20 buildings that pretend to be something else, including a supermarket in a theater and a school in a mall
Would you like to live in a former prison? And study at the mall? In any case, people were not made any offers before they ended up in buildings that were previously used for a completely different purpose. It is obvious that not all buildings are universal, but this does not stop some businessmen from making a supermarket in the old theater building or converting it into a church into a grocery store. It sounds like a complete fiction, however, these are all real cases that actually happened. 16 buildings that pretend to be something else await you next! Bemorepanda collected some cool pics.
"My apartment building used to be a school."
Starbucks at the site of an old car wash
"This thrift store used to be a bowling alley."
Bank converted to McDonald's
“My house used to be a police station and my bathroom is an old prison cell. The old window is still in place. "
Church converted into a grocery store
"My college used to be a shopping mall."
“The Subway Café I visited today used to be a bank. Instead of removing the vault, they just put the seats inside it. "
This gym used to be a bank
Regular residential building converted to Burger King, Columbus, Georgia, USA
This supermarket in Venice used to be a theater
“My school used to be a bank. My lesson takes place in the vault "
Former gas station remodeled at Starbucks, Miami, Florida, USA
This supermarket used to be a hockey stadium. They even decided not to remove the scoreboard.
“The local Mexican restaurant used to be Chinese. Instead of painting over a drawing on the wall, they just drew a sombrero on the pandas. "
This decommissioned aircraft is now a McDonald's branch, New Zealand.
80 amazing facts about seals
These amazing animals, seals, just seem clumsy. Yes, on land they appear to be such lumps, but in the water, they are swift, strong, and graceful. However, much still depends on the specific species to which the seal belongs - many of them differ vary significantly from each other. But it was thanks to these animals that such a colloquial word as "seal" appeared, that is, to wallow, relax and do nothing. But what, after all, these marine animals really often allow themselves to relax and unwind, although, of course, their life does not consist of continuous rest.
Fun facts about seals
1. Seals belong to the family of true seals.
2. Depending on the species, they can live in both salt and fresh water of the arctic, subarctic or temperate zones.
3. Currently, three types of seals are known: two of them are marine, and one is freshwater.
4. All seals, especially freshwater ones, are living relics that have been preserved on Earth since the end of the Tertiary period.
5. Seals are similar to seals, they have a spindle-shaped body, a small head and limbs that have evolved into flippers, thanks to which the seals are excellent swimmers and divers.
6. The neck of the seal is weakly expressed, sometimes it may even seem that it does not exist at all, and the body simply passes into a small, head with a flattened skull, smoothly turning into a slightly elongated muzzle.
7. In general, the seal's head is a bit similar in shape to a cat's, except for the fact that its muzzle is more elongated. The seals have no ears, they are replaced by auditory canals, which are invisible from the outside.
8. The eyes of this animal are large, dark and very expressive. The eyes of seal cubs seem especially large: huge and dark, they seem even more contrasting against the background of light wool and give the little seal a resemblance either to an owlet or some kind of alien creature.
9. Thanks to the third eyelid that seals have, they can swim and dive without fear of damaging their eyes. However, in the open air, the seal's eyes tend to water, which gives the impression that the animal is crying.
10. In the body of the seal there is a large fat layer that helps this animal survive in the harsh conditions of a cold climate and not freeze in icy water.
11. The same reserves of fat can help the seal survive a temporary hunger strike during a period of starvation, and thanks to them, the animal can lie for hours and even sleep on the surface of the water.
12. The skin of the seal is very strong and strong. It is covered with short, dense and harsh hair, which also protects the animal from hypothermia both in cold water and on ice or on the shore.
13. Between the fingers of these animals there are membranes, and on the front flippers, in addition, there are also powerful claws, thanks to which the seal makes holes in the ice in order to get to land or in order to rise to the surface of the water for a sip of fresh air.
14. The coat color of the seal, depending on the species, can be dark silver or brownish, while it is often covered with darker spots.
15. There are three types of seals. The ringed seal inhabits the temperate waters of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and the Arctic Ocean.
16. In Russia, ringed seals are found in all northern seas, as well as in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea.
17. The Caspian seal is endemic to the Caspian Sea.
18. The Baikal seal is not found anywhere else in the world, except for Lake Baikal.
19. Some scientists suggest that all types of seals are related to each other by a common origin, moreover, the ancestor of the Caspian and Baikal species is called the ringed seal, which migrated to Baikal and the Caspian about two million years ago and there evolved into two new species.
20. However, there is another version, according to which the ringed and Baikal seals simply had a common ancestor that appeared later than even the Caspian seal.
21. All three species differ from each other in color and, in part, in size.
22. The Caspian seal is the smallest of them, its dimensions are approximately 1.3 meters in length and weighs about 86 kilograms.
23. The Caspian seal is found along the coastline and on the rocky islands of the Caspian Sea, in winter it can also often be seen on drifting ice floes. In the warm season, it can even swim into the mouths of the Volga and the Urals.
24. Caspian seals eat fish and crustaceans that live in the Caspian Sea. They are especially willing to eat small herring and sprat - these are the types of fish that make up the bulk of their diet. The proportion of crustaceans is small - it is approximately 1% of the total amount of food.
25. One of the species of these animals, the ringed seal, was named so because of its unusual color, in which the dark rings on its skin have a light border.
26. The ringed seal, or akiba, is the most common species of true seals in the Arctic: according to conservative estimates, there are about 4 million ringed seals in the world.
27. Akiba is distributed in the seas of the Arctic Ocean from the Barents and White in the west to the Bering Sea in the east, it lives in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Baltic Sea, the Tatar Strait, the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga, and sometimes rises along the Neva to St. Petersburg.
28. This seal lives both in the coastal zone and in the open ocean, but more often it keeps in bays, straits and estuaries. This species does not make large regular migrations. In winter, the seal lives on the ice.
29. Subspecies of ringed seal: Baltic ringed seal, White Sea ringed seal, Ladoga ringed seal, Okhotsk, or Far Eastern ringed seal, Saimaa ringed seal.
30. Subspecies of the ringed seal live mainly in the polar or subpolar regions.
31. The White Sea seal lives in the Arctic and is the most common seal in the Arctic Ocean.
32. The Baltic seal lives in the cold waters of the northern regions of the Baltic, in particular, it can be seen off the coast of Sweden, Finland, Estonia and Russia. Sometimes this animal even swims to the coast of Germany.
33. Two other subspecies of the ringed seal - Ladoga and Saimaa, are freshwater and live in Lake Ladoga and Lake Saimaa.
34. The body length of adult ringed seals reaches 1.5 meters, weight 40-80 kilograms. Baltic specimens are even larger - 140 centimeters and 100 kilograms. Males are usually somewhat larger than females.
35. Akiba has excellent eyesight, hearing and sense of smell, which help the animal find food for itself and hide from predators in time. These seals feed on crustaceans, molluscs and fish (spiny goby, Greenland goby, pike, navaga, salmon, salmon).
36. Ringed seals never form colonies. Most often they stay alone, although sometimes they gather in small groups, which, however, are not very stable. All year round they spend at sea, for which their body is very well adapted.
37. The Baikal seal is not only an endemic of Lake Baikal, that is, it is found only here, but the Baikal seal is the only mammal of Lake Baikal. According to morphological and biological features, the Baikal seal is close to the ringed seal that lives in the seas of the Far North and the Far East. There are some signs of similarity between this seal and the Caspian species.
38. The origin of the seal in Baikal remains an unresolved issue to this day. Most researchers adhere to the point of view of I. D. Chersky that the seal entered Baikal from the Arctic Ocean through the Yenisei-Angara river system during the Ice Age simultaneously with the Baikal omul.
39. But there is another point of view - that the entire family of true seals, to which the Baikal seal belongs, originated in large freshwater reservoirs of Eurasia. And only then did the resettlement of three sister species begin: the Caspian seal mastered the Caspian Sea, the ringed one - the Arctic Ocean, and the Baikal one - the deepest freshwater lake.
40. However, there is no doubt that the seal owes its prosperity and high numbers in Baikal to its deep water and food web features.
BAIKAL SEALS ON THE USHKAN ISLANDS
41. The Baikal seal is widespread throughout the lake, but it is especially abundant in its northern and middle parts. The most favorite habitat for seals is the Ushkany Islands, located on the territory of the Zabaikalsky National Park.
42. The basis of nutrition of the Baikal seal is golomyanka and gobies. She eats about a ton of fish a year. In search of food, the seal dives to a depth of 200 meters and remains under water for 20-25 minutes.
43. Previously, it was believed that Baikal seals cause great damage to the whitefish population, but, as it turned out later, they come across them only by chance and the total number of sturgeons in the seal's diet is no more than 1-2%.
44. The seal is called the symbol of Baikal, the same as the famous Baikal omul, its images are used on the emblems. This is an interesting object of ecological tourism.
45. Every year, many wildlife lovers come to Baikal to see and, if possible, photograph it. The main flow of ecotourists goes to the Ushkany Islands, where the conditions for shooting are prepared.
46. It is believed that the Baikal seal has no natural enemies in nature: only humans are a danger to it. However, not often, but it happens that these animals are hunted by a brown bear.
47. Baikal seal cubs are usually safely hidden inside the den, because in the absence of a mother who has retired in search of food, they can become prey for foxes, sables or white-tailed eagles.
48. The ringed seal living in the ice of the Arctic has much more enemies. It is seals that are the main part of the diet of polar bears, and arctic foxes and large polar gulls prey on their cubs. In the water, killer whales and Greenland polar sharks pose a danger to ringed seals. Sometimes they can be hunted by walruses.
49. All seals are animals leading a mostly solitary lifestyle. Only during the breeding season do they gather in flocks. But even so, each seal tries to keep apart and drives away its relatives with an indignant snort.
50. The smallest among the subspecies of seals is the Ladoga seal, which lives in Lake Ladoga itself, has a body length of no more than 135 centimeters and a weight of 40 kilograms.
51. The seal spends most of its life in the water. She dives superbly and can spend up to 70 minutes underwater depending on the species. While diving, the animal's ear canals and nostrils are closed, so that under water it can breathe only thanks to the large volume of its lungs and the supply of air that fits in them.
52. Often these animals even sleep on the surface of the water, and their sleep is surprisingly strong: it happened that people, having swum up to sleeping seals, turned them over on purpose, and they did not even think of waking up.
53. The seal spends winter under water, only occasionally rising to the surface of the water in order to take a new breath of fresh air. On ice or on land, these animals begin to get out closer to the beginning of spring, when the breeding season begins.
54. Moreover, as a rule, seals have favorite places for rookeries, where they gather in order to continue their race.
55. Seals only on the ground can seem clumsy and clumsy creatures. In water, they are active, energetic and almost tireless. Under water, the speed of movement of the seal can be 25 km / h, although in a calm environment these animals swim much more slowly.
56. On the shore, seals move with the help of their front flippers and tail, sorting through them. In the event of danger, they begin to jump, while loudly slapping on the ice or ground with their front flippers and pushing off a hard surface with their tail.
57. Sea seals of cold latitudes, unlike freshwater ones, regardless of the time of year, prefer to spend most of their time on the ice or on the shore, and not in the water, where they dive only in case of danger or in order to get food.
58. Sexual dimorphism is externally expressed in the fact that individuals of different sexes differ from each other in size. Moreover, if the females of the Baikal seal are larger than the males, then the Caspian seal, on the contrary, the males are larger.
59. Depending on the species and gender, seals reach sexual maturity at 3-7 years of age, and males mature later than females. These animals bring cubs either annually or 2-3 years after the previous birth. Female seals usually give birth to one cub, but sometimes 2-3 cubs at a time.
60. It happens that a certain percentage of females after mating do not bring offspring. As a rule, 10-20% of the Baikal seals have such "vacations" every year.
61. The reasons for this still remain unclear: either this is due to the natural regulation of the level of livestock numbers, or simply not all females that have temporarily suspended the development of embryos resume it after a while. It is also not excluded that this phenomenon may be associated with some diseases transferred by the female or unfavorable living conditions.
62. Seals usually mate in the spring, and then the gestation period continues for 9-11 months. Females give birth on ice, at this time they and their newborn cubs are very vulnerable to predators and hunters.
63. The color of babies differs from the color of adults: for example, the cubs of the Baikal seal are born white, from which their name comes - pups.
64. At first, the mother feeds the baby with milk, after which the cub is gradually transferred to an adult diet consisting of fish and invertebrates. By the time this happens, he manages to completely shed and change the color of the fur to the one that is inherent in adults.
RINGED SEAL WITH A BABY
65. Even before giving birth, Baikal seals build special dens from snow, where they feed their cubs exclusively with milk for a month or a half. Depending on weather and temperature conditions, lactation can last from 2 to 3.5 months.
66. The seal is the only animal that can deliberately suspend and resume the intrauterine development of its future cubs. Most often this happens during long and very cold winters, when babies born at term simply cannot survive.
67. Males do not take any part in the upbringing of offspring, while females continue to take care of the babies until they learn to live independently. After the cubs are weaned, the female seal can mate again, but sometimes the breeding season for her comes earlier: when the previous cub is still feeding on milk.
68. In summer, ringed seals keep mainly in coastal waters and in some places form small haulouts on stones or pebble spits. In autumn, as the sea freezes, most of the animals leave the coastal zone deep into the sea and stay on drifting ice.
69. A minority of animals stay for the winter near the coast and keep in bays and bays. In this case, even at the beginning of the freezing of the sea, the seal makes holes in the young ice - loopholes through which it emerges from the water.
70. There are also smaller holes, used only to breathe through them. Often the hole in the hole is covered with a thick layer of snow, in which the seal makes a hole without an outlet to the outside. In such a convenient place, she rests, being invisible to enemies, mainly polar bears.
71. The seal is a valuable object of fishing. She gives fur skins, fat and meat. The meat of the seals is fed to Arctic foxes, hats are made from fur, and it is used to pad hunting skis.
72. Seal meat is eaten, especially tender meat in young seals, and seal flippers boiled in water are considered a delicacy. In the old days, seal fat was used in leather production and in soap making.
73. Fishing seals and eventually led to a reduction in the number of these animals. And, although every effort is currently being made to prevent the seals from disappearing, one of their species is threatened with complete extinction.
74. At present, two types of seals - Baikal and ringed, belong to quite safe species and they have been assigned the status of "Cueing Least Concern".
75. But the Caspian seal is not so lucky: due to human activities leading to pollution of the Caspian Sea, this species is endangered. And, although all efforts are currently being made to restore the former number of Caspian seals, their number is steadily decreasing year by year.
76. Seals can live on average 40-55 years. Sexual maturity occurs at 4-6 years of age. Females are able to bear fruit up to 35-40 years.
77. The age of seals can be easily recognized by the annual rings on their fangs and claws. And this is their unique feature, not characteristic of any other animal in the world.
78. The largest concentrations of seals are observed in the spring on drifting ice during puppies, molting and mating. This is especially true for the seas of the Far East, where in one day of swimming in the ice you can observe many hundreds, and sometimes thousands of animals. More often, seals lie in groups of 10-20 heads, but there are clusters of a hundred or more animals.
79. Seals are amazing animals. They have a lively and curious nature and are easy to train.
80. In natural conditions, they like to swim up to drifting ships and follow them.
65 interesting facts about the Cayman Islands
The Cayman Islands in the Caribbean are known to many primarily as a thriving offshore financial center. On an area of only 264 sq. km and with a population of 54397 people registered about 70 thousand companies. But these islands are also known as a great holiday destination, because the basis of the economy here is tourism. More from history and modernity will tell 65 facts about the Cayman Islands.
Top facts about Cayman Islands
1. The Cayman Islands is a small country lost in the Caribbean.
The Cayman Islands are three islands in the Caribbean.
2. The Cayman Islands are a picturesque archipelago of 262 square kilometers.
3. The Cayman Islands are absent from most maps of the world, their area is so insignificant.
4. For government agencies and large firms, world maps and globes are made to order, on which the Cayman Islands are marked bypassing the cartographic rules.
5. On the world map, they can still be found between North and South America in the western Caribbean.
6. From the Cayman Islands, the distance to the nearest countries is: 240 kilometers to Cuba; 730 kilometers to Miami (USA); 267 kilometers to Jamaica.
7. The islands of Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac and Little Cayman constitute the main group of the archipelago. There is also a very small and completely uninhabited island of Owen, as well as several dozen other uninhabited islets and reefs.
8. Despite the relatively small area of the islands, there are many interesting places for tourists. The Caymans have mangrove forests - a special ecosystem that connects land and sea.
GRAND CAYMAN ISLAND
9. The largest island of the Grand Cayman or Grand Cayman archipelago. It covers an area of 197 sq. km. This is 75% of the entire land area of the country. The island is 35 kilometers long and 6.5 kilometers wide. The highest point of the island is 16 meters.
10. Grand Cayman is divided into 5 administrative districts: Georgetown, Bodden Town, East End, North Side, West Bay.
11. Grand Cayman is an offshore zone and is attractive for businessmen. And tourists are attracted by natural and architectural attractions: caves, parks, old mansions, a turtle farm and many other objects.
12. Tourists from passing cruise ships tend to get to Stingray City first of all - a unique shallow sea area with underwater caves, which was chosen by stingrays in the 80s of the last century. For a long time, fishermen stopped here and threw overboard the offal of cleaned fish, and this attracted relatives of sharks.
13. In 2004, a significant part of the island (about 80% of all buildings) was destroyed by a powerful tropical storm.
LITTLE CAYMAN ISLAND
14. The second largest inhabited island of Little Cayman. Its area is 28.5 sq. km. The lowland turns into a slight elevation in the north of the island and reaches a height of 12 meters above sea level.
15. A little over two hundred people live on Little Cayman. Tourists have the opportunity to stay in modern hotels.
16. Little Cayman attracts lovers of exotic flora and fauna, scuba diving, a relaxing holiday among untouched nature. Here you can go fishing, walk through protected areas and meet a heron, cormorant or pelican. And if there is a certificate for deep diving, then such a tourist will have access to the beauty of a unique reef with a depth of 0.3 kilometers.
CAYMAN BRAC ISLAND
17. Cayman Brac is a small inhabited island. Its area is 38 sq. km. Length - 19 kilometers, average width - 2 kilometers.
18. The limestone plateau near the eastern coast reaches a height of 42 meters. This island got its name thanks to the limestone plateau that stretches across the island, forming many caves and rocks.
19. Almost the entire area of the island is covered with fruit-bearing trees, giant cacti and beautiful orchids. There is a park in the district, named after the famous discoverer - the traveler Columbus.
20. There are no museums and ancient monuments on this island. Adventurers and treasure seekers come here, as well as rock climbers for extreme ascents and speleologists to explore its tunnels and grottoes.
21. The Cayman Islands were discovered in 1503 by Columbus, during the last expedition to America. These islands were first called the Turtle Islands (“Las Tortugas”) and were forgotten until the middle of the 17th century, because the islands were not the best choice for life. After all, there were many mosquitoes, little fresh water and tropical hurricanes often raged. Therefore, the sailors stocked up here with turtles (tortugs) - and sailed on.
22. Although the Spaniards originally called these islands the Turtle Islands (Las Tortugas), it later turned out that there were no less crocodiles here, and the islands were renamed after crocodiles (Caiman crocodilus). But the caimans, which gave the modern name to the islands, are no longer found here.
23. According to the Treaty of Madrid, the Cayman Islands officially became a British colony as early as 1670. However, active colonization began much later. The first large settlements of Europeans appeared on the archipelago only in 1833. The resettlement process was held back by dangerous coral reefs. And even now you can still see ships sunken at that time off the coast of the archipelago.
24. The islanders have long been granted the possibility of partial self-government, but the Cayman Islands still have the status of a British Overseas Territory in the West Indies.
THE CAPITAL OF THE CAYMAN ISLANDS - THE CITY OF GEORGE TOWN
25. The administrative, financial and historical center of the Caymans is the city of Georgetown. It is a modern city with a developed tourist infrastructure and a population of about 28,000 people.
26. Here are the seaport, the international airport, the building of the British Embassy and the offices of about 600 financial institutions.
27. The history of the largest city of the Caymans began in the 10th century. The favorable geographical location and climate attracted many conquerors. Different historical stages of colonization by the Dutch, French and British were reflected in the unique architecture and traditions. Witnesses of bygone times are numerous monuments that have been carefully preserved to this day.
28. The central part of the city is famous for its green spaces. Tourists enjoy walking along the boulevards and park areas, looking at the buildings of 150 years ago.
29. In Georgetown, there are no intersections familiar to residents of megacities. Here, winding streets form bizarre knots with diverging ornate rays. This is especially evident at the intersection of Miles Crescent and Miles Road.
30. A favorite vacation spot for citizens and guests of the capital is the Seawall dam, built during the time of the Dutch. In the evenings, couples and families with children walk along the canal. Sports complexes, solariums and salons are open nearby, beach areas are equipped.
31. In the capital of the Cayman Islands, there is the largest island market, Starbuck.
32. The coastal waters of the Cayman Islands are famous for the abundance of various species of sea and amphibian turtles. The cultivation of these reptiles is the main occupation of the indigenous people.
33. Cayman Islands offer a lot of entertainment for every taste: horseback riding and golf, nightclubs and evening cruises on a yacht. Extreme lovers will love the safari. Unforgettable trips to various caves and grottoes are organized for tourists. Golfers can choose from one of the many golf clubs in Georgetown.
34. Cayman Islands - islands of holidays. You can come here at any time and catch some festive event. Two cultural events take place here on a special scale: the Batabano Festival and the Pirates' Week.
35. Guests of the city are greatly impressed by walks in the Little India district, where Indian cuisine restaurants, jewelry stores with gold jewelry and specialized tea and spice shops are located.
36. Caimans give joy at every step. And above all, it is the joy of communicating with the animal world. And the animal world in the Caymans is the water world. The extraordinary beauty of the Caribbean Sea, the cleanest, most transparent, hides a wonderful world. Here you can feed the fish right on the shore, you just have to stock up on food.
37. But even more can be seen if you dive into this aquamarine depth. Magical creatures live here - shells, wonderful and unusual fish. Here, fish are friends with stingrays that carry fish on their backs and the stingrays themselves can be stroked if they allow it. And if not, then you can swim very close to them.
38. On the Cayman Islands, you can fulfill your dream - to touch the stars. There are a lot of starfish here. Starfish live in shallow water and there is a place in the Caymans where they live and where you can touch them.
39. Just remember that starfish are not toys, but living beings. They are marine animals and, like fish, cannot live long without water. When touching them, taking photographs, you must remember that they cannot be taken out of the water for more than a couple of minutes, otherwise they will die. You have to be careful with them.
40. The Cayman Islands are also known for their global uniqueness for their stingrays. Rather, stingrays live in many places on the planet, but only here is the world capital of stingrays. We can say that the stingrays are the hallmark of the Cayman, here even the guitars in the Hard Rock Cafe are made in the form of stingrays.
41. There are several varieties of stingrays, dangerous and harmless to humans. Stingrays live at shallow depths, where there is a sandy bottom into which they burrow and thus become invisible.
42. Not far from the shores of Grand Cayman Island, there is a sandbank where stingrays live. The most interesting thing is that the strand is located in the middle of the deep sea, which gives everyone a unique opportunity to swim with stingrays. And there are a lot of people who want it. They are ready to sail through the deep aquamarine sea, into the endless distance, towards the dream.
43. People from all over the world come to the Caymans every day to communicate with these marine animals. Therefore, in order to preserve the unique nature of the islands, there are clear rules here: the number of catamarans and other swimming facilities, as well as the time spent by certain groups of people, is strictly limited.
44. Before landing on the bottom, everyone receives a strict briefing. Stingrays are alive and you need to communicate with them very gently. At first glance, their number and size is simply staggering. But the stingrays are already accustomed to the people who feed them, and the stingrays are very friendly. After people get used to it a little, the instructor will teach you how to hold the stingray in your arms. At first it may not work out, but after some attempts, timidity will go away, and you can hold your dream in your hands.
45. Skats reach 2-2.5 meters in length and weigh several kilograms. They, like starfish, cannot be completely removed from the water. If you do everything carefully, then the slopes are absolutely safe. They look at you with their huge eyes and understand everything. At this moment, you can experience infinite happiness!
46. In the Caymans, a state program for the destruction of lionfish is operating. Divers regularly catch it and hand it over to restaurants to be eaten. In this way, they are trying to preserve the local ecosystem, in which the lion fish appeared recently, but behaves unfriendly.
47. The most convenient place to shop is in Georgetown. Here is the largest number of markets and shopping centers, shops that offer inexpensive locally produced fabric. A number of such shops are located on Teluk Bahang street.
48. Shopping in the Caymans is relatively inexpensive. Most of the boutiques operate on the Duty Free system. Souvenirs made from green turtle shells and black coral are the most popular among tourists. An original and inexpensive gift brought from the islands will be products made from the local semi-precious stone "caymanite".
49. Good deals in the Caymans include luxury goods, leather goods, crystal and porcelain. Cosmetics and perfumes are of very high quality here.
50. The basis of the local cuisine is seafood (lobsters, mussels, lobsters, freshly caught fish) and exotic fruits cooked in all sorts of ways. Additional ingredients in dishes are often tomatoes and onions.
51. The main sauce for the islanders is curry. Fashionable restaurants offer delicacies of predominantly European cuisine. Small cafes and eateries serve traditional dishes more often.
IGUANA IN THE CAYMAN ISLANDS
52. The Cayman Islands have magnificent flora and friendly fauna: there are no poisonous snakes, spiders, etc. here. And there are no sharks and stinging jellyfish in the sea.
53. Here the iguana is the largest native animal. There are 3 types of iguanas in the Cayman Islands - green, blue and sand.
54. Blue iguanas are found nowhere else on the planet and are considered one of the rarest species. In the Caymans, there are special programs for the protection and breeding of blue iguanas and green sea turtles.
55. On the days when cruise ships are in port, the population of Grand Cayman increases by a third.
56. There is still little fresh water on the islands, and all the water that is supplied to homes is artificially desalinated sea water with added minerals.
57. Caymans are one of the best places in the world for diving. There are about 350 places for exciting dives in coastal waters. You can explore the underwater world almost all year round. In any weather, there is a safe leeward area. The visibility radius is usually up to 30 meters.
58. Communication between the islands is carried out by water and by air with the help of local airlines Cayman Airways, Cayman Airways Express, Island Air. Cruise and shipping lines connect the Caymans with the United States, Mexico and Jamaica.
59. In addition to the beach type of recreation on the islands, there are many other activities: sea cruises in the Caribbean, surfing, fishing, diving, snorkeling. Jazz, disco and Calypso-style music sound in nightclubs.
60. The official language in the Caymans is English, but there are also many Spanish-speaking residents.
61. 75% of the GDP of the Cayman Islands comes from tourism. Here is a great climate, there is practically no crime, a stable political situation.
62. In this amazing place, everyone can find something attractive for themselves. People come here in search of romance, extreme surfing, exciting diving, relaxation on the sandy beach, as well as exciting excursions to historical places.
63. But tourists should not forget about a number of prohibitions that exist here. So, camping is strictly prohibited on the territory of the islands, for violation the tourist will be taken into custody; spearfishing and fishing are prohibited in island waters; empty shells and corals should not be lifted from the bottom of the sea. And here you can’t go into the jungle without an experienced guide, and you shouldn’t sunbathe for a very long time, you need to remember about the likelihood of sunburn and heat stroke.
64. Holidays in the Cayman Islands will be pleasant and will bring a lot of impressions, if you do not break the laws, follow safety measures and do not forget to take your camera and diving equipment with you.
65. In recent years, various environmental programs have been actively carried out on the islands, in which tourists can also participate. A visit to the Cayman Islands can be not only a pleasant stay, but also a contribution to the preservation of the natural wealth of our planet.
50 interesting facts about sea urchins
Amazing creatures, sea urchins, have long tormented the minds of zoologists. These underwater animals are very interesting from a biological point of view, and the conditions in which some of their species live seem to be truly extreme. But people are willing to collect them, especially in shallow water, as sea urchins in some countries are enviable food. However, most tourists who have tried them do not share this opinion.
Facts about sea urchins
1. Animal sea urchins are echinoderm mollusks.
2. These amazing creatures have long been under the close attention of zoologists, as sea urchins are very interesting from a biological point of view.
3. These underwater animals attract with their unusual appearance and physiology.
4. In total, there are about 940 species of sea urchins in nature, and in our time, zoologists continue to discover more and more of their species.
5. Sea urchins are one of the longest living animals on Earth. They are older than dinosaurs. Their first species appeared on our planet about 450 million years ago.
6. These animals are able to easily withstand the monstrous pressure of the water column. Research probes have detected them at depths of up to 7 kilometers.
7. These animals live only in very salty waters, therefore, where large rivers partially desalinate the seas and oceans into which they flow, sea urchins are not found.
8. The size of the largest sea urchins reaches 30 centimeters in diameter, while in the smallest it does not exceed 2 centimeters.
9. The conditions in which some of the species of sea urchins live seem truly extreme.
10. They are also found not only in warm waters. Some sea urchins even live in the Antarctic climate.
11. Sea urchins can drill holes for themselves even in strong granite rocks.
12. The record holder for the length of the spines among all sea urchins are diadem hedgehogs (the length of their spines is up to 70 cm with a shell diameter 10 times smaller), and in flat hedgehogs their length does not exceed 2 millimeters.
13. Also diadem sea urchins glow in the dark.
14. Most sea urchins lay eggs, but some give birth to live offspring, like mammals.
15. Sea urchins got their name for a reason. Their entire body is covered with movable sharp needles, although there are a small number of species lacking this feature. Basically, the needles serve to protect against predators. Their long needles are a formidable and effective weapon. But needles serve them not only for protection, but also for movement, as well as for obtaining food.
16. On the body of sea urchins there are over 1000 tiny legs with suction cups on them. Thin legs pass through the shell. On their feet are suction cups, with the help of which these animals move.
17. In addition, their legs are adapted for burrowing. The legs of sea urchins are also located on the back, they serve to sense the environment. And some species have adapted their unusual limbs to obtain food and cleanse their shells of pollution.
18. Sea urchins do not have bones. Their body is covered with strong calcium plates that cover the body like an orange peel. These plates are symmetrical to each other, they are strong enough and protect the internal organs from mechanical damage.
19. By the annual rings on the shell of these animals, one can determine their age in the same way as by the growth rings of trees.
20. Sea urchins have five jaws at once, each of which has one tooth. These teeth can move independently of each other. Their teeth grow throughout their lives. Thanks to friction against each other, they grind off and always remain sharp enough. The mouth of these animals is somewhat reminiscent of a beak.
21. The eyes of sea urchins are located in the upper part of the body, and the mouth is in the lower.
22. Puberty in sea urchins occurs only 2-3 years after birth.
23. And in some of their species - even after 5 years. That's why they reproduce so slowly.
24. Sea urchins reproduce by external fertilization - they release sperm and eggs directly into the water.
25. First, the animal passes through the larval stage. Until its final transformation, it moves along the bottom along with other plankton.
26. In food, sea urchins are completely illegible. They feed mainly on algae, but are also not averse to eating small invertebrates, the remains of dead fish and other small living creatures.
27. A large brood needs a lot of food. Hedgehogs literally eat all the coral reefs. Some of them even eat each other.
28. They continue to grow throughout life.
29. Most species of sea urchins are nocturnal.
30. One of the species of sea urchins cannot roll back if they are knocked over. In this case, these animals die.
31. Amazing sea urchins are always a close object of attention for lovers of snorkeling or scuba diving.
32. These strange creatures look very unusual, and many people want to touch them, but this should absolutely not be done.
33. You can easily prick yourself on the spines of a sea urchin, and such injections are very painful.
34. If you step on a sea urchin, its needles, like fragile glass, break into many fragments, sticking into the body. Their extraction is a very complicated and painful operation, which only experienced doctors can do.
35. And some types of sea urchins are poisonous, and therefore very dangerous.
36. Poison is contained in the mucus on their spines.
37. During low tide, sea urchins do not risk staying on the shore, where they can become easy prey. Usually they either hide in burrows or burrow into the sand.
38. Close relatives of sea urchins, according to scientists, are sea cucumbers.
39. Some small fish have learned to have a mutually beneficial coexistence with sea urchins.
40. They hide between its needles in case of danger, and in response they eat the parasites that have stuck around it, from which the hedgehog cannot get rid of on its own.
41. On average, sea urchins live for about 30 years. But some types of sea urchins are real centenarians. In the wild, they live up to 200 years.
42. Despite their own pricklyness, they often become victims of predators. A large number of different animals prey on these echinoderms. They are readily eaten by fur seals, birds, fish, lobsters and starfish.
43. One of the most formidable enemies of sea urchins is the sea otter. He breaks the needles of his prey with a stone, and then eats her insides. Sea otters eat so many sea urchins every day that their entire insides turn purple due to the pigment contained in these echinoderms.
44. Humans also pose a considerable danger to the diversity of species of this class. Sea urchins in many countries are part of the national cuisine. Their caviar is mainly used for food.
45. Many people are willing to collect sea urchins, especially in shallow water, as sea urchins are a delicacy in some countries. But most tourists who have tried them do not share this opinion.
46. There is a whole fishery for their breeding and catching. Due to human activities and active fishing, many species are endangered.
47. Although sea urchins are distributed throughout the world. They are found in all oceans and in almost all seas, including the coldest ones.
48. There are only three seas in which not a single species of sea urchins lives - the Caspian, the Black, and, of course, the Dead Sea.
49. These animals are very useful creatures. They absorb carbon dioxide like plants. And sea urchins reduce the level of radiation in the oceans.
50.Sea urchins are an essential part of the ocean ecosystem.
60 interesting facts about Western Sahara
Western Sahara is a territory that occupies the vast desert Atlantic coastal zone of northwestern Africa. Western Sahara is almost entirely desert and is very sparsely populated. The climate here is hot, and tropical dry weather all year round is similar to Dubai.
Top facts about Western Sahara
During the summer, daytime temperatures rise to 45° in the sun, but it's not as hot in the shade due to the very low humidity. The weather is almost always the same: hot, sunny and dry. There is very little rain. At night, the ground here cools rapidly due to the lack of insulating cloud cover and therefore nights can be chilly with minimums of <10°C.
In this article, you will learn more interesting facts that you might not know about Western Sahara.
1. Western Sahara is located in northwestern Africa. Officially, it is called the Saharan Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), but is better known as Western Sahara. This is a disputed territory, although its inhabitants believe that they live in their own country.
2. Western Sahara is a territory that occupies a vast desert Atlantic coastal zone of northwestern Africa.
3. It borders in the north with Morocco, Algeria along the northeastern border, in the east with Mauritania, in the west it is washed by the Atlantic Ocean. The area is 266,000 square kilometers.
4. This is one of the most sparsely populated areas in the world, mainly consisting of desert plains with a few cities, poorly developed infrastructure, medicine and education.
5. The territorial issue remains controversial. This part of the Maghreb region is partly controlled by the self-proclaimed Saharan Arab Democratic Republic and partly occupied by Morocco.
6. By the medieval period, several indigenous peoples lived in northwest Africa, among which the nomadic population of the Sanhaji and the Lemtuns, belonging to the Berber tribes, stood out.
7. The arrival of Islam in the 8th century in the Maghreb (North African territory) played an important role in the development of the region. With the active development of trade, Western Sahara became one of the caravan routes between Marrakech in Morocco and Timbuktu in Mali.
8. In the 11th century, fewer than 200 Makila Arabs settled in the Moroccan Draa river valley. Together with the Sanhaji and the Lemtuns, they entered into an alliance, eventually founding the Almoravid dynasty. Gradually, their dominion extended to most of North Africa.
9. Western Sahara continued to be an important trade route. For about five centuries, through a complex process of acculturation and mixing of some indigenous Berber tribes with peoples of Arab origin, a culture unique to the Maghreb was formed.
10. Initially, Spain considered the northwest coast of Africa as a convenient port for the slave trade, and from the early 1700s there was an economic interest in the region - it was very good for commercial fishing.
11. Following an agreement in 1884 between the European colonial powers at the Berlin Conference on the division of spheres of influence in Africa, Spain seized control of Western Sahara and established it as a Spanish colony. After 1939, the area was administered by the administration of Spanish Morocco.
12. The subsequent history of Western Sahara is connected with the struggle for independence from Spanish, Moroccan and Mauritanian rule. In 1957, liberated from Spanish colonization in 1956, Morocco issues centuries-old claims to the lands of Western Sahara. In 1965, the UN calls for the decolonization of this territory.
13. In 1973, the independent Sahara movement, the Polisario Front, was founded. 1975: The King of Morocco refutes The Hague's decision in favor of the Sahara's right to self-determination and organizes the Green March, a demonstration as 350,000 Moroccans marched into Western Sahara.
14. Spain withdraws its administration and renounces territorial rights in this region. This former Spanish colony was annexed to Morocco in 1975. Since then, the region has been the subject of a long-running territorial dispute between Morocco and the population, led by the Polisario Front.
The 15.16-year insurgency ended at the request of the UN with a truce in 1991 and a promise to hold a referendum on the independence of the territory. But due to the disagreement of the parties, the referendum has not yet been held.
16. The Saharan Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), established by the Polisario Front in 1976, has been recognized by many governments and is a full member of the African Union.
17. Although at one time Western Sahara separated from Morocco and Mauritania, and 59 countries recognize it, the UN has not yet accepted it into its membership. But at the same time, it supports the fact that it has separated from the above countries.
18. It so happened historically that this large territory is a kind of transitional area between directly North Africa and the so-called Black Africa.
19. Since ancient times, Berber nomadic tribes lived in these places, close in language to the Semites and Hamites. At the same time, both Arabs and Jews considered them savages.
20. Around the 8th century AD, these peoples converted to Islam and switched to various dialects of the Arabic language. Their Sanhaji tribal union in the 11th century even created the Almoravid dynasty, which ruled over a vast territory - not only Western Sahara, but also modern Morocco, Mauritania, Mali, Senegal, part of Algeria, as well as the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
21. In the 19th century, when the leading colonial countries "divided" Africa, Western Sahara went to Spain and became known as the Spanish Sahara.
22. After the country of Morocco gained independence from the French in the 20th century, it began to claim these territories. Since the local tribes did not really like the Spaniards, then, in the end, the Moroccans tended to attach a decent piece of Western Sahara. And the other went to Mauritania.
23. Until now, Morocco officially considers most of Western Sahara to be its own. Although in reality it is ruled by the Popular Front for the Liberation, aka the Polisario Front.
24. In 1981, the Moroccans began to build a system of defensive structures in Western Sahara, partially separating their country from it. Roughly speaking, these are three-meter sandy ramparts with barbed wire and minefields 2.5 thousand kilometers long. Artillery, air support, etc. are also located here, that is, the border.
25. This system is called on the one hand the Roadside of the Western Sahara, on the other - the Wall of Shame and the Ditch. This Moroccan wall does not contribute to the full return of Western Sahara to Morocco, rather the opposite. As a result of this, a stalemate arose: Western Sahara is not a full-fledged country, but it is not a full-fledged part of Morocco either.
26. Western Sahara is mostly desert territory. Its landscape is mostly low-lying desert with large areas of rocky or sandy surfaces rising into small mountains in the south and northeast.
27. Western Sahara is very sparsely populated. The languages spoken here are Hassaniya, Arabic and Moroccan Arabic.
28. The climate here is hot, in summer daytime temperatures rise to 45 ° in the sun, but in the shade it is not so hot due to very low humidity. The weather is almost always the same: hot, sunny and dry, that is, tropical dry weather here all year round is similar to Dubai. There is very little rain. At night, the ground here cools rapidly due to the lack of insulating cloud cover and therefore the nights can be chilly with minimums of <10°C.
29. Western Sahara is mostly desert, but this part of the desert is rich in phosphate reserves and coastal fishing grounds.
30. Western Sahara also includes vast offshore oil fields.
31. The population of Western Sahara is just over 500,000 people, of which almost 40% live in Laayoune, the largest city in the region controlled by the Moroccan administration.
32. The climatic and soil conditions here are almost unsuitable for agriculture.
33. As in other regions of the Sahara, the most impressive sights here are the sites with the oldest rock art.
34. Bou Dheir - An area with numerous rock shelters, where you can see a variety of prehistoric paintings, many of which are in good condition. Many of the drawings are very large, depicting wild animals and people.
35. On the plateau above the shelters is a large crescent-shaped stone structure. Cueva del Diablo is a prehistoric shelter, a cave with engraved images. Some of them are the most impressive for this part of the world.
36. An amazing seasonal phenomenon can be observed in the northern part of Western Sahara. The waterfall with an interesting tuff formation is formed by spring water that contains lime and salt.
37. In the largest city of the region - El Aaiun (Moroccan government) - you can see a long-defunct Christian cathedral built by the Spaniards in the Art Deco style; big mosque; craft market; historical museum and the ruins of a fort from Spanish times.
38. El Aaiun is not the capital, but the largest city in the region. Pale shades of pink and orange cover all the buildings, but colorful wall paintings add color to the city.
39. Most graffiti is the pictorial art of professional artists. Some images may be interesting from a historical point of view: the Green March painting near Mechouar; the mass demonstration in 1975 when Morocco forced Spain to abandon its colony; several other wall paintings depicting historical events prior to the Green March.
40. Perhaps, these street murals, which can be found in other cities, are one of the best tourist attractions in this part of the African desert.
41. "Devil's Mountain" is a giant natural monolith in the south of the region. It has a very unusual shape - rounded with a smooth surface - a rock formation rises hundreds of meters above the desert. This is a sacred and even mystical place for the peoples of Western Sahara, it contains the oldest rock paintings from the period 4000-1000 BC. e.
42. In Western Sahara, there are two objects that are leading in size not only in Africa but also in the world. These modern structures are not attractive for tourism, since one of them is for military defense, and the other for industrial equipment.
43. Moroccan wall - a fence about 2,700 kilometers long, erected in 1981-1987. It separates two zones: subject to Morocco and controlled by the Polisario.
44. The wall is rocky and earthen ramparts up to three meters high, cordoned off with barbed wire, equipped with artillery posts, a patrol system, radar masts and other means of military surveillance and protection. Along the entire length on both sides, this simple design is lined with mines. This structure is also called the Western Sahara Roadside and the Wall of Shame.
45. Another "champion" refers to the manufacturing sector. From one of the industrial cities of Western Sahara - Bou-Kraa, where the largest phosphate mining is located, a conveyor belt passes, which is considered the longest in the world. A 98-kilometer belt links the port of El Mars with the city's mines.
THE LONGEST CONVEYOR IN THE WORLD - 98 KM IN WESTERN SAHARA
46. During the guerrilla wars of the Polisario, the conveyor and the city were repeatedly attacked, and the belt was destroyed more than once. Now, after the construction of the wall, the facility is in the control zone of Morocco and continues to work.
47. Erkeiz Rock Art - A site called Erkez Park is located in the northern part of Western Sahara, near Tifariti, the temporary capital of the SADR, controlled by the Polisario. About a hundred caves of the Stone Age period with a rich collection of images of wild animals, cattle, and people have been preserved here.
48. And also grave mounds and megalithic stelae were found here, that is, vertical stones processed several millennia ago. These products and rock paintings were created about 15-12 millennia ago. This place is subject to constant looting.
49.Lejuad-Tiris - a rich concentration of remains of Neolithic settlements with funerary monuments, impressive granite monoliths, rock carvings, located in the south of the region.
50. The hot desert climate of Western Sahara softens noticeably near the coast due to the cold influence of the Canary Current. The region is characterized by a rocky landscape, vast sand dunes, breathtaking views of the Atlantic coastline.
51. The camel grass landscape in the north dominates the Saharan sand dunes. Locals call this relief "hamada". It stretches for 200 kilometers between Tifariti and El Aaiun. Sands give way to rocks, valleys and sparse vegetation. Over 70 percent of the Sahara is Hamada.
52. Here you can see camels grazing in areas covered with a kind of tough grass that grows more than a meter in height, rare oases and numerous dry riverbeds that are filled with water only during the rainy season.
53. In Western Sahara, on the Cabo Blanco Peninsula, a group of rare, endangered monk seals lives in caves. This is one of the last Monachus colonies in the world, with an estimated 200 individuals. "Oum Dbaa" translates as "Dry Cascade".
54.Rekeiz Lemgasem - a valuable site of ancient art with megaliths and funerary monuments, where more than 80 prehistoric caves with rock art have been discovered.
55. Sluguilla Lawash is a site very rich in rock art along the dry bed of the Laauach Tel-li. Most of the images show wild animals: giraffes, rhinos, elephants. The legs of the painted animals often look unnaturally elongated. The site also contains numerous cone-shaped prehistoric mounds.
56. For a comfortable trip and a relaxed holiday, Western Sahara is completely unsuitable. The region belongs to one of the poorest regions of the planet, the tourism infrastructure here is not developed at all, since no one is in a hurry to invest in this business area due to the long-term political instability of the region.
57. There are no comfortable hotels on the coast, and there are no beaches for swimming and sunbathing at all. Only in the most populated cities there are points with the Internet. And staying at a hotel, it is not always possible to recharge a mobile phone. However, brave, resilient tourists get here. What are they counting on?
58. First of all, people want to see the virgin beauty of the Sahara, to see with their own eyes samples of prehistoric rock art that this desert is rich in, to admire the natural beauties and artifacts that have remained only in sparsely populated parts of the planet. However, it is often impossible to get to such places by car due to the lack of roads.
59.It is also completely impossible to predict when political stability will come to Western Sahara and how the territorial issue will be resolved. Therefore, the region is still inaccessible to mass tourism.
60. Perhaps someday the endless coast will become a year-round resort with endless beaches, the best place for surfing, diving and all imaginable types of marine recreation. Comfortable hotels, cafes and restaurants will appear, routes will pass to numerous prehistoric monuments with which the Sahara is generous, and this land will become favorable for numerous tourists.
Top 50 facts about cobras that you didn't know
Cobras are among the most dangerous and venomous snakes in the world. They are found on the territory of many countries and invariably instill fear in the locals. Who does not recognize this silhouette with an open hood? However, you can find an approach to cobras if you know how. Catchers of snakes have already proven this many times.
Top facts about cobras
There are many famous snakes worldwide, but cobras stand apart, mainly because they are perhaps the most recognizable reptiles in the world. There are many more poisonous snakes in the world than cobras, but the habit of these creatures opening the hood in the event of an attack made them very memorable. And does it make any difference to a snakebite victim how deadly poisonous the snake that bit her is if the venom of any cobra is usually enough to kill any living creature on Earth?
1. Cobras are large snakes known for their venom and their peculiar way of puffing out their hoods.
2. This name means, first of all, representatives of the genus of real cobras, as well as the king and collar cobras related to them. Despite its name, the king cobra does not belong to true cobras, it forms a separate genus.
3. Cobras live exclusively in the Old World - in Africa (across the continent), Central and South Asia (in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka).
4. In total, scientists distinguish 16 different types of cobras, and all of them are poisonous and they all belong to the aspid family and are related to other, no less poisonous species - deadly and cruel snakes, kraits and asps.
5. All types of cobras are quite large, one of the smallest - the Angolan cobra - reaches a length of 1.5 meters, and the largest king cobra, or hamadryad, reaches a length of 4.8 and even 5.5 meters.
6. The king cobra is the largest venomous snake in the world, reaching a size of 3-4 meters, but there are some recorded individuals in length over 5 meters, weighing up to 10-12 kilograms.
7. Despite its large size, its body does not look massive (like pythons or boas, for example), in general, these reptiles are characterized by high mobility.
8. King cobras grow all their lives, and their average life expectancy reaches 25-30 years.
9. When meeting, the king cobras stand in a combat stance and measure their height. The shorter one admits defeat and crawls away.
10. The king cobra is the only snake in the world that, on occasion, willingly feeds on other snakes, including poisonous ones.
11. King cobras are rarely kept in zoos and terrariums due to aggressiveness.
12. Unlike other snakes, the king cobra can control the dose of poison. She often bites people without poison at all, so as not to waste it on someone who is not suitable food for her.
13. Cobra swims well, and the speed of its movement on land is 6 km / h. However, this snake does not usually chase a human.
14. Sometimes these poisonous snakes are found even in the mountains, at an altitude of up to 2.5 kilometers above sea level.
15. The poison of some species of cobras is used in medicine.
16. The collared cobra is the only one that does not lay eggs, but gives birth to live cubs, and sometimes up to 50-60 at a time.
17. Collared cobra is considered one of the greatest "actresses" of the snake world. In case of danger (if spitting poison did not help), she turns her belly up and, opening her mouth, deftly pretends to be dead.
18. The habitats of cobras are diverse, however, arid places are more to their taste. A typical landscape for a cobra is bushes, deserts and semi-deserts, a number of species are found in the jungle, along river banks, but these snakes avoid very wet places.
RINGED WATER COBRA
19. Like all reptiles, cobras live alone, but Indian and king cobras are the rarest exception to this rule. These snakes are the only reptiles that form stable pairs during the mating season.
20. Unlike their other poisonous snakes, cobras do not ambush the enemy, but allow themselves to be discovered. They stand upright, open their hood and sway, as if warning that they are not to be trifled with, in order to frighten the enemy and force him to retreat.
CENTRAL ASIAN COBRA
21. These animals are thermophilic and do not occur where snow falls in winter, with the exception of the Central Asian cobra, whose range in the north reaches Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
22. The poison of all types of cobras is deadly to humans, but its strength varies from species to species. The poison of the Central Asian cobra is “not too” strong, death from its bite occurs after a few hours or even days, but the poison of the king cobra can kill a person in half an hour, moreover, there are cases when even elephants died from its bite.
23. During the hunt, cobras do not swallow the victim alive, as many people think, but first paralyze them with their poison, wait for some time until the prey dies, and only after that they start eating.
24. In a calm state, cobras do not stand out among other snakes, but in a state of irritation, they raise the front of the body and swell the neck.
25. A more or less pronounced hood is a distinctive feature of these reptiles, such a structural feature is no longer found in any other snakes.
26. Angolan cobra is the smallest of these snakes. The length of an adult usually does not exceed 1.5 meters.
27. The color of cobras is mostly nondescript, it is dominated by yellowish-brown and black-brown tones, but some species may have a bright color. For example, red spitting - brown-red, South African shield - coral.
28. Also, cobras are characterized by the presence of transverse stripes, especially pronounced on the neck.
29. The famous Indian cobra or spectacled snake got its name from the two spots that are visible on its swollen hood, these snakes have individuals with one spot, such cobras are called monocles.
30. Among the cobras there are a number of specialized species that practice a special way of hunting. They do not bite their prey, but ... shoot it with poison.
31. The Indian spitting cobra is considered the most accurate shooter, and black-necked and collared cobras from Africa also possess this skill. In these species, the opening of the poisonous channel is not located at the bottom of the tooth, but on its front surface, with special muscles the cobra compresses the poisonous glands and the deadly liquid flies out under pressure, as if from a syringe.
32. At one time, the cobra is able to fire several shots (up to a maximum of 28). The snake can shoot at a distance of up to 2 meters, and from such a distance it hits a target with a diameter of a couple of centimeters. Such accuracy is not accidental, because to kill the victim, a simple hit in her body is not enough. The poison cannot penetrate the covers of the prey and kill it, but it can have a strong irritating effect on the mucous membrane.
33. Therefore, spitting cobras always aim at the eyes, the jet of poison irritates the organs of vision and the victim loses orientation, but even if she is lucky to escape, she is doomed. The poison causes irreversible changes in the proteins of the cornea and the victim goes blind. If the poison gets into the eyes of a person, it can only be saved by immediately washing the eyes with plenty of water.
34. African spitting cobras are capable of spraying poison at the enemy up to 30-40 times in a row in a short period of time.
35. The Philippines is home to the second most venomous cobra, whose venom can kill an adult in half an hour. She is especially dangerous because she does not need to bite - she also belongs to the spitting.
36. Distinctive features of the cobra - six shields on the head. True, when meeting with her, there is usually no time to look at them.
37. Despite its poisonousness, the cobra is quite edible, and in a number of Asian countries it is considered a rare and expensive delicacy.
38. Cobras breed once a year. Sexual intercourse in cobras can last two to three days. Male king cobras have two penises instead of one.
39. The breeding season occurs more often in January-February (for example, in the Indian cobra) or spring (in the Central Asian), the females of these species lay their eggs in April-May or June-July, respectively. The fecundity of cobras is highly dependent on the species and can range from 8 to 70 eggs.
40. Cobras lay their eggs in crevices between stones, heaps of fallen leaves and similar shelters. Females usually guard the clutch.
41. The behavior of the royal and Indian cobras is especially interesting. Their females not only protect the eggs, but also build a nest for them. This seems surprising when you consider that snakes are completely devoid of limbs. To do this, the cobra rakes the leaves with the front part of the body into a pile, laying eggs, it remains to guard them. Moreover, the most active part in the protection of the nest is also taken by males, who do not leave their chosen ones until the offspring hatch.
42. During this period, Indian and king cobras can be very aggressive, actively driving animals and people away from their nest. This was the reason to accuse these snakes of unpredictable attacks on humans, in fact, such behavior is observed only during the breeding season.
43. Hatched serpents are completely independent and already have poison, however, due to its small amount, they initially hunt the smallest prey and even insects.
44. Young cobras are usually striped, and the black and white cobra even got its name from the color of the young.
45. The life expectancy of cobras in nature has not been precisely established; in captivity, one black-and-white cobra lived for 29 years, which is a very high figure for snakes.
46. Cobras are more active during the day and are generally very resistant to overheating. In most people's minds, cobras are aggressive, but in fact, these snakes are quite calm and even a little phlegmatic. Knowing their behavior, they are easy to control, which is often demonstrated by "charmers" of snakes.
47. Cobras feed on small rodents, birds (passerines and ground-nesting, for example, nightjars), lizards, frogs, toads, smaller snakes, and eggs.
48. The king cobra feeds exclusively on reptiles, and eats lizards extremely rarely, and more often hunts other snakes. Its victims are usually the most poisonous species and the closest relatives of cobras - kraits and asps.
49. Despite the strong poison, cobras also have enemies. Young animals can be attacked by larger snakes, monitor lizards, and adults are preyed upon by mongooses and meerkats. Although these animals do not have innate immunity to cobra venom, they are so clever at distracting the snake's attention with false attacks that they manage to seize the moment and deliver a deadly bite to the back of the head. A cobra caught in the path of a mongoose or a meerkat has no chance of survival.
50. For protection, cobras have a number of devices. Firstly, this is the famous stand, which performs a signaling role. Although a cobra that puffs out its hood is extremely dangerous in a person’s mind, in fact, this behavior allows you to avoid an unexpected encounter with a snake and bypass it. Cobra, in turn, achieves just such a reaction. Secondly, if a cobra is caught or annoyed, it does not immediately go on the attack. Often in such cases, the snake connects additional means of intimidation - loud hissing and false attacks, during which the snake does not let in poisonous teeth. And only if this does not help, the cobra can bite.