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Oktoberfest 2021: top 100 most interesting facts about beer (Part 1)

8 months ago
oktoberfest-2021-top-100-most-interesting-facts-about-beer-part-1

Every year, people drink almost 400 billion liters of beer: this ancient drink, known to the Sumerians and Egyptians, is still one of the most popular on the planet. Over its long history, beer has been constantly changing under the pressure of economic and political events, religious intrigue and cunning of peasants, bans on drunkenness and crop failures, technological progress and the creativity of brewers.


Bemorepanda collected a hundred facts about history, economics, production technology, unusual ingredients and variety of beer sorts tells who and when "invented" the foam, why it was women who brewed it for centuries, from what the color of beer depends, why in the 19th century women in labor were treated with stout, how the drink affects the risk of radiation damage, where you can swim in the beer pool.


1.Beer is the most popular alcohol on the planet and the third most popular drink after water and tea. People on the planet consume 396 billion liters of beer every year. For comparison: only 25 billion liters of wine. In the United States, men drink beer three times more often and twice as much as women who prefer wine.


2.The Czech Republic has been the record holder for 27 years for beer consumption per person for- 188 liters per capita are drunk there annually. Russia in this rating is inferior to thirty other countries - they drink about 60 liters, and this is less than, for example, in the United States, Mexico and Namibia. Most beer by volume is drunk in China.


3.The three most popular beer brands are two Chinese and one American. According to statistics, the Snow brand annually sells over 10 billion liters of beer, and Budweiser and Tsingtao about 4.9 billion. The top ten also includes Heineken, Bud Light, Corona, Harbin and Skol.


4.The most expensive beer in the world can be considered Allsopp's Arctic Ale, a bottle of which may have been sold on eBay for $ 503,000. This beer was brewed in 1852 for an Antarctic expedition, so it has become a collectible. The bottle was kept for a long time by the family of a young man who sold it in 2007 at an online auction for $ 304. However, he made a mistake in the announcement, omitting a letter in the name of the brewery, which is why the demand for the artifact was not so great. The new buyer shifted it again, but with detailed information and the correct name, and within a few days the rates rose to 503,000. A bottle of such beer is estimated at an average of several thousand dollars. In 2020, a similar bottle made only in 1875 was bought at auction for £ 3,300 - a rare copy went to Jamie Alsopp, the distant great-grandson of the brewer of the same beer.

Бутылка 1875 года была продана на аукционе TREVANION&DEAN / Фото:  Trevanion & Dean The 1875 bottle that was auctioned


5.The science that officially studies beer is called zitology, from the Greek words zythos (beer) and logos (science). Zytology examines the fermentation and brewing processes of beer, as well as the influence of ingredients on production. And at the Munich University of Technology there is the Weihenstephan Research Center for Brewing and Food Quality. They carry out chemical, technological and microbiological analysis of raw materials, consult production facilities, test technical devices, produce and store yeast strains.

Обложка первой книги рекордов ГинессаThe cover of the first Guinness Book of Records


6.The famous Guinness Book of World Records was invented by Sir Hugh Beaver, who runs the Guinness Brewery, after he argued with a friend at a hunter meeting about which bird was the fastest. Knowing that controversies about the record of this or that phenomenon often arise in pubs, he decided to put all such facts together, and already in 1955 he released a book that gradually began to include strange and extravagant human records and in our time is updated every year.


7.A little about beer records: in 1977 in Pennsylvania, Stephen Petrosino drank 1 liter of beer in 1.3 seconds, which is 56% better than the previous world record set a few years earlier by Peter Dowdswell from England (2.3 seconds). And the German Reinar Würz set a record for the number of fit mugs in his hands - in 2008 he was able to carry 20 mugs of beer (about 50 kilograms) at a distance of 40 meters. The previous record of 17 glasses was set by a woman - Anita Schwartz.


8.For each type of beer, as well as for wine, they select their own glass so that the taste of alcohol is fully revealed. In the UK, there is a traditional ale glass that is a yard long and about 0.5 liters in volume, which has a strange shape like a telescope with a ball at the bottom. "Yard of Ale" has been known since the 17th century and was apparently used as a festive glass for toasts and was made drained at once, since it is not very convenient to drink from it. In Germany, beer is sometimes served in a boot glass: it is believed that this is a memory of how soldiers actually drank beer from boots during the First World War due to the lack of real glasses.

100 фактов об истории и культуре пива: от египетских пьяниц и средневековых рецептов до мегапивоварен и крафтового бума


9.The strongest beer in the world - 55% The End of History from BrewDog. It is also one of the most expensive at $ 765 per bottle. To achieve this strength, this pale ale was subjected to extreme freezing. In total, 11 bottles were brewed, each of which was placed in a stuffed dead animal, made by a taxidermist.


10.Oktoberfest is the largest beer festival in the world, held annually in Munich in Theresa's Meadow and attended by about 6 million people. It was first held in 1810 on the occasion of the wedding of Crown Prince Ludwig and Princess Teresa, after whom the town square was named. Only locals can participate in the Oktoberfest Bavarian breweries, which brew special beer for the holiday,. The festival begins with the opening ceremony of the first barrel of beer, followed by costume processions and parades, competitions, concerts and a traditional mass for several weeks. For more than two hundred years of history, Oktoberfest has been canceled only a few times due to wars, epidemics and the economic crisis, including in 2020 and in 2021 due to the coronavirus pandemic.


11. Every year on March 17, the world celebrates another holiday associated with beer - the Day of St. Patrick, the Baptist of the Irish. It was invented by Irish emigrants to the United States in the 18th and 19th centuries, wanting to preserve the memory of their roots. Very little is known for certain about Patrick himself; some researchers even doubt his existence. Historically, it was not associated with alcoholic beverages, and the tradition of drinking strong dark beer on this day is quite new and, possibly, is associated with the promotion of the Guinness brand. 


12.Beer Pong is a board game in which you have to hit the ball into one of the glasses of beer at the other end of the table. Two teams participate in the competition, and the winners drink the rivals' beer. It is not known exactly who invented the game, but it is believed that it originated among American college students sometime in the 1950s and 60s. The game has no strict rules. Although at the International Beer Pong Tournament they play only with rackets on a special sports table, in everyday life they often play with their hands on any surface, since this is primarily entertainment for parties where the necessary equipment is not always available. The game without rackets is called "Beirut" after the Lebanese capital, but it is not known exactly why. According to one version, in 1985, Dwayne Kotzen compared theto a game of ping-pong attack of Hezbollah terrorists on an American camp in Lebanon, in which almost 250 thousand people were killed,- this comparison gave the name to the game. 


13.In beer, there are practically no proteins and fats, but there is alcohol and carbohydrates: the drink is made from high-carbohydrate grains that break down into simple sugars. Although the beer itself is not very calories - according to the National Nutrient Database, high inon average, 100 grams of beer contains about 43 kilocalories - due to the fact that alcohol increases the appetite, and the culture of drinking implies not the most healthy snacks like toasts, chips, onion rings or sausages, its use cannot be called dietary.


14.Beer is used as a medicinal and health-improving agent. Beer sanatoriums are common in the Czech Republic: in Karlovy Vary, Prague and other spas, guests are offered beer baths with the addition of mineral water in handmade oak tubs and massage, they are treated with malt bread and unlimited Czech foam. Such procedures can be visited in the resort cities of Germany, for example, Baden-Baden, Austria and even some spa centers in Russia. On numerous sanatorium sites they write that such bathing improves the quality of the skin, has a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system and promotes relaxation, but it is better to treat beer therapy as entertainment, not health, and not to abuse it once again.


В пивных санаториях гости проводят время примерно так: купаясь в огромных чанах и с кружкой в руке. Ванны на самом деле состоят не совсем из пива, а из смеси дрожжей, солода, хмеля и воды / Фото : Первый пивной курорт в Карловых ВарахIn beer sanatoriums, guests spend their time something like this: swimming in huge vats and with a mug in hand. Baths actually do not consist entirely of beer, but of a mixture of yeast, malt, hops and water / Photo: The first beer spa in Karlovy Vary.


15.Beer, like alcohol in general, negatively affects human health: it causes addiction, can lead to cirrhosis of the liver, encephalopathy, in which nerve cells of the brain die en masse, or initiates fatal accidents. However, some research suggests that beverages can have positive effects as well. For example, polyphenolic compounds found in beer can have antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, estrogenic, and antiviral effects. True, these data were obtained only under laboratory conditions in vitro, that is, on cells in a test tube, and were not tested on humans. The Anderson American Cancer Prevention Center, on the other hand, points out that ethanol can damage DNA, reduce vital hormones and reduce the ability to absorb nutrients. It is beer that affects the risk of developing cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx, colon and esophagus.


16.There is research that shows that the risk of type 2 diabetes is lower for those who drink alcohol in moderation than those who consume a lot or do not consume at all. Such studies should be treated with caution: for example, in some experiments they do not specify whether abstainers mean people who have never consumed alcohol at all, or those who have drunk before, but at the time of the study was in a string. In addition, those who have completely given up alcohol due to adherence to the principles of a healthy lifestyle may more often go to doctors, as they take more care of their health, which means they will be diagnosed with more diseases.


17.Many researchers have linked moderate beer consumption to health benefits. Some argue that beer improves cognitive ability for old age, others that it decreases the risk of getting ulcers, and still others that it decreases the risk of kidney stones. There is even an opinion that the drink limits the chromosomal damage to leukocytes during radiation exposure. Even if this is true, the harm from alcohol is undeniable and far outweighs the potential positive effects. Despite the fact that WHO allows moderate consumption, representatives of the organization never tire of reminding: there is no safe amount of beer.


18.If alcohol is causing health problems, can non-alcoholic beer be safe and healthy? Studies have shown that drinking alcohol-free can reduce the level of damage from carcinogens, cholesterol, the risks of muscle inflammation after exercise, and upper respiratory disease. The advantages of non-alcoholic beer over alcoholic ones are obvious, but you shouldn't drink it in order to become healthier - it is better to use proven ways to strengthen the immune system and reduce the risk of disease in more effective ways.


19.Beer is one of the oldest drinks. It is still unknown when and where exactly it was first cooked, but most researchers are inclined to believe that it was known to the inhabitants of the ancient Near East already about 5 thousand years ago. It is absolutely certain that beer played a big role in the culture and economy of Mesopotamia - the oldest recipe for beer was found there, written on a clay tablet and dating back 3 thousand years BC. In addition, researchers periodically find ancient breweries in Egypt, then in China, then in Israel - the latter date back to the 13th millennium. However, you should not try to find the country of origin of the drink: beer could have been "invented" in different countries independently of each other.

100 фактов об истории и культуре пива: от египетских пьяниц и средневековых рецептов до мегапивоварен и крафтового бума


20.Most likely the beer was discovered by accident. About 10 thousand years ago, they learned to grow cereals in the Middle East, and a little later - to make ceramic products. Germinated grains or crushed can get into the water in the pot and stay in the sun, where under influence of high temperature provoked yeast fermentation process.If such water remained near a fire or other source of heat at night, it gradually turned into a beer drink. The ancient brewer didn't need much: a supply of water and sprouted grains, fire and a container in which the product could be mixed and stored.


21.The Sumerians brewed beer from bread and malt. Recipes for the drink can be found in the Sumerian myths about the god Enki and in the hymn to the goddess Ninkashi, who disposed of alcoholic beverages. These recipes were very diverse - we know about white, red, black, sweet and other types. The Sumerians built taverns, in which women mostly worked, made special glasses and drank beer through a straw.


22.In Ancient Egypt, beer was also associated with mythology: it was believed that the god Osiris gave the drink to the Egyptians, although there was also a separate beer goddess Tenetite. Egyptians could be paid with foam mugs: it is known that when one of the pyramids was erected in Giza, workers were given several pints a day, and one of the construction teams called itself "Menkaur drunks", apparently due to excessive use. In addition, the Egyptian doctors used beer as a medicine, and they even gave it to children to drink, as they believed that it contains useful substances. And their opinion is justified: an alcoholic drink could be less dangerous than water from the Nile, infected with infections.

При раскопках в Египте исследователи нашли древние сосуды для изготовления пива в Абидосе, в 280 милях к югу от Каира. Считается, что руины относятся к раннему первому династическому периоду около 3273 - 2987 гг. до н.э. / Фото:  Высший совет Египта During excavations in Egypt, researchers found ancient vessels for making beer in Abydos, 280 miles south of Cairo. The ruins are believed to date back to the early first dynastic period around 3273-2987. BC. / Photo: The Supreme Council of Egypt for Antiquities


23.In the ancient world, wine was preferred, and beer was considered a drink of barbarians, therefore it was rarely brewed. The Romans believed that the barley from which the drink was made was only suitable for feeding livestock. Rare mentions of beer in literature most often refer to the distant borders of the Roman Empire - Germany, Gaul, Britain: for example, the historian Tacitus, describing the Germans, mentioned that they drink mash made from barley or wheat. Interestingly, the division of Europe into wine and beer is still evident - in the south you will most likely be offered a bottle of Sangiovese, and in the north - a mug of ale.


24.In Britain, beer has been known since 55 BC: Roman historians claim the existence of "intoxicating water" made from oats, barley and wheat, which the northerners willingly drink. Although the researchers note that grapes were grown on the islands, the grain grew better there. Most likely, by the 3rd century AD, beer had become an important commodity: among others, it was mentioned in the documents of Diocletian, written when the tetrarchy was introduced in the Roman Empire. During the Celtic era, there were places to eat and drink along the roads, and after the invasion of the Anglo-Saxon islands, ale became a regular part of the local diet. In the 8th century, it, like other products, was levied as a tax. Extant Anglo-Saxon documents tell us about 11 types of ale: soft, clear, light, double brewed, new, old, sour, clean, good, strong and weak.


25.In Europe until the 12th century, brewing was run by monasteries. When the Carolingians conquered territory for the establishment of the empire, they built in the new Länder large monasteries, inside which worked full brewery: for example, in terms of the Swiss St. Gallen you can see the malthouse, oven, a mill, a brewery and warehousesСохранившийся план монастыря Святого Галла 9 века. На плане видно базилику — длинное овальное здание, кельи, кухню, конюшни, мельницу кладбище и пивоварню



25. In England, there has long been a difference between beer and traditional brown ale. Everything that was brewed in the country before hops were brought from Flanders was called ale, and already the new intoxicated drink was called beer. The ale had to be drunk immediately after brewing, while beer could last for a long time due to the plant's antiseptic properties. The proliferation of hops gave rise to commercial brewing, and by the 17th century, hops began to be used everywhere, so the distinction between "beer" and "ale" gradually disappeared.


26. In 1487, the Bavarian Duke Albert IV established that from now on, beer could only be made from barley, hops and water. The ban included not only various additives such as herbs, spices, fruits, but also other cereals - wheat, rye, millet. This law is known as the Deutsche Reinheitsgebot or the Purity Beer Act. It did not apply to all territories, but only to selected cities, but by the end of the 19th century, when Bavaria became part of the German Empire, it spread throughout the country. There were several reasons for the adoption of this law. One of them says that the grain restriction was introduced so that wheat and rye were used for bread and not for beer. The ban on additives could be due to poor quality raw materials used by brewers, and also due to the fact that some added a mixture of herbs called gruit to the beer, which causes psychotropic effects. This law could have abolished some types of beer, but exceptions were periodically added, such as wheat or coriander, which were required to make certain beers. This law is still in force today, and in the 1990s it spawned the "Brandenburg Beer War". After the reunification of the Federal Republic of Germany and the GDR, the East German brewery Neuzeller Kloster, which produces black beer Schwarzer Abt (Black Monk) with added sugar, fell under the general law and lost the right to call its product beer. They tried to appeal this decision in court for about ten years, until the judge nevertheless allowed privately to return to the drink its right to be beer.

100 фактов об истории и культуре пива: от египетских пьяниц и средневековых рецептов до мегапивоварен и крафтового бума


27. Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, British beer laws became stricter. Taxes were constantly raised on raw materials, and brewers began to replace the usual ingredients: instead of burnt grain for porter, they could put licorice to preserve the dark color, and instead of hops - bitter kvass from South America. In 1689, brewers were forbidden to add sugar, honey or molasses to the drink. Since 1714 malt-keepers were not allowed to mix raw grain and malted beer, and since 1802, only malt and hops could be among the beer ingredients. These laws allow the authorities to continue to require taxes for the use of raw materials, while in 1880, British Prime Minister William Gladstone accepted the Free Mash-tun Act- a law allowing brewers to use completely different materials and brewing techniques, greatly diversifying the range of varieties.


28. Around the 10th century, craft and trade guilds began to be organized in Europe - professional collective formations that ensured the sustainability of the craft. A little later, brewers' guilds appeared, which regulated the quality and quantity of the brewed drink and the price for it. Usually,trade in goods only guild members were allowed to, since together they could keep prices low. All training in the art of brewing also took place within the community. Over time, disagreements arose in associations between the trade and craft factions, that is, between merchants and manufacturers, and they disintegrated or began to openly conflict. In 1292, the first mentions of the London guild Brewers' Company appeared, which later acquired the full name of The Master, Keepers or Wardens and Commonalty of theArt of Brewers of the City of London. city ​​of London). The guild had general meetings and feasts, together they held charity events to distribute beer to the poor, did business and arranged funerals for deceased members. In 1406, Henry IV officially recognized the union of London brewers, instructed them to appoint a master and overseers to control the sale of beer, and also allowed all questions to be addressed to the Lord Mayor of London - the elected governor who controls the City area. This guild still exists today and promotes the brewing industry by providing premises for member companies and a forum for industry representatives.


29. Until the 1600s, brewing was dominated by women - for centuries they brewed beer, sold it on the streets, from home, or brought it on demand. This job was associated with low status and low pay, therefore it attracted little men and was considered to be excellent for women with their household responsibilities. In the 17th century, men took over brewing as the business became more profitable and prestigious. Researchers note that the decline in female participation in brewing occurred fairly quickly, citing as an example the situation in Havering on the outskirts of London, where in 1464 all two dozen brewers and ale sellers were women, and by the end of the century there was only one lady among the 15 artisans remaining. 

Пивоварня. Гравюра Джоста Аммана, 16 векBrewery. Engraving by Jost Amman, 16th century


30. In 1604, England passed a curious law according to which the owner of a pub could be fined if visitors stayed inside for too long. Workers were prohibited from staying in such an institution for more than one hour during their lunch break. The new law argued that pubs were meant to help travelers, and not "to entertain and shelter noisy and idle people who spend and consume their money and their time in a loud and drunken manner." The evil nature of this law had the undesirable effect:avid drinkers were forced to go underground in places where they were drinking in the Wolshih quantities. Moreover, such places did not bring money to the treasury. This led to the emergence of new legislation that was aimed at reducing drunkenness among the population, although alcohol consumption was very fashionable at the time. The number of pubs has decreased, the permitted volume of production has decreased and the permitted strength of drinks has decreased. All the money from the fines had to go to the poor.


31.In the Middle Ages, beer was drunk almost every day. Many argue that this was due to the quality of the water contaminated with feces and waste - there was no sewage system, and beer brewed with hops and other natural antiseptics also went through a long heating process. This version has not been refuted or proven, but there is an alternative opinion that Europeans drank a lot of beer because of its calorie content. And in order not to get drunk, they diluted it with water, reducing the temperature.


32. For a long time, brewers refused to use the achievements of science and technology. It is known that James Baverstock Jr. was one of the first to use a thermometer in production, but he hid it for a long time from his ultra-conservative father, who was against any innovations. The first thermometers began to be used only in the 1760s, before that the brewer estimated the temperature of alcoholic beverages using practical rules: either his hand could withstand the heat when immersed in the wort, or he could see the reflection of his face on the surface of the water shortly before it will be hidden by the ferry. The temperature of the wort leaving the mash tun was determined with your finger. The thermometer made it possible to brew beer in industrial volumes and control the similarity of batches. A little later, sugar meters and hydrometers began to be actively used, which made it possible to determine the amount of sugar and the density of the wort, which before that was also determined either tactilely or by taste.

Реклама экстра стаута пивоварни Vаn Vollenhoven. На открытке написано: «Самый укрепляющий напиток для молодых и старых»An advertisement for an extra stout from the Vаn Vollenhoven brewery. The postcard reads: "The most invigorating drink for young and old."


33. In the 19th century, beer was considered healthy and sold as a medicine: for example, the dark beer Jopen from Danzig was presented as "very useful for diseases of the glands", and also helped against "pain in the stomach and shortness of breath. " And the Dutch brewery Van Vollenhoven in Amsterdam has been producing Extra Stout since 1880, "the most restorative drink for convalescents, anemic women and women in childbirth." In 1862, Johannes Hoff first announced the "beneficial effects of medicinal beer", citing a letter from a certain Mrs. J. Kuipers of Epe, who wrote that her sister "felt a little better after drinking 6 bottles." The German periodical Farmaceutische Centralhalle investigated the drink and it turned out that it was a regular brown beer in which the producers dissolved the laxative, sea buckthorn bark and water clover as a bitter agent. The cost of its production was 9 cents, while Hoff sold it five times more.


34. At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, the popularity and quality of beer began to decline. On the one hand, this was influenced by global conflicts: during the First World War, the work of pubs was reduced and the every possible way consumption of alcohol was unlimited inorder to exclude its influence on the soldiers. On the other hand, increased taxes and high competition forced many brewers to reduce the quality of their products in order to sell them cheaper. Large companies bought small businesses, reducing the variety in the market, as a result, brewery restaurants began to gradually die out. In 1900, a major scandal occurred in Britain: a wave of a strange disease hit Staffordshire, as a result of which 70 people died. Investigation revealed that arsenic was found in some brands of beer - it turned out that they all used sugar from the same source. This incident influenced the strengthening of the movement against alcohol, and in Parliament at that moment they were just considering the adoption of the Law on the Purity of Beer. The Brewing Society intervened and recommended the seizure and destruction of thousands of gallons of suspicious beer, and its members to take immediate quality control procedures to detect contamination. Their concerns were heeded, the Beer Purity Act was withdrawn, but the campaign against alcohol continued. So in 1902, they tried to solve the problem of drunkenness by prohibiting being in a state of alcoholic intoxication in a public place or being in the care of a child under seven years old in such a state. Selling alcoholic beverages to such people became a crime (that is, the seller needed to make sure that his buyer was not the father of a five-year-old child!). Lobbying for such bills changed social habits and beer consumption continued to decline.

Так выглядит внутри баварская пивоварня Riegele, которая ведёт своё начало с 1386 года / Фото: RiegeleThis is how the Bavarian brewery Riegele looks inside, which dates back to 1386 / Photo: Riegele


35. In the second half of the 20th century due to the merger of small workshops and the purchase of small craft industries , mega breweries appeared. They tookBon most of the market, and are intended for mass consumption. Because of this, many not the most popular types of beer simply disappeared from their portfolios, and, as a result, from production in general. To speed up the manufacturing process, the time for grain malting, mashing and fermentation was reduced. The varieties that required a long maturation could not stand the competition with the species that did not take long. This did not always affect the quality of the product: technologies appeared that compensate for the required acceleration, for example, the continuous fermentation process. Hop extracts were developed that could be added to wort in the form of powder or granules - they allowed the brewer to have more control over the aroma and bitterness in his beer. Automation and standardization of processes made production cheaper, but also reduced beer variety. That is why at the end of the last millennium, new craft workshops, which began to brewcraft.Brewers have rediscovered old recipes that have almost sunk into oblivion due to social cataclysms and globalization. America has become one of the most vibrant crafting scenes, with local artisans constantly experimenting with styles, flavors and ingredients. In Russia, new beer has been actively developing in recent decades: according to 2019 data,operate in our country more than a thousand craft breweries.


36. Poured Massive scale beer was into glass bottles on a was only after World War II that, although glass was first used in the 17th century. It was not popular because it was expensive, thin and often exploded. Beer was stored in barrels and poured at the place of consumption, or poured into ceramic bottles, which, although they retained the taste and quality of the drink, were very heavy. Before the industrial production of glass, bottles were of different shapes and sizes - most often rectangular tall containers were used. Packaging with a high, thin neck, familiar to us, appeared only in the 1760s. The color has also changed: if earlier black and blue glass was used, now in stores it is most often brown, green and transparent.

В такие бутылки разливали пиво в XIX веке / Фото: Case AntiquesBeer was poured into such bottles in the 19th century / Photo: Case Antiques


37. With the spread of bottles, corks also appeared. The first stoppers were made from cork, glass and ceramics. In 1879, Englishman Henry Barrett invented the screw-top beer bottle - it quickly gained popularity because the buyer could close the bottle to finish drinking later. In 1875, the American Charles De Quillfeldt patented the hinged lid, which soon became known as the zipper plug. And in 1892, William Painter invented the usual metal crown cap in the form of a crown.


38. The first mention of African beer is found among Arab travelers who visited Sudan in the 6th-7th centuries. Here they use not the usual barley or wheat, but sorghum. Sorghum beer is historically associated with women: it is they who brew it, passing on recipes from generation to generation. The drink symbolically means a woman who silently leads people to agreement. With its use, the ritual of transferring a dowry begins, in which two families surround a filled vessel and become related through joint drinking. Beer is consumed at weddings, at the birth of children, communication with ancestors, circumcision and prayer for rain, at funerals. There is even an annual drink festival. 

Циндао — один из самых популярных китайских видов пива, которое легко можно найти даже в Москве

Qingdao is one of the most popular Chinese types of beer, which can be easily found even in


39. Moscow. Although the production of alcohol has been known to the Chinese since ancient times, the first breweries in the country appeared only in the 19th century - they were founded by Russians, Germans and Czechs. Until recently, beer was not popular, but in the 1990s-2000s its consumption increased sharply, and the market surpassed the American market in terms of volume, although the per capita indicator here is still lower than in the United States - 38 liters against 74 in 2013. At the beginning of the 21st century, craft breweries began to spread -  researchers attribute this to urbanization and the desire of young people to spend time outside the home. They serve traditional European beers and experimental beers Chinese-style using jasmine, oolong tea, osmanthus, Sichuan pepper and sweet yam. To promote their beer in a local cultural context, brewers often name the drink after a historical hero (or some local ingredient) to illustrate the special characteristics of the beer. For example, Beijing's Great Leap Brewery named one of its IPAs made from local Qingdao Flower hops, Little General, after Zhang Xueliang only recognized patriotic hero.


40. George Washington made whiskey, Thomas Jefferson made wine, but Barack Obama became the first US president to brew beer in the White House. It all started with the fact that he bought a home brewing machine, and ended up with three varieties - White House Honey Brown Ale, Honey Porter and Honey Blonde, which are brewed by professionals today. All three varieties use honey harvested from South Lawn hives. The presidential beer was unveiled in 2011 - then the White House was attended by participants in the US NFL Super Bowl, who could taste the Honey Ale. This is not the first time Obama and beer have appeared side by side: in 2009, the White House hosted the so-called "Beer Summit", at which President, Vice President Joe Biden, as well as participants in the ethnic scandal, Harvard professor Henry Louis Gates Jr. and a policeman James Crowley in his circles discussed the issue of race relations in America.


41. In the mythology of Ireland, there are many saints associated with brewing. Brigitte of Ireland or Kildare, who lived in the 5th-6th centuries, took upon herself the image of a pagan idol that existed earlier in traditional beliefs, and was organically intertwined with Christianity, according to tradition, devoting her life to serving Christ. Saint Brigitte performed many miracles, and one of them is associated with beer: once before Easter, when the monastery did not have enough vessels and products to prepare a drink for the holiday, she was able to turn water into wort and accelerate fermentation, providing foam to as many as 18 nearby parishes.

Изображение Святого Колумбана на витраже монастыря БоббиоImage of Saint Columban on the stained glass window of the Bobbio monastery


42. And here is the legend about Saint Columban, the founder of the Bobbio monastery in Italy. According to his monastery charter, any novice who, through negligence, ruins even a little beer, will have to be punished. Once, one of the kelarai decided to draw beer from a barrel, but he was urgently summoned to the abbot. Distracted, he completely forgot that he had not turned off the tap when the barrel turned, and when he returned, he found that not a single drop had flowed out - this is how the Lord took two monks away from punishment.


43. The name of the legendary European king Gambrinus may be known to you from the names of numerous breweries and pubs around the world, including Russia. It is not known if this character has a real prototype, but some attribute his ancestry to the Brabant and French kings of the late Middle Ages. One such historical figure could have been the Duke of Brabant and Antwerp, Jan Primus, who was said to be an honorary member of the Brewers Guild. It is believed that Gambrinus patronized beer drinks and even built the first brewery. Usually depicted with a mug in hand or sitting on a keg.


44. Beer alcoholism, or gambrinism, is named after Gambrinus. This is not the official name of the disease: there is no such diagnosis in the international classification of diseases, because doctors do not separate it from alcoholism in general. However, dependence on beer can be more serious than dependence on strong alcohol: a person does not notice the amount he has drunk and does not attach importance to daily consumption. Due to the fact that intoxication comes slowly, beer alcoholism is less often drunk. Rather, it is characterized by daily drinking, which makes the diagnosis more difficult. The volume of consumption per day can reach 15 liters.


45. Among the sights of Brussels there is the famous statue of Manneken Pis - a little boy relieving himself in the pool. The sculpture appeared in the 15th century, and over the entire period of its existence, the statue was stolen more than once. Now the very first version of the boy has been lost, the original of 1619 is kept in the City Museum of Brussels, and a copy is installed on the street. It is not known exactly where the boy came from, but there is a legend that this is a sculptural image of the Duke of Brabant Gottfried III, who was left an orphan as a one-year-old baby. The enemies of the duchy took advantage of the vulnerability of the lands due to the lack of an intelligible ruler and attacked Brabant: the child, who was formally the commander-in-chief, was also taken to the battlefield, but settled in a hammock suspended from a tree. At the crucial moment, Gottfried turned to the enemies while lying down and gave out a powerful stream - it turned out that he had just been fed by a nanny, who had eaten lambic (one of the types of Belgian beer) before lunch, which allegedly increased the amount of breast milk. The kid's act inspired Gottfried's army so much that the soldiers were able to repel the attack, and upon returning to the city they praised the little duke and the lambic, who helped win the battle.

Статую писающего мальчика частенько наряжают: не так давно на него одели форму российской императорской гвардии / Фото: BalliauwThe statue of a pissing boy is often dressed up: not so long ago, he was dressed in the uniform of the Russian imperial guard / Photo: Balliauw


46. Judging by the common story, after Niels Bohr, the world famous physicist who created the first theory of the quantum atom, received the Nobel Prize, the Carlsberg brewing company presented him with a beer pipeline near Copenhagen. Bohr actually lived from 1932 to 1962 at the residence of Jacob Kristen Jakobson, founder of Carsberg, who bequeathed that after his death, researchers with merit in the field of science, culture and art should live in the house. No pipe through which beer would flow for free existed there - this is an urban legend. Niels Bohr could well have received a couple of bottles of Carlsberg as a gift, but this has not been reliably recorded.


47. Beer brewing begins with the choice of malt. Malt is the dried, germinated grains of cereals that start the fermentation process. It is used not only for brewing beer: it can be used to make kvass, whiskey, Ukrainian kvass and other drinks. The most commonly used malt is barley malt, since barley has little husk and a lot of starch, but brewers can take corn, wheat, buckwheat, rye or mix different types of malt. Malt can be dried in different ways, roasted at different temperatures and even burned, which results in drinks with completely different tastes and aromas: from chocolate, honey and toffee to the characteristic smell of bread crust or raisins. 


48. There is base malt - wheat, barley, rye, ale, and special - smoked, roasted, caramel and others. There is even black malt, which was invented and patented by Englishman Daniel Wheeler in 1817. This type of malt is roasted at more than 200 degrees for 4-5 hours and is usually added to porters or stouts to enhance color and impart a subtle pungent taste. His invention allowed brewers to brew beer from traditional pale malt without the addition of roasted beans. By the way, the color of a beer is determined by how deeply the malt grains are roasted. For example, if lightly roasted grains are used in beer, the beer turns out to be light. If the malt fill contains heavily roasted and caramelized beans, the beer darkens. The color of a beer alone does not indicate how bitter or alcoholic it is.


49. The color of beer depends on the color and degree of roasting of the malt, and not on the strength or level of bitterness. The malt is crushed, mixed with water and heated - the resulting broth is called beer wort, and the process of making the wort is mashing. During mashing, the starch in the malt is broken down into simple sugars. Then the wort is filtered - first it is strongly heated, then it is separated from the grain and husk, at the final stage the grains (grains, husks and other solid particles) are washed, and the drained water is added to the previously filtered wort. Next, the wort is boiled, ingredients for flavor and aroma are added to it, filtered again and poured into fermentation tanks along with yeast, where the beer is cooled, oxygenated and matured.


50. Wort fermentation is impossible without microorganisms, and ready-made yeast, that is, unicellular mushrooms, is most often used for beer. Yeast consumes sugar, releasing carbon dioxide and alcohol. Depending on the type, they can impart specific flavors and aromas to the beer, or they can work completely without a trace - in this case, the output will be a regular light lager. In Belgium, for example, yeast strains are produced that produce fruity esters that give the banana flavor. Most often, yeast is sold in small dry sachets, in which can live about 6 billion cells, or in vials, where up to 100 billion microorganisms are in a liquid medium. To keep them in full, it is best to keep the yeast refrigerated and only use fresh produce. Yeast, by the way, can get stressed by sudden changes in temperature, so it may take several days to recover to get started.



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oktoberfest-2021-top-100-most-interesting-facts-about-beer-part-2

Because a refreshing event is approaching, namely Oktoberfest, the Bemorepand team decided to find the most interesting, useful and, in some places, funny curiosities about one of the most popular drinks in the world - beer.


Blonde, brown, unfiltered or wheat, with summery and fresh aromas - these are just a few features of beer, a drink that, by the way, in limited quantities, can take care of your thirst and health this summer. From the boundless space of the internet, Bemorepanda gathered the most interesting and unusual curiosities about beer.


Here comes the second part of Top 100 facts about beer. Here you can view the first part.


51. Sometimes brewers use the secondary fermentation method called kreusening. Fresh fermenting wort is added to the already poured chilled beer. An additional portion of yeast speeds up the fermentation process, cleans up the by-products released during fermentation and improves the taste of the beer, as hops and other additives retain flavor and aroma longer. 


51. Hops are one of the classic beer ingredients, although not required for fermentation. It has been used in Europe since the 8th century, but it's real heyday came during the Reformation. If you put hops in the wort during boiling, the beer will get a characteristic bitterness, since when the plant is heated it releases resin. If you add it already during fermentation, when the beer “reaches” in a vat or barrel, the drink will take only aroma from the hops - this process is called “dry hopping”. Brewers only use bumps of female plants - they can be bought dried, in pellets or even briquettes. Hops, by the way, are poisonous: fresh buds can irritate and discomfort their pickers.

Виды хмеля, которые используются в пивоварении. Некоторые из них придают напитку более горький вкус, тогда как другие, например, Liberty, скорее используют для придания ароматаThe types of hops that are used in brewing. Some of them impart a more bitter taste to the drink, while others, such as Liberty, are more likely to be used for flavoring.


52. Previously, beer was aged in wooden barrels, but with the transition to industrial brewing, manufacturers began to choose steel vats. With the flourishing of crafting, wood has regained its popularity: firstly, wood absorbs the tastes and aromas of aged drinks, passing them on to the next. Secondly, it gives the beer a special woody flavor, which sometimes contains notes of coconut, vanilla or caramel. And thirdly, the wood allows air and microorganisms to pass through, which also change the taste of the wort. Modern brewers don't always use barrels - instead of vats, they can use oak chips, cubes, or spirals. Sometimes the wood is even burned if they want to achieve a drink with a strong and toasty "character".


53. In Africa, where traditional crops grow poorly in subtropical and prairie conditions, sorghum is grown, which easily adapts to different soils. It is from sorghum that local beer is brewed, which is called differently in different countries: in Benin and Togo - chukutu, in Tanzania - mtama, in Sudan - merissa, and in South Africa - kaffir. Although the brewing process is similar to the European one, the taste of beer is very different from the usual lagers and ales due to the use of specific raw materials and a large amount of lactic acid bacteria entering the vessels. Although sorghum beer is traditionally used during festivals and rituals, many Africans prefer to buy European varieties because they contain more alcohol and the brewing process is more hygienic. The drink is loved by the poorest segments of the population, as it perfectly saturates due to its high calorie content.

Так выглядит фиолетовая кукуруза, из которой готовят чичу морадуThis is what purple corn looks like, from which chicha morada is prepared.


54. Chicha - a beer-like drink from South America made from corn. It is especially popular in Bolivia and Peru, where this cereal is actively growing, and its strength varies from 2 to 12 degrees. In ancient times, corn was chewed and then spat into a vat, where it was fermented under the influence of saliva, and the starch was broken down into simple sugars. This method exists to this day, moreover,, resort to it even craft breweries, which have special equipment for pasteurizing the drink. Chicha morada is made from purple corn with the addition of pineapple peels, sugar, cloves and cinnamon, which makes the drink look like mulled wine. In addition to corn, South Americans chew cassava, sweet potatoes, and other fruits.


55. Sake, which has been produced for over 1,300 years, is very often called rice vodka or wine, although it is closest to beer because it is made by fermenting grain. For the drink, not all the grain of rice is used, but only its most starchy central part: for this, the rice is polished, removing the bitter shell and upper layers. Although there are special varieties of rice for sake, the specific variety is not so important because during the manufacturing process the producers try to make the drink so pure that it does not leave the grain flavor in it. After the polishing of rice, moisture evaporated, and then added to the koji spores of the fungus, which is known for its taste "umami",as the rice grain has no enzymes. The resulting drink is filtered after fermentation, and two types are distinguished - a slightly filtered unclear nigori and a crystal clear "imperial" one. The strength of sake reaches 20%, but it is often diluted with water up to 15%.


56. In the 19th century in Germany, they began to brew beer from potatoes: raw potatoes were grated, heated to 156 degrees together with water to a state of thick gruel, then a thick syrup was obtained from which the drink was prepared. Potatoes are great for beer, as they are high in starch, which means they are an excellent raw material for yeast. Today, potato beer is not uncommon, and besides the classic varieties,are also used in brewing sweet potatoes, yams and cassava.


57. During the colonial era, pumpkin was widely eaten in North America, which still occupies a significant part of the US gastro culture, especially in the fall. In addition to pies and pumpkin puree, the pilgrims brewed beer: grated vegetable pulp was an excellent source of sugars, replacing cereals, most of which were sent to bread. In 1771, the American Philosophical Society published a recipe for a pure "pompion ale," as it was then called. With the development of cereal crops, the popularity of pumpkin beer gradually faded away, the malt drink we were already familiar with began to be imported from Europe, and the vegetable was no longer used in production. In the wake of craft brewing in the United States at the end of the 20th century, pumpkin was again remembered: it is believed that Bill Owens discovered the recipe in the works of George Washington and tried to implement it. They began experimenting with the vegetable in every possible way: for example, they added nutmeg, cinnamon and cardamom to the wort, imitating the taste of pumpkin pie. Pumpkin porters, stouts and lagers emerged and are now popular in the United States.

В США очень много пивоварен готовят тыквенное пиво. Например, Rouge сама выращивает овощи для пива, собирает их в августе, высушивает, и к сентябрю на полках появляется свежий тыквенный эль / Фото: RougeThere are a lot of breweries in the USA that make pumpkin beer. For example, Rouge itself grows vegetables for beer, picks them in August, dries them, and by September fresh pumpkin ale appears on the shelves 


58. Kvass was known in Russia back in the 11th century - at that time it was more alcoholic and looked much like beer. Strong kvass is called melted, that is, boiled, and not arbitrarily fermented. It was prepared from wheat and barley malt or rye bread, adding wormwood, hops, cumin and St. John's wort for flavor and aroma. A little later, kvass was distilled, which is why the amount of alcohol in it increased. Interestingly, there was a disease called "yazya kvass", in which a headache was severe - most likely such an ancient diagnosis was made to those suffering from a hangover after excessive drinking. Now kvass is not considered an alcoholic drink, although according to GOST its strength can reach 1.2%; and the past of the drink reminds us of the verb "ferment", that is, "get drunk."


59. Honey is added to some types of beer, but there is mead - a completely separate brew drink, which does not contain malt. Honey can be anything you like - buckwheat, lime, orange, because of this, the drink turns out to be different in color, density and strength. To taste, it can be not only sweet, but also semi-sweet and even dry. In Russia, nutritious honey was already known in the 10th century: they were both boiled and set, that is, they were left for natural fermentation. Mead was available to ordinary people, since the farm often had its own apiaries, but with the spread of stronger alcoholic beverages, for example, vodka, they practically stopped drinking it. Although you can now buy a drink at any store, industrial meads have little in common with ancient Russian honeys. Besides Russia, mead is popular in the USA and Europe. The American Mead Association notes that new companies are constantly opening in the states that brew different styles: melomel (mead with fruits), metheglin (mead with spices and herbs), kesira (mead with apples), piment (mead with grape juice) and others.

Один из крупнейших медоваренных заводов в России находится в Суздале — промышленная история медоварения началась здесь ещё в XIX векеOne of the largest mead plants in Russia is located in Suzdal - the industrial history ofbegan here in the 19th century.


60. Braggot is a mead with malt, but it is classified as beer. The drink got its name from the ancient Celtic word bracis, meaning the shape of the grain from which it was made. In England braggot often passed off as pure mead that was condemned even by the Church, so gradually that it is highlighted in a separate style. Initially, braggot was made by mixing mead and ale, then it was seasoned with pepper, ginger, cinnamon, galangal and cloves. It became a traditional wedding drink in some British regions, but its popularity declined in the 17th century.


61. Cider is neither beer or wine, although it is often tried to be included in the classification of these drinks. Cider is made from apple juice that is fermented naturally or by adding yeast. Although it is preferable to prepare the drink from special coarse varieties of fruits rich in tannins, sometimes ordinary table apples are taken. There are many styles of cider produced all over the world: dry and sweet, yellow and pink, highly carbonated and quiet, with added spices, herbs, other fruits and hops. Cider analogs - Poiret or Perry - are made from pears.


62. There are several hundred beer styles in the world, however, craft breweries often transcend traditional and well-known recipes, making it nearly impossible to create a complete guide to all styles. Craftsmen can take as a basis classic beers from Belgium, Germany or the UK, add strange, unusual ingredients to them, or change the brewing process. Also, styles don't just happen: for a trendy new beer to become a style, it has to be made by more than one brewery, so the process takes time. The most recognized guide in the world, American Brewers Association, changes every year, with new varieties being added and definitions of old ones rewriting.


63. Most styles can be divided into two types: ales, or top-fermented beers, and lagers, or bottom-fermented beers. During top fermentation, which occurs at higher temperatures (about 20 degrees), and therefore more ancient, the yeast rises to the surface. During bottom fermentation (about 10 degrees), which spreads when refrigeration machines appear, the yeast is concentrated at the bottom of the container. In the modern world, the second type of fermentation is most often used.


64. Lager is the most popular beer style. 87% of the beer market in the United States Lagers like Corona and Budweiser account for, and the most common type of lager is Pilsner, named after his hometown of Pilsen, Czech Republic. Beer brewing in Pilsen began in the 1200s, but it was the light golden lager that was first made by the Bavarian Josef Groll in 1842. Since then, it has been marketed under the brand name Pilsner Urquell, which prides itself on using Saaz hops, which give the beer a particularly mild flavor, and is named after the Polish town of Zatec.

Несмотя на то, что шварцбир — чёрный, это лагер, хотя привычнее видеть лагеры золотистымиDespite the fact that Schwarzbier is black, this is a lager, although it is more common to see lagers as golden.


65. Lagers are made on all continents. The Bavarians are very close to the Czech Republic, so they quickly adopted the Pilsner brew, modifying it - the German Pilsners are fresher and more bitter, due to the fact that they use different hops there. Lagers are actively made in the USA, Austria and Japan - in the latter can be to them , rice, potatoes, soybeans and corn added. The public is more accustomed to seeing light lagers, but there are also black ones, such as Schwarzbier, one of the most popular beers in Germany. This beer is a great example of how a dark beverage can be light and refreshing: it has a mild roasted flavor with very clean notes of caramel and coffee. The German brewery Köstritzer is best known for its Schwarzbiers, which has almost five hundred years of history. In addition, such unusual lagers as India Pale Lager are brewed in the world with hopping like IPA or brut lagers, which the amylase enzyme gives sparkle like champagne.


66. The German town of Einbock was a major brewing center in the late Middle Ages: since it was part of the Hanseatic League, local artisans exported most of their produce before the Hanseatic fell into decay in the 16th century. Almost half of the inhabitants of the city made beer: the malt was dried in attics, and it was brewed in a special mobile boiler, which belonged to the city and was brought into the courtyards one by one. This interesting practice, among other things, is evidenced by urban architecture: in many houses, instead of gates, there were huge arches. There is a legend that one of the Bavarian dukes Maximilian was so fond of Einbeck beer that he could not survive the interruptions in supply, so he called the local brewer Elias Pichler to his place to ensure that the drink was always available. Initially, bock - and this is exactly what this beer was called - was made by top fermentation, but Pichler adapted it to Bavarian tastes and over time this style began to be brewed in a larger way. It is believed that the block was the favorite style of theologian and reformer Martin Luther. There are several sub-styles of the bock: a stronger and denser doppelbock, a light tee, and a dark.


67. Not all brewers agree with the strict division, which is why they lager / ale brew hybrid beers. These are ales brewed at typical lager temperatures and vice versa. Or ales that used lager yeast. This brewing method conveys the characteristics of both beer categories, and their styles are nearly impossible to classify. There are several varieties that are produced in this manner. For example, Altbier (old beer) is a typical Düsseldorf style, a bottom-fermented bitter variety, although in many respects it is similar to lagers. Or steam beer, which has been brewed in the States since the 19th century. Initially, it was a lager, which was fermented at unusual temperatures for speed - because of this, its quality deteriorated, but the price became low. Why it was named "steam" is unknown: according to one version, this is due to the fact that it was exposed to the street for rapid cooling, and it emitted steam. On the other, there was so much carbon dioxide in the barrels that it had to be released as steam. 


68. Everything that was produced in the German city of Cologne used to be called Kölsch. However, at the beginning of the 20th century, this word was firmly entrenched in local beer - light, highly fermented, hopped, top-fermented, produced in accordance with the Law on Purity. To protect the name and outline the main conditions for the production of the variety, in 1985 24 Cologne breweries signed the Kölsch Convention, which specified the requirements for packaging, labels, advertising, as well as the rules for sale, sale and cooperation with intermediaries. Today, in Cologne bars, köbs - waiters in traditional blue cardigans - pour kölsch into long narrow 0.2-liter glasses and serve it on a special tray with a handle - a kölsch-kränz.

Кёльнский официант кёбс с кёльш-кранцем в руках / Фото: Пивная кухняCologne Köbs waiter with a Kölsch fender in hand 


69. Barleywine is a strong, dark, almost black English ale, around which a lot of controversy arises. The term Barley Wine was originally used as a poetic synonym for ale. Beginning in the 1870s, a beer that began to be sold in Britain the brewers themselves called Barleywine, such as the Bass Brewery in Burton-upon-Trent. According to researcher Martin Cornell, there is no difference between barleywine and traditional strong aged ales - this is just a marketing ploy that has spread since the 20th century. In barleywine, alcohol can reach 12%, so it was traditionally sold in small bottles. Perhaps in order to give the beer a more wine-like flavor, in accordance with its name, it was aged in barrels from port, whiskey or bourbon. 


70. Due to the numerous British wars at the end of the 17th century, there was a sharp increase in taxes and prices in the country, including for brewing raw materials. It became particularly expensive because of malt, which is why its share and the quality of the product fell sharply.But on hops recently imported from the mainland, taxes did not rise as quickly, so the amount in beer increased. However, for the British, such a drink was too strong and sour, because they were accustomed to the traditional swedish ale, therefore, to save money, they began to mix two types of beer, and then leave for a long exposure - over time, the taste softened and the bitterness of the hops disappeared. The new dark drink became very popular with the working class and was named "porter" after the porters and stevedores who loved to drink it. While it is widely believed that porter was invented by London brewer Ralph Harwood around the 1720s, mixing several different varieties with each other, documents found indicate that porters were known to the British in the past. Due to the possibility of long-term storage, the porter could be imported to other countries, where it took root in its variations. In Poland, for example, a Baltic porter has emerged, which is made with yeast for lagers rather than ales. In pre-revolutionary Russia, this style became known as "imperial stout" because it was loved at the court of Catherine II. Today, the most popular American porters, which are craft brewers, revived after the repeal of "Prohibition" in the United States.


71. Initially, any strong beer was called a stout, and a little later - a stronger porter. In the second half of the 19th century, less black malt than porters and more brown malt began to be added to stouts, giving the stouts a drier flavor. Today, between them there are practically no technological differences, except for the one that is usually used for porters solozhony barley, and for stouts - nesolozhonyzhzhony,but even this rule has exceptions. Inside the stouts, oats (with the addition of oats), Irish, grown from Guinness porters on roasted malt, sweet tropical, made for export to hot countries, and others are distinguished.


72. Tax increases for raw materials has led to the appearance of the Paleales.In the early 18th century, it became cheaper to brew beer at home than to buy it in pubs and shops; in addition, at home it is easier to control the quality of the ingredients, and hence the quality of the drink. When people moved around the country, they were looking for something similar to their familiar home-brewed beer. This led to the fact that artisans began to experiment with beer, trying to find the very taste - and so a highly hopped bitter pale ale, brewed with light malt, was born. The public got tired of the porter, and with the proliferation of transparent glasses, there was a demand for a beautiful, non-cloudy beer that was more difficult to counterfeit. So pale ale became a real British hit. Especially popular was the pale ale from Burton-upon-Trent, a small town in Staffordshire that was formerly known for its quality brown ales. The mineralization of the local springs was believed to be ideal for preparing light strong ales.

Бёртон-на-Тренте не один век известен своими пивоварнями. Здесь располагается Национальный пивоваренный центр, где можно познакомиться с историей изготовления напитка в городе / Фото: Weekend Notes Burton-upon-Trent has been famous for its breweries for centuries. Here is the National Brewery Center, where you can get acquainted with the history of the drink in the city 


73. By the 19th century, the British East India Company gradually colonized India, discovering unhindered trade in the country. Brewers also drew attention to this market, and the most notable among them was James Hodgson: from the 1780s he practically monopolized the supply of various beers, united under the name Indian Ale, to the colony. However, already in the 1820s, other companies and artisans were able to win the true love of the local public with a brighter beer. Burton brewers sent their pale ales to India. At that time, the transportation of products was possible only by sea and took about six months, and during this time the beer fell into disrepair. Only heavily hopped varieties could preserve their freshness and taste, but porter, although it was familiar to British soldiers, who were full in the country due to national uprisings against the colonialists, was too dense and heavy for the hot climate. Pale ales, on the other hand, are bright, sparkling, with a bitter taste - perfect for quenching thirst and refreshing. Like many other styles of beer, India Pale Ale or IPA virtually disappeared during the World Wars of the 20th century, but reemerged in America in the 1970s with the rise of craft beer.


74. Already in our time, a new style of pale ale was born - NEIPA, which most often stands for New England India Pale Ale. Even though NEIPA emerged in the 2000s, it's hard to say who came up with it. It is believed that the Alchemist and Hill Farmstead breweries in Vermont, and then TreeHouse and Trillium in Massachusetts, began brewing it at about the same time. This style is cloudy, sweet, light, like a tropical juice, while the IPA is clear and very bitter due to the high hop content. NEIPA also has hops, but it is added at the very end of the boil, so it gives its aroma to the drink, without having time to make it bitter. This style is very popular in the USA, where even small artisans brew it.


75. Before hops became one of the most important ingredients, the Netherlands, France, Belgium, Germany and other northern countries used gruit, a mixture of herbs to add flavor and aroma to beer, usually including wormwood, wild rosemary, horse and dog mint, yarrow, juniper, rosemary, marsh myrtle and other plants. The composition of this mixture depended on local traditions and the available plants, many of which are poisonous or known for their psychotropic effects, making the drink highly intoxicating. The first mention of fruit dates back to the 10th century, when the German king Otto II granted the right to trade in the mixture to some churches: at that time, when buying beer raw materials, a tax had to be paid, so only bishops, nobles or large farmers could sell gruit. In many cities there were special people - gruyters who made the mixture and sold it to the brewers. Over time, the Catholic Church practically monopolized the sale of gruit, and hops became an increasingly common ingredient without paying for it. The last nail in the coffin of the herbal mixture was the Protestants. They promoted austerity and abstinence, which influenced the adoption in the 16th-18th centuries of a number of laws prohibiting the use of psychotropic additives in brewing. But the main reason for the disappearance of gruit was religious politics and the decline in the influence of Catholicism in the northern countries. Now gruits are also boiled, but very rarely.


76. In some bars you can see the Sauer - it's not exactly a beer style, but rather a general name for all kinds of acid.Lambics, Gueuze, Gose, Flemish ales, Berliner Weisse or smoked German ales - Liechtenheiners can be hiding here. The latter were once common throughout Germany, but now they are very rare. They are brewed with wheat or barley smoked over an open fire, which give the beer a smoky aroma. And the sour taste appears due to lactic acid bacteria. By the way, in Germany there is another famous beer that is brewed with smoked malt - rauchbier.

Раухбир исторически изготавливался во Франконии, в городе Бамберг Rauchbier was historically made in Franconia, in the city of Bamberg


77. Lambic is made according to the old technology of "spontaneous fermentation": the wort for lambic is boiled, and then left to ferment in an open vessel, without adding special brewer's yeast there.can enter the vessel Any microorganisms, so it is impossible to accurately predict the taste of the resulting drink, however, it cannot be called completely unpredictable either, since brewers still observe the temperature regime and limit the ingress of some bacteria into the mash. The special sour taste of lambics is largely attributed to the yeast strains of Brettanomyces, the most famous of which are B. bruxellensis and B. lambicus, named after the Belgian capital and local style. If in the barrels the beer still tastes too different, then it can be mixed with each other so that the batch is homogeneous. It is believed that real lambic, like champagne, is made only in the Senne river valley - the Pajottenland region and near Brussels, and everything else is just beer "in style".



78. Lambic began to be brewed around the 17th century, but by the 19th it had become a hit. By 1900, there were about 80 breweries in the vicinity of Brussels, specializing in lambic. It became an everyday drink, and farmers often took a bottle with them to work in the fields. From the middle of the century, the popularity of the style began to decline: large players appeared on the market who offered a simpler and more understandable to the consumer light lager, and the popularity of soda with a lot of sugar influenced the mass love for sweet beer. Some breweries closed, others began to sweeten their product on purpose, and as a result, the quality of the lambics dropped. It wasn't until the 1990s that a revival began, fueled by a general interest in local production, especially craft beer, the proliferation of the internet, and the publication of books such as Tom Webbs' LambicLand. Brewers began to come up with cultural events to promote lambics: interactive production tours, tastings, and festivals. Currently, this style of beer is perceived by the Belgians as one of the elements of the country's cultural heritage.


79. Gueuze is a type of lambic for which young (about a year old) and old (about 2-3 years old) beer is mixed. After filling in a bottle, the drink is fermented and becomes highly carbonated. Gueuze is called "Brussels champagne": it is believed that when Napoleon's troops occupied Belgium, a general fashion for sparkling wine began. An enterprising brewer from Geuzenstraat collected empty champagne bottles and poured lambic into them - the beer was so successful that it gained popularity and got its name from Geuzen Street. Although the Lindemans company, which is famous for its lambics, believes that the name comes from the French gazeux, that is, carbonated. Gueuze is usually sweetish in taste with a strong sour aftertaste.

Карта фестиваля Toer de Geuze, который проводился в 1997 году. Это фестиваль в регионе Пайоттенланд, проходящий дважды в год, во время которого можно попасть на бесплатные экскурсии и дегустации гёзов и ламбиков в местные пивоварни / Фото: Lambic.infMap of the 1997 Toer de Geuze festival. This is a festival in the Pajottenland region, held twice a year, during which you can get free guided tours and tastings of gueuze and lambics at local breweries


80. Cherry lambic is called scream. It is also made by blending two lambics of different ages with the addition of overripe sour Morello cherries: according to tradition, they are not crushed, but dipped into a barrel of beer, either whole or with a slightly damaged skin. In addition to cherry lambic in Belgium, other types of lambic are made - framboise (raspberry), peche (peach), cassis (black currant) and faro, to which caramelized sugar is added.


81. Gueuze is often confused with gosé - a German beer with a thousand-year history, which is also produced by spontaneous top fermentation with the addition of coriander and salt. It began to be brewed in the city of Goslar in Lower Saxony, but this style gained particular popularity in Leipzig, where by 1800 there were about 80 taverns specializing in gose. Despite strong love, it remained a regional drink, as lagers supplanted almost all ales, and may have completely disappeared due to the wars, but its recipe has survived. The style revived at home at the end of the 20th century and continues to develop now, including among craft breweries on the Russian market.

Область распространения сахти и других скандинавских пивных напитков / Фото: Pivo.byThe area of ​​distribution of sahti and other Scandinavian beer drinks 


82. Sahti is a type of beer produced in Finland based on barley, rye, juniper and baker's yeast. It was originally brewed for home use rather than commercial sale, so the recipe has remained largely unchanged over the years. Most often it was made for family events like weddings. Sahti was especially common in western Finland, while in the eastern regions of the country, low-alcohol kalya beer was preferred, whose traditional recipe has practically disappeared. Interestingly, saunas were often used to malt the grain, in which it was possible to maintain a high temperature for a long time. Usually sahti is infused in barrels, not steel vats, protected from oxidation and not filtered - the beer tastes sweet with hints of milkshake. Today in Finland there are only six breweries that brew this style, but for none it is the main one.


83. Berliner Weiss is a cloudy wheat beer with noticeable sourness and high carbonation. It contains only about 3% alcohol. This style is shrouded in many legends. Someone says that Berliner Weiss was inspired by the Huguenots who moved to the German capital from France in the 18th century and missed their usual wine. Someone that one famous 16th century brewer Kord Broyhan from Hanover, while traveling in Hamburg, tasted a previously unknown beer and tried to copy it at home. There is a widespread story that Napoleon called this beer "Northern Champagne". Today Berliner Weiss is very popular in Berlin and is often drunk at dinner, adding various syrups such as raspberry or apple. Berliner has a protected geographic name and can only be produced in the German capital and the surrounding area; however, it is prepared only in two companies - Berliner Kindl and Schultheiss.

Rodenbach Grand Cru  — один из эталонов кислых элейRodenbach Grand Cru - one of the benchmarks for sour ales


84. Flemish or Belgian red ales have their roots in experiments with porter. In the early 1870s, Fleming Eugene Rodenbach studied at a brewery in England, from where he returned home with recipes for this rich dark beer. He began to brew ale, aging it in oak barrels for several years and adding to the yeast lactobacilli, which gave the drink a characteristic sour taste. Later, he founded the Rodenbach Brewery, which sold ready-made blended yeast to other artisans within 50 km of Roeselare, and these breweries produced their own Belgian red and sour brown beer from it. Although the practice of yeast blending spread throughout Europe, Rodenbach is still considered the benchmark for red ales.


85. Brown is another classic Flemish ale. In 1829, Dr. Jean-Baptiste Vrankin wrote that "a dark beer that burns the palate and constricts the throat" is poured in Flanders, and a little later the brewer Georges Lacambre noted its "bitter, rough and tart taste." The popularity of brown beer gradually grew and by the end of the 19th century it became a hit of sales: it was thanks to it that Liefmans, after the damage to its buildings during the First World War, was still able to become the 21st largest brewery in Belgium in terms of production. At that time, these ales tasted quite sour, so they were compared to wine. Over time, it softened: brewers indulge the tastes of the public, addicted to Coca-Cola and other sweet sodas, which, as in the case of lambics, influenced the recipe for ales. Since the 1980s, the popularity of this style has been steadily declining, and some brown beer companies have gone bust.


86. In the French-speaking region of Belgium, the saison, a seasonal golden ale made from the remnants of the fall harvest for the summer, when additional workers were hired to the fields, was widespread among the peasantry. To quench their thirst, a light beer was brewed, refreshing in the heat. The saison recipe is optional: if a berry is born in the summer, then it can be added to the future beer, but if not, then the beer will be brewed from other ingredients. That is why it is now difficult to find two brewers following the same brewing method, since saison is more about a format than a specific taste. In France, there is a similar drink - bière de garde, or "beer for storage", which was also brewed in advance, before the season of active work, so that the peasants could devote all their time to the harvest, and not to cooking.about bière de garde these days. Little is said, and although there are many variations of it in its homeland - from light honey to darker and more fruity, craft brewers rarely use it in their experiments.


87. During the Reformation, the Catholic Cistercian order, which had branched off from the Benedictine order, began to decline. The monks from the Norman abbey of La Trappe decided that one should not succumb to sins and should focus on the strict discipline and asceticism that Saint Benedict bequeathed. The followers of the restrictions became known as Trappists, and in 1892 the Pope officially recognized them as a separate order. However, due to the French Revolution and the persecution of Catholics, Trappists settled throughout Europe, including Belgium. The monks themselves produced everything necessary for life, including brewing beer for themselves and for sale. They noticed that the wort can be filtered repeatedly, making it a lighter drink each time. The strongest first infusions they sold in the villages, the weaker ones, called petite beer - small beer, they kept for themselves or distributed to the poor. It is believed that this system gave names to the classic monastic ales - single, dubbel, triple and quadruple. The strongest varieties were marked by monks with four crosses (Quadrupel from the word quad - four), and the weakest - only one. Over time, the Trappists began to imitate, and in 1962 the monks filed a lawsuit against unscrupulous brewers using a false name. Since 1997, the International Trappist Association has existed: only 20 abbeys that are members of it are entitled to the original name of the beer.

Монах-траппист в пивоварне аббатства Ла-Трапп / Фото: Drink Belgian BeerTrappist monk in the brewery of the Abbey of La Trappe 


88. The monks brewed a strong and aromatic beer without strong hoppy bitterness. Despite the ban on the use of the Trappist name in production and sale, no one restricted copying the recipe, so secular versions of the drink appeared, called abbey beer. The most common beer was the dowel - in 1926, Westmill Abbey released Dubbel Bruin, which gained a lot of followers and admirers. It is a dark amber beer with a complex malt sweetness and 6-7% ABV, and caramelized sugar is often added to it. The quadruple is considered to be a stronger version of the dowel - the amount of alcohol can be up to 14%. Tripel is a light golden beer also made famous by Westmill. Its fortress is kept in the region of 7-10%. A single is very rare due to its weakness (about 3%) and unsaturation. 


89. While many beer styles revived after World War II, some of them have disappeared forever. This happened, for example, with the Berliner oud (or Berliner alto in German). A few years ago, the brewer Marco Loret discovered an old label. It indicated that the Berliner alto was produced by Gustaf Hustinks at the Pauw brewery in Culemborg. The brewery itself was opened in the 19th century, but Houstinks owned it for only a few years - from 1909 to 1913. Beer researcher Rowell Mulder has found advertising campaigns from different masters who have brewed this species since the 1880s, but could not find any recipes, so the taste of Berliner alto remains a mystery. Mulder suggests that it could be a Dutch imitation of German varieties, judging by the name, and most likely fantasy, because the style did not take root and faded into oblivion.


90. While roasted malt can add a coffee-like flavor to beer, natural coffee can be added to the beverage. It is most commonly used in porters, stouts, especially imperial, dark and pale ales. The taste will be very dependent on the grain and its roast, so there can be many variations of coffee beers. In America's new craft era, the plant began to be used in the 1990s, when radical blends of coffee, chocolate and oats or coffee, Mexican vanilla and sugar appeared. Interestingly, the coffee can be added whole, ground or already brewed, including by cold brew.

  1. Томатный гозе от Saldens, крафтовой российской пивоварниTomato goes from Saldens, a craft Russian brewery


91. Tomatoes are a popular ingredient in beer, especially gose. Most likely, the experiment with tomatoes originates from the famous Mexican cocktail that serves prepada, sometimes called chavela or michelada. According to legend, michelada was invented by a bartender in San Luis Potosi as a hangover and fatigue remedy in the 1910s. In addition to beer, its composition includes tomato juice, lime, spices and hot sauce, depending on the region.

 

92. Brewing with grapes is considered a special art, as the result is a wine-beer hybrid. The abundance of varieties of this fruit gives unusual flavors: for example, Viognier will give the drink aromas of melon and tropical fruits, and red varieties can give the beer the taste of black currant or cherry. Typically, red grapes like syrah or grenache are added to dark, rich beers like porter or strong ales, while white sauvignon blanc is ideal with gueuze or lambic. Since the 1970s, the Belgian company Cantillon has been brewing lambics every year with hand-picked nutmeg. When picking grapes, the smallest details should be taken into account: there will be a difference between the fruits harvested from the southern and northern sides of the vineyard, and if you cut off the bunches with branches, then a woody note will appear in the taste.


93. In the United States , pizza-flavored beer is brewed. In 2013, Tom and Anthea Seifert from Chicago brewed beer with oregano, basil, tomatoes, garlic and even pizza crumbs. Initially, it was assumed that the resulting mixture could be used as a marinade, but the drink turned out to be so good that they began to drink it just like that. Other brewers also picked up the idea - Liquid Margarita can now be found in many American companies and even in Russian artisans, for example, Pizza Boy from Selfmade Brewery.

100 фактов об истории и культуре пива: от египетских пьяниц и средневековых рецептов до мегапивоварен и крафтового бума


94. In the last decade, more and more types of beer have been added to which avocado is added. In 2013, American brewery Angel City Brewery brewed an avocado beer, adding cilantro, red pepper, lime and honey to create a guacamole flavor. After that, Bush Shack Brewery in Australia and Rocky Knob in New Zealand did some experiments. This is a seasonal story, as beer is highly dependent on the harvest of the fruit. Avocado gives the drink not only taste, but also a delicate creamy texture.


95. There are several banana bread flavored breweries around the world, such as Eagle Brewery and Wells and Young's, which introduced the exotic beer in 2002.wort Mashed bananas are added to the, which, when combined with malt, give a bright taste of fruitcake. In general, bananas are a standard ingredient for beer in many African countries: in Rwanda they cook urwagwa, in the Congo - kasixi, in Uganda - mubishi. It is important for this drink to use bananas at their peak of ripeness, as overripe can ruin the taste. Boiled water and fried grains are added to mashed bananas, which have yielded juice. Beer is not heated, but must be filtered to prolong its short shelf life, as bananas are an excellent medium for microbial growth.


96. During the Victorian era in Britain, stout was often consumed with oysters in pubs - the bittersweet taste perfectly complemented the salty shellfish. It is believed that the shells could end up in beer vats because they purify the water, which means they can clarify the beer, masking low-quality or over-dried malt. It is not known exactly when oyster meat was added to the beer itself for flavor, but in 1939 New Zealand's Barnes Oysters began shipping oyster concentrate to British brewers. Sources say that it took at least 18 months to develop the drink, and the amount of concentrate in a bottle is equivalent to one whole oyster. Oyster stout has never been a mainstream beer, and doesn't even stand out as a distinct style, but today some craft breweries are making it experimentally.


97. Petersburg brewery Hophead Gose brewed with the taste of soups and national dishes. The line includes beer with the taste of okroshka, French onion soup, sour cabbage soup, Bulgarian chorba, Megrelian ajika, pickle, tom yam, pho bo, Armenian dogwood soup, kharcho, Indian curry and others. To create taste, edible ingredients are really added to the wort - vegetables, spices, herbs, cheese and even meat broths.


98. Although beer is not the most popular ingredient in cocktails, many drinks are made from it besides the ruff (a mixture of beer and vodka). One of the most famous cocktails, the Moscow mule, which consists of vodka and ginger beer, was invented in the United States and has many variations. In addition to it, in bars you can try shandy or radler (lager with lemonade), michelada, Mississippi porter-fur (porter with bourbon and rum), black velveteen (beer with champagne), beer mojito, chocolate mixtures of liqueurs and porters, and others. Sometimes there are some really weird recipes like beer with ice cream or eggs.


99.Wat Pa Maha Chedi Kaew Temple, 600 kilometers from Bangkok, has an unusual appearance, created from a large number of used Heineken beer bottles and a local type of beer.


100.The Vikings believed that in Valhalla, their heaven, a goat with a udder was waiting for them, which would always supply them with beer.


 


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50-most-interesating-and-fun-facts-about-the-roland-garros-tennis-championship-that-you-need-to-know-in-2022

Roland Garros” is on the lips of everyone who is not indifferent to tennis, and especially in the second half of May and early June, when the French Open takes place - the unofficial world championship on clay courts. This name is given to the tennis stadium in Paris. However, not all tennis fans know the history of this name. The French championship at the beginning of the 19th century did not have a permanent residence permit and until 1928 was held on the courts of the capital's clubs "Racing Club de France", "l'île de Puteaux" and "Stade Francais". 


In 1925 it was declared "International", after which it began to be considered as an unofficial world championship on clay courts. There were not enough courts at the existing tennis bases. The French Lawn Tennis Federation (FFLT) realized that the time had come to build a tennis stadium with more courts and grandstands and began to look for a place for it. 


In 1928, the owner of the Stade Francais club (author's note - Located in the Parc Saint-Cloud - a suburb of Paris) Emile Lesieur agreed to donate part of his territory (3.25 hectares) for this purpose, but with one condition - the stadium must bear the name of the famous Frenchman Roland Garros, with whom he was on friendly terms since his studies at the HEC Paris business school (1906-1908), and during the First World War they were both pilots. In addition, Garros played for the club's rugby team - the most titled at that time. The condition was accepted. And not only the stadium was named Roland Garros, but the French Championship itself (Internationaux de France, French Open) began to be called by the same name.


Bemorepanda collected more interesting facts below.



1. Roland Garros, which by the way is called the French Open only outside of France, was not always open. The tournament was first held in 1891, and then only men, members of French tennis clubs, could participate in it.


2. A women's rank was added in 1897, and foreign athletes were able to compete on French courts in 1925.


3. Men are winning the Musketeers Cup, named after the "Four Musketeers' ' Jacques Brugnon, Jean Borotra, Henri Cochet and René Lacoste, who brought France its first Davis Cup victory in 1927. Women get the Suzanne Lenglen Cup, named after the French tennis player who at the beginning of the 20th century won 12 Grand Slam singles tournaments and was an Olympic champion.


4. The tournament bears the name of the French pilot and aviator Roland Garros, who participated in the First World War.


5. Garros was the first to cross the Mediterranean in an airplane, and invented a machine gun that could be mounted behind a propeller and fired without damaging it. Well, besides this, Garros loved rugby and, of course, tennis. The pilot was a member of one of the French tennis clubs and regularly went to the court while studying in Paris.


6. First, the arena that hosts the French Open was named after him, and then the entire tournament.



7. The arena, which bears the name of Roland Garros, was built specifically in 1928 for the French tennis team, which had won the Davis Cup a year earlier and was supposed to defend the title against the US team. There were simply no other suitable structures in France.


8. When the stadium was built, it was handed over to the French Tennis Federation on the condition that it would bear the name of the famous pilot.


9. This is the smallest arena of all that hosts Grand Slam tournaments, and the organizers plan to reconstruct it in 2016.


10. It was Roland Garros that became the first Grand Slam tournament, which allowed both professional and amateur tennis players to take part in competitions. This happened in 1968.


11. The tournament has been held since 1891, but during the Second World War, the competition was still interrupted. However, even in wartime conditions, small tennis tournaments were held in France. Only the French could participate in them.


12. The question of moving Roland Garros to another city was raised, but the unequivocal decision was made that the tournament should remain in Paris.



13. This is the only Grand Slam tournament that takes place on clay, and the participants require special stamina - the balls fly slower and higher, and good preparation is needed to stay in the game.


14. In addition, the clay surface deprives the masters of the serve, for example, Andy Roddick, during his career at Roland Garros, could not go beyond 4 rounds.


15. The hosts of the Parisian courts cannot boast a long list of achievements. Only three girls and two men have won Roland Garros in singles.


16. The last winner with a French passport was Mary Pierce, who won the tournament in 2000. In men, the last victory of the hosts dates back to 1983 - it was won by Yannick Noah.


17. Yannick Noah was not only the last French winner of the Roland Garros, but also the first black winner of this tournament. His son Joachim Noah did not become a tennis player and plays basketball, he currently plays for the Chicago Bulls NBA team.



18. In women, the first black winner was American Atea Gibson. She won the competition in 1956, the same year she also won the doubles Roland Garros. In addition, she is the first black winner of Wimbledon.


19. Roland Garros, like many major tournaments, has its own museum, which is called "tennisseum". It was opened in 2003 and covers 2200 square meters.


20. This is the first multimedia museum dedicated to tennis, with almost 4,400 hours of audiovisual programs on the history of the tournament, the oldest of which date back to 1897.


21. In addition to multimedia materials, the museum also presents ordinary exhibits. For example, more than 100 rackets, the oldest of which date back to the 50s of the XX century.


22. The youngest winner in 1989 was the American Michael Chang, at that time he was 17 years and 3 months old. In the women's category, the youngest winner is an American of Yugoslav origin, Monica Seles. In 1990, she won the tournament at the age of 16 years and 6 months.


23. Roland Garros record holders for the number of victories are Chris Evert in women and Rafael Nadal. Both won on the Parisian courts 7 times.



24. Spaniard Nadal won in 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011 and 2012. American Chris Evert won the tournament in 1974, 1975, 1979, 1980, 1983, 1985, and 1986.


25. Nadal won the French Open 4 times in a row (as did Bjorn Borg, who won a total of 6 victories at Roland Garros) and defended the title in the 2013 season. In the women's part of the tournament, the current winner is Russian Maria Sharapova.


26. In 1891, the Union of French Societies of Athletic Sports (USFSA) organized the first French tennis championship, which took place within one day in Paris on the clay courts of the Racing Club. The tournament did not arouse much interest either among tennis players or among spectators, since only the French or members of French tennis clubs were allowed to participate. But by the beginning of the twentieth century, the championship became the largest French tournament.


27. However, in 1912, the number of participants decreased sharply, as a new World Clay Tennis Championship appeared, organized in cooperation with the Stade Français club. After 11 years, this tournament exhausts itself, which leads to the resumption of the previous championship of France. In 1925, foreign players were admitted to the championship for the first time, and it acquired the status of the French Open. Tournaments start at the same time on the courts of Stade Français and Racing Club.



28. In 1927, the magnificent French four Jacques Brunion, Jean Borotra, Henri Cochet and Rene Lacoste, whom the press and fans called only the “four musketeers”, defeated American tennis players in the Davis Cup. The rematch was supposed to take place in the home of the Musketeers, and such a major sporting event required a stadium of a decent standard. The Stade Français club is donating three hectares of land to the French Tennis Federation in Porte d'Auteuil, a suburb of Paris.


29. The only stipulation was that the new stadium would bear the name of former French hero club member and military pilot Roland Garros, the first person to fly non-stop across the Mediterranean and who died just five weeks before the end of the First World War. In May 1928, the opening of the stadium took place, on the courts of which a few weeks later the French championship was held, and then the long-awaited rematch with the Americans took place. Since that time, the French Open has received a permanent registration and became the fourth Grand Slam tournament. In 1968, the French were the first of the big four to allow professional players onto their courts.


30. In 1974, 18-year-old Bjorn Borg and 19-year-old Chris Evert won in Paris. These two victories marked the beginning of a new era. From 1974 to 1981, the Swede won the championship six times, and the American won seven titles between 1974 and 1986. These successes have made tennis players Roland Garros record holders. In terms of the total number of victories won in all categories, the best are the Frenchman Henri Cochet (nine titles) and the Australian Margaret Smith Court (13 titles).



31. In 1983, 37 years after the victory of Marcel Bernard, to the delight of all France, their compatriot Yannick Noah won. And the last Frenchwoman to win in Paris was Marie Pierce in 2000. In total, French athletes have won 16 titles in the 85-year history of the Open Championship (ten men, six women). The champions among men are the Spaniards (13 titles), and among women, the Americans are out of competition (27 times).


32. In 1989, the tournament was won by Michael Chang. He is only 17 years old, becoming the youngest champion of the French Open and the first American in 34 years (the last was Tony Trabert in 1955). Among the girls, the youngest champion is Monica Seles (16 years 6 months).


33. Monica is also the third tennis player in the history of the French Open, who managed to win the tournament three times in a row (1990-92). Helen Wills-Moody (1928-30) and Hilde Sperling (1935-37) did it before her. In the future, this achievement will be able to repeat Justine Henin (2005-07). The record among men is four victories in a row. Two managed to do this - Bjorn Borg (1978-81) and Rafael Nadal (2005-08).



34. Helen Wills-Moody holds another record - she has not lost a single set in all four championships she has won. Bjorn Borg (1978, 1980), Rafael Nadal (2008, 2010) and Justine Henin (2006-07) each have two such championships.


35. Most victories on the courts of Paris won: for men - Guillermo Vilas (56 wins in 73 matches), for women - Steffi Graf (84 wins in 94 matches).


36. The record holders for the longest matches in the championship are the French: for men - Fabrice Santoro - Arnaud Clement 6:4, 6:3, 6:7, 3:6, 16:14 (2004, 393 min.), And for women - Virginie Busson - Noel van Lotton 6:7, 7:5, 6:2 (1995, 247 min.).


40. The shortest final was played in 1988, when Steffi Graf defeated Natasha Zvereva - 6:0, 6:0 (34 min.) The German woman also holds the record for the longest final (1996), in which she defeated Arancha Sanchez - Vicario 6:3, 6:7, 10:8 (184 min.) Among men, the longest final was played in 1982 - Mats Wilander - Guillermo Vilas 1:6, 7:6, 6:0, 6:4 (282 min.).


41. In 1993, 12-year-old Martina Hingis at Roland Garros became the youngest champion in the history of junior Grand Slam tournaments. It's a paradox, but it is the French championship that will remain a white spot in her professional career. Among men, the main loser of Paris is considered to be the great Pete Sampras.



42. In 1997, Gustavo Kuerten won in Paris, being the 66th racket of the world. It was the first professional title in the Brazilian's career. In 2001, he won the tournament for the third time and became the first champion of Roland Garros, who had to play match points on the way to the title. 


43. Three years later, another unseeded player, Gaston Gaudio, will win a sensational championship victory, while winning back two championship points. In total, in the history of the championship, only four men won without being seeded players.


44. Among women, the only unseeded champion was Margaret Scriven (1933). Until last year, this was the only time that a tennis player not included in the Top 10 seeding became the champion.


45. The record holder for the number of performances in Paris is the Frenchwoman Natalie Tosia (18 times).


46. The 1998 Men's Championship went down in history as the first Grand Slam tournament in the Open Era in which only one of the top eight seeds made it past the second round. In addition, at the French Open, it has not yet happened that a tennis player who made his way to the main draw through qualification defeated the current champion: Marat Safin - Gustavo Kuerten 3:6, 7:6, 3:6, 6:1, 6:4.



47. In the same year, the Williams sisters played their first Grand Slam final. In the mixed doubles competition, the victory went to the eldest: Venus, paired with Justin Gimelstob, defeated Serena and Luis Lobo 6:4, 6:4.


48. Russian finals were played twice in Paris: in 2004, Anastasia Myskina beat Elena Dementieva 6:1, 6:2, and in 2009 Svetlana Kuznetsova defeated Dinara Safina 6:4, 6:2. And the first Russian woman to win the Roland Garros was Olga Morozova, who won the doubles title in 1974. In total, Russian tennis players have won seven titles. Yevgeny Kafelnikov became the champion in singles (1996) and won three times in doubles. Evgenia Manyukova and Andrey Olkhovsky won the mixed doubles competition (1993).


49. Roland Garros is considered the most romantic Grand Slam tournament. As many believe, this is facilitated by the nearby Bois de Boulogne and the special Parisian aura. More than one tennis romance happened here. And the biggest love story was born in 1999, when Andre Agassi and Steffi Graf were celebrating their victories.


50. Pink geranium has always been an indispensable attribute of the center courts of the stadium. However, in the middle of the last decade, for unknown reasons, this color began to annoy some tennis leaders, and the geranium bloomed its current red color.



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2022-belmont-stakes-dates-location-tickets-and-other-interesting-facts-that-you-need-to-know-this-year

The Belmont Stakes is a Class I American steak race that takes place at Belmont Park in Elmont, New York. The race is the traditional third and final leg of the Triple Crown. Usually held on the first or second Saturday in May, five weeks after Kentucky and three weeks after Preakness Stakes. In 1973, "Belmont Stakes and Triple Crown Winner "Secretariats" held the record (which is also a track and world record on Dirt) of 2:24.


When running the miles, the Belmont Stakes covers one full lap of Belmont Park, known as "The Championship Track," because nearly every major American champion in racing history has raced. Belmont Park, with its big, wide, sweeping turns and long work, is considered one of America's finest races. Despite the distance, the race tends to favor horses with tactical speed: comparatively few approach far from the early leaders.


Attending the Belmont Stakes is among the American racing events. The 2019 Belmont Stakes garnered a television audience of 21.9 million viewers and had the highest household viewing since 1977, when Triple Crown winner Ce Slew.


American "Pharoah" won the 147th Belmont Stakes, becoming the first horse to win the Crown Cane since "Affirmed" in 1978. Hfi won the 150th, becoming the 13th Triple Crown champion.


The event will last two days: 6 and 7 may, 2022 Belmont Stakes Ticket Packages you can find here.


You can read below interesting facts by Bemorepanda.



1. The first Belmont Stakes were held at Jerome Park Ruch in the Bronx, built in 1866 by stock speculator Leonard Jerome (No. 7 - 1891) and funded by August Belmont Sr. (No. 6 - 1890 - 1890), for whom the race was named. 


2. The first race in 1867 was won by Philly Roeless, while the following year was won by General Duke. The race continued to be held at Jerome Park until 1890, when it was moved to a nearby facility, Morris Park Racecourse. 


3. The 1895 race almost never took place due to new laws that prohibited betting in New York: it was eventually rescheduled for November The race remained at Morris Park Racecourse until the new Belmont Park, 430 acres, opened in May 1904, 430 acres in Elmont, New York York on Long Island, near the New York borough of Queen. When anti-gaming legislation was passed in New York State, Belmont Race was closed and the race was canceled in 1911 and 1911.


4. The first Triple Crown winner was Sir He, in 1919, before the series was recognized as such. In 1920 Belmont won the great Man o'War, winning by 20 lengths, setting a new steak and an American record.



5. Beginning in 1926, the August Belmont Tro was awarded to the winner of the Belmont Stakes. The owner can keep Troy for one year and is also a silver miniature for permanent use.


6. The term Triple Crown was first used when Gallant won three races in 1930, but the term did not come into general use until 1935, when his son Omaha repeated the feat. Sir Sean was then honored retroactively. 


7. Beginning in 1931, the Triple Crown race order was first "Kentucky" followed by "Preakness Stakes" and then "Belmont Stakes". On May 12, 1911, and again on May 13, 192, "Preakness" and "Jy' ' were run on the same day. For ele time, the Belmont Stakes were run through to the Preakness Stakes. The date of each event is now set by Kentucky, which is always held on the first Saturday in May. 


8. The Preakness Stakes are currently held two weeks later and the Belmont Stakes are held three weeks after the Preakness (five weeks after).


9. Sturm, 1946 Triple Crown winner In 1937, War Admiral became the fourth Triple Crown winner after winning the Belmont in a new record time of 2:28 3/5. Four Triple Crowns followed in the 1940s: "Whirlaway" in 1941, "Count Fleet" in 1943, "Assault" in 1946 and "Citation" in 1948. Count Fleet won the race with a then-record margin of twenty-five lengths. He also set a steak record of 2:28 1/5, a record tied by Citation. In 1957, the steaks record was broken when the Gallant Man ran Belmont in 2:26 3/5 in a year in which the Triple Crown series was split in three ways.



10. The Belmont Stakes race was held at Aqueduct Rac from 1963 to 1967 while the track at Belmont was restored and refurbished.


11. The largest crowd of the 20th century was in 1971 with over 80,000 people, led by the city's Hispanic community, there to show off their new hero, Cañonero II, a Venezuelan Colt who had won the Kentucky and Preakness Stakes and was poised to win the Trinity crown of the USA. However, due to a leg infection that plagued the horse for several days, Cañonero II failed to win the Triple Crown as he fought for the finish line in 4th behind Pass Catcher, riesby Blum. Despite this loss, Cañonero II was named the winner of the first Eclipse Award for Outstanding Three Year Old Male Horse.


12. On June 9, 1973, the Secretariate won the Belmont Stakes by thirty-one lengths in a record time of 2:24 to become the Triple Crown champion, ending the 25-year gap between the Belmont-winning Citation and the Triple Crown in 1948. The Secretariate's record still stands today as the fastest Belmont Stakes run and the American 1 ½ mile record on Dirt. In 1977, Ce-Slew became the first horse to win the Triple Crown while undefeated. 


13. Affirmed was the last Triple Crown winner of the 20th century, taking the Belmont Stakes at 2:26 4/5 on June 10, 1978. Ri by eighteen-year-old Steve Cauthen, Affirmed defeated ri Alydar with J Velásquez in the saddle. At the time of the race, there was a third-slowest start and a third-fastest finish with a quarter at 25, half at 50, 3/4 at 1:14, at 1:37 2/5.



14. In 1988 Secretariate's son Risen Star won the Belmont in 2:26 2/5, then the second fastest in race history. The following year, Easy Goer lowered the mark for the second fastest time to 2:26. Easy Goer also has a Beyer Speed ​​Figure of 122 for the best race of any Triple Crown race since these were first published in 1987.


15. Crowd packs objects when the Triple Crown is in line. Three years in a row, horses have come to the Belmont Stakes with a Triple Crown in line only to fall. In 2002, Belmont Park became the largest crowd in its history when 103, 22 saw War Emblem lose a long shot at Sarava after stumbled early. In 2003, 101,864 Funny Cide watchers finished third behind Empire Maker. In 2004, the attendance record was shattered when 120,139 people saw Smarty Jones upset by Birdstone.


16. In 2007, "Rags to Riches" became the first Philae to win the race since Tanya in 1904. Three more failed Triple Crown bytes followed: Big Brown lost to Da 'Tara in 2008; in 2012, I'll Have Another was withdrawn due to injury; and in 2014 California Chrome was taken over by Tonalist. This fueled debate about whether the series needed to be changed, such as lengthening the period between races.


17. American Pharoah won the 2015 race, becoming the 12th horse in history to win a Triple Crown and the first in 37 years. The crowd that year was capped for the first time, to 90,000. His time of 2:26.65 was the sixth fastest time in Belmont Stakes history, and the second fastest time for a Triple Crown winner. In 2018, Phi became the 13th Triple Crown winner and only the second horse to do so while undefeated.



18. The Belmont Stakes' 152nd run took place without full-time fans on June 20, 2020, dragging on from June 6 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Leading up to the announcement, NYRA considered various dates after the Belmont Park spring/summer meeting and after three other majors had set their respective dates: Kentuan-E's move to Sept. 5, the Preakness Stakes move to Oct. 3, and Bre's Cup Classic scheduled for November Gov. Andrew CuOmies of New York also announced on June 16 that riders, including riders, that races in May 2020, including races, will announce.


19. The Belmont Stakes have been run one and a half since 1926 (except 2020), having run that distance in 1874-1889.


20. The race was also held at the following distances: and five furlongs in 1867 - 1873; and quarter in 1890 - 1892, 1895 and 1904 - 1903; and furlong in 1893 - 1894 and again in 2020; and three furlongs in 1896-1903 and 1906-1925.


21. A purse for the first run in 1867 was added at $1,500, meaning the purse was a nominee and entry fee. This made the total purse $2500 and the winner received $1850. 


22. The purse increased dramatically in the Roaring Twenties, from Man Oh's war earnings of $7,950 in 1920 to Gallant's of $66,040 in 1930. Purses dwindled as a result of the Great Depression, when the war admiral made just $28,020 in 1937 and then began During the sixties and early seventies, the winner's value was $100,000, depending on the added money received for entry (larger fields, thus resulting in higher prize money).



23. The purse was re-raised in the eighties and nineties, reaching $500,000 added, with the winner receiving roughly $400,000.In 1998, the purse was changed to $1,000,000 eed, with the winner receiving $600,000. In 2014, the purse was increased to $1,500,000.


24. With one exception, the race has been held at the 126-pound level (with a 5-pound filly allowance) since 1900. 126 pounds comes from the English classics, where the standard weight is 9 stones, while one stone is equal to 14 pounds. In 1911 the Belmont was run as a handicap with the winner carrying only 109 lbs compared to the runner-up carrying 126 lbs. Races held before 1900 had different weight conditions.


25. The first post-parade parade in the United States was at Belmont 14, in 1880. Until 1921 the race was held in the tradition of English racing. Since then, the race has been run in the American, or contra-visa, direction. Because of its length (one lap around Belmont's trendy main track), and because it's the final race of the Triple Crown, it's called the "Trial of the Champion". Most three year olds are not used to the distance and lack the experience, if not the stamina, to maintain winning speed for so long. In long races like the Belmont, horse work and lead timing can be critical.


26. The Winner's Blanket, made from Belmont Stakes white carnations, is called the "Trial of the Champion" because of its 5 length, by far the longest of the three Triple Crown races, and one of the longest for a first-class dirt race in the US. It is also known as "The Carnation Run" because the winning horse is drawn with a blanket of white carnations after the race, similar to the rose and black Susan's blanket for\ Preakness, respectively. The winning owner is ceremonially presented with the winner's silver trophy, designed by Paulding Farnham for Tiffany and Co. First introduced to August Belmont Jr. in 1896 and presented by the Belmont family for an annual presentation in 1926.



27. Although the Belmont Stakes is the oldest of the Triple Crown races, its titles have been more subject to change. Until 1996, the post-parade song was "The Sidewalks of New York''. From 1997 to 2009, the song was changed to broadcast the Frank Sinatra recording "Theme from New York" in an attempt to appeal to younger fans. In 2010, the song was changed to "Empire State of Mind '' by Jasmine V before reverting to "Theme from New York" from 2011 to the present. 


28. This tradition is similar to the singing of the national song on the post parades of the first two Triple Crown races: "My Old Kentucky Home '' at Kentu y and "Maryland, My Maryland '' at the Preakness Stakes. The song change spawned the "myth of Mamie O'Rourke '', a reference to the character in the lyrics of "The Sidewalks of New York". Before the American Pharoah won the Triple Crown in 2015, some claimed that Belmont's official song change "cursed" the Triple Crown and was the reason no horse won since Affirmed in 1978. Others point out that there was no Triple Crown winner between 1979 and 1996, although the Sidewalks were still playing.


29. Along with the song change, the official drink was also changed in 1997, from "White Carnation" to "Belmont Breeze." despite the fact that he was "as refined Traused traused Banned, Moneed, in 2011 was".


30. While the origin of the white carnation as the official flower of Belmont Stakes is unknown, it takes approximately 700 "choice" carnations from Columbia to create a 40-pond blanket painted over a Belmont Stakes winner. NYRA has long used The Pennock Company, a florist based in G., to import carnations used for mantles.


31. Only James G. Rowe Sr. and George M. Odom have won the Belmont Stakes as Joey and Coach.



32. On June 5, 1993, Thorobred became the first woman to win a Triple Crown when she made it to the Belmont Stakes victory aboard the Colonial Affair.


33. In 1984, Sarah Lundy became the first female trainer to saddle a horse in the Belmont Stakes, sending Minstrel Star, who finished eleventh.


34. The 2004 race was the largest in park history with 120, 139.


35. Sarawa, unlike 70 - 1, rejected War Emblem's bid for the Triple Crown.


36. Braulio Baeza has won three Belmont Stakes over three different ones. 


37. Stakes debut 65-1 in 1961 at the old Belmont Park, won the 1963 Chateaugay when the race was held at the Aqueduct, and won the 1969 Arts and Letters at the new Belmont Park.


38. Prior to the 2016 run, Laurels had the most with 56. Chestnuts were close behind with 54 wins, followed by 33 Dark Bays/Browns. Only three horses have won (Bellemare in 1895, Native Dancer in 1953 and High Echelon in 1970). In 2016, the top three positions were covered by grais.


39. The fourteen-year-old Belmont Stakes has scored at least one Belmont winner. The leader of this list is Man o'War, who collected three subsequent American flags, crusader and Triple Crown War winner Admiral.



40. Twenty-three horses missed their chance at the Triple Crown by not winning the Belmont. Eight of them finished second: Pendive (1944), Tim Tam (1958), Forward Pass (1968), Majestic Prince (1969), Sunday Silence (1989), Silver Charm (1997), Real Quiet (1998) and Smarty Jones ( 2004). Five finished third: Northern Dancer (1964), Spectacular Bid (1979), Pleasant Colony (1981), Charismatic (1999) and Funny Cide (2003). The four finished fourth: Ty King (1966), Canonero II (1971), Alisheba (1987), and California Chrome (2014). Carry Back (1961) finished seventh, War Emblem (2002) finished and Big Brown (2008) did not. Finally, three groups failed to race at Belmont: Burgoo King (1932), Bold Venture (1933) and I'll Have Another (2012), although I'll Have Another was injured and burned out the day before his Belmont Stakes in 2012.


41. The average horse weighs about 1,000 pounds. If you didn't think the jockeys were impressive or had a tough job, it's time to reconsider as they ride massive animals that travel at 40 miles per hour.


42. As if that wasn't impressive enough, the jockeys are famously short. There is no height requirement for jockeys, however there is a weight limit of 126 pounds which in turn results in most jockeys being on the short side.


43. The lowest recorded weight for a jockey is 49 pounds. The lightest current jockey currently racing is Giovanni Porte who weighs in at 88 pounds.



44. Due to the lucrative nature of horse racing and subsequent gambling, jockeys are prohibited from racing a horse they own or have a stake in because, as we all know, people sometimes like to cheat. The penalties can be quite harsh for this, and may even include time in jail.


45. In Europe, the horse race or National Hunt race is still very popular, and the great National Intree Racecourse outside Liverpool in the United Kingdom is the most prestigious of all. In the state of British culture, the race has a £1 million prize, making it the most valuable race on the entire continent.


46. More than $100 billion is bet on horse racing every year. You knew it was big money, but it's just crazy.


47. The first horse to win the Kentucky Derby was Aristide, in 1875. When he ran into the race, the derby was one quarter mile longer, with a $2,850 purse. Both his jockey and coach were African American, as were 13 of the 15 jockeys in the entire race.


48. Two of the first three Kentucky Derby winners were former slaves. However, since 1891, when Dudley Allen won the Derby, no African-American rider has won the race.


49. The Triple Crown is incredibly famous now, but at first they were just a trio of races. The term was not created until 1930 - eleven years after the first horse, Sir Barton, won a trio of races. It was coined by Charles Hutton, a sportscaster who was trying to fire up the public after the thoroughbred Galant Fox became the second horse to win all three races.


50. Before the idea of ​​the Triple Crown of racing came into vogue, two of the races would occasionally run on the same day or within only one day of each other, making it difficult for horses to win the Triple Crown.


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2022-french-open-roland-garros-schedule-ticket-price-location-and-other-facts-you-need-to-know

The French Open tennis championship is held every year in Paris, organized by the country's tennis association. Roland Garros (this is the more well-known name of the event) is one of the Grand Slam tournaments, it is on the list of the most prestigious and grandiose international competitions.


Matches can be watched both from the stands of the courts and live on a huge screen installed in Paris on the square in front of the City Hall. The screening is free, and there are not many seats in front of the screen, so the audience lands anywhere: on benches, fences, platforms and on the ground. Dates: 05/30/2021 - 06/13/2021



In total, five titles will be played on the courts of the Roland Garros tennis center:


  • men's singles;
  • women's singles;
  • men's doubles;
  • women's doubles;
  • mixed doubles.


Singles are the most popular among fans. In the men's part of the tournament, the most titled participant in the tournament is Rafael Nadal, who already has 11 titles in the French Grand Slam. In women's tennis, everything is less predictable: over the past five years, not a single tennis player has managed to become the champion of the French Open twice. Who will win Roland Garros 2022? Should we expect sensations? Will any of the favorites disappoint? Let's try to figure it out!


2022 French Open schedule


Roland Garros 2022 qualification matches will begin on May 10 and will be held in three rounds. The main tournament starts on May 16 and will last for two weeks. The women's final will take place on June 4, while the men will face each other in the main match on June 5. On the way to the title, the future champion will have to overcome seven rounds.


2022 French Open favorites for men


The most titled tennis player in Roland Garros is Rafael Nadal, who has already won 13 titles in France. In Nadal's 16-year history at the French Open, he has suffered only three defeats: in 2009, a surprise victory was won by Swede Robin Soderling, and in 2015 and 2021, Nadal was knocked out by Novak Djokovic. Since 2005, there has only been another champion four times: in 2009, in the final, Roger Federer beat the same Robin Soderling, in 2015, Stanislas Wawrinka defeated Novak Djokovic, and a year later, Djokovic himself turned out to be stronger than Andy Murray. And in 2021, Djokovic was able to put the squeeze on Stefanos Tsitsipas, losing the first two sets.


Of course, the main favorite after Rafael Nadal is the only person among the current athletes who managed to beat the Spaniard twice on the courts of Roland Garros. Novak Djokovic was able to overcome the most difficult segment of his career, during which he was worried about an elbow injury. Starting in 2018, the Serb did not just begin to resemble his former self and even established himself as the best tennis player in the world, taking eight Grand Slams in less than four years.


Other contenders for high places include primarily Stefanos Tsitsipas, who last season made very serious progress in the game on clay and even reached the final of last year's Slam in Paris. A month before Roland Garros, the Greek almost stopped Nadal in Barcelona, ​​losing in a dramatic game in three games.


In addition to the Greek, it is worth noting Dominic Thiem, the winner of the US Open-2020 and the finalist of Roland Garros-2019, who fell under the hand of Rafa. Although last year the Austrian performed more successfully on hard. In the last two draws of this tournament, Diego Schwartzman announced himself, having lost twice to Nadal in the later stages. The last time the Argentine was able to take the game from the titled Spaniard.


Alexander Zverev is increasingly reaching the later stages of big tournaments, including Roland Garros. So last year he almost reached the final, losing to his direct competitor Stefanos Tsitsipas in five games. It seems that NextGen is on the heels of the Djokovic-Nadal-Federer trio.


Tennis, unlike all team sports, is very subject to unpredictability. The result of the meeting does not depend on the whole team of players, where the result is the sum of the actions of all the elements of the team, but on one athlete, who at any moment can get injured or an ordinary illness, which will lead to his defeat.


French Open 2022 Women's Favorites


The women's part of the Roland Garros tournament is famous for its unpredictability. So last year, the unseeded Czech tennis player Barbora Kreychikova became the winner of the French Open, defeating Anastasia Pavlyuchenkova in the final - 6:1, 2:6, 6:4.


As for the world elite, even the legendary Serena Williams won only three titles in France, while she has seven trophies in Australia and the UK, and six in the USA. The main favorites for the 2022 French Open are the winners of 2018 and 2019, Romanian tennis player Simona Halep and Australian Ashleigh Barty, who won Wimbledon last season.


Serena Williams cannot be discounted, who in the very first season after returning to big-time sports was able to reach the final of the US Open. There is every reason to believe that in the upcoming season she will be able to return to her former unstoppable level and compete with her young rivals.


Novak Djokovic to miss French Open 2022? ATP sets a marker and informs players about mandatory vaccinations for Roland Garros


Novak Djokovic was unable to defend his title at the Australian Open in Melbourne as he was sent home. The Serb's visa was canceled twice and his second appeal was rejected. The 34-year-old athlete is not vaccinated, so he even risks competing at the 2022 French Open.


Now the ATP, the leading organization in men's tennis, has set a marker and informed players that they need to be vaccinated to participate in Roland Garros, which will take place in May-June. An email sent to ATP players reported that the subject of the email read: "IMPORTANT: Vaccination requirements in France."


The statement adds that in order to compete in the 2022 French Open, players must be vaccinated and only a medical exception due to an adverse reaction to the vaccine can be considered. However, the final requirements will soon be available to all players.


French Open 2022 requires vaccination against COVID-19


It was thought that the French Open could be the only Grand Slam where Novak Djokovic could compete without being vaccinated. However, according to the latest letter from the ATP, the Serb must get the jab if he is going to compete in Paris.


“The French Tennis Federation has informed us that the French government will soon pass a law banning unvaccinated athletes from participating in any sporting events. The law is awaiting final adoption, but is likely to come into force in the coming days." read the letter.



The letter also added that the rules are expected to be in place indefinitely and further clarification is pending. French tennis hopes to avoid the confusion created by Tennis Australia, the Australian government and the Victorian government's bad communication that led to the Novak Djokovic visa fiasco.



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@Watson Novak Djokovic disappointed me
50-fascinating-facts-about-the-uefa-champions-league-that-you-need-to-know

Now it is difficult to imagine the football life of Europe without such a tournament as the Champions League. However, the history of this tournament is not much more than 50 years old.

Preparations for the first draw of the most prestigious European club trophy started a month after the first UEFA Congress, held on March 2, 1955 in Vienna. Interestingly, the idea of ​​organizing the "European Cup" did not belong to the football union.

 

At that time, members of the football union were concerned about the organization of tournaments with national teams, and the editor of the French sports newspaper L'Equipe ("Equipe") Gabriel Hanot suggested the creation of a club tournament on a European scale. !December 6, 1954, the next issue of the newspaper came out with a catchy "hat" - "We offer the football European Cup." Ano and his colleague Jacques Ferrand proposed to play the matches of the new tournament on Wednesday evening.

 

Ano's proposal received a favorable response from most of Europe's top teams. Already in January 1955, the editors of "Ekip" sent out to all European clubs and football associations the regulation on the draw, which, with minor changes, was valid until the beginning of the 90s. On April 2, sixteen representatives of European club football gathered in Paris and signed a document on the birth of a new competition - the European Champions Cup.

 

Bemorepanda collected some interesting facts about the UEFA Champions League.

 

 

1. France is the country with the most players (471)

 

2. Players from 124 nationalities participated in matches

 

3. Daniel Amokachi - scorer of the first goal (11/25/1992 Brugge-CSKA 1:0)

 

4. Lionel Messi and Luis Adriano have scored the most goals in one match (5)

 

5. Francesco Totti is the oldest goalscorer (38 years and 59 days)

 

6. Celestine Babayaro - the youngest debutant (16 years and 87 days)

 

7. Raul is the youngest hat-tricker at the age of 18 years 114 days (10/18/1995 Real Madrid 6-1 Ferencváros (24, 25, 84 minutes)

 

8. 13 Spanish teams have participated in at least one Champions League (Atletico, Atlético, Barcelona, ​​Betis, Valencia, Villarreal, Deportivo, Málaga, Mallorca, Real Madrid, Real Sociedad, Sevilla, Celta)

 

9. Luis Figo and Ruud Van Nistelrooy have scored the most penalties (10)

 

10. Manchester United - team with the most draws (52 times)

 

11. Most own goals scored by Barcelona (9)

According to the rules agreed by the organizers, participation in the drawing of the champions of individual countries was not mandatory at first. The L'Equipe team considered that it would be more profitable to invite the most popular clubs to participate in the tournament.

 

June 21, 1955 The UEFA Emergency Committee decides to organize a tournament called the European Cup. It is noteworthy that by this moment even the pairs of teams of the 1/8 finals had already been named - the only case when the composition of the pairs was determined not by a draw, but by the organizers. Despite the name, not all participants represented the champions of their countries, and many national federations refused to delegate their representatives to the European Cup. Among those who refused were the founders of football, the British, as well as the USSR.

 

So, 16 teams participated in the first draw, divided at the discretion of the organizers into eight pairs (drawing lots were already held at the subsequent stages). The first match of the European Cup took place on September 4, 1955 in Lisbon. The honor to open a new competition fell to the local "Sporting" and the Belgrade "Partizan". In the debut match of the new tournament, "Sporting" and "Partizan" scored each other three goals. In the second leg in Belgrade, the Yugoslavs celebrated the victory with a score of 5: 2, and they advanced to the next round.). The Portuguese striker Martins became the author of the first goal scored in the 14th minute after the start of the match.

 

The first Champions Cup final was played in Paris on June 13, 1956 between the teams Stade de Reims and Real Madrid (Madrid) and ended with a score of 3:4, in favor of Madrid.

During the first five draws, the best club team was the Spanish "Real" (Madrid), which was a kind of team made up of the "stars" of South American and European football. He had the longest winning streak, subsequently winning the trophy after another 5 years, however, he had to wait 32 years for the next win, when in 1998 he finally won the Champions League Cup.

In addition to Real Madrid, Ajax and Bayern had a series of victories, and Liverpool won four victories between 1977 and 1984 with four almost different compositions.

 

 

12. Marco Van Basten - the author of the first hat-trick in the Champions League (11/25/1992 Milan-Gothenburg)

 

13. Glasgow Rangers - the team that won the first away victory (09.12.1992 CSKA-Glasgow Rangers 0:1). Although formally the meeting was held in Bochum (Germany)

 

14. Donetsk Shakhtar - the author of the biggest away victory 7:0

 

15. Real Madrid have not scored the most penalties (11)

 

16. Most referees sent off players against Barcelona (29 times)

 

17. ​​Real Madrid is the team with the most wins in a single competition (12 - 2001/2002)

 

18. Maccabi Haifa (2009/2010) and Deportivo (2005/2005) didn't score a single goal

 

19. Iker Casillas is the player with the most starts (149 times) and the most finisher (145 times)

 

20. Alessandro Nesta - player who has not scored in 99 matches

 

The turning point in the development of the tournament is the 1992/93 season, when the Champions League came to replace the Champions Cup. The group stage tested a year before was added to the playoff stages. The growth in popularity has led to the fact that the number of participants in the main draw of the tournament has grown over time from 16 to 32. Champions League matches are played on Tuesdays and Wednesdays.

 

The popularity of the European Cup and the number of its participants grew every year, and soon two more tournaments appeared in Europe - the Cup Winners' Cup (now merged with the UEFA Cup) and the Fairs Cup (now the UEFA Cup).

 

There are three qualifying rounds. They involve the champions of those countries that have a "low" football level, as well as teams from countries of a "high" football level that have not taken the necessary places to get into the main draw automatically. The participating teams are divided into pairs and play two matches according to UEFA rules (home and away matches). Teams that are defeated in the 1st and 2nd qualifying rounds on aggregate leave the tournament. If a football club loses in the 3rd quarter. round, he advances to the 1st round of the UEFA Cup. Teams that successfully pass the qualifying rounds enter the main draw of the Champions League.

 

The group stage is the first stage of the Champions League main draw. 32 European teams play here. Participants are divided into 8 groups of 4 teams each (groups A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H). Each football club must play with opponents in the group twice (home and away matches). Teams that take first and second place in their group go to the 1/8 finals of the Champions League. The third-placed football club continues to play in Europe, namely, in 1/16 of the UEFA Cup.

 

16 teams participate in the 1/8 finals. Participants are divided into pairs, two matches are played according to the rules of UEFA (home and away matches). The winner of the pair advances to the quarter-finals, and the winners of the quarter-finals to the semi-finals. Matches 1/4 and 1/2 finals of the Champions League are held by analogy with the 1/8 finals. Only in 1/4 there are already 8 teams (4 pairs), and in 1/2 - 4 teams (two pairs). The winners of the two semi-final pairs meet in the final, where they will compete for the most important and prestigious football trophy in Europe.

 

The final consists of one match. The venue for the final is determined long before the start of the Champions League tournament. In case of a draw after the end of normal time, two more halves of 15 minutes are added before the Silver goal. If the score remains tied after two added halves, the match is decided in a penalty shoot-out. The winner of the Champions League receives a cup, which you can find out about on this website in the section "About the main trophy"

 

 

21. Vanden Borre - 23 consecutive unbeaten player

 

22. Xavi is the player with the most wins (91)

 

23. Raul was the first to play 100 Champions League matches

 

24. Cristiano Ronaldo opened the scoring most times in matches (29 times)

 

25. Biggest win in tournament history - Liverpool-Besiktas 8-0 (06.11.2007)

 

26. Carles Puyol as captain has won the most trophy - 3 times

 

27. Roy Makaay - the author of the fastest goal 10.12 seconds (03/07/2007 Bayern-Real Madrid)

 

28. Milan most played in finals (6 times), Bayern, Barcelona and Juventus (5 times), Real Madrid and Manchester United 4 times each

 

29. Juventus lost the most finals (4 times), Milan and Bayern 3 times each

 

 

30. Real Madrid (4) and Porto (1) have never lost a final

 

31. Cristiano Ronaldo has scored the most in one competition - 17 goals (2013/2014)

 

32. The biggest difference in the final - Milan-Barcelona (4:0) 05/18/1994

 

33. Liverpool-Milan (3:3) - the most productive final (05/25/2005)

 

34. 5 players scored doubles in finals - Daniele Massaro (1993/1994), Karl Heinz Riedle (1996/1997), Hernan Crespo (2004/2005), Filippo Inzaghi (2006/2007), Diego Milito (2009/2010)

 

35. 4 players scored in two finals - Raul (1999/2000 and 2001/2002), Cristiano Ronaldo (2007/2008 and 2013/2014), Lionel Messi (2008/2009 and 2010/2011), Samuel Eto'o (2005 /2006 and 2008/2009)

 

36. Carlo Ancelotti has won the trophy three times (2002/2003, 2006/2007 with Milan and 2013/2014 with Real Madrid)

 

37. Coaches who won the trophy with different teams - Otmar Hitzfeld (Borussia Dortmund 1996/1997 and Bayern Munich 2000/2001), Jupp Heynckess (Real Madrid 1997/1998 and Bayern Munich 2012/2013), José Mourinho (Porto 2003/2004 and Inter 2009 /2010), Carlo Ancelotti (Milan 2002/2003, 2006/2007 and Real Madrid 2013/2014)

 

 

38. The oldest winning coach - Raymond Gutals (71 years and 232 days)

 

39. 6 times the winner was determined in a penalty shootout - Juventus-Ajax (1995/1996), Bayern-Valencia (2000/2001), Milan-Juventus (2002/2003), Liverpool-Milan (2004/2005), Manchester United-Chelsea (2007/2008), Chelsea-Bayern (2011/2012)

 

40. 1 time winner determined in extra time - Real Madrid-Atletico 2013/2014 (4:1)

 

41. The oldest field player - Alessandro Costacurta 40 years and 213 days (21.11.2006 AEK - Milan 1:0)

 

42. Clarence Seedorf is the only one to win the Champions League with 3 different clubs (Ajax 1994/1995, Real Madrid 1997/1998, Milan 2002/2003, 2006/2007)

 

43. Frank Rijkaard is the only one to have won the Champions League as a player (Ajax 1994/1995) and coach (Barcelona 2005/2006)

 

44. Final Milan-Liverpool (2004/2005, 2006/2007) and Barcelona-Manchester United (2008/2009, 2010/2011) played twice

 

 

45. Real Madrid and Bayern are the teams with the most consecutive victories (10)

 

46. 130 teams have participated in the tournament at least once

 

47. Barcelona have won the most away games - 45 matches

 

48. 20 different stadiums hosted the Champions League final

 

49. 13 of them had a different winner

 

50. 14 teams lost every match in the Champions League group stage - Kosice (1997/1998), Fenerbahce (2001/2002), Spartak Moscow (2002/2003), Anderlecht (2004/2005), Rapid (2005/2006), Levski (2006/2007), Dynamo Kyiv (2007/2008), Debrecen (2009/2010), Zilina (2010/2011), Partizan (2010/2011), Maccabi Haifa (2009/2010), Villarreal (2011/2012), Ocelul (2011/2012), Olympique Marseille (2103/2014)

 

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