Oktoberfest 2021: top 100 most interesting facts about beer (Part 2)

1 year ago

Because a refreshing event is approaching, namely Oktoberfest, the Bemorepand team decided to find the most interesting, useful and, in some places, funny curiosities about one of the most popular drinks in the world - beer.

Blonde, brown, unfiltered or wheat, with summery and fresh aromas - these are just a few features of beer, a drink that, by the way, in limited quantities, can take care of your thirst and health this summer. From the boundless space of the internet, Bemorepanda gathered the most interesting and unusual curiosities about beer.

Here comes the second part of Top 100 facts about beer. Here you can view the first part.

51. Sometimes brewers use the secondary fermentation method called kreusening. Fresh fermenting wort is added to the already poured chilled beer. An additional portion of yeast speeds up the fermentation process, cleans up the by-products released during fermentation and improves the taste of the beer, as hops and other additives retain flavor and aroma longer. 

51. Hops are one of the classic beer ingredients, although not required for fermentation. It has been used in Europe since the 8th century, but it's real heyday came during the Reformation. If you put hops in the wort during boiling, the beer will get a characteristic bitterness, since when the plant is heated it releases resin. If you add it already during fermentation, when the beer “reaches” in a vat or barrel, the drink will take only aroma from the hops - this process is called “dry hopping”. Brewers only use bumps of female plants - they can be bought dried, in pellets or even briquettes. Hops, by the way, are poisonous: fresh buds can irritate and discomfort their pickers.

Виды хмеля, которые используются в пивоварении. Некоторые из них придают напитку более горький вкус, тогда как другие, например, Liberty, скорее используют для придания ароматаThe types of hops that are used in brewing. Some of them impart a more bitter taste to the drink, while others, such as Liberty, are more likely to be used for flavoring.

52. Previously, beer was aged in wooden barrels, but with the transition to industrial brewing, manufacturers began to choose steel vats. With the flourishing of crafting, wood has regained its popularity: firstly, wood absorbs the tastes and aromas of aged drinks, passing them on to the next. Secondly, it gives the beer a special woody flavor, which sometimes contains notes of coconut, vanilla or caramel. And thirdly, the wood allows air and microorganisms to pass through, which also change the taste of the wort. Modern brewers don't always use barrels - instead of vats, they can use oak chips, cubes, or spirals. Sometimes the wood is even burned if they want to achieve a drink with a strong and toasty "character".

53. In Africa, where traditional crops grow poorly in subtropical and prairie conditions, sorghum is grown, which easily adapts to different soils. It is from sorghum that local beer is brewed, which is called differently in different countries: in Benin and Togo - chukutu, in Tanzania - mtama, in Sudan - merissa, and in South Africa - kaffir. Although the brewing process is similar to the European one, the taste of beer is very different from the usual lagers and ales due to the use of specific raw materials and a large amount of lactic acid bacteria entering the vessels. Although sorghum beer is traditionally used during festivals and rituals, many Africans prefer to buy European varieties because they contain more alcohol and the brewing process is more hygienic. The drink is loved by the poorest segments of the population, as it perfectly saturates due to its high calorie content.

Так выглядит фиолетовая кукуруза, из которой готовят чичу морадуThis is what purple corn looks like, from which chicha morada is prepared.

54. Chicha - a beer-like drink from South America made from corn. It is especially popular in Bolivia and Peru, where this cereal is actively growing, and its strength varies from 2 to 12 degrees. In ancient times, corn was chewed and then spat into a vat, where it was fermented under the influence of saliva, and the starch was broken down into simple sugars. This method exists to this day, moreover,, resort to it even craft breweries, which have special equipment for pasteurizing the drink. Chicha morada is made from purple corn with the addition of pineapple peels, sugar, cloves and cinnamon, which makes the drink look like mulled wine. In addition to corn, South Americans chew cassava, sweet potatoes, and other fruits.

55. Sake, which has been produced for over 1,300 years, is very often called rice vodka or wine, although it is closest to beer because it is made by fermenting grain. For the drink, not all the grain of rice is used, but only its most starchy central part: for this, the rice is polished, removing the bitter shell and upper layers. Although there are special varieties of rice for sake, the specific variety is not so important because during the manufacturing process the producers try to make the drink so pure that it does not leave the grain flavor in it. After the polishing of rice, moisture evaporated, and then added to the koji spores of the fungus, which is known for its taste "umami",as the rice grain has no enzymes. The resulting drink is filtered after fermentation, and two types are distinguished - a slightly filtered unclear nigori and a crystal clear "imperial" one. The strength of sake reaches 20%, but it is often diluted with water up to 15%.

56. In the 19th century in Germany, they began to brew beer from potatoes: raw potatoes were grated, heated to 156 degrees together with water to a state of thick gruel, then a thick syrup was obtained from which the drink was prepared. Potatoes are great for beer, as they are high in starch, which means they are an excellent raw material for yeast. Today, potato beer is not uncommon, and besides the classic varieties,are also used in brewing sweet potatoes, yams and cassava.

57. During the colonial era, pumpkin was widely eaten in North America, which still occupies a significant part of the US gastro culture, especially in the fall. In addition to pies and pumpkin puree, the pilgrims brewed beer: grated vegetable pulp was an excellent source of sugars, replacing cereals, most of which were sent to bread. In 1771, the American Philosophical Society published a recipe for a pure "pompion ale," as it was then called. With the development of cereal crops, the popularity of pumpkin beer gradually faded away, the malt drink we were already familiar with began to be imported from Europe, and the vegetable was no longer used in production. In the wake of craft brewing in the United States at the end of the 20th century, pumpkin was again remembered: it is believed that Bill Owens discovered the recipe in the works of George Washington and tried to implement it. They began experimenting with the vegetable in every possible way: for example, they added nutmeg, cinnamon and cardamom to the wort, imitating the taste of pumpkin pie. Pumpkin porters, stouts and lagers emerged and are now popular in the United States.

В США очень много пивоварен готовят тыквенное пиво. Например, Rouge сама выращивает овощи для пива, собирает их в августе, высушивает, и к сентябрю на полках появляется свежий тыквенный эль / Фото: RougeThere are a lot of breweries in the USA that make pumpkin beer. For example, Rouge itself grows vegetables for beer, picks them in August, dries them, and by September fresh pumpkin ale appears on the shelves 

58. Kvass was known in Russia back in the 11th century - at that time it was more alcoholic and looked much like beer. Strong kvass is called melted, that is, boiled, and not arbitrarily fermented. It was prepared from wheat and barley malt or rye bread, adding wormwood, hops, cumin and St. John's wort for flavor and aroma. A little later, kvass was distilled, which is why the amount of alcohol in it increased. Interestingly, there was a disease called "yazya kvass", in which a headache was severe - most likely such an ancient diagnosis was made to those suffering from a hangover after excessive drinking. Now kvass is not considered an alcoholic drink, although according to GOST its strength can reach 1.2%; and the past of the drink reminds us of the verb "ferment", that is, "get drunk."

59. Honey is added to some types of beer, but there is mead - a completely separate brew drink, which does not contain malt. Honey can be anything you like - buckwheat, lime, orange, because of this, the drink turns out to be different in color, density and strength. To taste, it can be not only sweet, but also semi-sweet and even dry. In Russia, nutritious honey was already known in the 10th century: they were both boiled and set, that is, they were left for natural fermentation. Mead was available to ordinary people, since the farm often had its own apiaries, but with the spread of stronger alcoholic beverages, for example, vodka, they practically stopped drinking it. Although you can now buy a drink at any store, industrial meads have little in common with ancient Russian honeys. Besides Russia, mead is popular in the USA and Europe. The American Mead Association notes that new companies are constantly opening in the states that brew different styles: melomel (mead with fruits), metheglin (mead with spices and herbs), kesira (mead with apples), piment (mead with grape juice) and others.

Один из крупнейших медоваренных заводов в России находится в Суздале — промышленная история медоварения началась здесь ещё в XIX векеOne of the largest mead plants in Russia is located in Suzdal - the industrial history ofbegan here in the 19th century.

60. Braggot is a mead with malt, but it is classified as beer. The drink got its name from the ancient Celtic word bracis, meaning the shape of the grain from which it was made. In England braggot often passed off as pure mead that was condemned even by the Church, so gradually that it is highlighted in a separate style. Initially, braggot was made by mixing mead and ale, then it was seasoned with pepper, ginger, cinnamon, galangal and cloves. It became a traditional wedding drink in some British regions, but its popularity declined in the 17th century.

61. Cider is neither beer or wine, although it is often tried to be included in the classification of these drinks. Cider is made from apple juice that is fermented naturally or by adding yeast. Although it is preferable to prepare the drink from special coarse varieties of fruits rich in tannins, sometimes ordinary table apples are taken. There are many styles of cider produced all over the world: dry and sweet, yellow and pink, highly carbonated and quiet, with added spices, herbs, other fruits and hops. Cider analogs - Poiret or Perry - are made from pears.

62. There are several hundred beer styles in the world, however, craft breweries often transcend traditional and well-known recipes, making it nearly impossible to create a complete guide to all styles. Craftsmen can take as a basis classic beers from Belgium, Germany or the UK, add strange, unusual ingredients to them, or change the brewing process. Also, styles don't just happen: for a trendy new beer to become a style, it has to be made by more than one brewery, so the process takes time. The most recognized guide in the world, American Brewers Association, changes every year, with new varieties being added and definitions of old ones rewriting.

63. Most styles can be divided into two types: ales, or top-fermented beers, and lagers, or bottom-fermented beers. During top fermentation, which occurs at higher temperatures (about 20 degrees), and therefore more ancient, the yeast rises to the surface. During bottom fermentation (about 10 degrees), which spreads when refrigeration machines appear, the yeast is concentrated at the bottom of the container. In the modern world, the second type of fermentation is most often used.

64. Lager is the most popular beer style. 87% of the beer market in the United States Lagers like Corona and Budweiser account for, and the most common type of lager is Pilsner, named after his hometown of Pilsen, Czech Republic. Beer brewing in Pilsen began in the 1200s, but it was the light golden lager that was first made by the Bavarian Josef Groll in 1842. Since then, it has been marketed under the brand name Pilsner Urquell, which prides itself on using Saaz hops, which give the beer a particularly mild flavor, and is named after the Polish town of Zatec.

Несмотя на то, что шварцбир — чёрный, это лагер, хотя привычнее видеть лагеры золотистымиDespite the fact that Schwarzbier is black, this is a lager, although it is more common to see lagers as golden.

65. Lagers are made on all continents. The Bavarians are very close to the Czech Republic, so they quickly adopted the Pilsner brew, modifying it - the German Pilsners are fresher and more bitter, due to the fact that they use different hops there. Lagers are actively made in the USA, Austria and Japan - in the latter can be to them , rice, potatoes, soybeans and corn added. The public is more accustomed to seeing light lagers, but there are also black ones, such as Schwarzbier, one of the most popular beers in Germany. This beer is a great example of how a dark beverage can be light and refreshing: it has a mild roasted flavor with very clean notes of caramel and coffee. The German brewery Köstritzer is best known for its Schwarzbiers, which has almost five hundred years of history. In addition, such unusual lagers as India Pale Lager are brewed in the world with hopping like IPA or brut lagers, which the amylase enzyme gives sparkle like champagne.

66. The German town of Einbock was a major brewing center in the late Middle Ages: since it was part of the Hanseatic League, local artisans exported most of their produce before the Hanseatic fell into decay in the 16th century. Almost half of the inhabitants of the city made beer: the malt was dried in attics, and it was brewed in a special mobile boiler, which belonged to the city and was brought into the courtyards one by one. This interesting practice, among other things, is evidenced by urban architecture: in many houses, instead of gates, there were huge arches. There is a legend that one of the Bavarian dukes Maximilian was so fond of Einbeck beer that he could not survive the interruptions in supply, so he called the local brewer Elias Pichler to his place to ensure that the drink was always available. Initially, bock - and this is exactly what this beer was called - was made by top fermentation, but Pichler adapted it to Bavarian tastes and over time this style began to be brewed in a larger way. It is believed that the block was the favorite style of theologian and reformer Martin Luther. There are several sub-styles of the bock: a stronger and denser doppelbock, a light tee, and a dark.

67. Not all brewers agree with the strict division, which is why they lager / ale brew hybrid beers. These are ales brewed at typical lager temperatures and vice versa. Or ales that used lager yeast. This brewing method conveys the characteristics of both beer categories, and their styles are nearly impossible to classify. There are several varieties that are produced in this manner. For example, Altbier (old beer) is a typical Düsseldorf style, a bottom-fermented bitter variety, although in many respects it is similar to lagers. Or steam beer, which has been brewed in the States since the 19th century. Initially, it was a lager, which was fermented at unusual temperatures for speed - because of this, its quality deteriorated, but the price became low. Why it was named "steam" is unknown: according to one version, this is due to the fact that it was exposed to the street for rapid cooling, and it emitted steam. On the other, there was so much carbon dioxide in the barrels that it had to be released as steam. 

68. Everything that was produced in the German city of Cologne used to be called Kölsch. However, at the beginning of the 20th century, this word was firmly entrenched in local beer - light, highly fermented, hopped, top-fermented, produced in accordance with the Law on Purity. To protect the name and outline the main conditions for the production of the variety, in 1985 24 Cologne breweries signed the Kölsch Convention, which specified the requirements for packaging, labels, advertising, as well as the rules for sale, sale and cooperation with intermediaries. Today, in Cologne bars, köbs - waiters in traditional blue cardigans - pour kölsch into long narrow 0.2-liter glasses and serve it on a special tray with a handle - a kölsch-kränz.

Кёльнский официант кёбс с кёльш-кранцем в руках / Фото: Пивная кухняCologne Köbs waiter with a Kölsch fender in hand 

69. Barleywine is a strong, dark, almost black English ale, around which a lot of controversy arises. The term Barley Wine was originally used as a poetic synonym for ale. Beginning in the 1870s, a beer that began to be sold in Britain the brewers themselves called Barleywine, such as the Bass Brewery in Burton-upon-Trent. According to researcher Martin Cornell, there is no difference between barleywine and traditional strong aged ales - this is just a marketing ploy that has spread since the 20th century. In barleywine, alcohol can reach 12%, so it was traditionally sold in small bottles. Perhaps in order to give the beer a more wine-like flavor, in accordance with its name, it was aged in barrels from port, whiskey or bourbon. 

70. Due to the numerous British wars at the end of the 17th century, there was a sharp increase in taxes and prices in the country, including for brewing raw materials. It became particularly expensive because of malt, which is why its share and the quality of the product fell sharply.But on hops recently imported from the mainland, taxes did not rise as quickly, so the amount in beer increased. However, for the British, such a drink was too strong and sour, because they were accustomed to the traditional swedish ale, therefore, to save money, they began to mix two types of beer, and then leave for a long exposure - over time, the taste softened and the bitterness of the hops disappeared. The new dark drink became very popular with the working class and was named "porter" after the porters and stevedores who loved to drink it. While it is widely believed that porter was invented by London brewer Ralph Harwood around the 1720s, mixing several different varieties with each other, documents found indicate that porters were known to the British in the past. Due to the possibility of long-term storage, the porter could be imported to other countries, where it took root in its variations. In Poland, for example, a Baltic porter has emerged, which is made with yeast for lagers rather than ales. In pre-revolutionary Russia, this style became known as "imperial stout" because it was loved at the court of Catherine II. Today, the most popular American porters, which are craft brewers, revived after the repeal of "Prohibition" in the United States.

71. Initially, any strong beer was called a stout, and a little later - a stronger porter. In the second half of the 19th century, less black malt than porters and more brown malt began to be added to stouts, giving the stouts a drier flavor. Today, between them there are practically no technological differences, except for the one that is usually used for porters solozhony barley, and for stouts - nesolozhonyzhzhony,but even this rule has exceptions. Inside the stouts, oats (with the addition of oats), Irish, grown from Guinness porters on roasted malt, sweet tropical, made for export to hot countries, and others are distinguished.

72. Tax increases for raw materials has led to the appearance of the Paleales.In the early 18th century, it became cheaper to brew beer at home than to buy it in pubs and shops; in addition, at home it is easier to control the quality of the ingredients, and hence the quality of the drink. When people moved around the country, they were looking for something similar to their familiar home-brewed beer. This led to the fact that artisans began to experiment with beer, trying to find the very taste - and so a highly hopped bitter pale ale, brewed with light malt, was born. The public got tired of the porter, and with the proliferation of transparent glasses, there was a demand for a beautiful, non-cloudy beer that was more difficult to counterfeit. So pale ale became a real British hit. Especially popular was the pale ale from Burton-upon-Trent, a small town in Staffordshire that was formerly known for its quality brown ales. The mineralization of the local springs was believed to be ideal for preparing light strong ales.

Бёртон-на-Тренте не один век известен своими пивоварнями. Здесь располагается Национальный пивоваренный центр, где можно познакомиться с историей изготовления напитка в городе / Фото: Weekend Notes Burton-upon-Trent has been famous for its breweries for centuries. Here is the National Brewery Center, where you can get acquainted with the history of the drink in the city 

73. By the 19th century, the British East India Company gradually colonized India, discovering unhindered trade in the country. Brewers also drew attention to this market, and the most notable among them was James Hodgson: from the 1780s he practically monopolized the supply of various beers, united under the name Indian Ale, to the colony. However, already in the 1820s, other companies and artisans were able to win the true love of the local public with a brighter beer. Burton brewers sent their pale ales to India. At that time, the transportation of products was possible only by sea and took about six months, and during this time the beer fell into disrepair. Only heavily hopped varieties could preserve their freshness and taste, but porter, although it was familiar to British soldiers, who were full in the country due to national uprisings against the colonialists, was too dense and heavy for the hot climate. Pale ales, on the other hand, are bright, sparkling, with a bitter taste - perfect for quenching thirst and refreshing. Like many other styles of beer, India Pale Ale or IPA virtually disappeared during the World Wars of the 20th century, but reemerged in America in the 1970s with the rise of craft beer.

74. Already in our time, a new style of pale ale was born - NEIPA, which most often stands for New England India Pale Ale. Even though NEIPA emerged in the 2000s, it's hard to say who came up with it. It is believed that the Alchemist and Hill Farmstead breweries in Vermont, and then TreeHouse and Trillium in Massachusetts, began brewing it at about the same time. This style is cloudy, sweet, light, like a tropical juice, while the IPA is clear and very bitter due to the high hop content. NEIPA also has hops, but it is added at the very end of the boil, so it gives its aroma to the drink, without having time to make it bitter. This style is very popular in the USA, where even small artisans brew it.

75. Before hops became one of the most important ingredients, the Netherlands, France, Belgium, Germany and other northern countries used gruit, a mixture of herbs to add flavor and aroma to beer, usually including wormwood, wild rosemary, horse and dog mint, yarrow, juniper, rosemary, marsh myrtle and other plants. The composition of this mixture depended on local traditions and the available plants, many of which are poisonous or known for their psychotropic effects, making the drink highly intoxicating. The first mention of fruit dates back to the 10th century, when the German king Otto II granted the right to trade in the mixture to some churches: at that time, when buying beer raw materials, a tax had to be paid, so only bishops, nobles or large farmers could sell gruit. In many cities there were special people - gruyters who made the mixture and sold it to the brewers. Over time, the Catholic Church practically monopolized the sale of gruit, and hops became an increasingly common ingredient without paying for it. The last nail in the coffin of the herbal mixture was the Protestants. They promoted austerity and abstinence, which influenced the adoption in the 16th-18th centuries of a number of laws prohibiting the use of psychotropic additives in brewing. But the main reason for the disappearance of gruit was religious politics and the decline in the influence of Catholicism in the northern countries. Now gruits are also boiled, but very rarely.

76. In some bars you can see the Sauer - it's not exactly a beer style, but rather a general name for all kinds of acid.Lambics, Gueuze, Gose, Flemish ales, Berliner Weisse or smoked German ales - Liechtenheiners can be hiding here. The latter were once common throughout Germany, but now they are very rare. They are brewed with wheat or barley smoked over an open fire, which give the beer a smoky aroma. And the sour taste appears due to lactic acid bacteria. By the way, in Germany there is another famous beer that is brewed with smoked malt - rauchbier.

Раухбир исторически изготавливался во Франконии, в городе Бамберг Rauchbier was historically made in Franconia, in the city of Bamberg

77. Lambic is made according to the old technology of "spontaneous fermentation": the wort for lambic is boiled, and then left to ferment in an open vessel, without adding special brewer's yeast there.can enter the vessel Any microorganisms, so it is impossible to accurately predict the taste of the resulting drink, however, it cannot be called completely unpredictable either, since brewers still observe the temperature regime and limit the ingress of some bacteria into the mash. The special sour taste of lambics is largely attributed to the yeast strains of Brettanomyces, the most famous of which are B. bruxellensis and B. lambicus, named after the Belgian capital and local style. If in the barrels the beer still tastes too different, then it can be mixed with each other so that the batch is homogeneous. It is believed that real lambic, like champagne, is made only in the Senne river valley - the Pajottenland region and near Brussels, and everything else is just beer "in style".

78. Lambic began to be brewed around the 17th century, but by the 19th it had become a hit. By 1900, there were about 80 breweries in the vicinity of Brussels, specializing in lambic. It became an everyday drink, and farmers often took a bottle with them to work in the fields. From the middle of the century, the popularity of the style began to decline: large players appeared on the market who offered a simpler and more understandable to the consumer light lager, and the popularity of soda with a lot of sugar influenced the mass love for sweet beer. Some breweries closed, others began to sweeten their product on purpose, and as a result, the quality of the lambics dropped. It wasn't until the 1990s that a revival began, fueled by a general interest in local production, especially craft beer, the proliferation of the internet, and the publication of books such as Tom Webbs' LambicLand. Brewers began to come up with cultural events to promote lambics: interactive production tours, tastings, and festivals. Currently, this style of beer is perceived by the Belgians as one of the elements of the country's cultural heritage.

79. Gueuze is a type of lambic for which young (about a year old) and old (about 2-3 years old) beer is mixed. After filling in a bottle, the drink is fermented and becomes highly carbonated. Gueuze is called "Brussels champagne": it is believed that when Napoleon's troops occupied Belgium, a general fashion for sparkling wine began. An enterprising brewer from Geuzenstraat collected empty champagne bottles and poured lambic into them - the beer was so successful that it gained popularity and got its name from Geuzen Street. Although the Lindemans company, which is famous for its lambics, believes that the name comes from the French gazeux, that is, carbonated. Gueuze is usually sweetish in taste with a strong sour aftertaste.

Карта фестиваля Toer de Geuze, который проводился в 1997 году. Это фестиваль в регионе Пайоттенланд, проходящий дважды в год, во время которого можно попасть на бесплатные экскурсии и дегустации гёзов и ламбиков в местные пивоварни / Фото: Lambic.infMap of the 1997 Toer de Geuze festival. This is a festival in the Pajottenland region, held twice a year, during which you can get free guided tours and tastings of gueuze and lambics at local breweries

80. Cherry lambic is called scream. It is also made by blending two lambics of different ages with the addition of overripe sour Morello cherries: according to tradition, they are not crushed, but dipped into a barrel of beer, either whole or with a slightly damaged skin. In addition to cherry lambic in Belgium, other types of lambic are made - framboise (raspberry), peche (peach), cassis (black currant) and faro, to which caramelized sugar is added.

81. Gueuze is often confused with gosé - a German beer with a thousand-year history, which is also produced by spontaneous top fermentation with the addition of coriander and salt. It began to be brewed in the city of Goslar in Lower Saxony, but this style gained particular popularity in Leipzig, where by 1800 there were about 80 taverns specializing in gose. Despite strong love, it remained a regional drink, as lagers supplanted almost all ales, and may have completely disappeared due to the wars, but its recipe has survived. The style revived at home at the end of the 20th century and continues to develop now, including among craft breweries on the Russian market.

Область распространения сахти и других скандинавских пивных напитков / Фото: Pivo.byThe area of ​​distribution of sahti and other Scandinavian beer drinks 

82. Sahti is a type of beer produced in Finland based on barley, rye, juniper and baker's yeast. It was originally brewed for home use rather than commercial sale, so the recipe has remained largely unchanged over the years. Most often it was made for family events like weddings. Sahti was especially common in western Finland, while in the eastern regions of the country, low-alcohol kalya beer was preferred, whose traditional recipe has practically disappeared. Interestingly, saunas were often used to malt the grain, in which it was possible to maintain a high temperature for a long time. Usually sahti is infused in barrels, not steel vats, protected from oxidation and not filtered - the beer tastes sweet with hints of milkshake. Today in Finland there are only six breweries that brew this style, but for none it is the main one.

83. Berliner Weiss is a cloudy wheat beer with noticeable sourness and high carbonation. It contains only about 3% alcohol. This style is shrouded in many legends. Someone says that Berliner Weiss was inspired by the Huguenots who moved to the German capital from France in the 18th century and missed their usual wine. Someone that one famous 16th century brewer Kord Broyhan from Hanover, while traveling in Hamburg, tasted a previously unknown beer and tried to copy it at home. There is a widespread story that Napoleon called this beer "Northern Champagne". Today Berliner Weiss is very popular in Berlin and is often drunk at dinner, adding various syrups such as raspberry or apple. Berliner has a protected geographic name and can only be produced in the German capital and the surrounding area; however, it is prepared only in two companies - Berliner Kindl and Schultheiss.

Rodenbach Grand Cru  — один из эталонов кислых элейRodenbach Grand Cru - one of the benchmarks for sour ales

84. Flemish or Belgian red ales have their roots in experiments with porter. In the early 1870s, Fleming Eugene Rodenbach studied at a brewery in England, from where he returned home with recipes for this rich dark beer. He began to brew ale, aging it in oak barrels for several years and adding to the yeast lactobacilli, which gave the drink a characteristic sour taste. Later, he founded the Rodenbach Brewery, which sold ready-made blended yeast to other artisans within 50 km of Roeselare, and these breweries produced their own Belgian red and sour brown beer from it. Although the practice of yeast blending spread throughout Europe, Rodenbach is still considered the benchmark for red ales.

85. Brown is another classic Flemish ale. In 1829, Dr. Jean-Baptiste Vrankin wrote that "a dark beer that burns the palate and constricts the throat" is poured in Flanders, and a little later the brewer Georges Lacambre noted its "bitter, rough and tart taste." The popularity of brown beer gradually grew and by the end of the 19th century it became a hit of sales: it was thanks to it that Liefmans, after the damage to its buildings during the First World War, was still able to become the 21st largest brewery in Belgium in terms of production. At that time, these ales tasted quite sour, so they were compared to wine. Over time, it softened: brewers indulge the tastes of the public, addicted to Coca-Cola and other sweet sodas, which, as in the case of lambics, influenced the recipe for ales. Since the 1980s, the popularity of this style has been steadily declining, and some brown beer companies have gone bust.

86. In the French-speaking region of Belgium, the saison, a seasonal golden ale made from the remnants of the fall harvest for the summer, when additional workers were hired to the fields, was widespread among the peasantry. To quench their thirst, a light beer was brewed, refreshing in the heat. The saison recipe is optional: if a berry is born in the summer, then it can be added to the future beer, but if not, then the beer will be brewed from other ingredients. That is why it is now difficult to find two brewers following the same brewing method, since saison is more about a format than a specific taste. In France, there is a similar drink - bière de garde, or "beer for storage", which was also brewed in advance, before the season of active work, so that the peasants could devote all their time to the harvest, and not to cooking.about bière de garde these days. Little is said, and although there are many variations of it in its homeland - from light honey to darker and more fruity, craft brewers rarely use it in their experiments.

87. During the Reformation, the Catholic Cistercian order, which had branched off from the Benedictine order, began to decline. The monks from the Norman abbey of La Trappe decided that one should not succumb to sins and should focus on the strict discipline and asceticism that Saint Benedict bequeathed. The followers of the restrictions became known as Trappists, and in 1892 the Pope officially recognized them as a separate order. However, due to the French Revolution and the persecution of Catholics, Trappists settled throughout Europe, including Belgium. The monks themselves produced everything necessary for life, including brewing beer for themselves and for sale. They noticed that the wort can be filtered repeatedly, making it a lighter drink each time. The strongest first infusions they sold in the villages, the weaker ones, called petite beer - small beer, they kept for themselves or distributed to the poor. It is believed that this system gave names to the classic monastic ales - single, dubbel, triple and quadruple. The strongest varieties were marked by monks with four crosses (Quadrupel from the word quad - four), and the weakest - only one. Over time, the Trappists began to imitate, and in 1962 the monks filed a lawsuit against unscrupulous brewers using a false name. Since 1997, the International Trappist Association has existed: only 20 abbeys that are members of it are entitled to the original name of the beer.

Монах-траппист в пивоварне аббатства Ла-Трапп / Фото: Drink Belgian BeerTrappist monk in the brewery of the Abbey of La Trappe 

88. The monks brewed a strong and aromatic beer without strong hoppy bitterness. Despite the ban on the use of the Trappist name in production and sale, no one restricted copying the recipe, so secular versions of the drink appeared, called abbey beer. The most common beer was the dowel - in 1926, Westmill Abbey released Dubbel Bruin, which gained a lot of followers and admirers. It is a dark amber beer with a complex malt sweetness and 6-7% ABV, and caramelized sugar is often added to it. The quadruple is considered to be a stronger version of the dowel - the amount of alcohol can be up to 14%. Tripel is a light golden beer also made famous by Westmill. Its fortress is kept in the region of 7-10%. A single is very rare due to its weakness (about 3%) and unsaturation. 

89. While many beer styles revived after World War II, some of them have disappeared forever. This happened, for example, with the Berliner oud (or Berliner alto in German). A few years ago, the brewer Marco Loret discovered an old label. It indicated that the Berliner alto was produced by Gustaf Hustinks at the Pauw brewery in Culemborg. The brewery itself was opened in the 19th century, but Houstinks owned it for only a few years - from 1909 to 1913. Beer researcher Rowell Mulder has found advertising campaigns from different masters who have brewed this species since the 1880s, but could not find any recipes, so the taste of Berliner alto remains a mystery. Mulder suggests that it could be a Dutch imitation of German varieties, judging by the name, and most likely fantasy, because the style did not take root and faded into oblivion.

90. While roasted malt can add a coffee-like flavor to beer, natural coffee can be added to the beverage. It is most commonly used in porters, stouts, especially imperial, dark and pale ales. The taste will be very dependent on the grain and its roast, so there can be many variations of coffee beers. In America's new craft era, the plant began to be used in the 1990s, when radical blends of coffee, chocolate and oats or coffee, Mexican vanilla and sugar appeared. Interestingly, the coffee can be added whole, ground or already brewed, including by cold brew.

  1. Томатный гозе от Saldens, крафтовой российской пивоварниTomato goes from Saldens, a craft Russian brewery

91. Tomatoes are a popular ingredient in beer, especially gose. Most likely, the experiment with tomatoes originates from the famous Mexican cocktail that serves prepada, sometimes called chavela or michelada. According to legend, michelada was invented by a bartender in San Luis Potosi as a hangover and fatigue remedy in the 1910s. In addition to beer, its composition includes tomato juice, lime, spices and hot sauce, depending on the region.


92. Brewing with grapes is considered a special art, as the result is a wine-beer hybrid. The abundance of varieties of this fruit gives unusual flavors: for example, Viognier will give the drink aromas of melon and tropical fruits, and red varieties can give the beer the taste of black currant or cherry. Typically, red grapes like syrah or grenache are added to dark, rich beers like porter or strong ales, while white sauvignon blanc is ideal with gueuze or lambic. Since the 1970s, the Belgian company Cantillon has been brewing lambics every year with hand-picked nutmeg. When picking grapes, the smallest details should be taken into account: there will be a difference between the fruits harvested from the southern and northern sides of the vineyard, and if you cut off the bunches with branches, then a woody note will appear in the taste.

93. In the United States , pizza-flavored beer is brewed. In 2013, Tom and Anthea Seifert from Chicago brewed beer with oregano, basil, tomatoes, garlic and even pizza crumbs. Initially, it was assumed that the resulting mixture could be used as a marinade, but the drink turned out to be so good that they began to drink it just like that. Other brewers also picked up the idea - Liquid Margarita can now be found in many American companies and even in Russian artisans, for example, Pizza Boy from Selfmade Brewery.

100 фактов об истории и культуре пива: от египетских пьяниц и средневековых рецептов до мегапивоварен и крафтового бума

94. In the last decade, more and more types of beer have been added to which avocado is added. In 2013, American brewery Angel City Brewery brewed an avocado beer, adding cilantro, red pepper, lime and honey to create a guacamole flavor. After that, Bush Shack Brewery in Australia and Rocky Knob in New Zealand did some experiments. This is a seasonal story, as beer is highly dependent on the harvest of the fruit. Avocado gives the drink not only taste, but also a delicate creamy texture.

95. There are several banana bread flavored breweries around the world, such as Eagle Brewery and Wells and Young's, which introduced the exotic beer in 2002.wort Mashed bananas are added to the, which, when combined with malt, give a bright taste of fruitcake. In general, bananas are a standard ingredient for beer in many African countries: in Rwanda they cook urwagwa, in the Congo - kasixi, in Uganda - mubishi. It is important for this drink to use bananas at their peak of ripeness, as overripe can ruin the taste. Boiled water and fried grains are added to mashed bananas, which have yielded juice. Beer is not heated, but must be filtered to prolong its short shelf life, as bananas are an excellent medium for microbial growth.

96. During the Victorian era in Britain, stout was often consumed with oysters in pubs - the bittersweet taste perfectly complemented the salty shellfish. It is believed that the shells could end up in beer vats because they purify the water, which means they can clarify the beer, masking low-quality or over-dried malt. It is not known exactly when oyster meat was added to the beer itself for flavor, but in 1939 New Zealand's Barnes Oysters began shipping oyster concentrate to British brewers. Sources say that it took at least 18 months to develop the drink, and the amount of concentrate in a bottle is equivalent to one whole oyster. Oyster stout has never been a mainstream beer, and doesn't even stand out as a distinct style, but today some craft breweries are making it experimentally.

97. Petersburg brewery Hophead Gose brewed with the taste of soups and national dishes. The line includes beer with the taste of okroshka, French onion soup, sour cabbage soup, Bulgarian chorba, Megrelian ajika, pickle, tom yam, pho bo, Armenian dogwood soup, kharcho, Indian curry and others. To create taste, edible ingredients are really added to the wort - vegetables, spices, herbs, cheese and even meat broths.

98. Although beer is not the most popular ingredient in cocktails, many drinks are made from it besides the ruff (a mixture of beer and vodka). One of the most famous cocktails, the Moscow mule, which consists of vodka and ginger beer, was invented in the United States and has many variations. In addition to it, in bars you can try shandy or radler (lager with lemonade), michelada, Mississippi porter-fur (porter with bourbon and rum), black velveteen (beer with champagne), beer mojito, chocolate mixtures of liqueurs and porters, and others. Sometimes there are some really weird recipes like beer with ice cream or eggs.

99.Wat Pa Maha Chedi Kaew Temple, 600 kilometers from Bangkok, has an unusual appearance, created from a large number of used Heineken beer bottles and a local type of beer.

100.The Vikings believed that in Valhalla, their heaven, a goat with a udder was waiting for them, which would always supply them with beer.


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Every year, people drink almost 400 billion liters of beer: this ancient drink, known to the Sumerians and Egyptians, is still one of the most popular on the planet. Over its long history, beer has been constantly changing under the pressure of economic and political events, religious intrigue and cunning of peasants, bans on drunkenness and crop failures, technological progress and the creativity of brewers.

Bemorepanda collected a hundred facts about history, economics, production technology, unusual ingredients and variety of beer sorts tells who and when "invented" the foam, why it was women who brewed it for centuries, from what the color of beer depends, why in the 19th century women in labor were treated with stout, how the drink affects the risk of radiation damage, where you can swim in the beer pool.

1.Beer is the most popular alcohol on the planet and the third most popular drink after water and tea. People on the planet consume 396 billion liters of beer every year. For comparison: only 25 billion liters of wine. In the United States, men drink beer three times more often and twice as much as women who prefer wine.

2.The Czech Republic has been the record holder for 27 years for beer consumption per person for- 188 liters per capita are drunk there annually. Russia in this rating is inferior to thirty other countries - they drink about 60 liters, and this is less than, for example, in the United States, Mexico and Namibia. Most beer by volume is drunk in China.

3.The three most popular beer brands are two Chinese and one American. According to statistics, the Snow brand annually sells over 10 billion liters of beer, and Budweiser and Tsingtao about 4.9 billion. The top ten also includes Heineken, Bud Light, Corona, Harbin and Skol.

4.The most expensive beer in the world can be considered Allsopp's Arctic Ale, a bottle of which may have been sold on eBay for $ 503,000. This beer was brewed in 1852 for an Antarctic expedition, so it has become a collectible. The bottle was kept for a long time by the family of a young man who sold it in 2007 at an online auction for $ 304. However, he made a mistake in the announcement, omitting a letter in the name of the brewery, which is why the demand for the artifact was not so great. The new buyer shifted it again, but with detailed information and the correct name, and within a few days the rates rose to 503,000. A bottle of such beer is estimated at an average of several thousand dollars. In 2020, a similar bottle made only in 1875 was bought at auction for £ 3,300 - a rare copy went to Jamie Alsopp, the distant great-grandson of the brewer of the same beer.

Бутылка 1875 года была продана на аукционе TREVANION&DEAN / Фото:  Trevanion & Dean The 1875 bottle that was auctioned

5.The science that officially studies beer is called zitology, from the Greek words zythos (beer) and logos (science). Zytology examines the fermentation and brewing processes of beer, as well as the influence of ingredients on production. And at the Munich University of Technology there is the Weihenstephan Research Center for Brewing and Food Quality. They carry out chemical, technological and microbiological analysis of raw materials, consult production facilities, test technical devices, produce and store yeast strains.

Обложка первой книги рекордов ГинессаThe cover of the first Guinness Book of Records

6.The famous Guinness Book of World Records was invented by Sir Hugh Beaver, who runs the Guinness Brewery, after he argued with a friend at a hunter meeting about which bird was the fastest. Knowing that controversies about the record of this or that phenomenon often arise in pubs, he decided to put all such facts together, and already in 1955 he released a book that gradually began to include strange and extravagant human records and in our time is updated every year.

7.A little about beer records: in 1977 in Pennsylvania, Stephen Petrosino drank 1 liter of beer in 1.3 seconds, which is 56% better than the previous world record set a few years earlier by Peter Dowdswell from England (2.3 seconds). And the German Reinar Würz set a record for the number of fit mugs in his hands - in 2008 he was able to carry 20 mugs of beer (about 50 kilograms) at a distance of 40 meters. The previous record of 17 glasses was set by a woman - Anita Schwartz.

8.For each type of beer, as well as for wine, they select their own glass so that the taste of alcohol is fully revealed. In the UK, there is a traditional ale glass that is a yard long and about 0.5 liters in volume, which has a strange shape like a telescope with a ball at the bottom. "Yard of Ale" has been known since the 17th century and was apparently used as a festive glass for toasts and was made drained at once, since it is not very convenient to drink from it. In Germany, beer is sometimes served in a boot glass: it is believed that this is a memory of how soldiers actually drank beer from boots during the First World War due to the lack of real glasses.

100 фактов об истории и культуре пива: от египетских пьяниц и средневековых рецептов до мегапивоварен и крафтового бума

9.The strongest beer in the world - 55% The End of History from BrewDog. It is also one of the most expensive at $ 765 per bottle. To achieve this strength, this pale ale was subjected to extreme freezing. In total, 11 bottles were brewed, each of which was placed in a stuffed dead animal, made by a taxidermist.

10.Oktoberfest is the largest beer festival in the world, held annually in Munich in Theresa's Meadow and attended by about 6 million people. It was first held in 1810 on the occasion of the wedding of Crown Prince Ludwig and Princess Teresa, after whom the town square was named. Only locals can participate in the Oktoberfest Bavarian breweries, which brew special beer for the holiday,. The festival begins with the opening ceremony of the first barrel of beer, followed by costume processions and parades, competitions, concerts and a traditional mass for several weeks. For more than two hundred years of history, Oktoberfest has been canceled only a few times due to wars, epidemics and the economic crisis, including in 2020 and in 2021 due to the coronavirus pandemic.

11. Every year on March 17, the world celebrates another holiday associated with beer - the Day of St. Patrick, the Baptist of the Irish. It was invented by Irish emigrants to the United States in the 18th and 19th centuries, wanting to preserve the memory of their roots. Very little is known for certain about Patrick himself; some researchers even doubt his existence. Historically, it was not associated with alcoholic beverages, and the tradition of drinking strong dark beer on this day is quite new and, possibly, is associated with the promotion of the Guinness brand. 

12.Beer Pong is a board game in which you have to hit the ball into one of the glasses of beer at the other end of the table. Two teams participate in the competition, and the winners drink the rivals' beer. It is not known exactly who invented the game, but it is believed that it originated among American college students sometime in the 1950s and 60s. The game has no strict rules. Although at the International Beer Pong Tournament they play only with rackets on a special sports table, in everyday life they often play with their hands on any surface, since this is primarily entertainment for parties where the necessary equipment is not always available. The game without rackets is called "Beirut" after the Lebanese capital, but it is not known exactly why. According to one version, in 1985, Dwayne Kotzen compared theto a game of ping-pong attack of Hezbollah terrorists on an American camp in Lebanon, in which almost 250 thousand people were killed,- this comparison gave the name to the game. 

13.In beer, there are practically no proteins and fats, but there is alcohol and carbohydrates: the drink is made from high-carbohydrate grains that break down into simple sugars. Although the beer itself is not very calories - according to the National Nutrient Database, high inon average, 100 grams of beer contains about 43 kilocalories - due to the fact that alcohol increases the appetite, and the culture of drinking implies not the most healthy snacks like toasts, chips, onion rings or sausages, its use cannot be called dietary.

14.Beer is used as a medicinal and health-improving agent. Beer sanatoriums are common in the Czech Republic: in Karlovy Vary, Prague and other spas, guests are offered beer baths with the addition of mineral water in handmade oak tubs and massage, they are treated with malt bread and unlimited Czech foam. Such procedures can be visited in the resort cities of Germany, for example, Baden-Baden, Austria and even some spa centers in Russia. On numerous sanatorium sites they write that such bathing improves the quality of the skin, has a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system and promotes relaxation, but it is better to treat beer therapy as entertainment, not health, and not to abuse it once again.

В пивных санаториях гости проводят время примерно так: купаясь в огромных чанах и с кружкой в руке. Ванны на самом деле состоят не совсем из пива, а из смеси дрожжей, солода, хмеля и воды / Фото : Первый пивной курорт в Карловых ВарахIn beer sanatoriums, guests spend their time something like this: swimming in huge vats and with a mug in hand. Baths actually do not consist entirely of beer, but of a mixture of yeast, malt, hops and water / Photo: The first beer spa in Karlovy Vary.

15.Beer, like alcohol in general, negatively affects human health: it causes addiction, can lead to cirrhosis of the liver, encephalopathy, in which nerve cells of the brain die en masse, or initiates fatal accidents. However, some research suggests that beverages can have positive effects as well. For example, polyphenolic compounds found in beer can have antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, estrogenic, and antiviral effects. True, these data were obtained only under laboratory conditions in vitro, that is, on cells in a test tube, and were not tested on humans. The Anderson American Cancer Prevention Center, on the other hand, points out that ethanol can damage DNA, reduce vital hormones and reduce the ability to absorb nutrients. It is beer that affects the risk of developing cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx, colon and esophagus.

16.There is research that shows that the risk of type 2 diabetes is lower for those who drink alcohol in moderation than those who consume a lot or do not consume at all. Such studies should be treated with caution: for example, in some experiments they do not specify whether abstainers mean people who have never consumed alcohol at all, or those who have drunk before, but at the time of the study was in a string. In addition, those who have completely given up alcohol due to adherence to the principles of a healthy lifestyle may more often go to doctors, as they take more care of their health, which means they will be diagnosed with more diseases.

17.Many researchers have linked moderate beer consumption to health benefits. Some argue that beer improves cognitive ability for old age, others that it decreases the risk of getting ulcers, and still others that it decreases the risk of kidney stones. There is even an opinion that the drink limits the chromosomal damage to leukocytes during radiation exposure. Even if this is true, the harm from alcohol is undeniable and far outweighs the potential positive effects. Despite the fact that WHO allows moderate consumption, representatives of the organization never tire of reminding: there is no safe amount of beer.

18.If alcohol is causing health problems, can non-alcoholic beer be safe and healthy? Studies have shown that drinking alcohol-free can reduce the level of damage from carcinogens, cholesterol, the risks of muscle inflammation after exercise, and upper respiratory disease. The advantages of non-alcoholic beer over alcoholic ones are obvious, but you shouldn't drink it in order to become healthier - it is better to use proven ways to strengthen the immune system and reduce the risk of disease in more effective ways.

19.Beer is one of the oldest drinks. It is still unknown when and where exactly it was first cooked, but most researchers are inclined to believe that it was known to the inhabitants of the ancient Near East already about 5 thousand years ago. It is absolutely certain that beer played a big role in the culture and economy of Mesopotamia - the oldest recipe for beer was found there, written on a clay tablet and dating back 3 thousand years BC. In addition, researchers periodically find ancient breweries in Egypt, then in China, then in Israel - the latter date back to the 13th millennium. However, you should not try to find the country of origin of the drink: beer could have been "invented" in different countries independently of each other.

100 фактов об истории и культуре пива: от египетских пьяниц и средневековых рецептов до мегапивоварен и крафтового бума

20.Most likely the beer was discovered by accident. About 10 thousand years ago, they learned to grow cereals in the Middle East, and a little later - to make ceramic products. Germinated grains or crushed can get into the water in the pot and stay in the sun, where under influence of high temperature provoked yeast fermentation process.If such water remained near a fire or other source of heat at night, it gradually turned into a beer drink. The ancient brewer didn't need much: a supply of water and sprouted grains, fire and a container in which the product could be mixed and stored.

21.The Sumerians brewed beer from bread and malt. Recipes for the drink can be found in the Sumerian myths about the god Enki and in the hymn to the goddess Ninkashi, who disposed of alcoholic beverages. These recipes were very diverse - we know about white, red, black, sweet and other types. The Sumerians built taverns, in which women mostly worked, made special glasses and drank beer through a straw.

22.In Ancient Egypt, beer was also associated with mythology: it was believed that the god Osiris gave the drink to the Egyptians, although there was also a separate beer goddess Tenetite. Egyptians could be paid with foam mugs: it is known that when one of the pyramids was erected in Giza, workers were given several pints a day, and one of the construction teams called itself "Menkaur drunks", apparently due to excessive use. In addition, the Egyptian doctors used beer as a medicine, and they even gave it to children to drink, as they believed that it contains useful substances. And their opinion is justified: an alcoholic drink could be less dangerous than water from the Nile, infected with infections.

При раскопках в Египте исследователи нашли древние сосуды для изготовления пива в Абидосе, в 280 милях к югу от Каира. Считается, что руины относятся к раннему первому династическому периоду около 3273 - 2987 гг. до н.э. / Фото:  Высший совет Египта During excavations in Egypt, researchers found ancient vessels for making beer in Abydos, 280 miles south of Cairo. The ruins are believed to date back to the early first dynastic period around 3273-2987. BC. / Photo: The Supreme Council of Egypt for Antiquities

23.In the ancient world, wine was preferred, and beer was considered a drink of barbarians, therefore it was rarely brewed. The Romans believed that the barley from which the drink was made was only suitable for feeding livestock. Rare mentions of beer in literature most often refer to the distant borders of the Roman Empire - Germany, Gaul, Britain: for example, the historian Tacitus, describing the Germans, mentioned that they drink mash made from barley or wheat. Interestingly, the division of Europe into wine and beer is still evident - in the south you will most likely be offered a bottle of Sangiovese, and in the north - a mug of ale.

24.In Britain, beer has been known since 55 BC: Roman historians claim the existence of "intoxicating water" made from oats, barley and wheat, which the northerners willingly drink. Although the researchers note that grapes were grown on the islands, the grain grew better there. Most likely, by the 3rd century AD, beer had become an important commodity: among others, it was mentioned in the documents of Diocletian, written when the tetrarchy was introduced in the Roman Empire. During the Celtic era, there were places to eat and drink along the roads, and after the invasion of the Anglo-Saxon islands, ale became a regular part of the local diet. In the 8th century, it, like other products, was levied as a tax. Extant Anglo-Saxon documents tell us about 11 types of ale: soft, clear, light, double brewed, new, old, sour, clean, good, strong and weak.

25.In Europe until the 12th century, brewing was run by monasteries. When the Carolingians conquered territory for the establishment of the empire, they built in the new Länder large monasteries, inside which worked full brewery: for example, in terms of the Swiss St. Gallen you can see the malthouse, oven, a mill, a brewery and warehousesСохранившийся план монастыря Святого Галла 9 века. На плане видно базилику — длинное овальное здание, кельи, кухню, конюшни, мельницу кладбище и пивоварню

25. In England, there has long been a difference between beer and traditional brown ale. Everything that was brewed in the country before hops were brought from Flanders was called ale, and already the new intoxicated drink was called beer. The ale had to be drunk immediately after brewing, while beer could last for a long time due to the plant's antiseptic properties. The proliferation of hops gave rise to commercial brewing, and by the 17th century, hops began to be used everywhere, so the distinction between "beer" and "ale" gradually disappeared.

26. In 1487, the Bavarian Duke Albert IV established that from now on, beer could only be made from barley, hops and water. The ban included not only various additives such as herbs, spices, fruits, but also other cereals - wheat, rye, millet. This law is known as the Deutsche Reinheitsgebot or the Purity Beer Act. It did not apply to all territories, but only to selected cities, but by the end of the 19th century, when Bavaria became part of the German Empire, it spread throughout the country. There were several reasons for the adoption of this law. One of them says that the grain restriction was introduced so that wheat and rye were used for bread and not for beer. The ban on additives could be due to poor quality raw materials used by brewers, and also due to the fact that some added a mixture of herbs called gruit to the beer, which causes psychotropic effects. This law could have abolished some types of beer, but exceptions were periodically added, such as wheat or coriander, which were required to make certain beers. This law is still in force today, and in the 1990s it spawned the "Brandenburg Beer War". After the reunification of the Federal Republic of Germany and the GDR, the East German brewery Neuzeller Kloster, which produces black beer Schwarzer Abt (Black Monk) with added sugar, fell under the general law and lost the right to call its product beer. They tried to appeal this decision in court for about ten years, until the judge nevertheless allowed privately to return to the drink its right to be beer.

100 фактов об истории и культуре пива: от египетских пьяниц и средневековых рецептов до мегапивоварен и крафтового бума

27. Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, British beer laws became stricter. Taxes were constantly raised on raw materials, and brewers began to replace the usual ingredients: instead of burnt grain for porter, they could put licorice to preserve the dark color, and instead of hops - bitter kvass from South America. In 1689, brewers were forbidden to add sugar, honey or molasses to the drink. Since 1714 malt-keepers were not allowed to mix raw grain and malted beer, and since 1802, only malt and hops could be among the beer ingredients. These laws allow the authorities to continue to require taxes for the use of raw materials, while in 1880, British Prime Minister William Gladstone accepted the Free Mash-tun Act- a law allowing brewers to use completely different materials and brewing techniques, greatly diversifying the range of varieties.

28. Around the 10th century, craft and trade guilds began to be organized in Europe - professional collective formations that ensured the sustainability of the craft. A little later, brewers' guilds appeared, which regulated the quality and quantity of the brewed drink and the price for it. Usually,trade in goods only guild members were allowed to, since together they could keep prices low. All training in the art of brewing also took place within the community. Over time, disagreements arose in associations between the trade and craft factions, that is, between merchants and manufacturers, and they disintegrated or began to openly conflict. In 1292, the first mentions of the London guild Brewers' Company appeared, which later acquired the full name of The Master, Keepers or Wardens and Commonalty of theArt of Brewers of the City of London. city ​​of London). The guild had general meetings and feasts, together they held charity events to distribute beer to the poor, did business and arranged funerals for deceased members. In 1406, Henry IV officially recognized the union of London brewers, instructed them to appoint a master and overseers to control the sale of beer, and also allowed all questions to be addressed to the Lord Mayor of London - the elected governor who controls the City area. This guild still exists today and promotes the brewing industry by providing premises for member companies and a forum for industry representatives.

29. Until the 1600s, brewing was dominated by women - for centuries they brewed beer, sold it on the streets, from home, or brought it on demand. This job was associated with low status and low pay, therefore it attracted little men and was considered to be excellent for women with their household responsibilities. In the 17th century, men took over brewing as the business became more profitable and prestigious. Researchers note that the decline in female participation in brewing occurred fairly quickly, citing as an example the situation in Havering on the outskirts of London, where in 1464 all two dozen brewers and ale sellers were women, and by the end of the century there was only one lady among the 15 artisans remaining. 

Пивоварня. Гравюра Джоста Аммана, 16 векBrewery. Engraving by Jost Amman, 16th century

30. In 1604, England passed a curious law according to which the owner of a pub could be fined if visitors stayed inside for too long. Workers were prohibited from staying in such an institution for more than one hour during their lunch break. The new law argued that pubs were meant to help travelers, and not "to entertain and shelter noisy and idle people who spend and consume their money and their time in a loud and drunken manner." The evil nature of this law had the undesirable effect:avid drinkers were forced to go underground in places where they were drinking in the Wolshih quantities. Moreover, such places did not bring money to the treasury. This led to the emergence of new legislation that was aimed at reducing drunkenness among the population, although alcohol consumption was very fashionable at the time. The number of pubs has decreased, the permitted volume of production has decreased and the permitted strength of drinks has decreased. All the money from the fines had to go to the poor.

31.In the Middle Ages, beer was drunk almost every day. Many argue that this was due to the quality of the water contaminated with feces and waste - there was no sewage system, and beer brewed with hops and other natural antiseptics also went through a long heating process. This version has not been refuted or proven, but there is an alternative opinion that Europeans drank a lot of beer because of its calorie content. And in order not to get drunk, they diluted it with water, reducing the temperature.

32. For a long time, brewers refused to use the achievements of science and technology. It is known that James Baverstock Jr. was one of the first to use a thermometer in production, but he hid it for a long time from his ultra-conservative father, who was against any innovations. The first thermometers began to be used only in the 1760s, before that the brewer estimated the temperature of alcoholic beverages using practical rules: either his hand could withstand the heat when immersed in the wort, or he could see the reflection of his face on the surface of the water shortly before it will be hidden by the ferry. The temperature of the wort leaving the mash tun was determined with your finger. The thermometer made it possible to brew beer in industrial volumes and control the similarity of batches. A little later, sugar meters and hydrometers began to be actively used, which made it possible to determine the amount of sugar and the density of the wort, which before that was also determined either tactilely or by taste.

Реклама экстра стаута пивоварни Vаn Vollenhoven. На открытке написано: «Самый укрепляющий напиток для молодых и старых»An advertisement for an extra stout from the Vаn Vollenhoven brewery. The postcard reads: "The most invigorating drink for young and old."

33. In the 19th century, beer was considered healthy and sold as a medicine: for example, the dark beer Jopen from Danzig was presented as "very useful for diseases of the glands", and also helped against "pain in the stomach and shortness of breath. " And the Dutch brewery Van Vollenhoven in Amsterdam has been producing Extra Stout since 1880, "the most restorative drink for convalescents, anemic women and women in childbirth." In 1862, Johannes Hoff first announced the "beneficial effects of medicinal beer", citing a letter from a certain Mrs. J. Kuipers of Epe, who wrote that her sister "felt a little better after drinking 6 bottles." The German periodical Farmaceutische Centralhalle investigated the drink and it turned out that it was a regular brown beer in which the producers dissolved the laxative, sea buckthorn bark and water clover as a bitter agent. The cost of its production was 9 cents, while Hoff sold it five times more.

34. At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, the popularity and quality of beer began to decline. On the one hand, this was influenced by global conflicts: during the First World War, the work of pubs was reduced and the every possible way consumption of alcohol was unlimited inorder to exclude its influence on the soldiers. On the other hand, increased taxes and high competition forced many brewers to reduce the quality of their products in order to sell them cheaper. Large companies bought small businesses, reducing the variety in the market, as a result, brewery restaurants began to gradually die out. In 1900, a major scandal occurred in Britain: a wave of a strange disease hit Staffordshire, as a result of which 70 people died. Investigation revealed that arsenic was found in some brands of beer - it turned out that they all used sugar from the same source. This incident influenced the strengthening of the movement against alcohol, and in Parliament at that moment they were just considering the adoption of the Law on the Purity of Beer. The Brewing Society intervened and recommended the seizure and destruction of thousands of gallons of suspicious beer, and its members to take immediate quality control procedures to detect contamination. Their concerns were heeded, the Beer Purity Act was withdrawn, but the campaign against alcohol continued. So in 1902, they tried to solve the problem of drunkenness by prohibiting being in a state of alcoholic intoxication in a public place or being in the care of a child under seven years old in such a state. Selling alcoholic beverages to such people became a crime (that is, the seller needed to make sure that his buyer was not the father of a five-year-old child!). Lobbying for such bills changed social habits and beer consumption continued to decline.

Так выглядит внутри баварская пивоварня Riegele, которая ведёт своё начало с 1386 года / Фото: RiegeleThis is how the Bavarian brewery Riegele looks inside, which dates back to 1386 / Photo: Riegele

35. In the second half of the 20th century due to the merger of small workshops and the purchase of small craft industries , mega breweries appeared. They tookBon most of the market, and are intended for mass consumption. Because of this, many not the most popular types of beer simply disappeared from their portfolios, and, as a result, from production in general. To speed up the manufacturing process, the time for grain malting, mashing and fermentation was reduced. The varieties that required a long maturation could not stand the competition with the species that did not take long. This did not always affect the quality of the product: technologies appeared that compensate for the required acceleration, for example, the continuous fermentation process. Hop extracts were developed that could be added to wort in the form of powder or granules - they allowed the brewer to have more control over the aroma and bitterness in his beer. Automation and standardization of processes made production cheaper, but also reduced beer variety. That is why at the end of the last millennium, new craft workshops, which began to brewcraft.Brewers have rediscovered old recipes that have almost sunk into oblivion due to social cataclysms and globalization. America has become one of the most vibrant crafting scenes, with local artisans constantly experimenting with styles, flavors and ingredients. In Russia, new beer has been actively developing in recent decades: according to 2019 data,operate in our country more than a thousand craft breweries.

36. Poured Massive scale beer was into glass bottles on a was only after World War II that, although glass was first used in the 17th century. It was not popular because it was expensive, thin and often exploded. Beer was stored in barrels and poured at the place of consumption, or poured into ceramic bottles, which, although they retained the taste and quality of the drink, were very heavy. Before the industrial production of glass, bottles were of different shapes and sizes - most often rectangular tall containers were used. Packaging with a high, thin neck, familiar to us, appeared only in the 1760s. The color has also changed: if earlier black and blue glass was used, now in stores it is most often brown, green and transparent.

В такие бутылки разливали пиво в XIX веке / Фото: Case AntiquesBeer was poured into such bottles in the 19th century / Photo: Case Antiques

37. With the spread of bottles, corks also appeared. The first stoppers were made from cork, glass and ceramics. In 1879, Englishman Henry Barrett invented the screw-top beer bottle - it quickly gained popularity because the buyer could close the bottle to finish drinking later. In 1875, the American Charles De Quillfeldt patented the hinged lid, which soon became known as the zipper plug. And in 1892, William Painter invented the usual metal crown cap in the form of a crown.

38. The first mention of African beer is found among Arab travelers who visited Sudan in the 6th-7th centuries. Here they use not the usual barley or wheat, but sorghum. Sorghum beer is historically associated with women: it is they who brew it, passing on recipes from generation to generation. The drink symbolically means a woman who silently leads people to agreement. With its use, the ritual of transferring a dowry begins, in which two families surround a filled vessel and become related through joint drinking. Beer is consumed at weddings, at the birth of children, communication with ancestors, circumcision and prayer for rain, at funerals. There is even an annual drink festival. 

Циндао — один из самых популярных китайских видов пива, которое легко можно найти даже в Москве

Qingdao is one of the most popular Chinese types of beer, which can be easily found even in

39. Moscow. Although the production of alcohol has been known to the Chinese since ancient times, the first breweries in the country appeared only in the 19th century - they were founded by Russians, Germans and Czechs. Until recently, beer was not popular, but in the 1990s-2000s its consumption increased sharply, and the market surpassed the American market in terms of volume, although the per capita indicator here is still lower than in the United States - 38 liters against 74 in 2013. At the beginning of the 21st century, craft breweries began to spread -  researchers attribute this to urbanization and the desire of young people to spend time outside the home. They serve traditional European beers and experimental beers Chinese-style using jasmine, oolong tea, osmanthus, Sichuan pepper and sweet yam. To promote their beer in a local cultural context, brewers often name the drink after a historical hero (or some local ingredient) to illustrate the special characteristics of the beer. For example, Beijing's Great Leap Brewery named one of its IPAs made from local Qingdao Flower hops, Little General, after Zhang Xueliang only recognized patriotic hero.

40. George Washington made whiskey, Thomas Jefferson made wine, but Barack Obama became the first US president to brew beer in the White House. It all started with the fact that he bought a home brewing machine, and ended up with three varieties - White House Honey Brown Ale, Honey Porter and Honey Blonde, which are brewed by professionals today. All three varieties use honey harvested from South Lawn hives. The presidential beer was unveiled in 2011 - then the White House was attended by participants in the US NFL Super Bowl, who could taste the Honey Ale. This is not the first time Obama and beer have appeared side by side: in 2009, the White House hosted the so-called "Beer Summit", at which President, Vice President Joe Biden, as well as participants in the ethnic scandal, Harvard professor Henry Louis Gates Jr. and a policeman James Crowley in his circles discussed the issue of race relations in America.

41. In the mythology of Ireland, there are many saints associated with brewing. Brigitte of Ireland or Kildare, who lived in the 5th-6th centuries, took upon herself the image of a pagan idol that existed earlier in traditional beliefs, and was organically intertwined with Christianity, according to tradition, devoting her life to serving Christ. Saint Brigitte performed many miracles, and one of them is associated with beer: once before Easter, when the monastery did not have enough vessels and products to prepare a drink for the holiday, she was able to turn water into wort and accelerate fermentation, providing foam to as many as 18 nearby parishes.

Изображение Святого Колумбана на витраже монастыря БоббиоImage of Saint Columban on the stained glass window of the Bobbio monastery

42. And here is the legend about Saint Columban, the founder of the Bobbio monastery in Italy. According to his monastery charter, any novice who, through negligence, ruins even a little beer, will have to be punished. Once, one of the kelarai decided to draw beer from a barrel, but he was urgently summoned to the abbot. Distracted, he completely forgot that he had not turned off the tap when the barrel turned, and when he returned, he found that not a single drop had flowed out - this is how the Lord took two monks away from punishment.

43. The name of the legendary European king Gambrinus may be known to you from the names of numerous breweries and pubs around the world, including Russia. It is not known if this character has a real prototype, but some attribute his ancestry to the Brabant and French kings of the late Middle Ages. One such historical figure could have been the Duke of Brabant and Antwerp, Jan Primus, who was said to be an honorary member of the Brewers Guild. It is believed that Gambrinus patronized beer drinks and even built the first brewery. Usually depicted with a mug in hand or sitting on a keg.

44. Beer alcoholism, or gambrinism, is named after Gambrinus. This is not the official name of the disease: there is no such diagnosis in the international classification of diseases, because doctors do not separate it from alcoholism in general. However, dependence on beer can be more serious than dependence on strong alcohol: a person does not notice the amount he has drunk and does not attach importance to daily consumption. Due to the fact that intoxication comes slowly, beer alcoholism is less often drunk. Rather, it is characterized by daily drinking, which makes the diagnosis more difficult. The volume of consumption per day can reach 15 liters.

45. Among the sights of Brussels there is the famous statue of Manneken Pis - a little boy relieving himself in the pool. The sculpture appeared in the 15th century, and over the entire period of its existence, the statue was stolen more than once. Now the very first version of the boy has been lost, the original of 1619 is kept in the City Museum of Brussels, and a copy is installed on the street. It is not known exactly where the boy came from, but there is a legend that this is a sculptural image of the Duke of Brabant Gottfried III, who was left an orphan as a one-year-old baby. The enemies of the duchy took advantage of the vulnerability of the lands due to the lack of an intelligible ruler and attacked Brabant: the child, who was formally the commander-in-chief, was also taken to the battlefield, but settled in a hammock suspended from a tree. At the crucial moment, Gottfried turned to the enemies while lying down and gave out a powerful stream - it turned out that he had just been fed by a nanny, who had eaten lambic (one of the types of Belgian beer) before lunch, which allegedly increased the amount of breast milk. The kid's act inspired Gottfried's army so much that the soldiers were able to repel the attack, and upon returning to the city they praised the little duke and the lambic, who helped win the battle.

Статую писающего мальчика частенько наряжают: не так давно на него одели форму российской императорской гвардии / Фото: BalliauwThe statue of a pissing boy is often dressed up: not so long ago, he was dressed in the uniform of the Russian imperial guard / Photo: Balliauw

46. Judging by the common story, after Niels Bohr, the world famous physicist who created the first theory of the quantum atom, received the Nobel Prize, the Carlsberg brewing company presented him with a beer pipeline near Copenhagen. Bohr actually lived from 1932 to 1962 at the residence of Jacob Kristen Jakobson, founder of Carsberg, who bequeathed that after his death, researchers with merit in the field of science, culture and art should live in the house. No pipe through which beer would flow for free existed there - this is an urban legend. Niels Bohr could well have received a couple of bottles of Carlsberg as a gift, but this has not been reliably recorded.

47. Beer brewing begins with the choice of malt. Malt is the dried, germinated grains of cereals that start the fermentation process. It is used not only for brewing beer: it can be used to make kvass, whiskey, Ukrainian kvass and other drinks. The most commonly used malt is barley malt, since barley has little husk and a lot of starch, but brewers can take corn, wheat, buckwheat, rye or mix different types of malt. Malt can be dried in different ways, roasted at different temperatures and even burned, which results in drinks with completely different tastes and aromas: from chocolate, honey and toffee to the characteristic smell of bread crust or raisins. 

48. There is base malt - wheat, barley, rye, ale, and special - smoked, roasted, caramel and others. There is even black malt, which was invented and patented by Englishman Daniel Wheeler in 1817. This type of malt is roasted at more than 200 degrees for 4-5 hours and is usually added to porters or stouts to enhance color and impart a subtle pungent taste. His invention allowed brewers to brew beer from traditional pale malt without the addition of roasted beans. By the way, the color of a beer is determined by how deeply the malt grains are roasted. For example, if lightly roasted grains are used in beer, the beer turns out to be light. If the malt fill contains heavily roasted and caramelized beans, the beer darkens. The color of a beer alone does not indicate how bitter or alcoholic it is.

49. The color of beer depends on the color and degree of roasting of the malt, and not on the strength or level of bitterness. The malt is crushed, mixed with water and heated - the resulting broth is called beer wort, and the process of making the wort is mashing. During mashing, the starch in the malt is broken down into simple sugars. Then the wort is filtered - first it is strongly heated, then it is separated from the grain and husk, at the final stage the grains (grains, husks and other solid particles) are washed, and the drained water is added to the previously filtered wort. Next, the wort is boiled, ingredients for flavor and aroma are added to it, filtered again and poured into fermentation tanks along with yeast, where the beer is cooled, oxygenated and matured.

50. Wort fermentation is impossible without microorganisms, and ready-made yeast, that is, unicellular mushrooms, is most often used for beer. Yeast consumes sugar, releasing carbon dioxide and alcohol. Depending on the type, they can impart specific flavors and aromas to the beer, or they can work completely without a trace - in this case, the output will be a regular light lager. In Belgium, for example, yeast strains are produced that produce fruity esters that give the banana flavor. Most often, yeast is sold in small dry sachets, in which can live about 6 billion cells, or in vials, where up to 100 billion microorganisms are in a liquid medium. To keep them in full, it is best to keep the yeast refrigerated and only use fresh produce. Yeast, by the way, can get stressed by sudden changes in temperature, so it may take several days to recover to get started.

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In February 2022, the 2022 Super Bowl will take place - the final of the National Football League.


Ahead of the match, which is just some days away, the NFL has announced a roster of performers who will play during halftime.


The audience will be entertained by four famous rappers - Dr. Dre, Eminem, Snoop Dogg and Kendrick Lamar. Also on stage will be the hip-hop singer Mary J. Blige.


This is the final game of the American football season between the two best teams in the United States. At the same time, it is the most rated event of the year on American television, which gathers the maximum audience from television screens. The Super Bowl is not only watched by sports fans, because it is one of the main events of modern pop culture.


Every year, on the first Sunday in February, the US hosts the final game of the National Football League - The Super Bowl. From a purely sporting event, the Superbowl has long turned into a super show. We tell the story of the best performances of this cup, which have become iconic in pop culture and fashion - from Carol Channing to The Weeknd.



Bemorepanda collected some interesting facts about The Super Bowl 2022.


1. Super Bowl - in American football, the title of the final game for the title of champion of the National Football League (NFL) of the United States of America. The game and its attendant celebration over the years is Super Bowl Sunday.


2. Any holiday, in my opinion, is great: it is a good mood, emotions, meeting interesting people and friends (if you are watching a company) and a reason for discussion the next day. Well, in America they know how to decorate holidays beautifully and celebrate on a large scale.


3. During the break, the stadium turns into a large-scale concert venue. One star is putting on an amazing mini-concert!


4. Huge audience attracts advertisers' attention. During the Super Bowl, the most expensive and high-quality advertising in the world is shown - the cost of showing a 30-second video is $ 5 million. Film companies showcase exclusive trailers of the most anticipated films of the year.


5. At the same time there are 22 people on the field - 11 attacking players of one team against 11 defense players of the other. The task of attacking in 4 attempts to go 10 yards. In this case, the ball can be passed through the air or immediately run with it in hand. If you miss 10 yards in your available attempts, either give the ball to an opponent or kick the ball into the goal to score 3 points.


6. If the attack goes all the way and the player is in the end zone with the ball, this is called a touchdown and the team scores 6 points plus the chance to score one extra. The task of the defense, therefore, is to prevent the attack from passing all those yards.



7. The Denver Broncos are playing against the Carolina Panthers. For Denver, the main figure is 39-year-old quarterback Peyton Manning, one of America's most famous and respected athletes. For him, this is most likely the last game of his career and a chance to say goodbye to sports beautifully by winning the championship ring.


8. Carolina are a young and mischievous team with outstanding defense, having suffered only 1 defeat in 18 games of the season (including the playoffs). The leader is quarterback Cameron Newton, who will soon be named the best player of the regular season.


9. From the point of view of non-Americans, the hysteria around, in fact, a football match seems to be a surprising phenomenon. 


10. The amazing thing is: Since 1967, when the National Football League and the American Football League began merging, the Super Bowl has grown in popularity until it has become a national phenomenon. 


11. Now the final game of the season, during which the NFL champion is determined, in the United States has the character of a national holiday: fashionable department stores like Bergdorf Goodman decorate windows in her honor and come up with capsule collections, and Americans themselves sit en masse in front of TV screens - on the day of the final in the USA they buy and eat only slightly less food than they did on Thanksgiving.



12.  The TV broadcast of the game is so popular that the match itself has been shifted over the years to the evening time, so that the breaks fall on Sunday prime time. 


13. For this broadcast, brands of all stripes traditionally release separate commercials (one minute of airtime during the Super Bowl costs about $ 8 million) - this is how the first iPhone advertisement was shown for the first time, and this year the Tiffany & Co. campaign will be presented during the broadcast. starring Lady Gaga.


14. Falling into big news feeds, the fashion industry could not ignore such an event and throughout the existence of the Super Bowl systematically worked its way inside the football game. In the interval between the halves, since 1970, they have been organizing mini-concerts - a little less than 15 minutes, the so-called halftime performances, at which the most famous artists at the time of the game perform. 


15. The next morning, the sports media talked about the score, and the rest of the media talked about the performances and costumes prepared by the fashion brand teams for the Super Bowl. We have selected the most iconic ones.


16. Raymond James Stadium in Tampa, Florida attracted three times fewer people than usual. Due to antiquated measures, the performances had to be moved from the field to the stage installed in the stands (for the first time in the 55-year history of the Super Bowl!). However, even this did not stop them from staging a grand show. Super Bowl 2021 headliner The Weeknd was accompanied by poet Amanda Gorman, r'n'b singer Jazmine Sullivan, singer H.E.R. and Miley Cyrus.



17. Viewers first saw Cyrus performing a special TikTok Tailgate show in honor of the doctors (with a Tik Tok broadcast, of course). 


18. On the stage, Miley appeared first in the form of a cheerleader by Michael Schmidt, and then in the interpretation of football equipment that Gucci designers created especially for Miley, by the way, the FTW inscription on the top stands for for the win. 


19. To the delight of older viewers, rock legends Billy Idol and Joan Jett appeared on stage with Cyrus (they also worked with Miley on her last disc). After Miley, Amanda Gorman, the 22-year-old poet most of us knew about at Biden's inauguration, came up with a new poem about Americans fighting a pandemic. Amanda changed her Prada coat to a Moschino from the Spring 2021 collection, and a red rim for a pearl one. Star stylist Jason Bolden, who works with the main figures of American pop culture, from Alicia Keys to Serena Williams, gathered her for the ceremony (you can find out how his everyday life as a stylist goes on in Bolden's author's show on Netflix Styling Hollywood.


20. Although on the eve of the Super Bowl, The Weeknd complained that he did not have enough money to repeat the appearance of Diana Ross (in 1996, the singer landed at the stadium by helicopter), his appearance on the impromptu stage turned out to be no less spectacular. 



21. The Weeknd decided not to deviate from the narrative set in 2020, and again used the image of Robert De Niro from "Casino" by Martin Scorsese. The outfit was in charge of Givenchy creative director Matthew Williams, who said it took 250 hours of work to create the rhinestone-studded jacket. But The Weeknd made it easier for the makeup artists - this time the singer went on stage without bandages on his face. 


22. Dancers have appeared in them, and according to The Weeknd, this is a hairpin towards celebrities who change their appearance for public recognition. The performance has already been sold into memes, including because at the same time as The Weeknd there were thousands of his "clones" on stage - some fans decided that in the middle of the show Abel himself was a little confused.


23. J-Lo and Shakira's performance during the Super Bowl 2020 halftime ended just a few hours ago, and it is already being called one of the most spectacular shows in the history of halftime performances. Designer Peter Dundas was responsible for Shakira's costumes. One of them - a red crop top with Swarovski crystals and a transforming dress - has been compared on the Internet to the Gazelle outfit from the Zootopia cartoon, voiced by Shakira. Red, which is so popular on similar tracks, in the Super Bowl, on the contrary, was an exception. Oddly enough, the last time Diana Ross performed in such a dress on the show was back in 1996.


24. The choice of outfit for Jennifer Lopez was predictable. “When people think of Jennifer, they think of Versace,” said one of the singer's stylists, Mariel Hann. In just a 14-minute performance, J.Lo changed four outfits, while it took her only 8 seconds to change clothes for the longest time. So, during Jenny From The Block, she was in a leather jumpsuit with rivets (like she wore to concerts in the early 2000s), and Get Right sang in a sparkling bodysuit. 



25. There were also political statements at the Super Bowl. So, for the finale of the performance, Jay Lo wore a voluminous cape of multi-colored feathers that form an American flag on the outside, and a Puerto Rican one from the inside.


26. Shakira's performance was regarded as an homage to Middle Eastern culture. The singer took the stage with the Colombian dance troupe Swing Latino (and performed a belly dance herself), and when she played the track My Hips Don’t Lie, she imitated the manner of Arab women to festively "hoot" with joy. True, not everyone understood the allusion - and so the singer became the main meme of the Super Bowl.


27. The end of the show was held under the auspices of girl power. Shakira and J. Lo sang Let’s Get Loud together - Lopez's hit from her 1999 debut album. And on stage they were joined by a chorus of girls led by the 11-year-old daughter Jennifer Lopez Emmy (American Vogue has already read her a great future).



28. The performance at the 2016 Super Bowl was discussed, firstly, because the game was jubilee - the fiftieth, and all the artists tried to make their performances as patriotic as possible. 


29. The incident was that absolutely everything was decided to express love for the native country in the outfits of Italian designers: Lady Gaga was in Gucci, Bruno Mars - in Versace, Beyonce - in Dsquared2, and only Chris Martin's sneakers were American. Otherwise, the patriotic component of halftime performance was all right: for example, the costumes of Beyoncé dancers, which Zana Bane did, were an allusion to the uniforms of the Black Panthers, a radical political group that fought against the oppression of black Americans, and on the day before Super Bowl, the singer presented composition Formation and a clip for it (you yourself know what).


30. Jeremy Scott was responsible for the costumes of Perry: he came up with four extravagant (in some places even just weird) looks for the singer - from a beach ball costume to a dress of flames, in which Katy rode out onto the field, sitting astride a huge mechanical dog.


31. Scott is known for his commercial approach to fashion, and about the appearance of Moschino clothes at the Super Bowl he said honestly: "This is the most popular show of the year - it has more viewers than the Oscars!" As for Missy Elliott, in her case, the news feed was in her very appearance on the stage after a ten-year hiatus. Thanks to the Super Bowl, her album sales grew more than 900 percent in the week after the match.



32. Since 2012, bespoke clothing from big brands has become an important part of Super Bowl performances. For example, three years ago, the fashionable component of the performance split in two - on the one hand, there was Bruno Mars in a gold Yves Saint Laurent jacket, on the other - the opera singer Renee Fleming in a black Vera Wang dress made especially for her with white draperies. 


33. According to Vera's plan, the dress was supposed to embody all the greatness of American culture, sit comfortably on Fleming and look good against the background of the orchestra. It seems that everything turned out, and in such a way that Rene did not want to donate the outfit to the museum later (in the end, she was persuaded).


34. The Super Bowl has had dozens of amazing performances, but Beyoncé is Beyoncé. The show, which the singer, her team and the group Destiny's Child came up with, was so entertaining and polished that it seemed as if the audience was watching a 3D clip. 


35. Beyoncé came out in a transforming bodysuit, from which she unfastened parts during the performance until only transparent leather lace remained on her. The outfit was invented by the young American couturier Rubin Singer - according to him, the Super Bowl 2013 completely turned his career around. And we join Vogue.com's question: how did it happen that Beyoncé never lost her breath throughout the entire performance?



36. The most epic performance in Super Bowl history goes to Madonna. In the guise of an Egyptian queen, she rode out onto the field in a huge golden chariot, which was carried by hundreds of athletes, and then sang her hit Vogue and several compositions with M.I.A. and Nicki Minaj. 


37. The costumes for the show were made by Ricardo Tisci - he has already collaborated with Madonna during her three-year Sticky & Sweet tour. “People say that there is a limit to everything, but there are no borders from Madonna. So glad that after trying herself in different roles, she decided to return to the music scene. Not only to give us music, but also to create fashion, create iconic performances, ”said Tisci. For his Super Bowl performance, he came up with three looks: with a long gold cape, with a long black cape and a short dress with over the knee boots. The dancers' costumes were also ordered by Givenchy.


38. The Black Eyed Peas were still performing in full force back then, and each costume deserved a separate discussion. Fergie wore a leather dress with huge overhead shoulders (like those of American football players) covered with crystals, and her fingers glittered with huge ring claws worn on the last phalanx. The rest of the band were wearing leather suits with built-in LEDs. Plus the costumes of four hundred dancers glowed. Minnesota-based dance studio Just For Kix took on this challenging design and technical work. Six years have passed since then, and LEDs on clothes and shoes are gradually becoming a common place (the future is somewhere nearby).



39. The stage in the form of a purple cartoon letter P, the same guitar and sky-blue pantsuit with an orange shirt: this appearance of Prince is invariably included in all lists of the best images of the singer, and outside of such listings it can be safely called the most obvious proof of what he knew how to wear nuclear colors like no one else.


40. Perhaps the most scandalous costume in the history of the Super Bowl. During the joint performance of Rock Your Body, Timberlake tore off Janet's suit - the right cup of a leather corset, exposing the singer's chest. This incident became so high-profile that the English-language Wikipedia has a separate article dedicated to it. CBS was fined a record 550,000 dollars, critics said Janet's trick was a sign of moral decline in the United States, and Jackson herself had to make a public apology. 


41. The singer's PR service later explained that Janet let the suit down, but no one believed them: the singer's nipple was prudently covered with an ornament in the form of the sun. The bare-chested fragment was cut from the Super Bowl recording, but it was sent to each other anyway. YouTube co-founder Javed Karim even believes that the episode was one of the reasons for the popularity of the video platform.


42. Strictly speaking, in 2001 she was not the only one performing at the Super Bowl - the singer was accompanied by Aerosmith, * NSYNC and Mary J. Blige. But Britney was the epitome of the early 2000s. In low-rise white trousers, a crop top and a pierced navel, she was the face of a decade, defining the look of the most fashionable girls for years to come. That same year, Pepsi, the official sponsor of the Super Bowl, shot a commercial starring Britney that looked like a sequel to her performance with Aerosmith.



43. Diana Ross wouldn’t be herself if her Super Bowl performance hadn’t been built around her as the main diva of the nineties. First, she changed four costumes: she came out in a red fluffy dress, which was transformed into a mini; then she appeared in an orange-pink mermaid dress, changed it to a gold cloak with leggings and a fuchsia-colored corset, and ended the performance in a pink and orange suit. 


44. Ross flew away from the stadium in a helicopter. Thirdly, people lined up in giant letters Diana Ross - so that they could be seen even from space. Her performance is ranked ninth in the Top 10 Super Bowl Performances: Diana turned the costumes into part numbers for the first time.


45. The press unanimously considers Michael Jackson to be the founding father of the standard halftime performance format - in general, he invented a lot of pop cultural phenomena that did not exist before him. Jackson turned his Super Bowl performance into a hit potpourri for the first time, and produced individual dance routines that flow into each other. 


46. The singer's costume became no less legendary than the performance itself: black aviator glasses, a black military jacket with a decorative gold bandolier and black cropped trousers with white socks. The Dsquared2 leather jacket that Beyoncé wore at last year's Super Bowl is a homage to Jackson's 1993 look.



47. It is believed that halftime performance first became a full-fledged pop show in 1991, when the Super Bowl was headlined by boy band New Kids on the Block. Firstly, for their performance, a real Disneyland was built on the field with a huge castle and hundreds of children dressed as Disney characters. Second, all four members of the group could outperform the models from men's glossy magazines: wide-leg trousers with a high waist, a straight jacket under Adidas sweatpants, a vest for a naked body and a golden leather jacket, like Mick Jagger.


48. The king of the twist Chubby Checker in tight black trousers and a silver shirt with a wrap and shoulder pads, plus the famous dance group The Rockettes (44 girls in gold top hats and bodysuits), and 88 more white pianos and pianists - just imagine this party on the football field. After Checker, there were many worthy performances, and some of them were much more spectacular, but there was never more fun in the Super Bowl.


49. Actress and singer Channing became the first artist to perform at the Super Bowl. She told The Guardian that she was asked to perform the hit from the Broadway musical Hello, Dolly! literally a week before the match. That halftime performance was built, by the way, not around her performance, but around the Southern University Orchestra - according to Carol, it was like her debut on Broadway. 


50.Channing stepped onto the moving platform stage in a white long coat with a hood trimmed with fluffy fur. Presumably, its author was the American couturier Nolan Miller, and the coat itself later became the hallmark of the actress, and she put it on more than once for her other performances.

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YouTube is a huge video repository of a wide variety of formats and genres: marketing workshops, product unboxing, comedy shows, and educational songs for kids. For this variety, hosting is loved by almost two billion users around the world. And the business appreciated the advantages of the platform for promotion.

YouTube is undoubtedly the world's largest video sharing service.

Of course, it will be a surprise for everyone if this changes anytime soon!


Most of us use the YouTube website or app on a daily basis. Some use YouTube for learning, and some just for fun.

No matter how you use it, these 30 YouTube facts by Bemorepanda are worth reading!


Fact 1. YouTube was founded on February 14 (Valentine's Day) 2005 by three former PayPal employees.


Fact 2. It was originally funded by bonuses that employees received when eBay bought out PayPal.


Fact 3. The first YouTube video was uploaded on April 23, 2005. This is a video of the co-founder of the San Diego Zoo.


Fact 4. YouTube was originally created as a video testimonial site called "Tune In Hook Up".


Fact 5. Just 18 months after founding YouTube, Google bought it in stock for $ 1.65 billion.


К 2020 году количество активных пользователей YouTube из Индии удвоится -  Notebookcheck-ru.com


Fact 6. YouTube has over a billion users, which is almost a third of all Internet users.


Fact 7. YouTube has opened a production site in Los Angeles that you can use for free, but only if you have at least 10,000 subscribers on the channel.


Fact 8. The oldest YouTube video about cats dates back to 1894.


Fact 9. More than 100 hours of video are uploaded to YouTube every minute.


Fact 10. In 2014, the famous YouTube star, Grumpy Cat, made more money Gwyneth Paltrow - the Oscar-winning actress.


Google раскрыла прибыль от YouTube


Fact 11. Google is, of course, the largest search engine in the world. But right behind it is Youtube, which is bigger than Bing, Yahoo and Ask combined.


Fact 12. Every April 1, YouTube pranks its users.


Fact 13. When they played their first joke, they turned the site upside down.


Fact 14. Rickrolling first appeared on YouTube in 2009. At its peak in 2008, more than 18 million users in the United States became involved in ricrolling.


Fact 15. Every month YouTube users watch 6 billion hours of video per month and 4 billion videos every day.


4 Quick Wins to Increase Your YouTube Engagement


Fact 16. Apart from the US, Saudi Arabia has the most views on YouTube. This is because TV, Facebook and Twitter are banned in Saudi Arabia and YouTube is not restricted.


Fact 17. The most popular video that people are looking for is "How to kiss." The second most popular video is "how to tie a tie."


Fact 18. The most popular topic that people are looking for is, of course, music!


Fact 19. The total number of videos uploaded in 2010 is equivalent to over 150,000 full-length films in theaters every week.


Fact 20. The first world leader to create a YouTube channel was British Prime Minister Tony Blair, who opened his account in 2007.


YouTube reverts to human moderators in fight against misinformation |  Financial Times


Fact 21. According to a 2013 study, 60% of the 1000 most viewed YouTube videos are banned in Germany.


Fact 22. The longest YouTube video is 571 hours, 1 minute and 41 seconds. This is the same as 23 days and 19 hours!


Fact 23. The first video to reach 1 billion views was Hello by Adele the fastest. It reached 1 billion views in 88 days.


Fact 24: The video that got the most views on its first day of upload is the official teaser # 2 of Star Wars: The Force Awakens. It scored 112 million views in 24 hours.


Fact 25. Justin Bieber is one of the first YouTube success stories.


Pakistan lifts 3-year ban on YouTube | Financial Times


Fact 26. YouTube has been watched every day on Facebook for over 150 years.


Fact 27. In Thailand, YouTube was blocked for 5 months in 2007 due to a 44-second video that depicted distorted images of the king.


Fact 28. There is a copyright infringement program called Automated Content ID that scans over 100 years of video every day.


Fact 29. Every minute there are 400 tweets containing a link to a YouTube video.


Fact 30. In 2011, 30% of all YouTube videos accounted for over 99% of views.


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The brand of the search giant Google is probably one of the most recognizable on the globe, and today only a person who is very far from the Internet and civilization has not heard about the company. At the same time, the activities of the "corporation of good" are so diverse that even its employees themselves do not know about all the initiatives of their management. Bemorepanda choosed 30 unusual and interesting facts about the world famous company that you most likely did not even know about.

Many people dream of working at Google. Getting there is not easy - sometimes interviews alone can take six months. But if you happen to be there, even if you are an intern, you can celebrate winning the jackpot.

1. Before giving the user the result of a search query, Google takes into account about 200 different factors.

2. The company owns a bunch of domains that are the wrong spelling for Google. For example, Gooogle.com, Gogle.com, Googlr.com and many others. Among them there are even such exotic ones as 466453.com - these are numbers on the phone's disk that correspond to the letters of Google.

3. When Google launched in 1998, the system was processing 500,000 queries a day. Now users ask the system for something more than 2 million times per second.

4. Since Google launched Street View in 2007, the project team has photographed over 11.5 million kilometers of roads and objects.

5. The first five American cities were captured with a 5 megapixel camera. Now the company uses devices with 75-megapixel sensors.

По всему миру у сервисов Google были проблемы с работой - новости ZIK.UA

6. Every month, YouTube users watch over 6 billion hours of video - about an hour for every inhabitant of the globe.

7. Google regularly buys and funds projects that aim to change the world and the lives of millions of people. However, the "corporation of good" does not shun small, local projects. For example, in 2012, the company added the Cherokee American Indian language to Gmail.

8. More than 300 hours of new videos appear on YouTube every minute.

9. Last year, more than 1 billion Android devices were sold worldwide. This means that Google's market share in this segment is 81%.

10. In total, Google employs 53,600 people in 70 offices from 40 countries.

Google выпустила Android 10

11. If a corporation likes something, then it will not stand up to the costs to buy it. This year, the company made more than 170 acquisitions, and the value of the top 10 purchases exceeded $ 24.5 billion.

12. Despite the huge number of adventurous and super-innovative projects, such as self-driving cars or smart contact lenses, the bulk of Google's revenue comes from advertising. In 2014, revenue from this type of activity amounted to $ 66 billion.

13. Larry Page and Sergey Brin released the first Doodle in August 1998. During this time, they were participating in the Burning Man rally through the Nevada desert and wanted the world to know where they were at the moment.

14. The volume of the Google search index is over 100 million GB. To accommodate this amount of data would require over 100,000 terabyte hard drives.

15. People trust and love Google services so much that when the system dropped by 5 minutes in 2013, the volume of global traffic dropped by 40%.

Анонс нового сигнала ранжирования от Google - SEO Ukraine

16. Google is probably the only company in the world that wants people to spend as little time on their website as possible.

17. Google was originally called BackRub. This is how the main page of the search engine looked like, which became the prototype of Google.

18. Google's incredibly fast growth is especially noticeable against the backdrop of one curious fact: since 2010, the Internet giant has bought an average of one company per week.

19. The first doodle was invented by Google founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page together. It happened in 1998. A schematic image of a burning guy, a symbol of the Burning Man festival, which takes place in the Black Rock desert of Nevada, has been added to the usual multicolored Google inscription. Brin and Page went there in 2008.

20. Google's own chef, Charlie Ayers, came to Google in 1999, when the company had only 40 employees.

В Україні перестали працювали сервіси Google – Радіо Перше

21. Ayers built a good career in the corporation, becoming the chef of the entire company. At the time of leaving Google, he controlled 150 employees and 10 cafes at Google's Mountain View headquarters.

22. Gmail already supports over 50 different languages. Among them are the Basque, Welsh, Tagalog, Malayalam, Telulu and Cherokee languages.

23. In 2004, Google went public, selling part of its shares on the stock exchange. On the same day, about 1,000 of its employees became millionaires.

24. One of these lucky ones is masseuse Bonnie Brown. She joined the company in 1999. Her initial salary was $ 450 per week.

25. Button "I'm Lucky!" became extremely popular. But it costs Google $ 100 million every year in lost ad revenue.

Google дає співробітникам 2 вихідних і «тиждень без нарад», щоб боротися з  вигоранням – E&Lnews

26. Google is hiring goats. In 2009, the company rented about two hundred goats that grazed on its California campus, while fertilizing the soil with their excrement along the way.

27. The first official tweet from Google's corporate Twitter meant "I'm in luck," but it was written in binary, meaning it was all zeros and ones.

28. Google's competitor, Mozilla (Firefox browser), receives money from the Internet giant. For the fact that the default browser uses the Google search engine, its developer receives $ 300 million a year.

29. The total cost of this 16 percent stake is close to $ 46 billion.

30. Each new employee within the company is called a noogler, and the former is called a xoogler.

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Everyone knows Amazon.com, where you can order fast and convenient delivery of everything. Its creator, Jeff Bezos, promises that it will soon be possible to deliver orders in 10 minutes using aerial drones. But few have heard of Relentless.com. By typing this address in a search engine, you will be automatically redirected to Amazon.


The fact is that "Relentless" is one of the first names that 30-year-old Bezos came up with for his online store. The second option was "Kadabra" as part of a magic spell. But both did not pass, then Bezos simply took a dictionary from the shelf and chose one of the first words he came across - the Amazon River. Thus began one of the most successful business stories in the world. It has a bit of magic and ruthlessness.


Brad Stone's book "The Everything Store" is about Jeff Bezos and the Amazon era, which explores the early years of Amazon and how it evolved from an online bookstore to today's e-commerce giant. Bemorepanda have collected some interesting facts about Amazon from this book.


The Skills that Made Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos Successful | Fortune


1. Amazon originally had a different name.


Jeff Bezos wanted to give his company the name Cadabra, which sounded like part of a spell.


But Amazon's first lawyer, Todd Tarbert, said the name was too similar to the word cadaver, which translates from English as "corpse." Customers may have misheard such a name on the phone.


Bezos also liked the title Relentless. By the way, if you go to Relentless.com, you will be redirected to the Amazon home page.


Finally, Bezos chose the name Amazon - he liked the idea of ​​naming the company after the largest river in the world. It can be seen on the original Amazon logo.


2. There used to be a bell in the company's office that would ring whenever someone made a purchase on Amazon


After a few weeks, the bell began to ring so often that it had to be removed.


3. Initially, Bezos opened a company in his garage. The servers required so much power that when Bezos and his wife turned on a hairdryer or vacuum cleaner in the house, they would short-circuit.


4. In its first month of operation, Amazon sold books to people from all 50 states of America and 45 different countries.


5. A little-known lichen book saved Amazon from bankruptcy.


Book distributors demanded to buy books in batches of ten, but Amazon didn't need that much, and the company wouldn't have enough money to buy them.


But in the end, there was one loophole with which it was possible to bypass this rule. Amazon began ordering one book and nine copies of some obscure lichen book that was always out of stock.


Amazon Reports Mixed Q1 Results As Jeff Bezos Vows Massive COVID Response:  “We're Not Thinking Small” – Deadline


6. Bezos used to hold meetings at the Barnes & Noble bookstore.


In the early days of Amazon, Jeff Bezos, his wife Mackenzie, and their first employee, Shel Kafan, held meetings at a local Barnes and Noble store.


In 1996, Bezos met with the shopkeepers, and they said they respect him, but they are still going to launch a site that will destroy Amazon. Barnes and Noble co-founder Len Riggio wanted to call this site the Book Predator.


7. Jeff Bezos wanted his employees to work at least 60 hours a week.


Previously, the company did not know what it meant to maintain a balance between work and personal life. One of the first employees said that he worked without rest for more than eight months: he came to work early in the morning and returned late at night. He constantly rode his bike to work and completely forgot about the minibus that was parked at his house.


He didn’t have time to check his mail, and when he did open it, he saw several parking tickets, a notification from the tow truck and, finally, a message that his minibus was sold at an auction.


8. In 1998, Amazon had a very busy Christmas.


At that time, the company had a significant staff shortage. At Christmas time, all fulfillment center employees had to work the night shift. They called for help from friends and relatives and sometimes slept in their cars to go straight to work in the morning.


After this incident, Amazon promised to make sure that the next holidays the company has enough employees who would be able to fulfill the holiday orders. This is why Amazon is recruiting so many seasonal workers these days.


9. When eBay came along, Amazon launched its own auction site.


The idea failed, but Bezos liked it.


For $ 40,000, he bought the skeleton of a primeval cave bear and displayed it in the lobby of Amazon headquarters. This skeleton stands there to this day, and next to it is a sign "Please do not feed the bear."


10. Bezos enjoyed growing his company quickly, leading to chaos in Amazon's order centers.


In the late 90s and early 2000s, Amazon was in chaos. Centers were closed for several hours due to system failures, and mountains of goods were lying around, and the company was not ready to store new categories of products.


When Amazon started selling kitchen goods, it sometimes happened that the knives without the protective packaging cut the conveyor belt. The situation was extremely dangerous.


Jeff Bezos sells $3.5bn of Amazon shares in a week | Financial Times


11. In early 2002, Bezos introduced the concept of a “two pizza team”.


He suggested that workers should work in groups of less than ten people - that's how many people can be fed with two pizzas. According to Bezos, such groups should work autonomously, they should have clear goals and a formula for assessing success.


12. Dissatisfied customers can send a complaint to Bezos's personal mail, and he will forward it to the right employee with a single scary "?"


Whenever Amazon employees receive a letter from Bezos with a question mark, they react to it like a bomb. They usually have several hours to solve the problem and prepare a detailed explanation of why it arose. The explanatory note is checked by senior managers and then redirected to Bezos himself. In this way, Bezos shows customers that their complaints are constantly reviewed by the company.


13. Even before Google Street View came along, Amazon had Block View.


In 2004, Amazon launched the A9.com search engine. The team that worked on it also began to develop a project called Block View, which would display photographs of them from the street in response to a search query about stores and restaurants. For less than $ 100,000, Amazon sent its car photographers to twenty US cities to photograph the restaurants they needed. In 2006, Amazon abandoned the project, and in 2007 Google launched Street View.


14. Amazon employees fought stress with primal screams.


During the holidays, it is especially difficult for the employees of the logistics department. In the early 2000s, Jeff Wilkie, Chief Operating Officer for Amazon, allowed anyone who was able to achieve a big goal at work to close their eyes and yell at him with all their might on the phone.


Some of these primal screams nearly broke his speakers, Wilkie said.


15. Sometimes the "protests" of employees of Amazon fulfillment centers ended in rather funny ways.


The working conditions in these centers are notorious and sometimes their employees have tried to go on strike. One day, a worker decided to quit his job and sat astride a conveyor belt - and so he rode all the way out of the building.


But the funniest story happened in 2006 with a temporary employee of a Kansas center.


This employee came and went at the beginning of the shift, but no one saw him during working hours. Only a week later, it was discovered that the man had made himself a lair inside a pile of empty wooden boxes. Inside, he built a bed of Amazon products, reinforced the walls with pages torn from books, and even stole ordered food. When his lair was finally discovered, the employee was fired (not surprisingly).


Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos announces $1 bn investment for India by 2025


16. The original Amazon Kindle e-reader was codenamed "Fiona".


This name Kindle got from the book by Neil Stevenson "The Diamond Age". It told of a distant future in which an engineer managed to steal a rare interactive book for his knowledge-hungry daughter, Fiona. The team behind the Kindle prototype was inspired by this fictional device.


The team asked Bezos to keep the name Fiona, but he ended up choosing the Kindle. This word is translated as "kindle the flame", and it really liked Bezos.


17. Jeff Bezos is said to have hired a leadership coach to shout less at his subordinates.


Bezos is known for being quite harsh or sarcastic about employees who tell him something unpleasant. Rumor has it that he has hired a special assistant to help him respond to the news in a less harsh manner.


During one meeting, Bezos chastised employees in his usual harsh manner. He said that they were all fools and that he gave them a week to figure out what they were doing. Then he took a couple of steps, froze as if he suddenly realized something and said: "But still, you did a good job."


18. Bezos Realized a childhood dream.


Bezos founded his own space tourism company Blue Origin in 2000, decades after telling teachers and friends as a child that he wanted to be a “space entrepreneur” when he grew up.


19. Space enthusiast.


Jeff is so passionate about NASA during the Mercury and Apollo missions that he equipped and financed an underwater expedition to locate and recover the debris of Apollo rockets.


20. Bezos doesn't use an alarm clock.


He does not use an alarm clock and tends to sleep a full eight hours a night. No overnight fires or early risings for this CEO.


Jeff Bezos (CEO Amazon) explains his business model to shareholders | by  Alex Circei | HackerNoon.com | Medium


21. A good father.


As a child, Jeff was adopted by his stepfather Miguel Bezos. Today, the entrepreneur has four children with his wife Mackenzie: three sons and a daughter, whom the couple adopted in China.


22. He has come a long way.


As a teenager, Bezos worked at McDonald's, making French fries. At the same time, he founded a small summer camp for primary school students DREAM Institute.


23. Demanding to women.


Jeff had high demands on candidates for the role of a life partner. In an interview with Wired, he said that he was looking for one that "will get him out of the trap of the Third World."


24. Altruist, but not strong.


Originally from Albuquerque, Jeff studied at Princeton. There he studied electrical engineering and computer science. In 2011, he donated $ 15 million to the university to build a center for the study of neurological disorders.


At the same time, being the richest man on earth, Bezos is ranked last in the ranking of the top 10 billionaire benefactors.


25. A big fan of reading.


Bezos's favorite book is The Remains of the Day by Kazuo Ishiguro.


US lawmakers demand Jeff Bezos testify over Amazon's 'possibly criminally  false' statements | Amazon | The Guardian


26. Customers come first.


If you have any complaints or suggestions, just email jeff@amazon.com. Receiving emails to this mail, Bezos forwards the question to the person in charge at the company, who then reports directly to the CEO on the progress of the issue. So the problem is under control.


27. Bezos made the first tables for himself and Amazon employees himself.


He could not afford expensive furniture at the beginning of the journey, so he put together tables for the first employees himself, using wooden doors instead of tabletops and boards for legs. Now these tables have become something of an artifact at the company - for over 20 years at Amazon, they have been using various variations of that historically simple design for the desktop.


The company even instituted the Door Desk Awards, which give creators "good ideas to offer consumers the lowest prices."


28. Bezos is not a fan of expensive cars.


Despite the fact that after the founding of Amazon, Bezos' business rapidly went uphill, he did not, like many, buy yachts and expensive cars for himself and for a long time remained faithful to his 1987 Chevrolet Blazer, which at first personally delivered deliveries. In 1997, when the company went public, he finally swapped out his old car for the new Honda Accord.


29. Bezos once looked into the eyes of death.


In 2003, Jeff Bezos practically looked death in the eye. He was looking for land to build a test site for Blue Origin when his helicopter crashed on a tour of Texas. The Amazon CEO received a number of minor injuries and recovered quickly, but after that he did not fly helicopters for a long time.


“Nothing special occurred to me. I was only thinking about what a stupid way to die, ”Bezos told Fast Company in 2004.


It didn't become some kind of life-defining experience for me. I’m afraid I’ve learned a rather mundane lesson: Avoid helicopters whenever possible! They are not as reliable as air transport with wings. "


30. Bezos is an Early Investor in Google.


Less than five years after founding Amazon, Bezos demonstrated his investment flair by investing $ 1 million in Google in the late 90s. Then it was a serious risk, which by now has paid off handsomely.

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