30 interesting facts and myths that you should know about Black Friday in 2021
Black Friday is the biggest annual sale in the United States. In recent years, this trend has become popular in Europe, Russia etc. For shopaholics, the "rainy day" has become a grandiose holiday, for the store employees - the hardest day. The article contains the most interesting facts and incidents that happened in black Friday.
Discounts on a "rainy day" reach unprecedented proportions, and sales attract millions of buyers. Black Friday products are the best-selling items of the year. So what kind of day is this? Some interesting facts about Black Friday:
1. The history of the "blackest day". "Celebration" began after Thanksgiving Day in 1996 - the first Friday. The American National Thanksgiving Day is historically celebrated on the fourth Thursday of November. Initially Black Friday was called traffic jams because of the holiday, and later - discounts.
2. Prior to that, in the 19th century, American entrepreneur Franklin Woolworth arranged a huge "All for 5 cents" sale. Therefore, many consider him to be the progenitor of sales.
3. The phrase "Black Friday" was touched upon earlier in a management magazine article. It talked about sick leave, which workers took to go shopping instead of work. This negatively affected the operation of enterprises. The term was “fixed” by the police, who fixed big traffic jams on a “rainy day”.
4. Cyber Monday. After a stormy Friday and weekend, another event comes - Cyber Monday. Many IT companies and online stores offer additional discounts. For shopaholics, this day is no less popular than Black Friday, because you can buy goods at a discount without leaving your home or without leaving your workplace.
5. Day off. US residents prefer to take a vacation / day off. Many companies specifically arrange an official day off for employees on Black Friday discounts.
6. Shopping is like a battle. Often Black Friday ends with a real battle for discounts - people use pepper spray, bats, weapons.
7. Survived - work. Black Friday reached large-scale coverage at the end of the 20th century. The popularity was so great that it interfered with the work of many enterprises. The management intimidated workers with dismissal, forbade taking sick leave, day off, day off. They were only allowed to die. Today, this is much easier, but there are companies that continue to do it.
8. Million turnovers. Black Friday merchandise disappears from shelves in seconds. Americans shop over $ 150 million annually.
9. Popular goods Black Friday. Most often they buy smartphones, TVs, tablets, laptops, and various home electronics. The most popular gadget is a smartphone.
10. The queue is a week or two long. In the United States, they sometimes take two weeks off to get in line. Cases of placing tents / sunbeds near the store have been recorded. People are ready to be on duty for days in order to have time to pick up the goods at the maximum discount.
11. Thrills. Many admit that they take part in the sale of the year because of their interest in unrest, chaos, and the feeling of competition.
12. Chinese surrogate Black Friday. For ten years now, Chinese sellers have been adopting the American tradition of annually organizing grandiose sales on Bachelor's Day - November 11. Interestingly, in 2016, the turnover on this day reached the turnover of the American Black Day! The main drawback is insidious pseudo-discounts. The Chinese fake prices at their sites, hoping that foreigners do not know what the prices were in fact.
13. Inflatable discounts. Some sellers put price tags in front of an overpriced sale in order to, according to the terms of Black Friday, drop the price, but sell at the regular price, making the most money. Surprisingly, people fall for this.
14. Black Friday online. In recent years, online purchases through computers and smartphones have been gaining popularity. Online shopping is not only safe but economical. On the website of the stores, you can see a catalog with prices for various goods. Discounts also apply to baby products.
15. In connection with the coronavirus pandemic, online shopping has been at its peak in recent months, as it is safe.
16. Search statistics Black Friday. According to Google Trends, people start typing Black Friday almost a month before the big sale starts.
17. Jewelry Black Friday. Despite the significant increase in the prices of precious metals in the world, discounts on jewelry will also be available. Those wishing to buy jewelry made of gold and silver will have an excellent opportunity to purchase them at reasonable prices.
18. The most profitable in history is considered "Friday" 2012. Then, Americans and Europeans spent more than $ 52 billion on purchases in three days, including the weekend.
19. Half of Black Friday participants admit that they go shopping only because of their interest in chaos and disorder, as well as to get a taste of the competition.
20. In order not to miss out on the best deals, some people spend the night before the sale in stalls in front of the shops.
21. After Black Friday and the weekend, another event comes - Cyber Monday. On this day, most IT companies offer discounts.
22. It may seem strange, but "Black Friday" is often the busiest day for plumbers - they are very much needed by shops and malls due to the influx of buyers: "the system is overflowing."
23. Apart from appliances and jewelry, pajamas are the top-selling items every year.
24. This is unofficially the best day to buy a TV. Adobe's research says Black Friday will save you the most money on appliances, jewelry, TVs and tablets.
25. The concept of "Black Friday" appeared in 1996. At first, it denoted traffic jams after Thanksgiving, and only later - sales.
"Stay Alive." Ridiculous, dangerous situations during Black Friday
Black Friday is known not only for its huge discounts, but also for its dangers - bloody battle, brawl, shooting for the sake of a discount. Here are some funny and tragic stories:
- "Sausage fight". In a small German town there was another case between a woman and a pensioner. The customer took the last cart, later the elderly man roughly grabbed the cart. The brother stood up for his sister. In response, the pensioner began to throw various goods at him from the shelves. The fight moved to the sausage department. The men fought with sticks of sausages, the woman threw sausages at the pensioner. The "sausage battle" ended with minor injuries, then with the police department.
2. "Robbery in black". A Boston group of teenagers wanted to rob people who were stingy at a sale. Tired shoppers didn’t unload their cars when they arrived home. At night, the attackers "ransacked" the garages. The police did not find the thieves. Later, the robbers did not share the loot and one of them wrote an anonymous message indicating the accomplices and the location of the stolen goods.
3. "Black mother". In the United States, there was a case of intentional spraying of pepper spray. A mother with two children, making her way to the entrance of the store, pushed people aside, spraying them with a spray can. The children helped push the crowd aggressively. Then more than 20 people were injured.
4. Trampled to Death. In 2008, in the same mall, a store employee was knocked down. After receiving blows all over his body, Jimitiya Jamura died right at his workplace. The man was only 34 years old.
5. "Registration in a tent." The 1996 case - a woman dreamed of buying a big TV. It was two weeks before Black Friday, so the woman set up a tent outside the electronics store. The night before the sale, she was admitted to the hospital with hypothermia. It is still the practice to set up tents near the entrance to the store a few days before Black Friday, although online sales are popular now.
This is a huge traditional sale, a fabulous time when all self-respecting stores are competing to see who has more discounts. Black Friday began in the USA as a great excuse to buy gifts before the Christmas holidays. This is the first Friday after Thanksgiving and falls between November 23rd and 30th. At this time there were always sales, and in the 60s the term "Black Friday" itself appeared.
Over time, the wave was picked up by the whole world: the more competition, the more discounts that attract even more people. So this snowball is rolling, causing a crazy stir. Someone needs gifts, someone has been waiting the whole year for the opportunity to buy an expensive thing, and someone enterprisingly buys everything and then sells it at auctions at a higher price.
People wait patiently for Black Friday for months, and then all at once pile on stores and grab goods in an hour. And if the Internet sites at this time simply hang on the number of people, then in real shopping centers madness, crush, assault and other types of simple human fun are happening. Bemorepanda prepared some interesting facts about Black Friday for you:
1. In 2020, Black Friday falls on November 29th, which marks the beginning of the biggest sale of the year worldwide. Some stores prefer to open early, and some even agree to work around the clock.
2. Aliexpress is perhaps the most popular store during the promotion days, discounts up to 70% on already cheap goods attract crowds of buyers.
3. eBay this year promises discounts of up to 50%, you can buy anything on sale: from a food processor to sports equipment, the main thing is to pay attention to the delivery terms.
4. For the first time this term sounded on September 24, 1869 during a panic in the US stock market: then the gold rate collapsed by 30%, ruining many small businesses.
5. In the fifties of the XX century, severe traffic jams on the roads of Philadelphia, which began after Thanksgiving Day, were dubbed Black Friday - the traffic police could not cope with the traffic collapse.
6. Massive sales after Thanksgiving have been (and continue to be) a hefty profit.
7. In America, sales had an additional meaning: sellers not only got rid of surplus goods in store for Thanksgiving, but also attracted those who wanted to shop early for the Christmas holidays.
8. Many sellers sin by raising prices in early to mid-November in order to effectively lower them on the day of the sale (and achieve those same ninety percent discounts). The total discount is obtained either much less than the declared one, or even absent altogether.
9.In 2018, according to the estimates of the National Retail Federation of the United States, on Black Friday itself, Americans made $ 6.2 billion (23.6% more than in 2017), and just over the weekend 165 million people were shopping.
10. Despite the proliferation and increase of online shopping, many shoppers still prefer physical stores, and more than half of those who were flattered by last year's sales were shopping both in stores and online.
11. The fashion industry is still more likely to be in the rearguard of Black Friday in terms of the number of buyers and, of course, the amount of the check. For example, consumers are projected to spend, on average, just over $ 250 each on clothing and footwear (by comparison, the average furniture bill is likely to be over $ 700).
12. True, while brands like H&M, Topshop and Mango offer discounts on almost the entire assortment, then for Farfetch and Net-a-Porter Black Friday becomes a reason to sell off the rest: special discounts apply only to the Sale department.
13. In recent years, Amazon, Argos, Boots, Currys, Debenhams, Halfords, House of Fraser, John Lewis, Littlewoods, Morrisons, Tesco and Very have been among the most active members with the best discounts.
14. Which states that 87% of Black Friday special pricing items can be purchased for the same price or even lower at other times of the year.
15.When shopping, please note the explanation for the special offer. Sometimes stores simply indicate the price "was-now", where the product was sold at the old price almost six months ago, but not yesterday.
On the one hand, Black Friday really looks like a thoughtless celebration of consumerism - and therefore aggravates environmental problems, for which the fashion industry is also responsible. On the other hand, it is possible to preserve sanity even during total stunning sales. Glossy magazines also call for this - with materials in the spirit of "What timeless things to buy at a discount" or "How to assemble a basic wardrobe for a sale." “Trends are cool,” admits Who What Wear, but warns that they won't work in a wardrobe unless you have a solid base to pair them. "And it doesn't have to be expensive."
There is nothing wrong with discounts in and of themselves, and even more, it is a great opportunity for many buyers to "jump" into a more expensive and high-quality clothing segment and choose durable items made from sustainable materials and in compliance with the principles of sustainable development. You can deliberately support brands that refuse discounts in favor of charitable initiatives. Finally, a big sale could be a good non-sale solution.
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The content available on the Bemorepanda.com website can be copied and republished in the limit of 200 characters and in the limit of 10 pictures and must include the URL of the article. It is forbidden to completely copy the material and place it anywhere else without indicating the link and the full name of the page.
Friday is the day with the biggest promotional offers this year. A unique chance that both customers and traders take advantage of because it is one of the most profitable days of the year.
"Black Friday" is a day that most people see as the beginning of shopping for the winter holidays. Black Friday is not, however, a holiday in itself, even if it is celebrated every year on the Friday after Thanksgiving. Let's see together with Bemorepanda some important facts of Black Friday.
When did the term Black Friday appear?
The term "Black Friday" appeared in the 60's, designating the debut day of shopping for the celebration of winter holidays. The adjective "black" refers to stores, which in this period went from "red" to "black", in the accounting organization, performed manually. In this process, the accountants marked in red the losses that the stores had, and in black the recorded profits. The beginning of winter shopping has been marked by this day since 1924, when the Thanksgiving Day parade, organized by the Macy’s chain of stores, took place on the Friday after Thanksgiving.
Why is it Friday and it's black?
"Black Day" is usually a day with negative connotations, such as a tsunami, a volcanic eruption or another catastrophe that occurs on a certain day and leads to many loss of life, such a day is remembered as "a black day in history." In a less catastrophic way, the name "black day" was also given to negative economic events that caused panic in the financial markets.
For example: Friday, September 24, 1969: The financial scandal caused by speculators Gould and Fisk on the American gold market caused a crisis with a wider impact, including on political life;
The Eyemouth Disaster struck on Friday, October 14, 1881, when a storm killed 179 Scottish fishermen in Eyemouth. The inhabitants of this settlement called the day "Black Friday";
On Friday, January 13, 1939, a devastating fire broke out in Victoria, Australia, killing 71 people;
On Friday, September 8, 1978, a real massacre took place in the Iranian capital, Tehran, surrounded by political unrest that eventually led to a change in the political regime.
Another superstition that brings to the fore Friday: the one about Friday, 13. There is no clear evidence of the date of this superstition or its origin, but Dan Brown assures us, in the Da Vinci Code, that everything has started from the Templars. The author claims that the French king Philip the Fair ordered the arrest of the Knights Templar and the abolition of this order on a Friday, October 13, 1307.
Why is it Friday?
In the United States, Thanksgiving (an autumn holiday that takes place after the harvest, like many other holidays around the world) is celebrated on the last Thursday in November. The Friday following Thanksgiving was a day off (non-working day), and workers had access to low-interest loans; In addition, retailers were subject to price reductions - all of these factors led to high sales volumes on that Friday for several decades.
Why is it black?
The explanation is that a lot of people went shopping that day, which caused congestion, traffic accidents and even violence. Another assumption is that it arose from an event in the 1960s in the American city of Philadelphia, when a lot of motorcyclists, but also pedestrians, got into an altercation with the police. That's how that day came to be called Black Friday.
From "negative" to "positive"
Today the meaning of this day has changed. It is currently a day that marks the beginning of the discount season. Now it no longer has a negative connotation, but a positive one for both sellers and customers, being considered a day of shopping.
The custom of making significant price reductions on this day is now widespread in many countries. Over time, traders realized that they could use this holiday to increase their profits. Thus, they began to grant substantial discounts to customers who cross their threshold, lowering prices even more than in the last days before Christmas.
Black Friday generally begins in the early hours of the morning, when the shops become real temples for customers who wait in front of them for even a few hours. Many of the companies invite people to cross their threshold, announcing their loyal customers even a few weeks before Black Friday.
For some time now, Black Friday has been taking place, more and more often, in the virtual domain. Those who want to take advantage of discounts order from the internet, so that they no longer have to wait in front of stores. In order to meet the needs of customers, large stores organize their activity in advance on websites and social networks.
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The content available on the Bemorepanda.com website can be copied and republished in the limit of 200 characters and in the limit of 10 pictures and must include the URL of the article. It is forbidden to completely copy the material and place it anywhere else without indicating the link and the full name of the page.
Black Friday is associated with a day at the end of November in which stores sell products with much lower prices than the rest of the year. This occasion attracts, in reply, an immeasurable wave of buyers, who almost empty the shelves where the most attractive products are found.
You would think that it is an erroneous strategy of the stores, which almost run out of stocks through this uncontrolled sale, at some prices below the value of the products. You wouldn't be wrong, but Black Friday is not just about this day, but it has longer-term effects. The main gain of the stores is not the financial one, but the image capital through which they earn it in the eyes of the buyers.
8.Black Friday be like
10.Waiting for opening
12.Dawn of Dead
16.Hunger Games vibes
17.Black Friday sale
18.I don't really care
20.Didn't get arrested
21.It's called Black Friday
24.What about gym?
26.Democrat city near you
27.Do not come
28.Just wait for it
35.Children on this day
36.News on Black Friday
37.Cheers to this day
38.There are no rules
On April 1, we celebrate April Fool's Day - a fun and relaxed international holiday. However, with all the people's love and popularity, this day is not a day off in any country globally, and this is perhaps one of its central jokes.
April 1 is when you can turn your sense of humor to its fullest, show your sense of humor and not be afraid that you will not be understood, cursed, fired, or sent to compulsory treatment. Everyone excels to the best of their ability and understanding of the funny.
Most interesting facts about April’s Fool’s Day
The holiday of unbridled fun and pranks is celebrated in many countries on all continents; almost everywhere, it falls on the first days of April. Everyone crawls out of hibernation at the beginning of spring; the soul demands nonsense and jokes.
What else is April Fool's Day known for, how jokes are made in different countries, what pranks people fall for, what exciting and incredible things happened on April 1 in history, read in our article. And do not forget to cheer up and give gifts for the mainspring holidays to relatives and friends.
April's Fool's Day in different countries
1. In England, they joke about people until dinner. This can be seen even from the holiday's name - April Fool's Day. And "fool" in English just means a person who was played before noon.
2. The most successful English hoax, which the townspeople fell for, occurred in 1698 and then repeated two centuries later. One of the capital's newspapers published an announcement that the famous sculptures of lions would be washed in the Tower of London.
3. Drawings on April 1 in France are associated with fish. A paper drawing of a fish is discreetly hung on a person's back and then teased with "April fish".
4. In Scotland, they love humor so much that Fool's Day was extended for two whole days. On April 1, since ancient times, simple-hearted people were played, sending a letter to acquaintances, in which it was said: "send the fool even further." And on the second day, the jokes are mainly related to the topic of the fifth point.
5. The first resonant American joke, dated back to 1878, was published in a New York newspaper. It was reported that the American inventor Thomas Edison came up with an apparatus that turns water into wine and earth into grain.
6. Humor Day marks the birth of a digital company with a logo in the form of a bitten apple. Yes, it's Apple! The desire to be ahead of competitors in the telephone directory led to creating the company's name. Then the apple theme continued in the name of Macintosh machines.
7. In Switzerland, on April 1, 1938, instant coffee was invented and presented to the public. However, skeptical coffee lovers decided that they were simply being fooled and did not trust the innovation. As a result, coffee mania unfolded around the world much later.
8. Hence the rumor: spring praise with your tongue, a good tale with ears. Isn't that why everyone's tongues itch in April? True, it is not vain: since April is here, do not trust anyone! On this day, everyone is not opposed to jokes; no one is immune to practical jokes.
April's Fool's Day traditions
9. According to opinion polls, more than 70% of people will joke about one of their friends.
10. Moreover, according to the same surveys, most of the tricks should be expected from students and, oddly enough, people doing business and having their own company. Still, you should not be afraid of grandmothers, although it can be the other way around because everyone jokes on April 1st.
11. April 1 - this Day is not included in any calendars of significant dates and national holidays. Still, it can be attributed to international ones, since it is celebrated with equal success in Germany, England, France, Scandinavia, and even in the East.
12. Everyone loves to make fun of someone, play a trick or play, but one day a year, absolutely everyone does this, from a child to an adult, from a student to a business person. But that's why this day falls on the first of April, no one can say for sure.
April's Fool's Day History
13. There are several versions on this score; some attribute the origin of this holiday to Ancient Rome, wherein in mid-February (and not at all in early April), the Feast of the Fools was celebrated.
14. Apuleius believed that the April Fool's deception was associated with a holiday in honour of Laughter in ancient Rome.
15. Others argue that this holiday originated in ancient India, where March 31st was celebrated as the feast of jokes.
16. There is also an assumption that only the Irish joked on the 1st of April in the ancient world, and even then in honor of the New Year.
17. The Icelandic sagas say that the custom of cheating on April 1st was introduced in memory of Skandia, the daughter of Tiass. According to another version, the tradition of joking on April 1 is associated with the postponement of the new year.
18. Until the second half of the 16th century, the European New Year began at the end of March. They prepared for this event, visited each other, gave gifts. The very meeting of the New Year took place on April 1.
19. Later, by decree of the French king, the beginning of the year was officially celebrated on January 1, but many subjects continued to celebrate on April 1. To get rid of the old traditions, they became called "April Fools", it became fashionable to play and ridicule them.
20. There is also a version according to which we owe this holiday to the Neopolitan king Monterey, who was presented with a fish in honour of the holiday on the occasion of the termination of the earthquake. A year later, the king demanded precisely the same.
21. The same was not found, but the cook prepared another reminiscent of the right one. And although the king recognised the substitution, he was not angry but even amused. Since then, April Fools' pranks have become a custom.
22. The origin of April Fool's Day is still unknown, as it has references in different countries and at other times. The traditions of joking and deceiving, sending people on false orders appeared everywhere and were associated with entirely different reasons.
23. According to one theory, the vernal equinox became April Fool's Day. Previously, it was customary to meet the equinox (March 19-21) with all sorts of fun, pranks and festivities - the spring meeting was met with tricks and joked about the capriciousness of the weather. And with the transition to another calendar, the holiday day has changed.
24. Another version also explains the holiday by changing the Julian calendar to the Gregorian one. Still, it ties the traditions of April Fool's Day to the New Year, which used to be celebrated at the end of March.
25. There is also an option that a funny reference in the "Canterbury Tales" of the writer Geoffrey Chaucer to March 32, implying April 1, is involved in his appearance. But most consider it just a printing error.
26. The people of many countries fell in love with April Fool's Day, and it began to gain its wide popularity in the 18th century while covering all sectors of society.
27. On April Fools' Day, it was customary to play pranks and play pranks, assigning meaningless and even absurd tasks.
28. In modern times, April Fool's Day is popular among all ages and even reached the level of television, periodicals and radio. On this day, you can stumble upon comic articles and pranks, exquisite hoaxes at the media level.
29. At the same time, in the history of the holiday, there were real grandiose pranks from big companies: a BBC report about a beautiful pasta harvest in Italy, the transition to a decimal time measurement system, Taco Bell news about buying the Liberty Bell - an American symbol of independence from Great Britain - to reduce the national debt, a prank from Google about the alleged release of the Google Nose program, which transmits smells.
Events on April's Fool's Day
30. Back in 1778, April Fool's Day was already known in Ireland, where the New Orleans businessman Oliver Pollock comes from. According to numerous testimonies, he invented on April 1 the sign of the world currency - the dollar - $.
31. April 1, 1924, was the day of gaining the "martyr's halo" for the last enslaver of Europe. On this day, 95 years ago, Adolf Hitler and his accomplices in the "beer putsch" were sentenced for a failed coup attempt. Of the five years in prison, Hitler served only nine months, but this term was enough for the failed artist to become a writer.
32. After the verdict on April 1, 1924, the future Fuhrer of Nazi Germany wrote his book Mein Kampf in Landsberg prison. The text has been banned in Russia since 2002. Since 2010, the book has been recognised as extremist. Publicly joking with quotes from the book is fraught with criminal prosecution—even the first of April.
33. On April 1, 1918, half a century before the emergence of the German terrorist group of the same name, the British RAF, the Royal Air Force, was founded. A hundred years later, the combat readiness and serviceability of aircraft with the famous red-white-blue target on the wings and fuselages is provided by 33 thousand people.
34. On April 1, 1979, Ayatollah Khomeini proclaimed Iran an Islamic republic. For 40 years, this day has been celebrated as a national holiday, preceded by a national referendum.
35. But there is some good news as well. On April 1, 1938, instant coffee was presented in a big way in Switzerland. Coffee as a drink was invented much earlier, but it was on this day that it was introduced under the slogan "Brought to mind" and is suitable for extended storage.
36. On April 1, 1976, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne, and Steve Jobs created a company whose branding, 30 years later, would be a sign of respectability in the digital age.
37. On April 1, 1946, the USSR authorities formed the Arzamas-16 nuclear centre on the Nizhny Novgorod region and Mordovia border. Now a popular religious hotspot on the maps of Orthodox believers, Sarov became the country's leading nuclear weapons site in the Soviet past.
38. Historians often associate the first of April with important political events in the world process. For example, on this day in 1808, Emperor Alexander I proclaimed Finland's “perpetual” accession to Russia.
39. April 1, 2009, the leader of the world proletariat on the square named after him in St. Petersburg blew up the fifth point. The monument “Lenin on an armoured car” at the Finland Station in the early morning was “adorned” with a through-hole, through which, if desired, one could even see the Big House on the opposite bank of the Neva.
40. On April 1, 2019, the Central Election Commission of Ukraine recognized that, according to the results of the first round of the presidential elections, for the first time, a professional hohmach, professional cavalryman, showman Vladimir Zelensky is in the lead.
April's Fool's Day - Short Facts
41. April 1st has been celebrated since the 16th century.
42. On April 1, 1915, at the height of the First World War, the French dropped a bomb on a German camp. The bomb did not explode; it was written: “From April 1!”.
43. April 1 is celebrated by 30% of the world's population.
44. 10% of April Fools' Day pranks involve pets.
45. On April 1, traumatologists received two times more patients than other days.
46. 23% of April Fools' pranks involve pregnancy.
47. A good sense of humour is essential to 6 out of 10 US employers.
The natural world is divided into three major groups: the animal world, the plant world, and the mineral world.
The latter is not and has never been alive, it is an inorganic world. Diamond is part of the category of minerals. Each of the minerals is defined by the types, the relativity of the atoms it contains, and the way they are arranged.
Differences in structure and chemical composition give minerals unique properties. For example, spinel atoms are arranged in the same way as diamond atoms, the difference being that the spinel is made up of different chemical elements.
Diamonds are women’s best friends
A chemical element is a substance that contains only one kind of atom. Most minerals are made up of two or more such substances. Once used to imitate diamonds, Spinel is made up of three chemical elements: magnesium, aluminum, and oxygen.
Diamond is the only stone made up of a single element: carbon.
The diamond usually consists of 99.95% carbon, with the remaining 0.05% being other elements whose atoms are not part of the chemical structure of the diamond. Some of these elements are used to determine the color of the diamond.
The way it is formed gives the minerals a special identity. Diamonds are formed at extremely high temperatures and under conditions of special pressure, which exist only at certain distances below the earth's surface. Graphite, for example, is made in the same way as diamond, made of carbon, but in such different conditions that graphite is so soft that it can be used in writing, while a diamond can only be scratched by another diamond.
The composition, the structure, and the way of forming give the diamond the qualities that make it so extraordinary.
GET TO KNOW THE FOUR “Cs”
As with other stones, diamonds with special qualities are rarer and more valuable than lower-quality diamonds.
The 4Cs are universal and are an effective means of characterizing diamonds and are used both in trade and among members of the diamond processing community. These four factors professionally describe the quality of diamonds and refer to:
- carat (weight)
One of the value factors of a diamond stands out precisely because this stone is rare. Most diamonds have shades of yellow or brown and this is why colorless diamonds have a better color rating than those that tend to yellow.
The value and rarity of a diamond are closely related, and the four C's describe the qualities of the diamond in very precise terms.
Like most elements of nature, Diamond is not perfect in all respects. Diamonds may have inclusions and surface irregularities; together they are characteristics of the clarity of a diamond.
- a defining characteristic of the clarity of a diamond, practically enclosed in a stone or extending from the surface of the stone to its interior.
- a defining characteristic of the clarity of a diamond that is found only on the outer surface of a polished stone.
As with the rest of the factors that give the value of a diamond, clarity is directly correlated with the rarity.
Flawless is the highest degree of clarity in the GIA (Gemological Institute of America) diamond clarity rating scale. Diamonds classified as flawless have no visible inclusions on examination at 10 times magnification by an experienced gemologist.
Cataloging Diamonds by Clarity:
F - Flawless
IF - Internally Flawless
VVS1 and VVS2 - Very Very Slightly Included
VS1 and VS2 - Very Slightly Included
SI1 and SI2 - Slightly Included
I1, I2, and I3 - Included
Most people think of a diamond as a colorless stone, but in fact, it is very rare. Most diamonds used in jewelry are almost colorless but have light yellow to brown shades.
There is a wide range of colors, the rarest diamonds are those colored in pink, dark red, and green, and a higher color intensity automatically means a higher value.
The larger the diamond, the more obvious the color. Color differences can be very subtle, but they can still cause dramatic price changes.
The color grading table for diamonds was compiled by the GIA in the 1950s.
It describes the normal color grading range from D (colorless) to Z (slightly yellow and brown). Today, the GIA's diamond color grading scale is the most widespread in the world, and it is often referred to as the "D-to-Z scale."
Each letter represents a range of colors based on a combination of tones - both light and dark - and saturation - intensity.
Diamonds can have noticeable differences in color depth but still belong to the same color group.
A well-cut diamond manages to best highlight the other three qualities, important features of the diamond: brilliance, stone fire, and sparkle.
Shine - is the white light reflected from the surface and inside of a polished diamond.
Fire - the brightness of color that we see when we look at a polished diamond.
Sparkle - the flashes of light that we see when a diamond or the light source we are looking at is moving.
The term “brilliant cut” is used as a general term for stones of any shape, which have most of the faces cut in a triangular shape and which start radiantly around a central point. By far the most popular diamond cut is the round brilliant. The diamond has 57 or 58 sides, depending on the presence or absence of the package (the bottom of a diamond).
But let's see what the names of a diamond's faces are:
- Crown - is the top of the diamond and is located above the round
- Ronda (or belt) - is the narrow section of a polished diamond that makes the connection between the crown and the diamond flag (bottom) being the point of attachment of the stone in the jewelry.
- The pavilion - the bottom of a faceted diamond, the part that is under the roundabout.
- Facet - a flat, polished surface of a stone.
- The package - is the underside of a polished stone, from which the flag practically rises.
- Cuts in shapes other than round are called fancy cuts.
Diamonds are weighed with great precision, and the unit of measurement is the metric carat which is abbreviated as "cts" or "ct".
The subdivision of the metric carat is the point (abbreviated "pt"), and 100 points are the equivalent of one carat.
Weights over one carat are usually expressed in carats and decimals. A 1.03 ct stone will be described as "one comma zero three-carat". The weight is expressed in dots for diamonds weighing less than one carat. For example, 0.83 ct will read "eighty-three points".
The price of diamonds is set according to all factors: color, cut, clarity. The weight is just another factor that has a say in the price of a diamond.
!!! Do not confuse the terms "carat" and "karat". Karat is the unit of measurement that defines the purity - or fineness - of gold.
SUMMARY OF THE HISTORY OF DIAMOND CUTTING
There was a time when people believed that diamonds had magical qualities. It was believed that unpolished diamonds have the power to protect against evil spirits, that they have the power to cure various ailments, and to make the one who carries the stone on him indestructible, just like a diamond. It was also believed that if you tried to grind that gem, the miraculous powers of diamonds would disappear.
When they started giving up superstitions, diamonds began to lose their charm. This is because a diamond in a shape other than an octagon with clean facets, a rough diamond, was no longer of interest. In most diamonds, irregular surfaces hide their outstanding optical qualities.
Things began to change in the 14th and 15th centuries when diamond grinding techniques began to develop. Although they did not find a way to grind diamonds, the first diamond grinders discovered that they could use diamond powder to remove irregularities and make natural surfaces more transparent.
In the 16th century, grinders could process a diamond by grinding the point upwards, thus creating a flat-faced facet. The result was called a "flat cut." At the beginning of the 17th century, the grinding process (grinding, rolling) was already a little more advanced. The grinders used it to cut roses in the shape of roses (roses), with a flat base and with the top facets that joined at a certain point. Although this process gave rise to more carefully processed diamonds, much of the unpolished diamond was lost.
People began to split diamonds in the 17th century. At the very least, the shape of the future diamond could be traced from the unpolished stone. The number of losses decreased because they no longer had to practically grind the diamond in the grinding process.
The rotary cutter, introduced around 1900 and the lasers introduced in the 1970s, created the possibility of obtaining even more perfect cuts.
Diamond cutting today consists of 3 or 4 steps: splitting or cutting (sometimes even both processes), grinding, and finishing.
WHY ARE ETERNAL DIAMONDS?
"Diamonds are forever" is one of the best slogans in the advertising industry in this field. This slogan has several meanings. It refers to the fact that for centuries, diamond has been the most coveted stone, it refers to the beauty of diamonds that remain unchanged forever and it refers to the durability of these stones.
Durability is the property of diamonds to withstand degrading factors caused by wear, heat, or chemicals. The hardness varies from one stone to another and depends on the chemical structure and their structure.
The way the diamonds were formed and the fact that they withstood the road to the surface of the earth is a miracle.
The arid desert of South Africa, the Siberian platforms, the tundra of northeastern Canada, or the oceanic coasts of southwestern Africa, are important areas in diamond mining.
The process of diamond extraction is very complex and time-consuming. Thus, in addition to digging mines, digging tens of thousands of tons of earth, mining companies have to build real cities around these mines. Given the large number of people involved in this process of diamond mining, mining companies are building real cities near the mines to house and feed hundreds of workers and even create leisure conditions for them.
Mining involves a lot of work and fabulous expenses, and yet the quantities of diamonds obtained are relatively small. Identifying a possible diamond deposit alone costs a few million dollars.
Miners have to process about a ton of rock to get half a carat of crude. Diamond deposits in any mine are limited. For example, the Ekati mine in Canada began operations in 1998. It is currently estimated that the entire mine will be exploited for about 20 years, and the number of diamonds mined will be about 3-4 million carats (raw material). ).
But not only the quantity plays an important role in the profitability of a mine, but also the quality of the extracted diamonds. For example, the Argyle mine in Australia has a huge diamond deposit and has one of the best ratios of rough diamonds per tonne of rock extracted (3 carats per tonne), but the amount of polished diamonds obtained is very small. . Thus, only 5% of the number of rough diamonds extracted is of gem quality and does not require additional processing operations to obtain diamonds for mounting in jewelry. 70% of the extracted rough diamonds require special and additional processing to be able to make polished diamonds for jewelry, and the remaining 30% is only of industrial quality and is used to make cutting and abrasive tools.
Continuing the discussion on the subject of hardness and strength, we must say that Jade, for example, is very hard, but not hard at all… it cannot be easily broken, but it is soft enough to be modeled with simple tools. A diamond, on the other hand, can only be broken if it is hit in the right place and is so strong that it can only be scratched by another diamond.