case of lambics, influenced the recipe for ales. Since the 1980s, the popularity of this style has been steadily declining, and some brown beer companies have gone bust.


86. In the French-speaking region of Belgium, the saison, a seasonal golden ale made from the remnants of the fall harvest for the summer, when additional workers were hired to the fields, was widespread among the peasantry. To quench their thirst, a light beer was brewed, refreshing in the heat. The saison recipe is optional: if a berry is born in the summer, then it can be added to the future beer, but if not, then the beer will be brewed from other ingredients. That is why it is now difficult to find two brewers following the same brewing method, since saison is more about a format than a specific taste. In France, there is a similar drink - bière de garde, or "beer for storage", which was also brewed in advance, before the season of active work, so that the peasants could devote all their time to the harvest, and not to cooking.about bière de garde these days. Little is said, and although there are many variations of it in its homeland - from light honey to darker and more fruity, craft brewers rarely use it in their experiments.


87. During the Reformation, the Catholic Cistercian order, which had branched off from the Benedictine order, began to decline. The monks from the Norman abbey of La Trappe decided that one should not succumb to sins and should focus on the strict discipline and asceticism that Saint Benedict bequeathed. The followers of the restrictions became known as Trappists, and in 1892 the Pope officially recognized them as a separate order. However, due to the French Revolution and the persecution of Catholics, Trappists settled throughout Europe, including Belgium. The monks themselves produced everything necessary for life, including brewing beer for themselves and for sale. They noticed that the wort can be filtered repeatedly, making it a lighter drink each time. The strongest first infusions they sold in the villages, the weaker ones, called petite beer - small beer, they kept for themselves or distributed to the poor. It is believed that this system gave names to the classic monastic ales - single, dubbel, triple and quadruple. The strongest varieties were marked by monks with four crosses (Quadrupel from the word quad - four), and the weakest - only one. Over time, the Trappists began to imitate, and in 1962 the monks filed a lawsuit against unscrupulous brewers using a false name. Since 1997, the International Trappist Association has existed: only 20 abbeys that are members of it are entitled to the original name of the beer.

Монах-траппист в пивоварне аббатства Ла-Трапп / Фото: Drink Belgian BeerTrappist monk in the brewery of the Abbey of La Trappe 


88. The monks brewed a strong and aromatic beer without strong hoppy bitterness. Despite the ban on the use of the Trappist name in production and sale, no one restricted copying the recipe, so secular versions of the drink appeared, called abbey beer. The most common beer was the dowel - in 1926, Westmill Abbey released Dubbel Bruin, which gained a lot of followers and admirers. It is a dark amber beer with a complex malt sweetness and 6-7% ABV, and caramelized sugar is often added to it. The quadruple is considered to be a stronger version of the dowel - the amount of alcohol can be up to 14%. Tripel is a light golden beer also made famous by Westmill. Its fortress is kept in the region of 7-10%. A single is very rare due to its weakness (about 3%) and unsaturation. 


89. While many beer styles revived after World War II, some of them have disappeared forever. This happened, for example, with the Berliner oud (or Berliner alto in German). A few years ago, the brewer Marco Loret discovered an old label. It indicated that the Berliner alto was produced by Gustaf Hustinks at the Pauw brewery in Culemborg. The brewery itself was opened in the 19th century, but Houstinks owned it for only a few years - from 1909 to 1913. Beer researcher Rowell Mulder has found advertising campaigns from different masters who have brewed this species since the 1880s, but could not find any recipes, so the taste of Berliner alto remains a mystery. Mulder suggests that it could be a Dutch imitation of German varieties, judging by the name, and most likely fantasy, because the style did not take root and faded into oblivion.


90. While roasted malt can add a coffee-like flavor to beer, natural coffee can be added to the beverage. It is most commonly used in porters, stouts, especially imperial, dark and pale ales. The taste will be very dependent on the grain and its roast, so there can be many variations of coffee beers. In America's new craft era, the plant began to be used in the 1990s, when radical blends of coffee, chocolate and oats or coffee, Mexican vanilla and sugar appeared. Interestingly, the coffee can be added whole, ground or already brewed, including by cold brew.

  1. Томатный гозе от Saldens, крафтовой российской пивоварниTomato goes from Saldens, a craft Russian brewery


91. Tomatoes are a popular ingredient in beer, especially gose. Most likely, the experiment with tomatoes originates from the famous Mexican cocktail that serves prepada, sometimes called chavela or michelada. According to legend, michelada was invented by a bartender in San Luis Potosi as a hangover and fatigue remedy in the 1910s. In addition to beer, its composition includes tomato juice, lime, spices and hot sauce, depending on the region.

 

92. Brewing with grapes is considered a special art, as the result is a wine-beer hybrid. The abundance of varieties of this fruit gives unusual flavors: for example, Viognier will give the drink aromas of melon and tropical fruits, and red varieties can give the beer the taste of black currant or cherry. Typically, red grapes like syrah or grenache are added to dark, rich beers like porter or strong ales, while white sauvignon blanc is ideal with gueuze or lambic. Since the 1970s, the Belgian company Cantillon has been brewing lambics every year with hand-picked nutmeg. When picking grapes, the smallest details should be taken into account: there will be a difference between the fruits harvested from the southern and northern sides of the vineyard, and if you cut off the bunches with branches, then a woody note will appear in the taste.


93. In the United States , pizza-flavored beer is brewed. In 2013, Tom and Anthea Seifert from Chicago brewed beer with oregano, basil, tomatoes, garlic and even pizza crumbs. Initially, it was assumed that the resulting mixture could be used as a marinade, but the drink turned out to be so good that they began to drink it just like that. Other brewers also picked up the idea - Liquid Margarita can now be found in many American companies and even in Russian artisans, for example, Pizza Boy from Selfmade Brewery.

100 фактов об истории и культуре пива: от египетских пьяниц и средневековых рецептов до мегапивоварен и крафтового бума


94. In the last decade, more and more types of beer have been added to which avocado is added. In 2013, American brewery Angel City Brewery brewed an avocado beer, adding cilantro, red pepper, lime and honey to create a guacamole flavor. After that, Bush Shack Brewery in Australia and Rocky Knob in New Zealand did some experiments. This is a seasonal story, as beer is highly dependent on the harvest of the fruit. Avocado gives the drink not only taste, but also a delicate creamy texture.


95. There are several banana bread flavored breweries around the world, such as Eagle Brewery and Wells and Young's, which introduced the exotic beer in 2002.wort Mashed bananas are added to the, which, when combined with malt, give a bright taste of fruitcake. In general, bananas are a standard ingredient for beer in many African countries: in Rwanda they cook urwagwa, in the Congo - kasixi, in Uganda - mubishi. It is important for this drink to use bananas at their peak of ripeness, as overripe can ruin the taste. Boiled water and fried grains are added to mashed bananas, which have yielded juice. Beer is not heated, but must be filtered to prolong its short shelf life, as bananas are an excellent medium for microbial growth.


96. During the Victorian era in Britain, stout was often consumed with oysters in pubs - the bittersweet taste perfectly complemented the salty shellfish. It is believed that the shells could end up in beer vats because they purify the water, which means they can clarify the beer, masking low-quality or over-dried malt. It is not known exactly when oyster meat was added to the beer itself for flavor, but in 1939 New Zealand's Barnes Oysters began shipping oyster concentrate to British brewers. Sources say that it took at least 18 months to develop the drink, and the amount of concentrate in a bottle is equivalent to one whole oyster. Oyster stout has never been a mainstream beer, and doesn't even stand out as a distinct style, but today some craft breweries are making it experimentally.


97. Petersburg brewery Hophead Gose brewed with the taste of soups and national dishes. The line includes beer with the taste of okroshka, French onion soup, sour cabbage soup, Bulgarian chorba, Megrelian ajika, pickle, tom yam, pho bo, Armenian dogwood soup, kharcho, Indian curry and others. To create taste, edible ingredients are really added to the wort - vegetables, spices, herbs, cheese and even meat broths.


98. Although beer is not the most popular ingredient in cocktails, many drinks are made from it besides the ruff (a mixture of beer and vodka). One of the most famous cocktails, the Moscow mule, which consists of vodka and ginger beer, was invented in the United States and has many variations. In addition to it, in bars you can try shandy or radler (lager with lemonade), michelada, Mississippi porter-fur (porter with bourbon and rum), black velveteen (beer with champagne), beer mojito, chocolate mixtures of liqueurs and porters, and others. Sometimes there are some really weird recipes like beer with ice cream or eggs.


99.Wat Pa Maha Chedi Kaew Temple, 600 kilometers from Bangkok, has an unusual appearance, created from a large number of used Heineken beer bottles and a local type of beer.


100.The Vikings believed that in Valhalla, their heaven, a goat with a udder was waiting for them, which would always supply them with beer.


 


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