30 most amazing and unknown facts about Amazon and Jeff Bezoz that you need to know - Bemorepanda
Everyone knows Amazon.com, where you can order fast and convenient delivery of everything. Its creator, Jeff Bezos, promises that it will soon be possible to deliver orders in 10 minutes using aerial drones. But few have heard of Relentless.com. By typing this address in a search engine, you will be automatically redirected to Amazon.
The fact is that "Relentless" is one of the first names that 30-year-old Bezos came up with for his online store. The second option was "Kadabra" as part of a magic spell. But both did not pass, then Bezos simply took a dictionary from the shelf and chose one of the first words he came across - the Amazon River. Thus began one of the most successful business stories in the world. It has a bit of magic and ruthlessness.
Brad Stone's book "The Everything Store" is about Jeff Bezos and the Amazon era, which explores the early years of Amazon and how it evolved from an online bookstore to today's e-commerce giant. Bemorepanda have collected some interesting facts about Amazon from this book.
1. Amazon originally had a different name.
Jeff Bezos wanted to give his company the name Cadabra, which sounded like part of a spell.
But Amazon's first lawyer, Todd Tarbert, said the name was too similar to the word cadaver, which translates from English as "corpse." Customers may have misheard such a name on the phone.
Bezos also liked the title Relentless. By the way, if you go to Relentless.com, you will be redirected to the Amazon home page.
Finally, Bezos chose the name Amazon - he liked the idea of naming the company after the largest river in the world. It can be seen on the original Amazon logo.
2. There used to be a bell in the company's office that would ring whenever someone made a purchase on Amazon
After a few weeks, the bell began to ring so often that it had to be removed.
3. Initially, Bezos opened a company in his garage. The servers required so much power that when Bezos and his wife turned on a hairdryer or vacuum cleaner in the house, they would short-circuit.
4. In its first month of operation, Amazon sold books to people from all 50 states of America and 45 different countries.
5. A little-known lichen book saved Amazon from bankruptcy.
Book distributors demanded to buy books in batches of ten, but Amazon didn't need that much, and the company wouldn't have enough money to buy them.
But in the end, there was one loophole with which it was possible to bypass this rule. Amazon began ordering one book and nine copies of some obscure lichen book that was always out of stock.
6. Bezos used to hold meetings at the Barnes & Noble bookstore.
In the early days of Amazon, Jeff Bezos, his wife Mackenzie, and their first employee, Shel Kafan, held meetings at a local Barnes and Noble store.
In 1996, Bezos met with the shopkeepers, and they said they respect him, but they are still going to launch a site that will destroy Amazon. Barnes and Noble co-founder Len Riggio wanted to call this site the Book Predator.
7. Jeff Bezos wanted his employees to work at least 60 hours a week.
Previously, the company did not know what it meant to maintain a balance between work and personal life. One of the first employees said that he worked without rest for more than eight months: he came to work early in the morning and returned late at night. He constantly rode his bike to work and completely forgot about the minibus that was parked at his house.
He didn’t have time to check his mail, and when he did open it, he saw several parking tickets, a notification from the tow truck and, finally, a message that his minibus was sold at an auction.
8. In 1998, Amazon had a very busy Christmas.
At that time, the company had a significant staff shortage. At Christmas time, all fulfillment center employees had to work the night shift. They called for help from friends and relatives and sometimes slept in their cars to go straight to work in the morning.
After this incident, Amazon promised to make sure that the next holidays the company has enough employees who would be able to fulfill the holiday orders. This is why Amazon is recruiting so many seasonal workers these days.
9. When eBay came along, Amazon launched its own auction site.
The idea failed, but Bezos liked it.
For $ 40,000, he bought the skeleton of a primeval cave bear and displayed it in the lobby of Amazon headquarters. This skeleton stands there to this day, and next to it is a sign "Please do not feed the bear."
10. Bezos enjoyed growing his company quickly, leading to chaos in Amazon's order centers.
In the late 90s and early 2000s, Amazon was in chaos. Centers were closed for several hours due to system failures, and mountains of goods were lying around, and the company was not ready to store new categories of products.
When Amazon started selling kitchen goods, it sometimes happened that the knives without the protective packaging cut the conveyor belt. The situation was extremely dangerous.
11. In early 2002, Bezos introduced the concept of a “two pizza team”.
He suggested that workers should work in groups of less than ten people - that's how many people can be fed with two pizzas. According to Bezos, such groups should work autonomously, they should have clear goals and a formula for assessing success.
12. Dissatisfied customers can send a complaint to Bezos's personal mail, and he will forward it to the right employee with a single scary "?"
Whenever Amazon employees receive a letter from Bezos with a question mark, they react to it like a bomb. They usually have several hours to solve the problem and prepare a detailed explanation of why it arose. The explanatory note is checked by senior managers and then redirected to Bezos himself. In this way, Bezos shows customers that their complaints are constantly reviewed by the company.
13. Even before Google Street View came along, Amazon had Block View.
In 2004, Amazon launched the A9.com search engine. The team that worked on it also began to develop a project called Block View, which would display photographs of them from the street in response to a search query about stores and restaurants. For less than $ 100,000, Amazon sent its car photographers to twenty US cities to photograph the restaurants they needed. In 2006, Amazon abandoned the project, and in 2007 Google launched Street View.
14. Amazon employees fought stress with primal screams.
During the holidays, it is especially difficult for the employees of the logistics department. In the early 2000s, Jeff Wilkie, Chief Operating Officer for Amazon, allowed anyone who was able to achieve a big goal at work to close their eyes and yell at him with all their might on the phone.
Some of these primal screams nearly broke his speakers, Wilkie said.
15. Sometimes the "protests" of employees of Amazon fulfillment centers ended in rather funny ways.
The working conditions in these centers are notorious and sometimes their employees have tried to go on strike. One day, a worker decided to quit his job and sat astride a conveyor belt - and so he rode all the way out of the building.
But the funniest story happened in 2006 with a temporary employee of a Kansas center.
This employee came and went at the beginning of the shift, but no one saw him during working hours. Only a week later, it was discovered that the man had made himself a lair inside a pile of empty wooden boxes. Inside, he built a bed of Amazon products, reinforced the walls with pages torn from books, and even stole ordered food. When his lair was finally discovered, the employee was fired (not surprisingly).
16. The original Amazon Kindle e-reader was codenamed "Fiona".
This name Kindle got from the book by Neil Stevenson "The Diamond Age". It told of a distant future in which an engineer managed to steal a rare interactive book for his knowledge-hungry daughter, Fiona. The team behind the Kindle prototype was inspired by this fictional device.
The team asked Bezos to keep the name Fiona, but he ended up choosing the Kindle. This word is translated as "kindle the flame", and it really liked Bezos.
17. Jeff Bezos is said to have hired a leadership coach to shout less at his subordinates.
Bezos is known for being quite harsh or sarcastic about employees who tell him something unpleasant. Rumor has it that he has hired a special assistant to help him respond to the news in a less harsh manner.
During one meeting, Bezos chastised employees in his usual harsh manner. He said that they were all fools and that he gave them a week to figure out what they were doing. Then he took a couple of steps, froze as if he suddenly realized something and said: "But still, you did a good job."
18. Bezos Realized a childhood dream.
Bezos founded his own space tourism company Blue Origin in 2000, decades after telling teachers and friends as a child that he wanted to be a “space entrepreneur” when he grew up.
19. Space enthusiast.
Jeff is so passionate about NASA during the Mercury and Apollo missions that he equipped and financed an underwater expedition to locate and recover the debris of Apollo rockets.
20. Bezos doesn't use an alarm clock.
He does not use an alarm clock and tends to sleep a full eight hours a night. No overnight fires or early risings for this CEO.
21. A good father.
As a child, Jeff was adopted by his stepfather Miguel Bezos. Today, the entrepreneur has four children with his wife Mackenzie: three sons and a daughter, whom the couple adopted in China.
22. He has come a long way.
As a teenager, Bezos worked at McDonald's, making French fries. At the same time, he founded a small summer camp for primary school students DREAM Institute.
23. Demanding to women.
Jeff had high demands on candidates for the role of a life partner. In an interview with Wired, he said that he was looking for one that "will get him out of the trap of the Third World."
24. Altruist, but not strong.
Originally from Albuquerque, Jeff studied at Princeton. There he studied electrical engineering and computer science. In 2011, he donated $ 15 million to the university to build a center for the study of neurological disorders.
At the same time, being the richest man on earth, Bezos is ranked last in the ranking of the top 10 billionaire benefactors.
25. A big fan of reading.
Bezos's favorite book is The Remains of the Day by Kazuo Ishiguro.
26. Customers come first.
If you have any complaints or suggestions, just email firstname.lastname@example.org. Receiving emails to this mail, Bezos forwards the question to the person in charge at the company, who then reports directly to the CEO on the progress of the issue. So the problem is under control.
27. Bezos made the first tables for himself and Amazon employees himself.
He could not afford expensive furniture at the beginning of the journey, so he put together tables for the first employees himself, using wooden doors instead of tabletops and boards for legs. Now these tables have become something of an artifact at the company - for over 20 years at Amazon, they have been using various variations of that historically simple design for the desktop.
The company even instituted the Door Desk Awards, which give creators "good ideas to offer consumers the lowest prices."
28. Bezos is not a fan of expensive cars.
Despite the fact that after the founding of Amazon, Bezos' business rapidly went uphill, he did not, like many, buy yachts and expensive cars for himself and for a long time remained faithful to his 1987 Chevrolet Blazer, which at first personally delivered deliveries. In 1997, when the company went public, he finally swapped out his old car for the new Honda Accord.
29. Bezos once looked into the eyes of death.
In 2003, Jeff Bezos practically looked death in the eye. He was looking for land to build a test site for Blue Origin when his helicopter crashed on a tour of Texas. The Amazon CEO received a number of minor injuries and recovered quickly, but after that he did not fly helicopters for a long time.
“Nothing special occurred to me. I was only thinking about what a stupid way to die, ”Bezos told Fast Company in 2004.
It didn't become some kind of life-defining experience for me. I’m afraid I’ve learned a rather mundane lesson: Avoid helicopters whenever possible! They are not as reliable as air transport with wings. "
30. Bezos is an Early Investor in Google.
Less than five years after founding Amazon, Bezos demonstrated his investment flair by investing $ 1 million in Google in the late 90s. Then it was a serious risk, which by now has paid off handsomely.
The brand of the search giant Google is probably one of the most recognizable on the globe, and today only a person who is very far from the Internet and civilization has not heard about the company. At the same time, the activities of the "corporation of good" are so diverse that even its employees themselves do not know about all the initiatives of their management. Bemorepanda choosed 30 unusual and interesting facts about the world famous company that you most likely did not even know about.
Many people dream of working at Google. Getting there is not easy - sometimes interviews alone can take six months. But if you happen to be there, even if you are an intern, you can celebrate winning the jackpot.
1. Before giving the user the result of a search query, Google takes into account about 200 different factors.
2. The company owns a bunch of domains that are the wrong spelling for Google. For example, Gooogle.com, Gogle.com, Googlr.com and many others. Among them there are even such exotic ones as 466453.com - these are numbers on the phone's disk that correspond to the letters of Google.
3. When Google launched in 1998, the system was processing 500,000 queries a day. Now users ask the system for something more than 2 million times per second.
4. Since Google launched Street View in 2007, the project team has photographed over 11.5 million kilometers of roads and objects.
5. The first five American cities were captured with a 5 megapixel camera. Now the company uses devices with 75-megapixel sensors.
6. Every month, YouTube users watch over 6 billion hours of video - about an hour for every inhabitant of the globe.
7. Google regularly buys and funds projects that aim to change the world and the lives of millions of people. However, the "corporation of good" does not shun small, local projects. For example, in 2012, the company added the Cherokee American Indian language to Gmail.
8. More than 300 hours of new videos appear on YouTube every minute.
9. Last year, more than 1 billion Android devices were sold worldwide. This means that Google's market share in this segment is 81%.
10. In total, Google employs 53,600 people in 70 offices from 40 countries.
11. If a corporation likes something, then it will not stand up to the costs to buy it. This year, the company made more than 170 acquisitions, and the value of the top 10 purchases exceeded $ 24.5 billion.
12. Despite the huge number of adventurous and super-innovative projects, such as self-driving cars or smart contact lenses, the bulk of Google's revenue comes from advertising. In 2014, revenue from this type of activity amounted to $ 66 billion.
13. Larry Page and Sergey Brin released the first Doodle in August 1998. During this time, they were participating in the Burning Man rally through the Nevada desert and wanted the world to know where they were at the moment.
14. The volume of the Google search index is over 100 million GB. To accommodate this amount of data would require over 100,000 terabyte hard drives.
15. People trust and love Google services so much that when the system dropped by 5 minutes in 2013, the volume of global traffic dropped by 40%.
16. Google is probably the only company in the world that wants people to spend as little time on their website as possible.
17. Google was originally called BackRub. This is how the main page of the search engine looked like, which became the prototype of Google.
18. Google's incredibly fast growth is especially noticeable against the backdrop of one curious fact: since 2010, the Internet giant has bought an average of one company per week.
19. The first doodle was invented by Google founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page together. It happened in 1998. A schematic image of a burning guy, a symbol of the Burning Man festival, which takes place in the Black Rock desert of Nevada, has been added to the usual multicolored Google inscription. Brin and Page went there in 2008.
20. Google's own chef, Charlie Ayers, came to Google in 1999, when the company had only 40 employees.
21. Ayers built a good career in the corporation, becoming the chef of the entire company. At the time of leaving Google, he controlled 150 employees and 10 cafes at Google's Mountain View headquarters.
22. Gmail already supports over 50 different languages. Among them are the Basque, Welsh, Tagalog, Malayalam, Telulu and Cherokee languages.
23. In 2004, Google went public, selling part of its shares on the stock exchange. On the same day, about 1,000 of its employees became millionaires.
24. One of these lucky ones is masseuse Bonnie Brown. She joined the company in 1999. Her initial salary was $ 450 per week.
25. Button "I'm Lucky!" became extremely popular. But it costs Google $ 100 million every year in lost ad revenue.
26. Google is hiring goats. In 2009, the company rented about two hundred goats that grazed on its California campus, while fertilizing the soil with their excrement along the way.
27. The first official tweet from Google's corporate Twitter meant "I'm in luck," but it was written in binary, meaning it was all zeros and ones.
28. Google's competitor, Mozilla (Firefox browser), receives money from the Internet giant. For the fact that the default browser uses the Google search engine, its developer receives $ 300 million a year.
29. The total cost of this 16 percent stake is close to $ 46 billion.
30. Each new employee within the company is called a noogler, and the former is called a xoogler.
YouTube is a huge video repository of a wide variety of formats and genres: marketing workshops, product unboxing, comedy shows, and educational songs for kids. For this variety, hosting is loved by almost two billion users around the world. And the business appreciated the advantages of the platform for promotion.
YouTube is undoubtedly the world's largest video sharing service.
Of course, it will be a surprise for everyone if this changes anytime soon!
Most of us use the YouTube website or app on a daily basis. Some use YouTube for learning, and some just for fun.
Fact 1. YouTube was founded on February 14 (Valentine's Day) 2005 by three former PayPal employees.
Fact 2. It was originally funded by bonuses that employees received when eBay bought out PayPal.
Fact 3. The first YouTube video was uploaded on April 23, 2005. This is a video of the co-founder of the San Diego Zoo.
Fact 4. YouTube was originally created as a video testimonial site called "Tune In Hook Up".
Fact 5. Just 18 months after founding YouTube, Google bought it in stock for $ 1.65 billion.
Fact 6. YouTube has over a billion users, which is almost a third of all Internet users.
Fact 7. YouTube has opened a production site in Los Angeles that you can use for free, but only if you have at least 10,000 subscribers on the channel.
Fact 8. The oldest YouTube video about cats dates back to 1894.
Fact 9. More than 100 hours of video are uploaded to YouTube every minute.
Fact 10. In 2014, the famous YouTube star, Grumpy Cat, made more money Gwyneth Paltrow - the Oscar-winning actress.
Fact 11. Google is, of course, the largest search engine in the world. But right behind it is Youtube, which is bigger than Bing, Yahoo and Ask combined.
Fact 12. Every April 1, YouTube pranks its users.
Fact 13. When they played their first joke, they turned the site upside down.
Fact 14. Rickrolling first appeared on YouTube in 2009. At its peak in 2008, more than 18 million users in the United States became involved in ricrolling.
Fact 15. Every month YouTube users watch 6 billion hours of video per month and 4 billion videos every day.
Fact 16. Apart from the US, Saudi Arabia has the most views on YouTube. This is because TV, Facebook and Twitter are banned in Saudi Arabia and YouTube is not restricted.
Fact 17. The most popular video that people are looking for is "How to kiss." The second most popular video is "how to tie a tie."
Fact 18. The most popular topic that people are looking for is, of course, music!
Fact 19. The total number of videos uploaded in 2010 is equivalent to over 150,000 full-length films in theaters every week.
Fact 20. The first world leader to create a YouTube channel was British Prime Minister Tony Blair, who opened his account in 2007.
Fact 21. According to a 2013 study, 60% of the 1000 most viewed YouTube videos are banned in Germany.
Fact 22. The longest YouTube video is 571 hours, 1 minute and 41 seconds. This is the same as 23 days and 19 hours!
Fact 23. The first video to reach 1 billion views was Hello by Adele the fastest. It reached 1 billion views in 88 days.
Fact 24: The video that got the most views on its first day of upload is the official teaser # 2 of Star Wars: The Force Awakens. It scored 112 million views in 24 hours.
Fact 25. Justin Bieber is one of the first YouTube success stories.
Fact 26. YouTube has been watched every day on Facebook for over 150 years.
Fact 27. In Thailand, YouTube was blocked for 5 months in 2007 due to a 44-second video that depicted distorted images of the king.
Fact 28. There is a copyright infringement program called Automated Content ID that scans over 100 years of video every day.
Fact 29. Every minute there are 400 tweets containing a link to a YouTube video.
Fact 30. In 2011, 30% of all YouTube videos accounted for over 99% of views.
Because a refreshing event is approaching, namely Oktoberfest, the Bemorepand team decided to find the most interesting, useful and, in some places, funny curiosities about one of the most popular drinks in the world - beer.
Blonde, brown, unfiltered or wheat, with summery and fresh aromas - these are just a few features of beer, a drink that, by the way, in limited quantities, can take care of your thirst and health this summer. From the boundless space of the internet, Bemorepanda gathered the most interesting and unusual curiosities about beer.
Here comes the second part of Top 100 facts about beer. Here you can view the first part.
51. Sometimes brewers use the secondary fermentation method called kreusening. Fresh fermenting wort is added to the already poured chilled beer. An additional portion of yeast speeds up the fermentation process, cleans up the by-products released during fermentation and improves the taste of the beer, as hops and other additives retain flavor and aroma longer.
51. Hops are one of the classic beer ingredients, although not required for fermentation. It has been used in Europe since the 8th century, but it's real heyday came during the Reformation. If you put hops in the wort during boiling, the beer will get a characteristic bitterness, since when the plant is heated it releases resin. If you add it already during fermentation, when the beer “reaches” in a vat or barrel, the drink will take only aroma from the hops - this process is called “dry hopping”. Brewers only use bumps of female plants - they can be bought dried, in pellets or even briquettes. Hops, by the way, are poisonous: fresh buds can irritate and discomfort their pickers.
The types of hops that are used in brewing. Some of them impart a more bitter taste to the drink, while others, such as Liberty, are more likely to be used for flavoring.
52. Previously, beer was aged in wooden barrels, but with the transition to industrial brewing, manufacturers began to choose steel vats. With the flourishing of crafting, wood has regained its popularity: firstly, wood absorbs the tastes and aromas of aged drinks, passing them on to the next. Secondly, it gives the beer a special woody flavor, which sometimes contains notes of coconut, vanilla or caramel. And thirdly, the wood allows air and microorganisms to pass through, which also change the taste of the wort. Modern brewers don't always use barrels - instead of vats, they can use oak chips, cubes, or spirals. Sometimes the wood is even burned if they want to achieve a drink with a strong and toasty "character".
53. In Africa, where traditional crops grow poorly in subtropical and prairie conditions, sorghum is grown, which easily adapts to different soils. It is from sorghum that local beer is brewed, which is called differently in different countries: in Benin and Togo - chukutu, in Tanzania - mtama, in Sudan - merissa, and in South Africa - kaffir. Although the brewing process is similar to the European one, the taste of beer is very different from the usual lagers and ales due to the use of specific raw materials and a large amount of lactic acid bacteria entering the vessels. Although sorghum beer is traditionally used during festivals and rituals, many Africans prefer to buy European varieties because they contain more alcohol and the brewing process is more hygienic. The drink is loved by the poorest segments of the population, as it perfectly saturates due to its high calorie content.
This is what purple corn looks like, from which chicha morada is prepared.
54. Chicha - a beer-like drink from South America made from corn. It is especially popular in Bolivia and Peru, where this cereal is actively growing, and its strength varies from 2 to 12 degrees. In ancient times, corn was chewed and then spat into a vat, where it was fermented under the influence of saliva, and the starch was broken down into simple sugars. This method exists to this day, moreover,, resort to it even craft breweries, which have special equipment for pasteurizing the drink. Chicha morada is made from purple corn with the addition of pineapple peels, sugar, cloves and cinnamon, which makes the drink look like mulled wine. In addition to corn, South Americans chew cassava, sweet potatoes, and other fruits.
55. Sake, which has been produced for over 1,300 years, is very often called rice vodka or wine, although it is closest to beer because it is made by fermenting grain. For the drink, not all the grain of rice is used, but only its most starchy central part: for this, the rice is polished, removing the bitter shell and upper layers. Although there are special varieties of rice for sake, the specific variety is not so important because during the manufacturing process the producers try to make the drink so pure that it does not leave the grain flavor in it. After the polishing of rice, moisture evaporated, and then added to the koji spores of the fungus, which is known for its taste "umami",as the rice grain has no enzymes. The resulting drink is filtered after fermentation, and two types are distinguished - a slightly filtered unclear nigori and a crystal clear "imperial" one. The strength of sake reaches 20%, but it is often diluted with water up to 15%.
56. In the 19th century in Germany, they began to brew beer from potatoes: raw potatoes were grated, heated to 156 degrees together with water to a state of thick gruel, then a thick syrup was obtained from which the drink was prepared. Potatoes are great for beer, as they are high in starch, which means they are an excellent raw material for yeast. Today, potato beer is not uncommon, and besides the classic varieties,are also used in brewing sweet potatoes, yams and cassava.
57. During the colonial era, pumpkin was widely eaten in North America, which still occupies a significant part of the US gastro culture, especially in the fall. In addition to pies and pumpkin puree, the pilgrims brewed beer: grated vegetable pulp was an excellent source of sugars, replacing cereals, most of which were sent to bread. In 1771, the American Philosophical Society published a recipe for a pure "pompion ale," as it was then called. With the development of cereal crops, the popularity of pumpkin beer gradually faded away, the malt drink we were already familiar with began to be imported from Europe, and the vegetable was no longer used in production. In the wake of craft brewing in the United States at the end of the 20th century, pumpkin was again remembered: it is believed that Bill Owens discovered the recipe in the works of George Washington and tried to implement it. They began experimenting with the vegetable in every possible way: for example, they added nutmeg, cinnamon and cardamom to the wort, imitating the taste of pumpkin pie. Pumpkin porters, stouts and lagers emerged and are now popular in the United States.
There are a lot of breweries in the USA that make pumpkin beer. For example, Rouge itself grows vegetables for beer, picks them in August, dries them, and by September fresh pumpkin ale appears on the shelves
58. Kvass was known in Russia back in the 11th century - at that time it was more alcoholic and looked much like beer. Strong kvass is called melted, that is, boiled, and not arbitrarily fermented. It was prepared from wheat and barley malt or rye bread, adding wormwood, hops, cumin and St. John's wort for flavor and aroma. A little later, kvass was distilled, which is why the amount of alcohol in it increased. Interestingly, there was a disease called "yazya kvass", in which a headache was severe - most likely such an ancient diagnosis was made to those suffering from a hangover after excessive drinking. Now kvass is not considered an alcoholic drink, although according to GOST its strength can reach 1.2%; and the past of the drink reminds us of the verb "ferment", that is, "get drunk."
59. Honey is added to some types of beer, but there is mead - a completely separate brew drink, which does not contain malt. Honey can be anything you like - buckwheat, lime, orange, because of this, the drink turns out to be different in color, density and strength. To taste, it can be not only sweet, but also semi-sweet and even dry. In Russia, nutritious honey was already known in the 10th century: they were both boiled and set, that is, they were left for natural fermentation. Mead was available to ordinary people, since the farm often had its own apiaries, but with the spread of stronger alcoholic beverages, for example, vodka, they practically stopped drinking it. Although you can now buy a drink at any store, industrial meads have little in common with ancient Russian honeys. Besides Russia, mead is popular in the USA and Europe. The American Mead Association notes that new companies are constantly opening in the states that brew different styles: melomel (mead with fruits), metheglin (mead with spices and herbs), kesira (mead with apples), piment (mead with grape juice) and others.
One of the largest mead plants in Russia is located in Suzdal - the industrial history ofbegan here in the 19th century.
60. Braggot is a mead with malt, but it is classified as beer. The drink got its name from the ancient Celtic word bracis, meaning the shape of the grain from which it was made. In England braggot often passed off as pure mead that was condemned even by the Church, so gradually that it is highlighted in a separate style. Initially, braggot was made by mixing mead and ale, then it was seasoned with pepper, ginger, cinnamon, galangal and cloves. It became a traditional wedding drink in some British regions, but its popularity declined in the 17th century.
61. Cider is neither beer or wine, although it is often tried to be included in the classification of these drinks. Cider is made from apple juice that is fermented naturally or by adding yeast. Although it is preferable to prepare the drink from special coarse varieties of fruits rich in tannins, sometimes ordinary table apples are taken. There are many styles of cider produced all over the world: dry and sweet, yellow and pink, highly carbonated and quiet, with added spices, herbs, other fruits and hops. Cider analogs - Poiret or Perry - are made from pears.
62. There are several hundred beer styles in the world, however, craft breweries often transcend traditional and well-known recipes, making it nearly impossible to create a complete guide to all styles. Craftsmen can take as a basis classic beers from Belgium, Germany or the UK, add strange, unusual ingredients to them, or change the brewing process. Also, styles don't just happen: for a trendy new beer to become a style, it has to be made by more than one brewery, so the process takes time. The most recognized guide in the world, American Brewers Association, changes every year, with new varieties being added and definitions of old ones rewriting.
63. Most styles can be divided into two types: ales, or top-fermented beers, and lagers, or bottom-fermented beers. During top fermentation, which occurs at higher temperatures (about 20 degrees), and therefore more ancient, the yeast rises to the surface. During bottom fermentation (about 10 degrees), which spreads when refrigeration machines appear, the yeast is concentrated at the bottom of the container. In the modern world, the second type of fermentation is most often used.
64. Lager is the most popular beer style. 87% of the beer market in the United States Lagers like Corona and Budweiser account for, and the most common type of lager is Pilsner, named after his hometown of Pilsen, Czech Republic. Beer brewing in Pilsen began in the 1200s, but it was the light golden lager that was first made by the Bavarian Josef Groll in 1842. Since then, it has been marketed under the brand name Pilsner Urquell, which prides itself on using Saaz hops, which give the beer a particularly mild flavor, and is named after the Polish town of Zatec.
Despite the fact that Schwarzbier is black, this is a lager, although it is more common to see lagers as golden.
65. Lagers are made on all continents. The Bavarians are very close to the Czech Republic, so they quickly adopted the Pilsner brew, modifying it - the German Pilsners are fresher and more bitter, due to the fact that they use different hops there. Lagers are actively made in the USA, Austria and Japan - in the latter can be to them , rice, potatoes, soybeans and corn added. The public is more accustomed to seeing light lagers, but there are also black ones, such as Schwarzbier, one of the most popular beers in Germany. This beer is a great example of how a dark beverage can be light and refreshing: it has a mild roasted flavor with very clean notes of caramel and coffee. The German brewery Köstritzer is best known for its Schwarzbiers, which has almost five hundred years of history. In addition, such unusual lagers as India Pale Lager are brewed in the world with hopping like IPA or brut lagers, which the amylase enzyme gives sparkle like champagne.
66. The German town of Einbock was a major brewing center in the late Middle Ages: since it was part of the Hanseatic League, local artisans exported most of their produce before the Hanseatic fell into decay in the 16th century. Almost half of the inhabitants of the city made beer: the malt was dried in attics, and it was brewed in a special mobile boiler, which belonged to the city and was brought into the courtyards one by one. This interesting practice, among other things, is evidenced by urban architecture: in many houses, instead of gates, there were huge arches. There is a legend that one of the Bavarian dukes Maximilian was so fond of Einbeck beer that he could not survive the interruptions in supply, so he called the local brewer Elias Pichler to his place to ensure that the drink was always available. Initially, bock - and this is exactly what this beer was called - was made by top fermentation, but Pichler adapted it to Bavarian tastes and over time this style began to be brewed in a larger way. It is believed that the block was the favorite style of theologian and reformer Martin Luther. There are several sub-styles of the bock: a stronger and denser doppelbock, a light tee, and a dark.
67. Not all brewers agree with the strict division, which is why they lager / ale brew hybrid beers. These are ales brewed at typical lager temperatures and vice versa. Or ales that used lager yeast. This brewing method conveys the characteristics of both beer categories, and their styles are nearly impossible to classify. There are several varieties that are produced in this manner. For example, Altbier (old beer) is a typical Düsseldorf style, a bottom-fermented bitter variety, although in many respects it is similar to lagers. Or steam beer, which has been brewed in the States since the 19th century. Initially, it was a lager, which was fermented at unusual temperatures for speed - because of this, its quality deteriorated, but the price became low. Why it was named "steam" is unknown: according to one version, this is due to the fact that it was exposed to the street for rapid cooling, and it emitted steam. On the other, there was so much carbon dioxide in the barrels that it had to be released as steam.
68. Everything that was produced in the German city of Cologne used to be called Kölsch. However, at the beginning of the 20th century, this word was firmly entrenched in local beer - light, highly fermented, hopped, top-fermented, produced in accordance with the Law on Purity. To protect the name and outline the main conditions for the production of the variety, in 1985 24 Cologne breweries signed the Kölsch Convention, which specified the requirements for packaging, labels, advertising, as well as the rules for sale, sale and cooperation with intermediaries. Today, in Cologne bars, köbs - waiters in traditional blue cardigans - pour kölsch into long narrow 0.2-liter glasses and serve it on a special tray with a handle - a kölsch-kränz.
Cologne Köbs waiter with a Kölsch fender in hand
69. Barleywine is a strong, dark, almost black English ale, around which a lot of controversy arises. The term Barley Wine was originally used as a poetic synonym for ale. Beginning in the 1870s, a beer that began to be sold in Britain the brewers themselves called Barleywine, such as the Bass Brewery in Burton-upon-Trent. According to researcher Martin Cornell, there is no difference between barleywine and traditional strong aged ales - this is just a marketing ploy that has spread since the 20th century. In barleywine, alcohol can reach 12%, so it was traditionally sold in small bottles. Perhaps in order to give the beer a more wine-like flavor, in accordance with its name, it was aged in barrels from port, whiskey or bourbon.
70. Due to the numerous British wars at the end of the 17th century, there was a sharp increase in taxes and prices in the country, including for brewing raw materials. It became particularly expensive because of malt, which is why its share and the quality of the product fell sharply.But on hops recently imported from the mainland, taxes did not rise as quickly, so the amount in beer increased. However, for the British, such a drink was too strong and sour, because they were accustomed to the traditional swedish ale, therefore, to save money, they began to mix two types of beer, and then leave for a long exposure - over time, the taste softened and the bitterness of the hops disappeared. The new dark drink became very popular with the working class and was named "porter" after the porters and stevedores who loved to drink it. While it is widely believed that porter was invented by London brewer Ralph Harwood around the 1720s, mixing several different varieties with each other, documents found indicate that porters were known to the British in the past. Due to the possibility of long-term storage, the porter could be imported to other countries, where it took root in its variations. In Poland, for example, a Baltic porter has emerged, which is made with yeast for lagers rather than ales. In pre-revolutionary Russia, this style became known as "imperial stout" because it was loved at the court of Catherine II. Today, the most popular American porters, which are craft brewers, revived after the repeal of "Prohibition" in the United States.
71. Initially, any strong beer was called a stout, and a little later - a stronger porter. In the second half of the 19th century, less black malt than porters and more brown malt began to be added to stouts, giving the stouts a drier flavor. Today, between them there are practically no technological differences, except for the one that is usually used for porters solozhony barley, and for stouts - nesolozhonyzhzhony,but even this rule has exceptions. Inside the stouts, oats (with the addition of oats), Irish, grown from Guinness porters on roasted malt, sweet tropical, made for export to hot countries, and others are distinguished.
72. Tax increases for raw materials has led to the appearance of the Paleales.In the early 18th century, it became cheaper to brew beer at home than to buy it in pubs and shops; in addition, at home it is easier to control the quality of the ingredients, and hence the quality of the drink. When people moved around the country, they were looking for something similar to their familiar home-brewed beer. This led to the fact that artisans began to experiment with beer, trying to find the very taste - and so a highly hopped bitter pale ale, brewed with light malt, was born. The public got tired of the porter, and with the proliferation of transparent glasses, there was a demand for a beautiful, non-cloudy beer that was more difficult to counterfeit. So pale ale became a real British hit. Especially popular was the pale ale from Burton-upon-Trent, a small town in Staffordshire that was formerly known for its quality brown ales. The mineralization of the local springs was believed to be ideal for preparing light strong ales.
Burton-upon-Trent has been famous for its breweries for centuries. Here is the National Brewery Center, where you can get acquainted with the history of the drink in the city
73. By the 19th century, the British East India Company gradually colonized India, discovering unhindered trade in the country. Brewers also drew attention to this market, and the most notable among them was James Hodgson: from the 1780s he practically monopolized the supply of various beers, united under the name Indian Ale, to the colony. However, already in the 1820s, other companies and artisans were able to win the true love of the local public with a brighter beer. Burton brewers sent their pale ales to India. At that time, the transportation of products was possible only by sea and took about six months, and during this time the beer fell into disrepair. Only heavily hopped varieties could preserve their freshness and taste, but porter, although it was familiar to British soldiers, who were full in the country due to national uprisings against the colonialists, was too dense and heavy for the hot climate. Pale ales, on the other hand, are bright, sparkling, with a bitter taste - perfect for quenching thirst and refreshing. Like many other styles of beer, India Pale Ale or IPA virtually disappeared during the World Wars of the 20th century, but reemerged in America in the 1970s with the rise of craft beer.
74. Already in our time, a new style of pale ale was born - NEIPA, which most often stands for New England India Pale Ale. Even though NEIPA emerged in the 2000s, it's hard to say who came up with it. It is believed that the Alchemist and Hill Farmstead breweries in Vermont, and then TreeHouse and Trillium in Massachusetts, began brewing it at about the same time. This style is cloudy, sweet, light, like a tropical juice, while the IPA is clear and very bitter due to the high hop content. NEIPA also has hops, but it is added at the very end of the boil, so it gives its aroma to the drink, without having time to make it bitter. This style is very popular in the USA, where even small artisans brew it.
75. Before hops became one of the most important ingredients, the Netherlands, France, Belgium, Germany and other northern countries used gruit, a mixture of herbs to add flavor and aroma to beer, usually including wormwood, wild rosemary, horse and dog mint, yarrow, juniper, rosemary, marsh myrtle and other plants. The composition of this mixture depended on local traditions and the available plants, many of which are poisonous or known for their psychotropic effects, making the drink highly intoxicating. The first mention of fruit dates back to the 10th century, when the German king Otto II granted the right to trade in the mixture to some churches: at that time, when buying beer raw materials, a tax had to be paid, so only bishops, nobles or large farmers could sell gruit. In many cities there were special people - gruyters who made the mixture and sold it to the brewers. Over time, the Catholic Church practically monopolized the sale of gruit, and hops became an increasingly common ingredient without paying for it. The last nail in the coffin of the herbal mixture was the Protestants. They promoted austerity and abstinence, which influenced the adoption in the 16th-18th centuries of a number of laws prohibiting the use of psychotropic additives in brewing. But the main reason for the disappearance of gruit was religious politics and the decline in the influence of Catholicism in the northern countries. Now gruits are also boiled, but very rarely.
76. In some bars you can see the Sauer - it's not exactly a beer style, but rather a general name for all kinds of acid.Lambics, Gueuze, Gose, Flemish ales, Berliner Weisse or smoked German ales - Liechtenheiners can be hiding here. The latter were once common throughout Germany, but now they are very rare. They are brewed with wheat or barley smoked over an open fire, which give the beer a smoky aroma. And the sour taste appears due to lactic acid bacteria. By the way, in Germany there is another famous beer that is brewed with smoked malt - rauchbier.
Rauchbier was historically made in Franconia, in the city of Bamberg
77. Lambic is made according to the old technology of "spontaneous fermentation": the wort for lambic is boiled, and then left to ferment in an open vessel, without adding special brewer's yeast there.can enter the vessel Any microorganisms, so it is impossible to accurately predict the taste of the resulting drink, however, it cannot be called completely unpredictable either, since brewers still observe the temperature regime and limit the ingress of some bacteria into the mash. The special sour taste of lambics is largely attributed to the yeast strains of Brettanomyces, the most famous of which are B. bruxellensis and B. lambicus, named after the Belgian capital and local style. If in the barrels the beer still tastes too different, then it can be mixed with each other so that the batch is homogeneous. It is believed that real lambic, like champagne, is made only in the Senne river valley - the Pajottenland region and near Brussels, and everything else is just beer "in style".
78. Lambic began to be brewed around the 17th century, but by the 19th it had become a hit. By 1900, there were about 80 breweries in the vicinity of Brussels, specializing in lambic. It became an everyday drink, and farmers often took a bottle with them to work in the fields. From the middle of the century, the popularity of the style began to decline: large players appeared on the market who offered a simpler and more understandable to the consumer light lager, and the popularity of soda with a lot of sugar influenced the mass love for sweet beer. Some breweries closed, others began to sweeten their product on purpose, and as a result, the quality of the lambics dropped. It wasn't until the 1990s that a revival began, fueled by a general interest in local production, especially craft beer, the proliferation of the internet, and the publication of books such as Tom Webbs' LambicLand. Brewers began to come up with cultural events to promote lambics: interactive production tours, tastings, and festivals. Currently, this style of beer is perceived by the Belgians as one of the elements of the country's cultural heritage.
79. Gueuze is a type of lambic for which young (about a year old) and old (about 2-3 years old) beer is mixed. After filling in a bottle, the drink is fermented and becomes highly carbonated. Gueuze is called "Brussels champagne": it is believed that when Napoleon's troops occupied Belgium, a general fashion for sparkling wine began. An enterprising brewer from Geuzenstraat collected empty champagne bottles and poured lambic into them - the beer was so successful that it gained popularity and got its name from Geuzen Street. Although the Lindemans company, which is famous for its lambics, believes that the name comes from the French gazeux, that is, carbonated. Gueuze is usually sweetish in taste with a strong sour aftertaste.
Map of the 1997 Toer de Geuze festival. This is a festival in the Pajottenland region, held twice a year, during which you can get free guided tours and tastings of gueuze and lambics at local breweries
80. Cherry lambic is called scream. It is also made by blending two lambics of different ages with the addition of overripe sour Morello cherries: according to tradition, they are not crushed, but dipped into a barrel of beer, either whole or with a slightly damaged skin. In addition to cherry lambic in Belgium, other types of lambic are made - framboise (raspberry), peche (peach), cassis (black currant) and faro, to which caramelized sugar is added.
81. Gueuze is often confused with gosé - a German beer with a thousand-year history, which is also produced by spontaneous top fermentation with the addition of coriander and salt. It began to be brewed in the city of Goslar in Lower Saxony, but this style gained particular popularity in Leipzig, where by 1800 there were about 80 taverns specializing in gose. Despite strong love, it remained a regional drink, as lagers supplanted almost all ales, and may have completely disappeared due to the wars, but its recipe has survived. The style revived at home at the end of the 20th century and continues to develop now, including among craft breweries on the Russian market.
The area of distribution of sahti and other Scandinavian beer drinks
82. Sahti is a type of beer produced in Finland based on barley, rye, juniper and baker's yeast. It was originally brewed for home use rather than commercial sale, so the recipe has remained largely unchanged over the years. Most often it was made for family events like weddings. Sahti was especially common in western Finland, while in the eastern regions of the country, low-alcohol kalya beer was preferred, whose traditional recipe has practically disappeared. Interestingly, saunas were often used to malt the grain, in which it was possible to maintain a high temperature for a long time. Usually sahti is infused in barrels, not steel vats, protected from oxidation and not filtered - the beer tastes sweet with hints of milkshake. Today in Finland there are only six breweries that brew this style, but for none it is the main one.
83. Berliner Weiss is a cloudy wheat beer with noticeable sourness and high carbonation. It contains only about 3% alcohol. This style is shrouded in many legends. Someone says that Berliner Weiss was inspired by the Huguenots who moved to the German capital from France in the 18th century and missed their usual wine. Someone that one famous 16th century brewer Kord Broyhan from Hanover, while traveling in Hamburg, tasted a previously unknown beer and tried to copy it at home. There is a widespread story that Napoleon called this beer "Northern Champagne". Today Berliner Weiss is very popular in Berlin and is often drunk at dinner, adding various syrups such as raspberry or apple. Berliner has a protected geographic name and can only be produced in the German capital and the surrounding area; however, it is prepared only in two companies - Berliner Kindl and Schultheiss.
Rodenbach Grand Cru - one of the benchmarks for sour ales
84. Flemish or Belgian red ales have their roots in experiments with porter. In the early 1870s, Fleming Eugene Rodenbach studied at a brewery in England, from where he returned home with recipes for this rich dark beer. He began to brew ale, aging it in oak barrels for several years and adding to the yeast lactobacilli, which gave the drink a characteristic sour taste. Later, he founded the Rodenbach Brewery, which sold ready-made blended yeast to other artisans within 50 km of Roeselare, and these breweries produced their own Belgian red and sour brown beer from it. Although the practice of yeast blending spread throughout Europe, Rodenbach is still considered the benchmark for red ales.
85. Brown is another classic Flemish ale. In 1829, Dr. Jean-Baptiste Vrankin wrote that "a dark beer that burns the palate and constricts the throat" is poured in Flanders, and a little later the brewer Georges Lacambre noted its "bitter, rough and tart taste." The popularity of brown beer gradually grew and by the end of the 19th century it became a hit of sales: it was thanks to it that Liefmans, after the damage to its buildings during the First World War, was still able to become the 21st largest brewery in Belgium in terms of production. At that time, these ales tasted quite sour, so they were compared to wine. Over time, it softened: brewers indulge the tastes of the public, addicted to Coca-Cola and other sweet sodas, which, as in the case of lambics, influenced the recipe for ales. Since the 1980s, the popularity of this style has been steadily declining, and some brown beer companies have gone bust.
86. In the French-speaking region of Belgium, the saison, a seasonal golden ale made from the remnants of the fall harvest for the summer, when additional workers were hired to the fields, was widespread among the peasantry. To quench their thirst, a light beer was brewed, refreshing in the heat. The saison recipe is optional: if a berry is born in the summer, then it can be added to the future beer, but if not, then the beer will be brewed from other ingredients. That is why it is now difficult to find two brewers following the same brewing method, since saison is more about a format than a specific taste. In France, there is a similar drink - bière de garde, or "beer for storage", which was also brewed in advance, before the season of active work, so that the peasants could devote all their time to the harvest, and not to cooking.about bière de garde these days. Little is said, and although there are many variations of it in its homeland - from light honey to darker and more fruity, craft brewers rarely use it in their experiments.
87. During the Reformation, the Catholic Cistercian order, which had branched off from the Benedictine order, began to decline. The monks from the Norman abbey of La Trappe decided that one should not succumb to sins and should focus on the strict discipline and asceticism that Saint Benedict bequeathed. The followers of the restrictions became known as Trappists, and in 1892 the Pope officially recognized them as a separate order. However, due to the French Revolution and the persecution of Catholics, Trappists settled throughout Europe, including Belgium. The monks themselves produced everything necessary for life, including brewing beer for themselves and for sale. They noticed that the wort can be filtered repeatedly, making it a lighter drink each time. The strongest first infusions they sold in the villages, the weaker ones, called petite beer - small beer, they kept for themselves or distributed to the poor. It is believed that this system gave names to the classic monastic ales - single, dubbel, triple and quadruple. The strongest varieties were marked by monks with four crosses (Quadrupel from the word quad - four), and the weakest - only one. Over time, the Trappists began to imitate, and in 1962 the monks filed a lawsuit against unscrupulous brewers using a false name. Since 1997, the International Trappist Association has existed: only 20 abbeys that are members of it are entitled to the original name of the beer.
Trappist monk in the brewery of the Abbey of La Trappe
88. The monks brewed a strong and aromatic beer without strong hoppy bitterness. Despite the ban on the use of the Trappist name in production and sale, no one restricted copying the recipe, so secular versions of the drink appeared, called abbey beer. The most common beer was the dowel - in 1926, Westmill Abbey released Dubbel Bruin, which gained a lot of followers and admirers. It is a dark amber beer with a complex malt sweetness and 6-7% ABV, and caramelized sugar is often added to it. The quadruple is considered to be a stronger version of the dowel - the amount of alcohol can be up to 14%. Tripel is a light golden beer also made famous by Westmill. Its fortress is kept in the region of 7-10%. A single is very rare due to its weakness (about 3%) and unsaturation.
89. While many beer styles revived after World War II, some of them have disappeared forever. This happened, for example, with the Berliner oud (or Berliner alto in German). A few years ago, the brewer Marco Loret discovered an old label. It indicated that the Berliner alto was produced by Gustaf Hustinks at the Pauw brewery in Culemborg. The brewery itself was opened in the 19th century, but Houstinks owned it for only a few years - from 1909 to 1913. Beer researcher Rowell Mulder has found advertising campaigns from different masters who have brewed this species since the 1880s, but could not find any recipes, so the taste of Berliner alto remains a mystery. Mulder suggests that it could be a Dutch imitation of German varieties, judging by the name, and most likely fantasy, because the style did not take root and faded into oblivion.
90. While roasted malt can add a coffee-like flavor to beer, natural coffee can be added to the beverage. It is most commonly used in porters, stouts, especially imperial, dark and pale ales. The taste will be very dependent on the grain and its roast, so there can be many variations of coffee beers. In America's new craft era, the plant began to be used in the 1990s, when radical blends of coffee, chocolate and oats or coffee, Mexican vanilla and sugar appeared. Interestingly, the coffee can be added whole, ground or already brewed, including by cold brew.
- Tomato goes from Saldens, a craft Russian brewery
91. Tomatoes are a popular ingredient in beer, especially gose. Most likely, the experiment with tomatoes originates from the famous Mexican cocktail that serves prepada, sometimes called chavela or michelada. According to legend, michelada was invented by a bartender in San Luis Potosi as a hangover and fatigue remedy in the 1910s. In addition to beer, its composition includes tomato juice, lime, spices and hot sauce, depending on the region.
92. Brewing with grapes is considered a special art, as the result is a wine-beer hybrid. The abundance of varieties of this fruit gives unusual flavors: for example, Viognier will give the drink aromas of melon and tropical fruits, and red varieties can give the beer the taste of black currant or cherry. Typically, red grapes like syrah or grenache are added to dark, rich beers like porter or strong ales, while white sauvignon blanc is ideal with gueuze or lambic. Since the 1970s, the Belgian company Cantillon has been brewing lambics every year with hand-picked nutmeg. When picking grapes, the smallest details should be taken into account: there will be a difference between the fruits harvested from the southern and northern sides of the vineyard, and if you cut off the bunches with branches, then a woody note will appear in the taste.
93. In the United States , pizza-flavored beer is brewed. In 2013, Tom and Anthea Seifert from Chicago brewed beer with oregano, basil, tomatoes, garlic and even pizza crumbs. Initially, it was assumed that the resulting mixture could be used as a marinade, but the drink turned out to be so good that they began to drink it just like that. Other brewers also picked up the idea - Liquid Margarita can now be found in many American companies and even in Russian artisans, for example, Pizza Boy from Selfmade Brewery.
94. In the last decade, more and more types of beer have been added to which avocado is added. In 2013, American brewery Angel City Brewery brewed an avocado beer, adding cilantro, red pepper, lime and honey to create a guacamole flavor. After that, Bush Shack Brewery in Australia and Rocky Knob in New Zealand did some experiments. This is a seasonal story, as beer is highly dependent on the harvest of the fruit. Avocado gives the drink not only taste, but also a delicate creamy texture.
95. There are several banana bread flavored breweries around the world, such as Eagle Brewery and Wells and Young's, which introduced the exotic beer in 2002.wort Mashed bananas are added to the, which, when combined with malt, give a bright taste of fruitcake. In general, bananas are a standard ingredient for beer in many African countries: in Rwanda they cook urwagwa, in the Congo - kasixi, in Uganda - mubishi. It is important for this drink to use bananas at their peak of ripeness, as overripe can ruin the taste. Boiled water and fried grains are added to mashed bananas, which have yielded juice. Beer is not heated, but must be filtered to prolong its short shelf life, as bananas are an excellent medium for microbial growth.
96. During the Victorian era in Britain, stout was often consumed with oysters in pubs - the bittersweet taste perfectly complemented the salty shellfish. It is believed that the shells could end up in beer vats because they purify the water, which means they can clarify the beer, masking low-quality or over-dried malt. It is not known exactly when oyster meat was added to the beer itself for flavor, but in 1939 New Zealand's Barnes Oysters began shipping oyster concentrate to British brewers. Sources say that it took at least 18 months to develop the drink, and the amount of concentrate in a bottle is equivalent to one whole oyster. Oyster stout has never been a mainstream beer, and doesn't even stand out as a distinct style, but today some craft breweries are making it experimentally.
97. Petersburg brewery Hophead Gose brewed with the taste of soups and national dishes. The line includes beer with the taste of okroshka, French onion soup, sour cabbage soup, Bulgarian chorba, Megrelian ajika, pickle, tom yam, pho bo, Armenian dogwood soup, kharcho, Indian curry and others. To create taste, edible ingredients are really added to the wort - vegetables, spices, herbs, cheese and even meat broths.
98. Although beer is not the most popular ingredient in cocktails, many drinks are made from it besides the ruff (a mixture of beer and vodka). One of the most famous cocktails, the Moscow mule, which consists of vodka and ginger beer, was invented in the United States and has many variations. In addition to it, in bars you can try shandy or radler (lager with lemonade), michelada, Mississippi porter-fur (porter with bourbon and rum), black velveteen (beer with champagne), beer mojito, chocolate mixtures of liqueurs and porters, and others. Sometimes there are some really weird recipes like beer with ice cream or eggs.
99.Wat Pa Maha Chedi Kaew Temple, 600 kilometers from Bangkok, has an unusual appearance, created from a large number of used Heineken beer bottles and a local type of beer.
100.The Vikings believed that in Valhalla, their heaven, a goat with a udder was waiting for them, which would always supply them with beer.
Sometimes you can learn a lot of useful things from the Internet by simply leafing through pictures. In this post Bemorepanda collected different facts about everything that will help broaden our horizons, as well as distract for a couple of minutes from the routine.
1. In 2016, a Chinese businessman Xiong Shuihua demolished all the houses in his native village and built villas in their place.
2. You would be confused to see such a door in your entrance for the first time. This is just a drawing with an optical illusion.
3. The Varani people live in Ecuador. After lengthy litigation, they won a case against an oil company claiming their land. In the photo, members of the Amazon tribe in the courtroom.
4. In 2015, Ford installed wide-angle front and rear 1-megapixel cameras on its cars that allow "seeing from around the corner." The problem of "blind" zones has been solved.
5. Animal rights advocates have figured out how to protect elephants from poachers: they painted the animal tusks with pink paint, which is marked with banknotes in banks. It does not harm the animal, but it is impossible to wash it off. Buyers do not need such tusks.
6. Does it look edible? In fact, in the photo there is not grapes, but a mineral called "grape chalcedony".
7. This is the cross sea. It looks like this because of wave systems moving at different angles.
8. This is a tree called Jabuticaba (or Brazilian grape tree). Its fruits grow directly from the bark.
9. The guy took off the lightning for 2 hours and then combined all the frames in one.
10. City in Peru around the oasis in Huacachina.
11. In the Congaree National Park, the water in the lake turns different colors at a certain temperature.
12. Blacks couples born white baby. No, the DNA test confirmed that the spouses are the biological parents of the baby. Perhaps these are white dormant genes or mutating albinism.
13. Scientists have tracked eagle movements using GPS for 20 years. Here are his flights.
14. Trace after a needle prick on the skin, taken with a microscope.
15. This is how entrants of the GITIS acting faculty are evaluated in the era of coronavirus.
Ever since some Sheffield cricketers decided to try a new sport and set up the first football club in history, every team that has ever tied on the square or on the grass of the world's great stadiums has been looking for opponents on measure. There have been club tours in Europe since the 19th century, in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, then continued in various forms among the world wars until the 1950s, but the history of the Champions League, as we know it today, would begin in South America!
8 groups of 32 teams in the first round guarantee a minimum of 6 matches played for each club and this new format replaces the eliminatory scheme played in the old CCE. The UEFA Champions League began its adventure of conquering the world in the autumn of 1992 (exactly when the first season of the Premier League began!).
Bemorepanda has collected 100 interesting facts for you.
1. Real Madrid scored the most goals - 439
2. And missed the most 231 goals
3. Porto suffered the most losses - 51
4. Zlatan Ibrahimovic, Nicolas Anelka, Javier Saviola each played for 6 different teams
5. Ryan Giggs is a player with most Champions League appearances (19 rallies)
6. Iker Casillas played the most minutes (13,450)
7. Raul is the fielder with the most playing minutes (11,999)
8. Thierry Henry missed the most penalties (5)
9 . Zlatan Ibrahimovic and David Luiz are most removed - 4 times
10. Marco Balotta - the age goalkeeper (43 years and 253 days)
11. Cristiano Ronaldo - the player who won the most consecutive wins (14)
12. Péteri Ofori-Kwai - the young goalscorer (17 years and 195 days)
13. Arsene Wenger is the coach with the most appearances (19 rallies)
14. Carlo Ancelotti has coached the most teams (6)
15. Alex Ferguson is the coach with the most Champions League appearances (190 )
16. Arsene Wenger - coach with naib with most losses (49 matches)
17. Real Madrid (winner of the 2013/2014 season) with most goals per match (3.15)
18. Totalplayed 2533games Champions League
19. Total 1261 home wins, 650 away wins and 622 draws
20. Total scored 6,783 goals
21. Total shot 534 penalties, 125 missed
22. The most popular 1: 1 score met in 280 games
23. Real Marid, Barcelona, Porto and Manchester United are the teams with the most participation (20 draws )
24. Most productive match Monaco - Deportivo 8: 3 (05.11.2003)
25. Glasgow Rangers-Unira - the game with the most own goals (3 -20.10.2009)
26. Final (Real Madrid - Atlético) - the game with the most yellow cards (12)
27. The most common penalty is prescribed ingate the Arsenal(22 times)
28. most often disposed of players Juventus(20 times)
29. Kim Milton Nielsen - the referee, judging the most (53 games)
30. France - the country, represented the largest number of players (471)
31. Players of 124 nationalities played in matches
32. Daniel Amokachi - scorer of the first goal (25.11.1992 Bruges-CSKA 1: 0)
33. Lionel Messi and Luiz Adriano scored the most goals in one match (5)
34. Francesco Totti - oldest goal scorer (38 years and 59 days)
35. Celesten Babayaro - youngest debutant (16 years and 87 days)
36. Raul - youngest hat-trick at the age of 18 years 114 days (18.10.1995 Real Madrid - Ferencvaros 6: 1 (24, 25, 84 minutes)
37.13 Spanish teams have participated in at least one Champions League (Athletic, Atlético, Barcelona, Betis, Valencia, Villarreal, Deportivo, Malaga, Mallorca, Real Madrid, Real Sociedad, Sevilla, Celta)
38. Luis Figo and Ruud Van Nistelrooy scored the most spenalti (10)
39. Manchester United - the team the most times played a draw (52 times)
40. Barcelona scored the most goals in the gate (9)
41. Marco Van Basten - the author of the first het-trick Champions League (25.11.1992 Milan-Gothenburg)
42. Glasgow Rangers - the team that won the first away victory (09.12.1992 CSKA-Glasgow Rangers 0: 1). Although formally the meeting took place in Bochum (Germany)
43. Donetsk Shakhtar - the author of the biggest away victory 7: 0
44. Real Madrid did not score the most penalties (11)
45. The referees most often sent off players in matches against Barcelona (29 times)
46. Real Madrid is the team with the most victories in one competition (12 - 2001/2002)
47. Maccabi Haifa (2009/2010) and Deportivo (2005/2005) have not scored a single goal
48. Iker Casillas - the player who played most often in the starting lineup (149 times) and finished the match (145 times)
49. Alessandro Nesta - the player who did not score in 99 matches
50. Vanden Borre - the player who did not win in 23 matches in a row
51. Xavi - the player with the most wins (91)
52. Raul was the first to play 100 matches in the Champions League
53. Cristiano Ronaldo opened the scoring most often (29 times)
54. The biggest victory in the history of the tournament - Liverpool-Besiktas 8: 0 (06.11.2007 )
55. Carles Puyol won the trophy most of all as captain - 3 times
56. Roy Macaay - scored the fastest goal 10.12 seconds (07.03.2007 Bayern-Real Madrid)
57. Milan most often played in the finals (6 times), Bayern, Barcelona and Juventus (5 times), Real Madrid and Manchester United 4 times
58. Juventus lost more than all finals (4 times), Milan and Bayern 3 times
59. Real Madrid (4) and Porto (1 time) have never lost in the final
60. Cristiano Ronaldo has scored the most in one draw - 17 goals (2013 / 2014)
61. The biggest difference in the final - Milan-Barcelona (4: 0) 05/18/1994
62. Liverpool-Milan (3: 3) - the most productive final (05/25/2005)
63. 5 players with doubles in the finals - Daniele Massaro (1993/1994), Karl Heinz Riedle (1996/1997), Hernan Crespo (2004/2005), Filippo Inzaghi (2006/2007), Diego Milito (2009/2010)
64.4 players scored in two finals - Raul ( 1999/2000 and 2001/2002), Cristiano Ronaldo (2007/2008 and 2013/2014), Lionel Messi (2008/2009 and 2010/2011), Samuel Eto'o (2005/2006 and 2008/2009)
65. Carlo Ancelotti won the trophy three times (2002/2003, 2006/2007 with Milan and 2013/2014 with Real Madrid)
66. Coaches who won the trophy with different teams - Otmar Hitzfeld (Borussia D 1996/1997 and Bayern 2000/2001), Jupp Heinckess (Real Madrid 1997/1998 and Bayern 2012/2 013), Jose Mourinho (Porto 2003/2004 and Inter 2009/2010), Carlo Ancelotti (Milan 2002/2003, 2006/2007 and Real Madrid 2013/2014)
67. Oldest winning coach - Raymond Gutals (71 and 232 days)
68.6 times the winner was determined in a penalty shootout - Juventus-Ajax (1995/1996), Bayern-Valencia (2000/2001), Milan-Juventus (2002/2003), Liverpool-Milan (2004/2005), Manchester United -Chelsea (2007/2008), Chelsea-Bayern (2011/2012)after
69.1 time winner extra time - Real Madrid-Atlético 2013/2014 (4: 1)
70. Oldest fielder - Alessandro Costacurta 40 years old and 213 days (21.11.2006 AEK - Milan 1: 0)
71. Clarence Seedorf - the only one who won the Champions League with 3 different clubs (Ajax 1994/1995, Real Madrid 1997/1998, Milan 2002/2003, 2006/2007)
72. Frank Rijkaard is the only one who won the Champions League as a player (Ajax 1994/1995) and coach (Barcelona 2005/2006)
73. Final Milan-Liverpool (2004/2005, 2006/2007) and Barcelona-Manchester United (2008/2009 , 2010/2011) played twice
74. Real Madrid and Bayern - the team, who had gained the most consecutive wins (10)
75. 130 teams at least once participated in the draw of the tournament
76. Barcelona more than any win on the road - 45 matches
77 20 different stadiums hosted the final of the Champions League
78. In 13 of them the different winner was ahead
79. 14 teams lost all matches in the group stage of the Champions League - Kosice (1997/1998), Fenerbahce (2001/2002), Spartak Moscow (2002/2003), Anderlecht (2004/2005), Rapid (2005/2006), Levski (2006/2007), Dynamo Kiev (2007/2008), Debrecen (2009/2010), Zhilina (2010/2011), Partizan (2010/2011), Maccabi Haifa (2009/2010), Villarreal (2011/2012), Otelul (2011/2012), Olympique Marseille (2103/2014)
80. Real Madrid-Bayern have met the most in the Champions League - 22 times
81. Liverpool-Chelsea more often all met as representatives of one of the country - 10 times
82 5 finals played by representatives of the same country (Real Madrid-Valencia 1999/2000, Milan-Juventus 2002/2003, Manchestr e United-Chelsea 2007/2008, Bayern-Borussia D 2012/2013, Real Madrid-Atlético 2013/2014)
83. And only once by teams from the same city (Real Madrid-Atlético 2013/2014)
84. Marcel Desailly (Olympique 1992 / 1993 and Milan 1993/1994), Paulo Sousa (Juventus 1995/1996 and Borussia D 1996/1997), Gerard Piqué (Manchester United 2007/2008 and Barcelona 2008/2009) and Samuel Eto'o (Barcelona 2008/2009 and Inter 2009/2010) have won the Champions League twice in a row
85. Marcelo Lippi, Alex Ferguson and Carlo Ancelotti with their teams have4 times playedin the Champions League final
86. Jupp Hynckess, Rafael Benitez, Josep Guardiola, Carlo Ancelotti, Roberto Di Matteo and Luis Enrique won the trophy in their very first season
87. Chelsea is the only team to be eliminated in the group stage after winning the Champions League (2012/2013)
88. Athens (Olympiacos, Panathinaikos, AEK - 2003/2004), and London (Arsenal. Chelsea, Tottenham - 2003/2004) represented 3 teams each in the Champions League
89. Only Juventus (1995/1996) and Borussia D (1996/1997) managed to become winners in their country
90. Only Spanish teams won the Champions League in a row (Real Madrid 2013/2014 and Barcelona 2014/2015)
91. Brothers who won the Champions League - Frank and Ronald de Boers, Gary and Phil Neville, Gabi and Diego Milito
92. Brazilians scored the most in the Champions League - 747 goals
93. Raul was the first to reach marks of 50 goals
94. Van Tiggelen became the first player sent off in the match (25/11/1992 Porto - PSV 2: 2)
95. Alex Ferguson is the first coach to score 100 wins
96. 3,002 goals scored in the first half
97. 3,764 scored in the second half
98. 9 goals scored in extra time
99. 5848 players have played at least one minute in the match
100 343 coach took part in at least one match