European Football Championship: Top Most Interesting Facts
Football fans have never looked forward to an international tournament for so long. The European Championship was supposed to be held in 2020, but due to a sudden pandemic, the competition was postponed to 2021, albeit with the previous name - Euro 2020. Bemorepanda has collected the most interesting facts about the main football tournament of 2021, which started on June 11.
€ 1.25 billion
was the cost of the players of the England national team, the most expensive national team of Euro 2020
France is located nearby - € 1.03 billion, Germany (€ 936.5 million), Spain (€ 915 million) and Portugal (€ 872 million).
Three others are: Hungary (€ 74.85 million), North Macedonia (€ 61.8 million) and Finland (€ 44.6 million).
Almost € 1 billion was the
Total cost of the 11 most expensive footballers of the tournament
The total cost of the most expensive footballers in terms of positions for Euro 2020 was € 990 million.
On the bench in terms of positions: Romelu Lukaku (€ 100 million), Raheem Sterling (€ 90 million), Bruno Fernandes (€ 90 million), Phil Foden (€ 80 million), Marcus Llorente (€ 80 million), Rodri (€ 70 million), Raphael Varane (€ 70 million) , Milan Shkrinjar (€ 60 million), Ben Chilluel (€ 45 million), Rhys James (€ 40 million).
€ 40 million
was the cost of the most expensive football player of Euro 2020 not from the top 5 championships
This is 18-year-old defender Nuno Mendes from Sporting Portugal. The second is 19-year-old Ryan Gravenberch from Ajax, worth € 33 million (Netherlands). The third is Nikola Vlašić from CSKA, which TM estimates at € 30 million (Croatia).
120 players at Euro 2020 - from the Premier League
This is more than from any other championship.
The following tournaments are listed:
● Bundesliga - 89;
● Series A - 71;
● La Liga - 38;
● RPL - 32;
● League 1 - 29;
● Championship (Division 2 of England) - 29;
A total of 42 leagues of various levels are represented.
The most atypical:
● Championship of Albania: Ferhan Hasani - North Macedonia
● Bosnia and Herzegovina: Krste Velkovski - North Macedonia
● Japan: Thomas Vermaelen - Belgium
● English League 1 (3rd division): Chris Gunter from " Charltona - Wales & Annecy Jakkola of Bristol Rovers - Finland
● English Ligue 2 (4th Division): Matt Smith Man City U-23 - Wales
17 Chelsea footballers featured at Euro 2020
More than from any other team.
This is a tournament record. Chelsea players are on 10 national teams: England, Germany, France, Croatia, Italy, Spain, Denmark, Wales, Scotland and Belgium. Following the winner of the Champions League are:
● Manchester City - 15
● Bayern - 14
● Juventus - 12
● Manchester United and Dynamo K - 11
14 years and 10 months
Joachim Loew leads the German national team - the longest of the coaches for Euro 2020
The closest pursuers don't even have 10 years:
● France - Didier Deschamps (8 years and 10 months);
● Switzerland - Vladimir Petkovich (6 years and 10 months);
● Portugal - Fernando Santos (6 years and 8 months);
● North Macedonia - Igor Angelovski (5 years and 7 months);
● Sweden - Janne Anderson (4 years and 11 months);
● Ukraine - Andriy Shevchenko (4 years and 10 months);
● Belgium - Roberto Martinez (4 years and 10 months);
● Russia - Stanislav Cherchesov (4 years and 9 months);
● England - Gareth Southgate (4 years and 6 months);
17 years and 243 days
Kasper Kozlovsky - the youngest footballer of Euro 2020
Next on the list - Englishman Bellingham, German Musiala, Spaniard Pedri and two Ukrainians: Zabarny and Sudakov.
96.2% of the
national teams in Finland and Hungary are represented by players from outside the national championships.
Finland and Hungary still have one player from the local championships. This is followed by:
● Austria and Belgium - 92.3%;
● Sweden and North Macedonia - 88.5%;
● Switzerland, Poland and Scotland - 84.6%;
● France and Wales - 80.8.
The smallest percentage of "legionnaires":
● England - 11.5% (Trippier, Bellingham, Sancho);
● Italy - 15.4% (Emerson, Florenzi, Veratti, Jorginho);
● Russia - 15.4% (Kudryashov, Golovin, Miranchuk, Cheryshev);
● Ukraine - 30.8% (Zinchenko, Sobol, Makarenko, Malinovsky, Bezus, Yarmolenko, Zubkov, Yaremchuk);
● Germany - 34.6% (Leno, Rudiger, Koch, Gosens, Kroos, Gundogan, Havertz, Werner, Volland).
Now the Euro can play ...
... even those who did not get into the final application of
Previously, the Euro application could fit 23 players, but the modern tournament requires modern solutions. UEFA has prepared and released some covid additions to the regulations ahead of the tournament. You probably know that the rosters have been expanded to 26, so that the teams have more room to maneuver. But this is not the only measure. Player rosters may change before the tournament, and even during.
For example, in case of injury or serious illness, a player from the application can be replaced with another one before the starting match of the team for Euro, and goalkeepers can be changed after the first game.
In this case, any additional applications must be agreed, the diagnosis of the excluded player must be confirmed by the UEFA medical specialist. The number of such substitutions is not limited, the main thing is to fit into the deadline (for field players - before the start of the tournament). The regulations clearly state: the national team must go to the match if it has at least 13 players, including one goalkeeper. If 13 is not recruited, then you can even call those who are not included in the application 26.
A few days before the tournament, covid problems appear. So far, Spain is suffering the most. Sergi Busquets passed a positive test and disrupted the friendly match - since all the other players were at risk, they had to release the youth team for the game with Lithuania. And on the morning of June 9, it turned out that the defender Diego Llorente was also infected.
As a result, the coaches create a "plan B" - at the same time they assemble a squad of 17 players (there is Kep, but no Nacho, Saul and Aspas). All of them will come to the national team, but they will live in a "parallel bubble" without contact with the main team. In which case, any of them will be added.
A part-time Youtube blogger, a failed mortgage consultant ...
... and 7 more interesting facts about Euro stars
In the summer of 2012, English defender Tyrone Mingsretirement was considered at age 19. The fact is that it was problematic for him to combine training with the work of a bartender and a mortgage consultant, but he still continued to perform. After 7 years, he achieved a call-up to the England national team.
Spain's left-back, Jordi Alba, only got a driver's license at 31 and started using his car. Before that, the Spaniard came to trainings by taxi or with the help of relatives and friends.
Dutchman Donnie van de Beck has been dating the daughter of the legendary Dennis Begkamp for several years, and he took the 34th number in Manchester United in honor of Ajax footballer Abelha, who had been in a coma for almost three years.
Until the age of 14, Spanish goalkeeper David De Gea was not a goalkeeper at all. He generally played mini-football, where he played the role of a forward. In those days, he pumped the game with his feet, which helps him in big football. He parried a lot of punches thanks to futsal skills.
In July 2020, the English “Birmingham” assigned the 22nd number for 17-year-old Jude Bellingham. Thus, the club thanked the talented guy for 10 years in the team. Bellingham became Birmingham's most expensive transfer - it was sold to Borussia Dortmund for € 25 million.
In 2012, Italian Federico Bernardeschi refused to star in a reality show about the life of promising Fiorentina players. They persuaded him for a long time, hinting that the captain should take part in the picture and that this would raise his recognition. “I just wanted to play football, I didn't think about the rest,” Federico recalled.
Black Spaniard Adam Traore has been famous for speed since a young age. To prevent the winger from being grabbed by the arms, the Wolverhampton coaching staff came up with the idea of smearing them with baby oil. And it helped! Now the reactive footballer cannot be kept up, and he began to receive much fewer injuries due to fouls.
The star of the Netherlands national team Memphis Depay, in addition to football, is engaged in music. More than 500 thousand people have subscribed to his YouTube channel. The total number of video views has already exceeded 36 million.
English defender Bukayo Saka spent his childhood on the street. To quickly send his son home, the father and brother had to lose his "battle" in the garden. Also, the future Arsenal player was famous for his excellent academic performance. His favorite subjects were business, mathematics and English. Saka passed all exams with good or excellent marks.
At a young age, Belgian Napoli star Dries Mertens nearly became a physical training teacher when he was expelled from Anderlecht due to his modest physical abilities. The player was saved by the coach of the youth team of Ghent, who took Mertens to the club of the third Belgian division.
Giorginio Wijnaldum is a cousin of Royston Drenthe, who in 2013 played 6 matches for Alania Vladikavkaz. As a child, the midfielder did not like football and was fond of acrobatics. Everything changed when his grandmother sent Giorginio to the Rotterdam Sparta school and accompanied him to all training sessions.
Belgian defender Tom Meunier, in his youth, combined the game in the third Belgian league with work at the factory. Tom is also very fond of painting, and in 2015 he developed a design for sun awnings for the American company Winsol.
Because a refreshing event is approaching, namely Oktoberfest, the Bemorepand team decided to find the most interesting, useful and, in some places, funny curiosities about one of the most popular drinks in the world - beer.
Blonde, brown, unfiltered or wheat, with summery and fresh aromas - these are just a few features of beer, a drink that, by the way, in limited quantities, can take care of your thirst and health this summer. From the boundless space of the internet, Bemorepanda gathered the most interesting and unusual curiosities about beer.
Here comes the second part of Top 100 facts about beer. Here you can view the first part.
51. Sometimes brewers use the secondary fermentation method called kreusening. Fresh fermenting wort is added to the already poured chilled beer. An additional portion of yeast speeds up the fermentation process, cleans up the by-products released during fermentation and improves the taste of the beer, as hops and other additives retain flavor and aroma longer.
51. Hops are one of the classic beer ingredients, although not required for fermentation. It has been used in Europe since the 8th century, but it's real heyday came during the Reformation. If you put hops in the wort during boiling, the beer will get a characteristic bitterness, since when the plant is heated it releases resin. If you add it already during fermentation, when the beer “reaches” in a vat or barrel, the drink will take only aroma from the hops - this process is called “dry hopping”. Brewers only use bumps of female plants - they can be bought dried, in pellets or even briquettes. Hops, by the way, are poisonous: fresh buds can irritate and discomfort their pickers.
The types of hops that are used in brewing. Some of them impart a more bitter taste to the drink, while others, such as Liberty, are more likely to be used for flavoring.
52. Previously, beer was aged in wooden barrels, but with the transition to industrial brewing, manufacturers began to choose steel vats. With the flourishing of crafting, wood has regained its popularity: firstly, wood absorbs the tastes and aromas of aged drinks, passing them on to the next. Secondly, it gives the beer a special woody flavor, which sometimes contains notes of coconut, vanilla or caramel. And thirdly, the wood allows air and microorganisms to pass through, which also change the taste of the wort. Modern brewers don't always use barrels - instead of vats, they can use oak chips, cubes, or spirals. Sometimes the wood is even burned if they want to achieve a drink with a strong and toasty "character".
53. In Africa, where traditional crops grow poorly in subtropical and prairie conditions, sorghum is grown, which easily adapts to different soils. It is from sorghum that local beer is brewed, which is called differently in different countries: in Benin and Togo - chukutu, in Tanzania - mtama, in Sudan - merissa, and in South Africa - kaffir. Although the brewing process is similar to the European one, the taste of beer is very different from the usual lagers and ales due to the use of specific raw materials and a large amount of lactic acid bacteria entering the vessels. Although sorghum beer is traditionally used during festivals and rituals, many Africans prefer to buy European varieties because they contain more alcohol and the brewing process is more hygienic. The drink is loved by the poorest segments of the population, as it perfectly saturates due to its high calorie content.
This is what purple corn looks like, from which chicha morada is prepared.
54. Chicha - a beer-like drink from South America made from corn. It is especially popular in Bolivia and Peru, where this cereal is actively growing, and its strength varies from 2 to 12 degrees. In ancient times, corn was chewed and then spat into a vat, where it was fermented under the influence of saliva, and the starch was broken down into simple sugars. This method exists to this day, moreover,, resort to it even craft breweries, which have special equipment for pasteurizing the drink. Chicha morada is made from purple corn with the addition of pineapple peels, sugar, cloves and cinnamon, which makes the drink look like mulled wine. In addition to corn, South Americans chew cassava, sweet potatoes, and other fruits.
55. Sake, which has been produced for over 1,300 years, is very often called rice vodka or wine, although it is closest to beer because it is made by fermenting grain. For the drink, not all the grain of rice is used, but only its most starchy central part: for this, the rice is polished, removing the bitter shell and upper layers. Although there are special varieties of rice for sake, the specific variety is not so important because during the manufacturing process the producers try to make the drink so pure that it does not leave the grain flavor in it. After the polishing of rice, moisture evaporated, and then added to the koji spores of the fungus, which is known for its taste "umami",as the rice grain has no enzymes. The resulting drink is filtered after fermentation, and two types are distinguished - a slightly filtered unclear nigori and a crystal clear "imperial" one. The strength of sake reaches 20%, but it is often diluted with water up to 15%.
56. In the 19th century in Germany, they began to brew beer from potatoes: raw potatoes were grated, heated to 156 degrees together with water to a state of thick gruel, then a thick syrup was obtained from which the drink was prepared. Potatoes are great for beer, as they are high in starch, which means they are an excellent raw material for yeast. Today, potato beer is not uncommon, and besides the classic varieties,are also used in brewing sweet potatoes, yams and cassava.
57. During the colonial era, pumpkin was widely eaten in North America, which still occupies a significant part of the US gastro culture, especially in the fall. In addition to pies and pumpkin puree, the pilgrims brewed beer: grated vegetable pulp was an excellent source of sugars, replacing cereals, most of which were sent to bread. In 1771, the American Philosophical Society published a recipe for a pure "pompion ale," as it was then called. With the development of cereal crops, the popularity of pumpkin beer gradually faded away, the malt drink we were already familiar with began to be imported from Europe, and the vegetable was no longer used in production. In the wake of craft brewing in the United States at the end of the 20th century, pumpkin was again remembered: it is believed that Bill Owens discovered the recipe in the works of George Washington and tried to implement it. They began experimenting with the vegetable in every possible way: for example, they added nutmeg, cinnamon and cardamom to the wort, imitating the taste of pumpkin pie. Pumpkin porters, stouts and lagers emerged and are now popular in the United States.
There are a lot of breweries in the USA that make pumpkin beer. For example, Rouge itself grows vegetables for beer, picks them in August, dries them, and by September fresh pumpkin ale appears on the shelves
58. Kvass was known in Russia back in the 11th century - at that time it was more alcoholic and looked much like beer. Strong kvass is called melted, that is, boiled, and not arbitrarily fermented. It was prepared from wheat and barley malt or rye bread, adding wormwood, hops, cumin and St. John's wort for flavor and aroma. A little later, kvass was distilled, which is why the amount of alcohol in it increased. Interestingly, there was a disease called "yazya kvass", in which a headache was severe - most likely such an ancient diagnosis was made to those suffering from a hangover after excessive drinking. Now kvass is not considered an alcoholic drink, although according to GOST its strength can reach 1.2%; and the past of the drink reminds us of the verb "ferment", that is, "get drunk."
59. Honey is added to some types of beer, but there is mead - a completely separate brew drink, which does not contain malt. Honey can be anything you like - buckwheat, lime, orange, because of this, the drink turns out to be different in color, density and strength. To taste, it can be not only sweet, but also semi-sweet and even dry. In Russia, nutritious honey was already known in the 10th century: they were both boiled and set, that is, they were left for natural fermentation. Mead was available to ordinary people, since the farm often had its own apiaries, but with the spread of stronger alcoholic beverages, for example, vodka, they practically stopped drinking it. Although you can now buy a drink at any store, industrial meads have little in common with ancient Russian honeys. Besides Russia, mead is popular in the USA and Europe. The American Mead Association notes that new companies are constantly opening in the states that brew different styles: melomel (mead with fruits), metheglin (mead with spices and herbs), kesira (mead with apples), piment (mead with grape juice) and others.
One of the largest mead plants in Russia is located in Suzdal - the industrial history ofbegan here in the 19th century.
60. Braggot is a mead with malt, but it is classified as beer. The drink got its name from the ancient Celtic word bracis, meaning the shape of the grain from which it was made. In England braggot often passed off as pure mead that was condemned even by the Church, so gradually that it is highlighted in a separate style. Initially, braggot was made by mixing mead and ale, then it was seasoned with pepper, ginger, cinnamon, galangal and cloves. It became a traditional wedding drink in some British regions, but its popularity declined in the 17th century.
61. Cider is neither beer or wine, although it is often tried to be included in the classification of these drinks. Cider is made from apple juice that is fermented naturally or by adding yeast. Although it is preferable to prepare the drink from special coarse varieties of fruits rich in tannins, sometimes ordinary table apples are taken. There are many styles of cider produced all over the world: dry and sweet, yellow and pink, highly carbonated and quiet, with added spices, herbs, other fruits and hops. Cider analogs - Poiret or Perry - are made from pears.
62. There are several hundred beer styles in the world, however, craft breweries often transcend traditional and well-known recipes, making it nearly impossible to create a complete guide to all styles. Craftsmen can take as a basis classic beers from Belgium, Germany or the UK, add strange, unusual ingredients to them, or change the brewing process. Also, styles don't just happen: for a trendy new beer to become a style, it has to be made by more than one brewery, so the process takes time. The most recognized guide in the world, American Brewers Association, changes every year, with new varieties being added and definitions of old ones rewriting.
63. Most styles can be divided into two types: ales, or top-fermented beers, and lagers, or bottom-fermented beers. During top fermentation, which occurs at higher temperatures (about 20 degrees), and therefore more ancient, the yeast rises to the surface. During bottom fermentation (about 10 degrees), which spreads when refrigeration machines appear, the yeast is concentrated at the bottom of the container. In the modern world, the second type of fermentation is most often used.
64. Lager is the most popular beer style. 87% of the beer market in the United States Lagers like Corona and Budweiser account for, and the most common type of lager is Pilsner, named after his hometown of Pilsen, Czech Republic. Beer brewing in Pilsen began in the 1200s, but it was the light golden lager that was first made by the Bavarian Josef Groll in 1842. Since then, it has been marketed under the brand name Pilsner Urquell, which prides itself on using Saaz hops, which give the beer a particularly mild flavor, and is named after the Polish town of Zatec.
Despite the fact that Schwarzbier is black, this is a lager, although it is more common to see lagers as golden.
65. Lagers are made on all continents. The Bavarians are very close to the Czech Republic, so they quickly adopted the Pilsner brew, modifying it - the German Pilsners are fresher and more bitter, due to the fact that they use different hops there. Lagers are actively made in the USA, Austria and Japan - in the latter can be to them , rice, potatoes, soybeans and corn added. The public is more accustomed to seeing light lagers, but there are also black ones, such as Schwarzbier, one of the most popular beers in Germany. This beer is a great example of how a dark beverage can be light and refreshing: it has a mild roasted flavor with very clean notes of caramel and coffee. The German brewery Köstritzer is best known for its Schwarzbiers, which has almost five hundred years of history. In addition, such unusual lagers as India Pale Lager are brewed in the world with hopping like IPA or brut lagers, which the amylase enzyme gives sparkle like champagne.
66. The German town of Einbock was a major brewing center in the late Middle Ages: since it was part of the Hanseatic League, local artisans exported most of their produce before the Hanseatic fell into decay in the 16th century. Almost half of the inhabitants of the city made beer: the malt was dried in attics, and it was brewed in a special mobile boiler, which belonged to the city and was brought into the courtyards one by one. This interesting practice, among other things, is evidenced by urban architecture: in many houses, instead of gates, there were huge arches. There is a legend that one of the Bavarian dukes Maximilian was so fond of Einbeck beer that he could not survive the interruptions in supply, so he called the local brewer Elias Pichler to his place to ensure that the drink was always available. Initially, bock - and this is exactly what this beer was called - was made by top fermentation, but Pichler adapted it to Bavarian tastes and over time this style began to be brewed in a larger way. It is believed that the block was the favorite style of theologian and reformer Martin Luther. There are several sub-styles of the bock: a stronger and denser doppelbock, a light tee, and a dark.
67. Not all brewers agree with the strict division, which is why they lager / ale brew hybrid beers. These are ales brewed at typical lager temperatures and vice versa. Or ales that used lager yeast. This brewing method conveys the characteristics of both beer categories, and their styles are nearly impossible to classify. There are several varieties that are produced in this manner. For example, Altbier (old beer) is a typical Düsseldorf style, a bottom-fermented bitter variety, although in many respects it is similar to lagers. Or steam beer, which has been brewed in the States since the 19th century. Initially, it was a lager, which was fermented at unusual temperatures for speed - because of this, its quality deteriorated, but the price became low. Why it was named "steam" is unknown: according to one version, this is due to the fact that it was exposed to the street for rapid cooling, and it emitted steam. On the other, there was so much carbon dioxide in the barrels that it had to be released as steam.
68. Everything that was produced in the German city of Cologne used to be called Kölsch. However, at the beginning of the 20th century, this word was firmly entrenched in local beer - light, highly fermented, hopped, top-fermented, produced in accordance with the Law on Purity. To protect the name and outline the main conditions for the production of the variety, in 1985 24 Cologne breweries signed the Kölsch Convention, which specified the requirements for packaging, labels, advertising, as well as the rules for sale, sale and cooperation with intermediaries. Today, in Cologne bars, köbs - waiters in traditional blue cardigans - pour kölsch into long narrow 0.2-liter glasses and serve it on a special tray with a handle - a kölsch-kränz.
Cologne Köbs waiter with a Kölsch fender in hand
69. Barleywine is a strong, dark, almost black English ale, around which a lot of controversy arises. The term Barley Wine was originally used as a poetic synonym for ale. Beginning in the 1870s, a beer that began to be sold in Britain the brewers themselves called Barleywine, such as the Bass Brewery in Burton-upon-Trent. According to researcher Martin Cornell, there is no difference between barleywine and traditional strong aged ales - this is just a marketing ploy that has spread since the 20th century. In barleywine, alcohol can reach 12%, so it was traditionally sold in small bottles. Perhaps in order to give the beer a more wine-like flavor, in accordance with its name, it was aged in barrels from port, whiskey or bourbon.
70. Due to the numerous British wars at the end of the 17th century, there was a sharp increase in taxes and prices in the country, including for brewing raw materials. It became particularly expensive because of malt, which is why its share and the quality of the product fell sharply.But on hops recently imported from the mainland, taxes did not rise as quickly, so the amount in beer increased. However, for the British, such a drink was too strong and sour, because they were accustomed to the traditional swedish ale, therefore, to save money, they began to mix two types of beer, and then leave for a long exposure - over time, the taste softened and the bitterness of the hops disappeared. The new dark drink became very popular with the working class and was named "porter" after the porters and stevedores who loved to drink it. While it is widely believed that porter was invented by London brewer Ralph Harwood around the 1720s, mixing several different varieties with each other, documents found indicate that porters were known to the British in the past. Due to the possibility of long-term storage, the porter could be imported to other countries, where it took root in its variations. In Poland, for example, a Baltic porter has emerged, which is made with yeast for lagers rather than ales. In pre-revolutionary Russia, this style became known as "imperial stout" because it was loved at the court of Catherine II. Today, the most popular American porters, which are craft brewers, revived after the repeal of "Prohibition" in the United States.
71. Initially, any strong beer was called a stout, and a little later - a stronger porter. In the second half of the 19th century, less black malt than porters and more brown malt began to be added to stouts, giving the stouts a drier flavor. Today, between them there are practically no technological differences, except for the one that is usually used for porters solozhony barley, and for stouts - nesolozhonyzhzhony,but even this rule has exceptions. Inside the stouts, oats (with the addition of oats), Irish, grown from Guinness porters on roasted malt, sweet tropical, made for export to hot countries, and others are distinguished.
72. Tax increases for raw materials has led to the appearance of the Paleales.In the early 18th century, it became cheaper to brew beer at home than to buy it in pubs and shops; in addition, at home it is easier to control the quality of the ingredients, and hence the quality of the drink. When people moved around the country, they were looking for something similar to their familiar home-brewed beer. This led to the fact that artisans began to experiment with beer, trying to find the very taste - and so a highly hopped bitter pale ale, brewed with light malt, was born. The public got tired of the porter, and with the proliferation of transparent glasses, there was a demand for a beautiful, non-cloudy beer that was more difficult to counterfeit. So pale ale became a real British hit. Especially popular was the pale ale from Burton-upon-Trent, a small town in Staffordshire that was formerly known for its quality brown ales. The mineralization of the local springs was believed to be ideal for preparing light strong ales.
Burton-upon-Trent has been famous for its breweries for centuries. Here is the National Brewery Center, where you can get acquainted with the history of the drink in the city
73. By the 19th century, the British East India Company gradually colonized India, discovering unhindered trade in the country. Brewers also drew attention to this market, and the most notable among them was James Hodgson: from the 1780s he practically monopolized the supply of various beers, united under the name Indian Ale, to the colony. However, already in the 1820s, other companies and artisans were able to win the true love of the local public with a brighter beer. Burton brewers sent their pale ales to India. At that time, the transportation of products was possible only by sea and took about six months, and during this time the beer fell into disrepair. Only heavily hopped varieties could preserve their freshness and taste, but porter, although it was familiar to British soldiers, who were full in the country due to national uprisings against the colonialists, was too dense and heavy for the hot climate. Pale ales, on the other hand, are bright, sparkling, with a bitter taste - perfect for quenching thirst and refreshing. Like many other styles of beer, India Pale Ale or IPA virtually disappeared during the World Wars of the 20th century, but reemerged in America in the 1970s with the rise of craft beer.
74. Already in our time, a new style of pale ale was born - NEIPA, which most often stands for New England India Pale Ale. Even though NEIPA emerged in the 2000s, it's hard to say who came up with it. It is believed that the Alchemist and Hill Farmstead breweries in Vermont, and then TreeHouse and Trillium in Massachusetts, began brewing it at about the same time. This style is cloudy, sweet, light, like a tropical juice, while the IPA is clear and very bitter due to the high hop content. NEIPA also has hops, but it is added at the very end of the boil, so it gives its aroma to the drink, without having time to make it bitter. This style is very popular in the USA, where even small artisans brew it.
75. Before hops became one of the most important ingredients, the Netherlands, France, Belgium, Germany and other northern countries used gruit, a mixture of herbs to add flavor and aroma to beer, usually including wormwood, wild rosemary, horse and dog mint, yarrow, juniper, rosemary, marsh myrtle and other plants. The composition of this mixture depended on local traditions and the available plants, many of which are poisonous or known for their psychotropic effects, making the drink highly intoxicating. The first mention of fruit dates back to the 10th century, when the German king Otto II granted the right to trade in the mixture to some churches: at that time, when buying beer raw materials, a tax had to be paid, so only bishops, nobles or large farmers could sell gruit. In many cities there were special people - gruyters who made the mixture and sold it to the brewers. Over time, the Catholic Church practically monopolized the sale of gruit, and hops became an increasingly common ingredient without paying for it. The last nail in the coffin of the herbal mixture was the Protestants. They promoted austerity and abstinence, which influenced the adoption in the 16th-18th centuries of a number of laws prohibiting the use of psychotropic additives in brewing. But the main reason for the disappearance of gruit was religious politics and the decline in the influence of Catholicism in the northern countries. Now gruits are also boiled, but very rarely.
76. In some bars you can see the Sauer - it's not exactly a beer style, but rather a general name for all kinds of acid.Lambics, Gueuze, Gose, Flemish ales, Berliner Weisse or smoked German ales - Liechtenheiners can be hiding here. The latter were once common throughout Germany, but now they are very rare. They are brewed with wheat or barley smoked over an open fire, which give the beer a smoky aroma. And the sour taste appears due to lactic acid bacteria. By the way, in Germany there is another famous beer that is brewed with smoked malt - rauchbier.
Rauchbier was historically made in Franconia, in the city of Bamberg
77. Lambic is made according to the old technology of "spontaneous fermentation": the wort for lambic is boiled, and then left to ferment in an open vessel, without adding special brewer's yeast there.can enter the vessel Any microorganisms, so it is impossible to accurately predict the taste of the resulting drink, however, it cannot be called completely unpredictable either, since brewers still observe the temperature regime and limit the ingress of some bacteria into the mash. The special sour taste of lambics is largely attributed to the yeast strains of Brettanomyces, the most famous of which are B. bruxellensis and B. lambicus, named after the Belgian capital and local style. If in the barrels the beer still tastes too different, then it can be mixed with each other so that the batch is homogeneous. It is believed that real lambic, like champagne, is made only in the Senne river valley - the Pajottenland region and near Brussels, and everything else is just beer "in style".
78. Lambic began to be brewed around the 17th century, but by the 19th it had become a hit. By 1900, there were about 80 breweries in the vicinity of Brussels, specializing in lambic. It became an everyday drink, and farmers often took a bottle with them to work in the fields. From the middle of the century, the popularity of the style began to decline: large players appeared on the market who offered a simpler and more understandable to the consumer light lager, and the popularity of soda with a lot of sugar influenced the mass love for sweet beer. Some breweries closed, others began to sweeten their product on purpose, and as a result, the quality of the lambics dropped. It wasn't until the 1990s that a revival began, fueled by a general interest in local production, especially craft beer, the proliferation of the internet, and the publication of books such as Tom Webbs' LambicLand. Brewers began to come up with cultural events to promote lambics: interactive production tours, tastings, and festivals. Currently, this style of beer is perceived by the Belgians as one of the elements of the country's cultural heritage.
79. Gueuze is a type of lambic for which young (about a year old) and old (about 2-3 years old) beer is mixed. After filling in a bottle, the drink is fermented and becomes highly carbonated. Gueuze is called "Brussels champagne": it is believed that when Napoleon's troops occupied Belgium, a general fashion for sparkling wine began. An enterprising brewer from Geuzenstraat collected empty champagne bottles and poured lambic into them - the beer was so successful that it gained popularity and got its name from Geuzen Street. Although the Lindemans company, which is famous for its lambics, believes that the name comes from the French gazeux, that is, carbonated. Gueuze is usually sweetish in taste with a strong sour aftertaste.
Map of the 1997 Toer de Geuze festival. This is a festival in the Pajottenland region, held twice a year, during which you can get free guided tours and tastings of gueuze and lambics at local breweries
80. Cherry lambic is called scream. It is also made by blending two lambics of different ages with the addition of overripe sour Morello cherries: according to tradition, they are not crushed, but dipped into a barrel of beer, either whole or with a slightly damaged skin. In addition to cherry lambic in Belgium, other types of lambic are made - framboise (raspberry), peche (peach), cassis (black currant) and faro, to which caramelized sugar is added.
81. Gueuze is often confused with gosé - a German beer with a thousand-year history, which is also produced by spontaneous top fermentation with the addition of coriander and salt. It began to be brewed in the city of Goslar in Lower Saxony, but this style gained particular popularity in Leipzig, where by 1800 there were about 80 taverns specializing in gose. Despite strong love, it remained a regional drink, as lagers supplanted almost all ales, and may have completely disappeared due to the wars, but its recipe has survived. The style revived at home at the end of the 20th century and continues to develop now, including among craft breweries on the Russian market.
The area of distribution of sahti and other Scandinavian beer drinks
82. Sahti is a type of beer produced in Finland based on barley, rye, juniper and baker's yeast. It was originally brewed for home use rather than commercial sale, so the recipe has remained largely unchanged over the years. Most often it was made for family events like weddings. Sahti was especially common in western Finland, while in the eastern regions of the country, low-alcohol kalya beer was preferred, whose traditional recipe has practically disappeared. Interestingly, saunas were often used to malt the grain, in which it was possible to maintain a high temperature for a long time. Usually sahti is infused in barrels, not steel vats, protected from oxidation and not filtered - the beer tastes sweet with hints of milkshake. Today in Finland there are only six breweries that brew this style, but for none it is the main one.
83. Berliner Weiss is a cloudy wheat beer with noticeable sourness and high carbonation. It contains only about 3% alcohol. This style is shrouded in many legends. Someone says that Berliner Weiss was inspired by the Huguenots who moved to the German capital from France in the 18th century and missed their usual wine. Someone that one famous 16th century brewer Kord Broyhan from Hanover, while traveling in Hamburg, tasted a previously unknown beer and tried to copy it at home. There is a widespread story that Napoleon called this beer "Northern Champagne". Today Berliner Weiss is very popular in Berlin and is often drunk at dinner, adding various syrups such as raspberry or apple. Berliner has a protected geographic name and can only be produced in the German capital and the surrounding area; however, it is prepared only in two companies - Berliner Kindl and Schultheiss.
Rodenbach Grand Cru - one of the benchmarks for sour ales
84. Flemish or Belgian red ales have their roots in experiments with porter. In the early 1870s, Fleming Eugene Rodenbach studied at a brewery in England, from where he returned home with recipes for this rich dark beer. He began to brew ale, aging it in oak barrels for several years and adding to the yeast lactobacilli, which gave the drink a characteristic sour taste. Later, he founded the Rodenbach Brewery, which sold ready-made blended yeast to other artisans within 50 km of Roeselare, and these breweries produced their own Belgian red and sour brown beer from it. Although the practice of yeast blending spread throughout Europe, Rodenbach is still considered the benchmark for red ales.
85. Brown is another classic Flemish ale. In 1829, Dr. Jean-Baptiste Vrankin wrote that "a dark beer that burns the palate and constricts the throat" is poured in Flanders, and a little later the brewer Georges Lacambre noted its "bitter, rough and tart taste." The popularity of brown beer gradually grew and by the end of the 19th century it became a hit of sales: it was thanks to it that Liefmans, after the damage to its buildings during the First World War, was still able to become the 21st largest brewery in Belgium in terms of production. At that time, these ales tasted quite sour, so they were compared to wine. Over time, it softened: brewers indulge the tastes of the public, addicted to Coca-Cola and other sweet sodas, which, as in the case of lambics, influenced the recipe for ales. Since the 1980s, the popularity of this style has been steadily declining, and some brown beer companies have gone bust.
86. In the French-speaking region of Belgium, the saison, a seasonal golden ale made from the remnants of the fall harvest for the summer, when additional workers were hired to the fields, was widespread among the peasantry. To quench their thirst, a light beer was brewed, refreshing in the heat. The saison recipe is optional: if a berry is born in the summer, then it can be added to the future beer, but if not, then the beer will be brewed from other ingredients. That is why it is now difficult to find two brewers following the same brewing method, since saison is more about a format than a specific taste. In France, there is a similar drink - bière de garde, or "beer for storage", which was also brewed in advance, before the season of active work, so that the peasants could devote all their time to the harvest, and not to cooking.about bière de garde these days. Little is said, and although there are many variations of it in its homeland - from light honey to darker and more fruity, craft brewers rarely use it in their experiments.
87. During the Reformation, the Catholic Cistercian order, which had branched off from the Benedictine order, began to decline. The monks from the Norman abbey of La Trappe decided that one should not succumb to sins and should focus on the strict discipline and asceticism that Saint Benedict bequeathed. The followers of the restrictions became known as Trappists, and in 1892 the Pope officially recognized them as a separate order. However, due to the French Revolution and the persecution of Catholics, Trappists settled throughout Europe, including Belgium. The monks themselves produced everything necessary for life, including brewing beer for themselves and for sale. They noticed that the wort can be filtered repeatedly, making it a lighter drink each time. The strongest first infusions they sold in the villages, the weaker ones, called petite beer - small beer, they kept for themselves or distributed to the poor. It is believed that this system gave names to the classic monastic ales - single, dubbel, triple and quadruple. The strongest varieties were marked by monks with four crosses (Quadrupel from the word quad - four), and the weakest - only one. Over time, the Trappists began to imitate, and in 1962 the monks filed a lawsuit against unscrupulous brewers using a false name. Since 1997, the International Trappist Association has existed: only 20 abbeys that are members of it are entitled to the original name of the beer.
Trappist monk in the brewery of the Abbey of La Trappe
88. The monks brewed a strong and aromatic beer without strong hoppy bitterness. Despite the ban on the use of the Trappist name in production and sale, no one restricted copying the recipe, so secular versions of the drink appeared, called abbey beer. The most common beer was the dowel - in 1926, Westmill Abbey released Dubbel Bruin, which gained a lot of followers and admirers. It is a dark amber beer with a complex malt sweetness and 6-7% ABV, and caramelized sugar is often added to it. The quadruple is considered to be a stronger version of the dowel - the amount of alcohol can be up to 14%. Tripel is a light golden beer also made famous by Westmill. Its fortress is kept in the region of 7-10%. A single is very rare due to its weakness (about 3%) and unsaturation.
89. While many beer styles revived after World War II, some of them have disappeared forever. This happened, for example, with the Berliner oud (or Berliner alto in German). A few years ago, the brewer Marco Loret discovered an old label. It indicated that the Berliner alto was produced by Gustaf Hustinks at the Pauw brewery in Culemborg. The brewery itself was opened in the 19th century, but Houstinks owned it for only a few years - from 1909 to 1913. Beer researcher Rowell Mulder has found advertising campaigns from different masters who have brewed this species since the 1880s, but could not find any recipes, so the taste of Berliner alto remains a mystery. Mulder suggests that it could be a Dutch imitation of German varieties, judging by the name, and most likely fantasy, because the style did not take root and faded into oblivion.
90. While roasted malt can add a coffee-like flavor to beer, natural coffee can be added to the beverage. It is most commonly used in porters, stouts, especially imperial, dark and pale ales. The taste will be very dependent on the grain and its roast, so there can be many variations of coffee beers. In America's new craft era, the plant began to be used in the 1990s, when radical blends of coffee, chocolate and oats or coffee, Mexican vanilla and sugar appeared. Interestingly, the coffee can be added whole, ground or already brewed, including by cold brew.
- Tomato goes from Saldens, a craft Russian brewery
91. Tomatoes are a popular ingredient in beer, especially gose. Most likely, the experiment with tomatoes originates from the famous Mexican cocktail that serves prepada, sometimes called chavela or michelada. According to legend, michelada was invented by a bartender in San Luis Potosi as a hangover and fatigue remedy in the 1910s. In addition to beer, its composition includes tomato juice, lime, spices and hot sauce, depending on the region.
92. Brewing with grapes is considered a special art, as the result is a wine-beer hybrid. The abundance of varieties of this fruit gives unusual flavors: for example, Viognier will give the drink aromas of melon and tropical fruits, and red varieties can give the beer the taste of black currant or cherry. Typically, red grapes like syrah or grenache are added to dark, rich beers like porter or strong ales, while white sauvignon blanc is ideal with gueuze or lambic. Since the 1970s, the Belgian company Cantillon has been brewing lambics every year with hand-picked nutmeg. When picking grapes, the smallest details should be taken into account: there will be a difference between the fruits harvested from the southern and northern sides of the vineyard, and if you cut off the bunches with branches, then a woody note will appear in the taste.
93. In the United States , pizza-flavored beer is brewed. In 2013, Tom and Anthea Seifert from Chicago brewed beer with oregano, basil, tomatoes, garlic and even pizza crumbs. Initially, it was assumed that the resulting mixture could be used as a marinade, but the drink turned out to be so good that they began to drink it just like that. Other brewers also picked up the idea - Liquid Margarita can now be found in many American companies and even in Russian artisans, for example, Pizza Boy from Selfmade Brewery.
94. In the last decade, more and more types of beer have been added to which avocado is added. In 2013, American brewery Angel City Brewery brewed an avocado beer, adding cilantro, red pepper, lime and honey to create a guacamole flavor. After that, Bush Shack Brewery in Australia and Rocky Knob in New Zealand did some experiments. This is a seasonal story, as beer is highly dependent on the harvest of the fruit. Avocado gives the drink not only taste, but also a delicate creamy texture.
95. There are several banana bread flavored breweries around the world, such as Eagle Brewery and Wells and Young's, which introduced the exotic beer in 2002.wort Mashed bananas are added to the, which, when combined with malt, give a bright taste of fruitcake. In general, bananas are a standard ingredient for beer in many African countries: in Rwanda they cook urwagwa, in the Congo - kasixi, in Uganda - mubishi. It is important for this drink to use bananas at their peak of ripeness, as overripe can ruin the taste. Boiled water and fried grains are added to mashed bananas, which have yielded juice. Beer is not heated, but must be filtered to prolong its short shelf life, as bananas are an excellent medium for microbial growth.
96. During the Victorian era in Britain, stout was often consumed with oysters in pubs - the bittersweet taste perfectly complemented the salty shellfish. It is believed that the shells could end up in beer vats because they purify the water, which means they can clarify the beer, masking low-quality or over-dried malt. It is not known exactly when oyster meat was added to the beer itself for flavor, but in 1939 New Zealand's Barnes Oysters began shipping oyster concentrate to British brewers. Sources say that it took at least 18 months to develop the drink, and the amount of concentrate in a bottle is equivalent to one whole oyster. Oyster stout has never been a mainstream beer, and doesn't even stand out as a distinct style, but today some craft breweries are making it experimentally.
97. Petersburg brewery Hophead Gose brewed with the taste of soups and national dishes. The line includes beer with the taste of okroshka, French onion soup, sour cabbage soup, Bulgarian chorba, Megrelian ajika, pickle, tom yam, pho bo, Armenian dogwood soup, kharcho, Indian curry and others. To create taste, edible ingredients are really added to the wort - vegetables, spices, herbs, cheese and even meat broths.
98. Although beer is not the most popular ingredient in cocktails, many drinks are made from it besides the ruff (a mixture of beer and vodka). One of the most famous cocktails, the Moscow mule, which consists of vodka and ginger beer, was invented in the United States and has many variations. In addition to it, in bars you can try shandy or radler (lager with lemonade), michelada, Mississippi porter-fur (porter with bourbon and rum), black velveteen (beer with champagne), beer mojito, chocolate mixtures of liqueurs and porters, and others. Sometimes there are some really weird recipes like beer with ice cream or eggs.
99.Wat Pa Maha Chedi Kaew Temple, 600 kilometers from Bangkok, has an unusual appearance, created from a large number of used Heineken beer bottles and a local type of beer.
100.The Vikings believed that in Valhalla, their heaven, a goat with a udder was waiting for them, which would always supply them with beer.
Do not crowd, there will be enough interesting things for everyone! Who ordered a cat that has two "Eyes of Sauron" at once? What about a white moth with a chicken on its back? And this is just the tip of the iceberg, because we have prepared for you a lot of interesting photos with stories that will tell you about something that you have not seen yet. Some people are constantly striving to learn something new, while others are keen to share their experiences. Fortunately, there is a thread on Reddit that caters to the needs of both. We hope you are also from inquisitive minds who are eager to learn something new and interesting.
Make a coffee, sit back, we're getting started!
This piece of foam floated in the ocean for so long it looked like a stone.
"This tree that I met in Tokyo has grown over a fence and it looks like it put its elbows on it to lean back and relax."
"A friend of mine found a green stem growing out of a shell. It was a grain of popcorn."
"I just finished this puzzle that has no picture."
"It rained at night and washed away all my child's chalk drawings, except for the one under the sheet."
"The disappearing stain on my thumb looks like the development of a deadly virus."
Beets with a flawless heart shape
"The alarm clock at this hotel has three displays so you can see the time while lying on any bed in the room."
"I just landed in Berlin and the plane lights are colored."
Traffic light showing how long you have to wait
"Alien DJ on my coffee cup"
"Green bread with the addition of pandanus leaves is sold in Malaysia"
Perfectly trimmed tree in Seville, Spain
"Found a set of round playing cards"
"My grandparents measure time on the dial with one week instead of 24 hours."
Clear hot sauce
"My friend looks like a giant"
A cat with two "Eyes of Sauron"
A boat that has a part for underwater views
Single egg tray
"Bumped into a Danish door leading to a field"
Someone crocheted a cover for this tree
Butterfly with transparent wings
This is a building that looks like a huge open cardboard box.
Fleet of delivery robots at work
The leaves of this tree grow in such a way that it feels like it was blurred in Photoshop.
White moth with a picture of a chicken on the back
"The color of my red pen is exactly the same shade as the margins in the notebook."
Babies sleep on the street in the courtyard of a hospital to strengthen the immune system, Moscow, USSR, 1958
Raindrops only cling to the colored areas of this poster.
National Geographic's door handles are shaped like the brand's logo
"My oatmeal became smooth and egg-shaped after I ran to work."
There is a miniature copy of it near this temple so that blind people can get acquainted with its architecture.
Pizza box opening from the center
Smoke from the fire painted the cobweb black
"Gradient colors on eggs that I collected from my chickens"
The photographs on the walls of this pub curve along with the walls
These chairs have a recess so you can hang your bag
"My coffee with milk came out the same color as my mug."
"This cactus has been growing from the metal roof of my friends for 4 years now."
Tiny seashell in sea salt
It says "Closed"
Funny patterns on ventilation grilles in new Swedish trains
A bench and a table made of rails. Vandalism level: 100
Toilet paper that helps you learn English
Stone before and after polishing
This is what bags of potato chips look like in a store located at an altitude of 2250 meters.
Here's what $ 1 million looks like in 10 dollar bills.
Plain 2D graffiti, but it looks like it's three-dimensional
From the inside, the Leaning Tower of Pisa is hollow
Wolves can be very large
At a time when there were still no clocks, people used candles with marks, each of which marked 1 hour. If it was necessary to set an alarm, then people simply stuck nails into the candle and put it on a metal surface.
Another alternative to the alarm clock was special people who were paid to spit frozen peas at windows to wake people up for work.
How much Shanghai (China) has changed in just 20 years
Jupiter and Saturn's Northern Lights compared to Earth
These two photos are exactly the same - they were taken from the same angle, they have the same crop and contain the same pixels, but the second one looks different
There is a truck on the left in this photo.
Inside the fire alarm is the usual small toggle switch.
Sometimes, in order to surprise us, it is enough just to photograph a thing that has long been familiar to us from an unusual angle. And sometimes things familiar to us take on an unusual look, in which we never expected to see them. Both cases are very interesting, but where can you see them? Of course here! How about natural blue bread, black eggs, or the sudden comparison of the foot of an elephant and a human? Already interested? It's only the beginning! Unusual views of natural sites and world sights await you, as well as things that we hope you will find unexpected.
This bread was dyed with the pulp of the American genipa, a South American fruit that the locals often used to paint their skin.
This fruit contains the organic compound genipin, which, upon contact with proteins (such as from skin or milk), oxidizes and turns from colorless to dark blue.
Summit of the Great Pyramid of Giza
Pyramid of Cheops from an unusual and very rare angle.
Black Eggs from Sulfur Valley Owakudani, Japan
These are ordinary hard-boiled chicken eggs in natural hot water pools. The sulfur in the water makes the egg shells black and also gives it a specific smell.
Many have seen a photograph of a group of construction workers eating lunch at a high altitude, sitting on a beam. On the left, you can see photographer Charles Ebbets taking this picture.
One of the most famous photographs in the world, "Lunch on a Skyscraper" was taken in 1932.
Compare the structure of the bones of the foot of a person and the foot of an elephant
The bones of the foot of an elephant and a man look almost identical!
Sunset on Mars
Yes, the same Sun shines on Mars as we do.
This is what a newborn (live) alpaca looks like.
You can see the adult version of the alpaca just above its skinny body.
What do beetles see crawling under a dandelion
Dandelion, which is somewhat similar to the Sun.
The illusion of an underwater cliff at Le Morne Braban, Mauritius
Le Morne Braban is a peninsula on the southwestern tip of the island of Mauritius.
If you stand under the Eiffel Tower and look up, then it resembles a kaleidoscope
Such a spectacle can only be seen in the evening, when the tower burns like a Christmas tree.
On May 18, 1980, an earthquake caused by volcanic activity caused the largest recorded landslide on Mount St. Helens, followed by an eruption that claimed 57 lives. Photos of St. Helens before and after the disaster
Mount St. Helens, located in Scamania County, Washington, USA, is a stratovolcano that is still active today.
Margrethe Zimmermann walking on a tightrope above the ruins of Cologne, Germany, 1946
Looking at the photo, the illusion is created that the other end of the rope is not tied to anything.
Abandoned hotel on the road in Switzerland
The Belvédère began to languish in the 1960s with the development of cars that became much faster and more powerful. The hotel was designed for rest on the road, but if earlier the trip through the pass took 2-3 days, then later it turned into a 1-day trip there and back. People stopped staying at the hotel and had to close it.
Extremely rare view of the Statue of Liberty from the balcony located on its torch
Access to the viewing platform of the torch has been closed since 1916.
Cloudy days are rare on Mars. Here is a photo of a cloudy day on Mars taken by NASA's Curiosity rover.
Isn't it amazing that we can get such clear images from another planet?
A look at the Richat structure, also known as the Eye of the Sahara
These are the ancient remains of a mega-mud volcano, which have acquired a symmetrical shape as a result of erosion and weathering. This geological formation is visible even from space.
On April 22, Earth Day will be celebrated all over the world - a holiday in which it is worth thinking about the future of our planet and what we can do for a common home. This tradition originated in 1970 at the initiative of US Senator Gaylord Nelson, whose goal was to draw public attention to the problems of environmental pollution. On the eve of the holiday, we will share with you the most interesting facts about the Earth.
Earth Day was founded by US Senator Gaylord Nelson in 1970 to awaken the political class from its disinterest in the environment and was celebrated in its first year by about 20 million Americans, mostly young people. and very young. After 2 decades, in 1990, over 200 million people in 141 countries turned Earth Day into a major event in human history, by joining them in the desire to advocate for a better future for our planet, and in year 2009,
The United Nations (UN) has declared April 22 as the official holiday of planet Earth and a common expression of everyone's desire to build a stable society for a cleaner and greener future. The genesis of the Earth took place several billion years ago from a cloud of dust and gas that revolved around the sun and is the third planet from the sun with a particular constitution in the solar system.
Bemorepanda collected some interesting facts for you.
1. The core of the Earth contains so much gold, which will be enough to cover the entire surface of our planet by almost 45 centimeters.
2. The inner core of the Earth has a radius of about 1220 kilometers, which is comparable to 70% of the radius of the Moon. In addition, based on geophysical and geochemical methods, there is an assumption that the inner core of our planet is about the same temperature as the Sun.
3. Lightning strikes the earth on our planet more than 8.6 million times a day.
4. Prior to space travel, the Earth was often depicted as a green world. Science fiction writer Frank Paul is believed to be the first to depict a cloudless blue planet with well-defined land on the back of the July 1940 issue of Amazing Stories magazine.
5. Scientific evidence indicates that the Earth was formed from a solar nebula about 4.54 billion years ago. Life on the planet appeared about 4.25 billion years ago, that is, shortly after its origin.
6. The conditions for the existence of life on Earth preserve the ozone layer and the Earth's magnetic field, which weaken the solar radiation harmful to life.
7. The oceans occupy about 70.8% of the surface of our planet. Liquid water, which is essential for all known life forms, does not exist on the surface of any known planet in the solar system other than Earth.
8. The average speed of movement of lithospheric plates on Earth is approximately equal to the growth rate of nails on human hands. After 200-300 million years, hypothetically, all the continents of the planet will merge into the supercontinent Pangea Ultima.
9. The force of gravity at the poles of the Earth is greater than at the equator. A person who weighs 150.8 pounds (68.4 kg) at the North Pole will weigh 400 grams less while at the equator.
10. More than 68% of the Earth's freshwater is solid, including glaciers, snow cover and permafrost.
11. The Earth was first photographed from space in 1959 by the Explorer-6 apparatus. The first ever image of the entire Earth was captured by the orbital station Lunar Orbiter V on August 8, 1967.
12. The most massive extinction in the entire history of the Earth occurred at the end of the Permian period (298.9 ± 0.15 million years ago), when more than 90% of living things on the planet died.
13. The highest point on the Earth's surface is Mount Everest (8,848 m above sea level), and the deepest is the Mariana Trench (10,994 m below sea level).
14. The deadliest tsunami known to have occurred on 26 December 2004 in Southeast Asia was triggered by a 9.3 magnitude submarine earthquake in the Indian Ocean. The total death toll exceeded 235 thousand people.
15. The most toxic plant on Earth is the yew, a genus of small conifers. Every part of this tree is poisonous, with the exception of its berries, however, their seeds are also poisonous.
16. If all the water of the World Ocean is evenly distributed over the surface, then a layer with a thickness of more than 2.7 kilometers would be obtained. Of all the water that is on Earth, only 2.5% is fresh, the rest is salty.
17. Without the greenhouse effect, the Earth's average temperature would be between -18 and -23 ° C, given that it is actually 14.8 ° C. Without this thermal insulation effect, life on our planet most likely would not exist.
18. The atmosphere passes into interplanetary space gradually, in the exosphere, starting at an altitude of 500-1000 kilometers from the Earth's surface. By definition, the boundary between the atmosphere and space is drawn along the Karman line, located at an altitude of about 100 kilometers, above which air flights become completely impossible.
19. Human breathing becomes impossible at an altitude of 9 kilometers, although the atmosphere contains oxygen up to about 115 kilometers.
20. At an altitude of about 19-20 kilometers, the pressure of the atmosphere decreases so much that it leads to the boiling of water and interstitial fluid in the human body. Outside the pressurized cockpit at these heights, death occurs almost instantly.
21. The seas lose more water due to evaporation than they receive with precipitation, on land - vice versa. Water circulates continuously around the globe, while its total amount remains unchanged.
22. The rotation of the Earth occurs from west to east. Due to tidal acceleration, each next day is longer than the previous ones by an average of 29 nanoseconds.
23. Due to tidal synchronization, the Moon is moving away from the Earth by about 38 millimeters per year. Millions of years from now, this tiny change, as well as an increase in Earth's day of 23 microseconds per year, will result in significant changes. So, for example, in the Devonian period (about 410 million years ago) there were 400 days a year, and a day lasted 21.8 hours.
24. The largest tidal waves on Earth are observed in the Bay of Fundy in Canada and are 18 meters.
25. Earth is the only name for the planet that was not taken from Greco-Roman mythology.
26. Lake Baikal in Russia accounts for about 20% of all world reserves of fresh lake water. It is the deepest and oldest lake in the world.
27. The ice sheet in Antarctica contains about 80% of all freshwater on the planet. If it melts completely, the level of the World Ocean will rise by almost 60 meters.
28. The Earth moves around the Sun at a distance of about 150 million kilometers at a speed of almost 30 kilometers per second.
29. The driest place on earth is the Atacama Desert in Chile. In some places of this desert, rain falls once every several decades.
30. If the history of the Earth were presented in the form of a 24-hour segment, then the dinosaurs would have died out at 23:41, and human existence would begin at 23:54 and 43 seconds of the same day.
On Valentine's Day, most people's thoughts are focused on romance, love objects and gifts. But it is always useful to abstract a little from the amorous euphoria and learn something new and unfamiliar about Valentine's Day. Therefore, on February 14, Bemorepanda offers the top 100 most interesting facts about this holiday.
1. It is customary to celebrate Valentine's Day all over the world on 14 February.
2. This holiday was named in honor of the Martyr Valentine.
3. During the reign of the Roman emperor, Claudius was the priest Valentine.
4. Since 1777, this day has been widely celebrated in the United States.
5. Since the 13th century, this day has been widely celebrated in Western Europe.
6. This holiday is secular in Russia.
7. On Valentine's Day, more than 50 million roses are sold worldwide.
8. On this day, more than 9 million people in the world buy gifts for their pets.
9. Sweets and chocolates are considered the most popular gifts on this day.
10. February 14 became a men's holiday in Japan.
11. In Saudi Arabia and Iran, it is forbidden to celebrate this holiday.
12. The tradition of celebrating this holiday originates from middle England.
13. Postcards are the second most popular after Christmas cards.
14.On February 14, 1929, Al Capone's rival enemies were shot.
15. Women spend on gifts this day half as much as men.
16. Condom sales are high on this day.
17. Duke Charles of Orleans created the first Valentine in 1415.
18. Pigeons are officially considered a symbol of Valentine's Day.
19. Computer Engineer's Day is also celebrated on February 14th.
20. Sales of contraceptives increase by 25% on this day.
21. 2001 was the record for the highest number of marriages.
22. The Day of Mental Health is celebrated by the Germans on this day.
23. More than 75% of suicides on this day are attributed to unhappy love.
24. Once upon a time, lovers exchanged postcards decorated with gold on this day.
25. This day is called sweet in Italy.
26. On February 14, Finland celebrates Women's Day.
27. In France, for the first time, a tradition arose to give poetry on this day.
28. In England, gifts are also given to pets on this day.
29. Handmade gifts are especially appreciated on this day.
30. On February 14 Pope Gelasius declared Valentine's Day around 498 BC.
31. More than 53% of women abandon their men if they come to them without gifts.
32. Richard Cadbury in 1868 presented the first box of chocolate on this day.
33. On this holiday 15% of women give flowers to themselves.
34. About 1 billion cards are sent on this day every year.
35.85% of all valentines are bought by women.
36.39% of all sweets are received by children on this day.
37. In Japan it is customary to give sweets, linen and jewelry on this day.
38. The sale of pregnancy tests in pharmacies is increasing on this day.
39. Flowers presented on this day have different meanings.
40. This day was called "Bird's wedding" in the Middle Ages.
41. In 2011, the world's largest chocolate bar was made in Switzerland, designed specifically for this holiday.
42. The first Valentine's card in the world is kept in the British Museum.
43. In Germany, it is customary to plant onions in a pot on this day with the written name of a loved one. 44. Italian navigator James Cook died in Hawaii in 1779.
45. USA got Texas on this day in 1848.
46.3 Oregon became the 33rd US state in 1859.
47. A third of the seats in the local Diet were won by Ukrainians in the elections in Galicia in 1914.
48. Soviet Russia in 1918 switched to the Gregorian calendar.
49. One of the first computers in 1946 was presented on this day.
50. The XX Congress of the CPSU opened in Moscow in 1956.
51. Into this day, rock and roll music was banned in Iran in 1958.
52. The automatic station "Luna-20" was launched to the Moon in 1972.
53. In Dublin in 1981, 48 people died on this day in a fire.
54. Elton John married Renate Blauel on this day in 1984.
55. The “Declaration on the Principles of Cooperation” was adopted in Minsk in 1992.
56. Russia and Ukraine established diplomatic relations in 1992.
57. The Fundamentals of Ukrainian Legislation on Culture were approved on 14 February 1992.
58. In 1993 Hungary, Poland and Ukraine signed an agreement on cooperation between peoples.
59. On this day in 1998, the wedding of movie star Sharon Stone and the editor of the San Francisco Examiner newspaper Phil Bronstein took place.
60. Dolly the cloned sheep died in 2003.
61. In 2004, 28 people were killed in the Moscow Transvaal Park.
62. Unmarried English girls take this holiday very seriously and responsibly.
63. Annually, about 1000 cards are sent to Juliet.
64. The oldest love poem was written in 3500 BC.
65. The favorite flower of the Goddess of Love was a red rose.
66. Wooden spoons with hearts are customary to give on February 14 in Wales.
67. Traditionally in America, pilgrims sent a variety of sweets as gifts.
68. Two times less money than men spend on gifts for women.
69. The month of pregnancy tests is the month of March.
70. Flower shops earn colossal sums on this day.
71. Heart-shaped candies were the first gifts on this day.
72. Saint Valentine was the patron saint of the mentally ill.
73. In the 15th century, the first valentines appeared in France.
74. The Roman God of love Cupid is the symbol of this holiday.
75. Since the beginning of the 90s of the last century, this holiday has been celebrated on the territory of Russia.
76. It is customary to give hearts from any materials on this day.
77. In England, February 14 is considered the beginning of the mating season for birds.
78. Once upon a time in the United States, one holiday card cost as much as $ 10.
79. Germans decorate psychiatric hospitals with bright ribbons on this day.
80. It is customary to give jewelry on this day in France.
81. Poles on this day visit the relics of St. Valentine.
82. It is customary to give dried white flowers on this day in Denmark.
83. Since the 13th century, this holiday has been celebrated in Western Europe.
84.Since the 1930s, this holiday has been celebrated in Japan.
85. All females are given hearts in Finland.
86. Diamonds are considered the best gift for February 14th.
87. Only 75% of men buy flowers on this day.
88. The origin of this holiday is based on the legend of Saint Valentine.
89. On this day, the feast of fertility was once celebrated.
90. Passionate Spaniards send love letters on this day with carrier pigeons.
91. 6 days before the holiday 50% of all valentines are bought.
92. Valentine is the second most popular among all gifts.
93. A large number of wedding ceremonies take place on this day.
94. Durex is increasing its sales by 30% that day.
95. The symbol of Valentine's Day is a red heart.
96. About 189 million roses are sold in America on this day.
97. After Christmas, this holiday has the second largest number of cards sold.
98. In Mexico City in 2010, the record was set for the most massive kiss in the world.
99. The first time in 1936 the Japanese got acquainted with this holiday.
100. In the Middle Ages, doves were often depicted on valentines.