Oktoberfest 2021: top 100 most interesting facts about beer (Part 2)
Because a refreshing event is approaching, namely Oktoberfest, the Bemorepand team decided to find the most interesting, useful and, in some places, funny curiosities about one of the most popular drinks in the world - beer.
Blonde, brown, unfiltered or wheat, with summery and fresh aromas - these are just a few features of beer, a drink that, by the way, in limited quantities, can take care of your thirst and health this summer. From the boundless space of the internet, Bemorepanda gathered the most interesting and unusual curiosities about beer.
Here comes the second part of Top 100 facts about beer. Here you can view the first part.
51. Sometimes brewers use the secondary fermentation method called kreusening. Fresh fermenting wort is added to the already poured chilled beer. An additional portion of yeast speeds up the fermentation process, cleans up the by-products released during fermentation and improves the taste of the beer, as hops and other additives retain flavor and aroma longer.
51. Hops are one of the classic beer ingredients, although not required for fermentation. It has been used in Europe since the 8th century, but it's real heyday came during the Reformation. If you put hops in the wort during boiling, the beer will get a characteristic bitterness, since when the plant is heated it releases resin. If you add it already during fermentation, when the beer “reaches” in a vat or barrel, the drink will take only aroma from the hops - this process is called “dry hopping”. Brewers only use bumps of female plants - they can be bought dried, in pellets or even briquettes. Hops, by the way, are poisonous: fresh buds can irritate and discomfort their pickers.
The types of hops that are used in brewing. Some of them impart a more bitter taste to the drink, while others, such as Liberty, are more likely to be used for flavoring.
52. Previously, beer was aged in wooden barrels, but with the transition to industrial brewing, manufacturers began to choose steel vats. With the flourishing of crafting, wood has regained its popularity: firstly, wood absorbs the tastes and aromas of aged drinks, passing them on to the next. Secondly, it gives the beer a special woody flavor, which sometimes contains notes of coconut, vanilla or caramel. And thirdly, the wood allows air and microorganisms to pass through, which also change the taste of the wort. Modern brewers don't always use barrels - instead of vats, they can use oak chips, cubes, or spirals. Sometimes the wood is even burned if they want to achieve a drink with a strong and toasty "character".
53. In Africa, where traditional crops grow poorly in subtropical and prairie conditions, sorghum is grown, which easily adapts to different soils. It is from sorghum that local beer is brewed, which is called differently in different countries: in Benin and Togo - chukutu, in Tanzania - mtama, in Sudan - merissa, and in South Africa - kaffir. Although the brewing process is similar to the European one, the taste of beer is very different from the usual lagers and ales due to the use of specific raw materials and a large amount of lactic acid bacteria entering the vessels. Although sorghum beer is traditionally used during festivals and rituals, many Africans prefer to buy European varieties because they contain more alcohol and the brewing process is more hygienic. The drink is loved by the poorest segments of the population, as it perfectly saturates due to its high calorie content.
This is what purple corn looks like, from which chicha morada is prepared.
54. Chicha - a beer-like drink from South America made from corn. It is especially popular in Bolivia and Peru, where this cereal is actively growing, and its strength varies from 2 to 12 degrees. In ancient times, corn was chewed and then spat into a vat, where it was fermented under the influence of saliva, and the starch was broken down into simple sugars. This method exists to this day, moreover,, resort to it even craft breweries, which have special equipment for pasteurizing the drink. Chicha morada is made from purple corn with the addition of pineapple peels, sugar, cloves and cinnamon, which makes the drink look like mulled wine. In addition to corn, South Americans chew cassava, sweet potatoes, and other fruits.
55. Sake, which has been produced for over 1,300 years, is very often called rice vodka or wine, although it is closest to beer because it is made by fermenting grain. For the drink, not all the grain of rice is used, but only its most starchy central part: for this, the rice is polished, removing the bitter shell and upper layers. Although there are special varieties of rice for sake, the specific variety is not so important because during the manufacturing process the producers try to make the drink so pure that it does not leave the grain flavor in it. After the polishing of rice, moisture evaporated, and then added to the koji spores of the fungus, which is known for its taste "umami",as the rice grain has no enzymes. The resulting drink is filtered after fermentation, and two types are distinguished - a slightly filtered unclear nigori and a crystal clear "imperial" one. The strength of sake reaches 20%, but it is often diluted with water up to 15%.
56. In the 19th century in Germany, they began to brew beer from potatoes: raw potatoes were grated, heated to 156 degrees together with water to a state of thick gruel, then a thick syrup was obtained from which the drink was prepared. Potatoes are great for beer, as they are high in starch, which means they are an excellent raw material for yeast. Today, potato beer is not uncommon, and besides the classic varieties,are also used in brewing sweet potatoes, yams and cassava.
57. During the colonial era, pumpkin was widely eaten in North America, which still occupies a significant part of the US gastro culture, especially in the fall. In addition to pies and pumpkin puree, the pilgrims brewed beer: grated vegetable pulp was an excellent source of sugars, replacing cereals, most of which were sent to bread. In 1771, the American Philosophical Society published a recipe for a pure "pompion ale," as it was then called. With the development of cereal crops, the popularity of pumpkin beer gradually faded away, the malt drink we were already familiar with began to be imported from Europe, and the vegetable was no longer used in production. In the wake of craft brewing in the United States at the end of the 20th century, pumpkin was again remembered: it is believed that Bill Owens discovered the recipe in the works of George Washington and tried to implement it. They began experimenting with the vegetable in every possible way: for example, they added nutmeg, cinnamon and cardamom to the wort, imitating the taste of pumpkin pie. Pumpkin porters, stouts and lagers emerged and are now popular in the United States.
There are a lot of breweries in the USA that make pumpkin beer. For example, Rouge itself grows vegetables for beer, picks them in August, dries them, and by September fresh pumpkin ale appears on the shelves
58. Kvass was known in Russia back in the 11th century - at that time it was more alcoholic and looked much like beer. Strong kvass is called melted, that is, boiled, and not arbitrarily fermented. It was prepared from wheat and barley malt or rye bread, adding wormwood, hops, cumin and St. John's wort for flavor and aroma. A little later, kvass was distilled, which is why the amount of alcohol in it increased. Interestingly, there was a disease called "yazya kvass", in which a headache was severe - most likely such an ancient diagnosis was made to those suffering from a hangover after excessive drinking. Now kvass is not considered an alcoholic drink, although according to GOST its strength can reach 1.2%; and the past of the drink reminds us of the verb "ferment", that is, "get drunk."
59. Honey is added to some types of beer, but there is mead - a completely separate brew drink, which does not contain malt. Honey can be anything you like - buckwheat, lime, orange, because of this, the drink turns out to be different in color, density and strength. To taste, it can be not only sweet, but also semi-sweet and even dry. In Russia, nutritious honey was already known in the 10th century: they were both boiled and set, that is, they were left for natural fermentation. Mead was available to ordinary people, since the farm often had its own apiaries, but with the spread of stronger alcoholic beverages, for example, vodka, they practically stopped drinking it. Although you can now buy a drink at any store, industrial meads have little in common with ancient Russian honeys. Besides Russia, mead is popular in the USA and Europe. The American Mead Association notes that new companies are constantly opening in the states that brew different styles: melomel (mead with fruits), metheglin (mead with spices and herbs), kesira (mead with apples), piment (mead with grape juice) and others.
One of the largest mead plants in Russia is located in Suzdal - the industrial history ofbegan here in the 19th century.
60. Braggot is a mead with malt, but it is classified as beer. The drink got its name from the ancient Celtic word bracis, meaning the shape of the grain from which it was made. In England braggot often passed off as pure mead that was condemned even by the Church, so gradually that it is highlighted in a separate style. Initially, braggot was made by mixing mead and ale, then it was seasoned with pepper, ginger, cinnamon, galangal and cloves. It became a traditional wedding drink in some British regions, but its popularity declined in the 17th century.
61. Cider is neither beer or wine, although it is often tried to be included in the classification of these drinks. Cider is made from apple juice that is fermented naturally or by adding yeast. Although it is preferable to prepare the drink from special coarse varieties of fruits rich in tannins, sometimes ordinary table apples are taken. There are many styles of cider produced all over the world: dry and sweet, yellow and pink, highly carbonated and quiet, with added spices, herbs, other fruits and hops. Cider analogs - Poiret or Perry - are made from pears.
62. There are several hundred beer styles in the world, however, craft breweries often transcend traditional and well-known recipes, making it nearly impossible to create a complete guide to all styles. Craftsmen can take as a basis classic beers from Belgium, Germany or the UK, add strange, unusual ingredients to them, or change the brewing process. Also, styles don't just happen: for a trendy new beer to become a style, it has to be made by more than one brewery, so the process takes time. The most recognized guide in the world, American Brewers Association, changes every year, with new varieties being added and definitions of old ones rewriting.
63. Most styles can be divided into two types: ales, or top-fermented beers, and lagers, or bottom-fermented beers. During top fermentation, which occurs at higher temperatures (about 20 degrees), and therefore more ancient, the yeast rises to the surface. During bottom fermentation (about 10 degrees), which spreads when refrigeration machines appear, the yeast is concentrated at the bottom of the container. In the modern world, the second type of fermentation is most often used.
64. Lager is the most popular beer style. 87% of the beer market in the United States Lagers like Corona and Budweiser account for, and the most common type of lager is Pilsner, named after his hometown of Pilsen, Czech Republic. Beer brewing in Pilsen began in the 1200s, but it was the light golden lager that was first made by the Bavarian Josef Groll in 1842. Since then, it has been marketed under the brand name Pilsner Urquell, which prides itself on using Saaz hops, which give the beer a particularly mild flavor, and is named after the Polish town of Zatec.
Despite the fact that Schwarzbier is black, this is a lager, although it is more common to see lagers as golden.
65. Lagers are made on all continents. The Bavarians are very close to the Czech Republic, so they quickly adopted the Pilsner brew, modifying it - the German Pilsners are fresher and more bitter, due to the fact that they use different hops there. Lagers are actively made in the USA, Austria and Japan - in the latter can be to them , rice, potatoes, soybeans and corn added. The public is more accustomed to seeing light lagers, but there are also black ones, such as Schwarzbier, one of the most popular beers in Germany. This beer is a great example of how a dark beverage can be light and refreshing: it has a mild roasted flavor with very clean notes of caramel and coffee. The German brewery Köstritzer is best known for its Schwarzbiers, which has almost five hundred years of history. In addition, such unusual lagers as India Pale Lager are brewed in the world with hopping like IPA or brut lagers, which the amylase enzyme gives sparkle like champagne.
66. The German town of Einbock was a major brewing center in the late Middle Ages: since it was part of the Hanseatic League, local artisans exported most of their produce before the Hanseatic fell into decay in the 16th century. Almost half of the inhabitants of the city made beer: the malt was dried in attics, and it was brewed in a special mobile boiler, which belonged to the city and was brought into the courtyards one by one. This interesting practice, among other things, is evidenced by urban architecture: in many houses, instead of gates, there were huge arches. There is a legend that one of the Bavarian dukes Maximilian was so fond of Einbeck beer that he could not survive the interruptions in supply, so he called the local brewer Elias Pichler to his place to ensure that the drink was always available. Initially, bock - and this is exactly what this beer was called - was made by top fermentation, but Pichler adapted it to Bavarian tastes and over time this style began to be brewed in a larger way. It is believed that the block was the favorite style of theologian and reformer Martin Luther. There are several sub-styles of the bock: a stronger and denser doppelbock, a light tee, and a dark.
67. Not all brewers agree with the strict division, which is why they lager / ale brew hybrid beers. These are ales brewed at typical lager temperatures and vice versa. Or ales that used lager yeast. This brewing method conveys the characteristics of both beer categories, and their styles are nearly impossible to classify. There are several varieties that are produced in this manner. For example, Altbier (old beer) is a typical Düsseldorf style, a bottom-fermented bitter variety, although in many respects it is similar to lagers. Or steam beer, which has been brewed in the States since the 19th century. Initially, it was a lager, which was fermented at unusual temperatures for speed - because of this, its quality deteriorated, but the price became low. Why it was named "steam" is unknown: according to one version, this is due to the fact that it was exposed to the street for rapid cooling, and it emitted steam. On the other, there was so much carbon dioxide in the barrels that it had to be released as steam.
68. Everything that was produced in the German city of Cologne used to be called Kölsch. However, at the beginning of the 20th century, this word was firmly entrenched in local beer - light, highly fermented, hopped, top-fermented, produced in accordance with the Law on Purity. To protect the name and outline the main conditions for the production of the variety, in 1985 24 Cologne breweries signed the Kölsch Convention, which specified the requirements for packaging, labels, advertising, as well as the rules for sale, sale and cooperation with intermediaries. Today, in Cologne bars, köbs - waiters in traditional blue cardigans - pour kölsch into long narrow 0.2-liter glasses and serve it on a special tray with a handle - a kölsch-kränz.
Cologne Köbs waiter with a Kölsch fender in hand
69. Barleywine is a strong, dark, almost black English ale, around which a lot of controversy arises. The term Barley Wine was originally used as a poetic synonym for ale. Beginning in the 1870s, a beer that began to be sold in Britain the brewers themselves called Barleywine, such as the Bass Brewery in Burton-upon-Trent. According to researcher Martin Cornell, there is no difference between barleywine and traditional strong aged ales - this is just a marketing ploy that has spread since the 20th century. In barleywine, alcohol can reach 12%, so it was traditionally sold in small bottles. Perhaps in order to give the beer a more wine-like flavor, in accordance with its name, it was aged in barrels from port, whiskey or bourbon.
70. Due to the numerous British wars at the end of the 17th century, there was a sharp increase in taxes and prices in the country, including for brewing raw materials. It became particularly expensive because of malt, which is why its share and the quality of the product fell sharply.But on hops recently imported from the mainland, taxes did not rise as quickly, so the amount in beer increased. However, for the British, such a drink was too strong and sour, because they were accustomed to the traditional swedish ale, therefore, to save money, they began to mix two types of beer, and then leave for a long exposure - over time, the taste softened and the bitterness of the hops disappeared. The new dark drink became very popular with the working class and was named "porter" after the porters and stevedores who loved to drink it. While it is widely believed that porter was invented by London brewer Ralph Harwood around the 1720s, mixing several different varieties with each other, documents found indicate that porters were known to the British in the past. Due to the possibility of long-term storage, the porter could be imported to other countries, where it took root in its variations. In Poland, for example, a Baltic porter has emerged, which is made with yeast for lagers rather than ales. In pre-revolutionary Russia, this style became known as "imperial stout" because it was loved at the court of Catherine II. Today, the most popular American porters, which are craft brewers, revived after the repeal of "Prohibition" in the United States.
71. Initially, any strong beer was called a stout, and a little later - a stronger porter. In the second half of the 19th century, less black malt than porters and more brown malt began to be added to stouts, giving the stouts a drier flavor. Today, between them there are practically no technological differences, except for the one that is usually used for porters solozhony barley, and for stouts - nesolozhonyzhzhony,but even this rule has exceptions. Inside the stouts, oats (with the addition of oats), Irish, grown from Guinness porters on roasted malt, sweet tropical, made for export to hot countries, and others are distinguished.
72. Tax increases for raw materials has led to the appearance of the Paleales.In the early 18th century, it became cheaper to brew beer at home than to buy it in pubs and shops; in addition, at home it is easier to control the quality of the ingredients, and hence the quality of the drink. When people moved around the country, they were looking for something similar to their familiar home-brewed beer. This led to the fact that artisans began to experiment with beer, trying to find the very taste - and so a highly hopped bitter pale ale, brewed with light malt, was born. The public got tired of the porter, and with the proliferation of transparent glasses, there was a demand for a beautiful, non-cloudy beer that was more difficult to counterfeit. So pale ale became a real British hit. Especially popular was the pale ale from Burton-upon-Trent, a small town in Staffordshire that was formerly known for its quality brown ales. The mineralization of the local springs was believed to be ideal for preparing light strong ales.
Burton-upon-Trent has been famous for its breweries for centuries. Here is the National Brewery Center, where you can get acquainted with the history of the drink in the city
73. By the 19th century, the British East India Company gradually colonized India, discovering unhindered trade in the country. Brewers also drew attention to this market, and the most notable among them was James Hodgson: from the 1780s he practically monopolized the supply of various beers, united under the name Indian Ale, to the colony. However, already in the 1820s, other companies and artisans were able to win the true love of the local public with a brighter beer. Burton brewers sent their pale ales to India. At that time, the transportation of products was possible only by sea and took about six months, and during this time the beer fell into disrepair. Only heavily hopped varieties could preserve their freshness and taste, but porter, although it was familiar to British soldiers, who were full in the country due to national uprisings against the colonialists, was too dense and heavy for the hot climate. Pale ales, on the other hand, are bright, sparkling, with a bitter taste - perfect for quenching thirst and refreshing. Like many other styles of beer, India Pale Ale or IPA virtually disappeared during the World Wars of the 20th century, but reemerged in America in the 1970s with the rise of craft beer.
74. Already in our time, a new style of pale ale was born - NEIPA, which most often stands for New England India Pale Ale. Even though NEIPA emerged in the 2000s, it's hard to say who came up with it. It is believed that the Alchemist and Hill Farmstead breweries in Vermont, and then TreeHouse and Trillium in Massachusetts, began brewing it at about the same time. This style is cloudy, sweet, light, like a tropical juice, while the IPA is clear and very bitter due to the high hop content. NEIPA also has hops, but it is added at the very end of the boil, so it gives its aroma to the drink, without having time to make it bitter. This style is very popular in the USA, where even small artisans brew it.
75. Before hops became one of the most important ingredients, the Netherlands, France, Belgium, Germany and other northern countries used gruit, a mixture of herbs to add flavor and aroma to beer, usually including wormwood, wild rosemary, horse and dog mint, yarrow, juniper, rosemary, marsh myrtle and other plants. The composition of this mixture depended on local traditions and the available plants, many of which are poisonous or known for their psychotropic effects, making the drink highly intoxicating. The first mention of fruit dates back to the 10th century, when the German king Otto II granted the right to trade in the mixture to some churches: at that time, when buying beer raw materials, a tax had to be paid, so only bishops, nobles or large farmers could sell gruit. In many cities there were special people - gruyters who made the mixture and sold it to the brewers. Over time, the Catholic Church practically monopolized the sale of gruit, and hops became an increasingly common ingredient without paying for it. The last nail in the coffin of the herbal mixture was the Protestants. They promoted austerity and abstinence, which influenced the adoption in the 16th-18th centuries of a number of laws prohibiting the use of psychotropic additives in brewing. But the main reason for the disappearance of gruit was religious politics and the decline in the influence of Catholicism in the northern countries. Now gruits are also boiled, but very rarely.
76. In some bars you can see the Sauer - it's not exactly a beer style, but rather a general name for all kinds of acid.Lambics, Gueuze, Gose, Flemish ales, Berliner Weisse or smoked German ales - Liechtenheiners can be hiding here. The latter were once common throughout Germany, but now they are very rare. They are brewed with wheat or barley smoked over an open fire, which give the beer a smoky aroma. And the sour taste appears due to lactic acid bacteria. By the way, in Germany there is another famous beer that is brewed with smoked malt - rauchbier.
Rauchbier was historically made in Franconia, in the city of Bamberg
77. Lambic is made according to the old technology of "spontaneous fermentation": the wort for lambic is boiled, and then left to ferment in an open vessel, without adding special brewer's yeast there.can enter the vessel Any microorganisms, so it is impossible to accurately predict the taste of the resulting drink, however, it cannot be called completely unpredictable either, since brewers still observe the temperature regime and limit the ingress of some bacteria into the mash. The special sour taste of lambics is largely attributed to the yeast strains of Brettanomyces, the most famous of which are B. bruxellensis and B. lambicus, named after the Belgian capital and local style. If in the barrels the beer still tastes too different, then it can be mixed with each other so that the batch is homogeneous. It is believed that real lambic, like champagne, is made only in the Senne river valley - the Pajottenland region and near Brussels, and everything else is just beer "in style".
78. Lambic began to be brewed around the 17th century, but by the 19th it had become a hit. By 1900, there were about 80 breweries in the vicinity of Brussels, specializing in lambic. It became an everyday drink, and farmers often took a bottle with them to work in the fields. From the middle of the century, the popularity of the style began to decline: large players appeared on the market who offered a simpler and more understandable to the consumer light lager, and the popularity of soda with a lot of sugar influenced the mass love for sweet beer. Some breweries closed, others began to sweeten their product on purpose, and as a result, the quality of the lambics dropped. It wasn't until the 1990s that a revival began, fueled by a general interest in local production, especially craft beer, the proliferation of the internet, and the publication of books such as Tom Webbs' LambicLand. Brewers began to come up with cultural events to promote lambics: interactive production tours, tastings, and festivals. Currently, this style of beer is perceived by the Belgians as one of the elements of the country's cultural heritage.
79. Gueuze is a type of lambic for which young (about a year old) and old (about 2-3 years old) beer is mixed. After filling in a bottle, the drink is fermented and becomes highly carbonated. Gueuze is called "Brussels champagne": it is believed that when Napoleon's troops occupied Belgium, a general fashion for sparkling wine began. An enterprising brewer from Geuzenstraat collected empty champagne bottles and poured lambic into them - the beer was so successful that it gained popularity and got its name from Geuzen Street. Although the Lindemans company, which is famous for its lambics, believes that the name comes from the French gazeux, that is, carbonated. Gueuze is usually sweetish in taste with a strong sour aftertaste.
Map of the 1997 Toer de Geuze festival. This is a festival in the Pajottenland region, held twice a year, during which you can get free guided tours and tastings of gueuze and lambics at local breweries
80. Cherry lambic is called scream. It is also made by blending two lambics of different ages with the addition of overripe sour Morello cherries: according to tradition, they are not crushed, but dipped into a barrel of beer, either whole or with a slightly damaged skin. In addition to cherry lambic in Belgium, other types of lambic are made - framboise (raspberry), peche (peach), cassis (black currant) and faro, to which caramelized sugar is added.
81. Gueuze is often confused with gosé - a German beer with a thousand-year history, which is also produced by spontaneous top fermentation with the addition of coriander and salt. It began to be brewed in the city of Goslar in Lower Saxony, but this style gained particular popularity in Leipzig, where by 1800 there were about 80 taverns specializing in gose. Despite strong love, it remained a regional drink, as lagers supplanted almost all ales, and may have completely disappeared due to the wars, but its recipe has survived. The style revived at home at the end of the 20th century and continues to develop now, including among craft breweries on the Russian market.
The area of distribution of sahti and other Scandinavian beer drinks
82. Sahti is a type of beer produced in Finland based on barley, rye, juniper and baker's yeast. It was originally brewed for home use rather than commercial sale, so the recipe has remained largely unchanged over the years. Most often it was made for family events like weddings. Sahti was especially common in western Finland, while in the eastern regions of the country, low-alcohol kalya beer was preferred, whose traditional recipe has practically disappeared. Interestingly, saunas were often used to malt the grain, in which it was possible to maintain a high temperature for a long time. Usually sahti is infused in barrels, not steel vats, protected from oxidation and not filtered - the beer tastes sweet with hints of milkshake. Today in Finland there are only six breweries that brew this style, but for none it is the main one.
83. Berliner Weiss is a cloudy wheat beer with noticeable sourness and high carbonation. It contains only about 3% alcohol. This style is shrouded in many legends. Someone says that Berliner Weiss was inspired by the Huguenots who moved to the German capital from France in the 18th century and missed their usual wine. Someone that one famous 16th century brewer Kord Broyhan from Hanover, while traveling in Hamburg, tasted a previously unknown beer and tried to copy it at home. There is a widespread story that Napoleon called this beer "Northern Champagne". Today Berliner Weiss is very popular in Berlin and is often drunk at dinner, adding various syrups such as raspberry or apple. Berliner has a protected geographic name and can only be produced in the German capital and the surrounding area; however, it is prepared only in two companies - Berliner Kindl and Schultheiss.
Rodenbach Grand Cru - one of the benchmarks for sour ales
84. Flemish or Belgian red ales have their roots in experiments with porter. In the early 1870s, Fleming Eugene Rodenbach studied at a brewery in England, from where he returned home with recipes for this rich dark beer. He began to brew ale, aging it in oak barrels for several years and adding to the yeast lactobacilli, which gave the drink a characteristic sour taste. Later, he founded the Rodenbach Brewery, which sold ready-made blended yeast to other artisans within 50 km of Roeselare, and these breweries produced their own Belgian red and sour brown beer from it. Although the practice of yeast blending spread throughout Europe, Rodenbach is still considered the benchmark for red ales.
85. Brown is another classic Flemish ale. In 1829, Dr. Jean-Baptiste Vrankin wrote that "a dark beer that burns the palate and constricts the throat" is poured in Flanders, and a little later the brewer Georges Lacambre noted its "bitter, rough and tart taste." The popularity of brown beer gradually grew and by the end of the 19th century it became a hit of sales: it was thanks to it that Liefmans, after the damage to its buildings during the First World War, was still able to become the 21st largest brewery in Belgium in terms of production. At that time, these ales tasted quite sour, so they were compared to wine. Over time, it softened: brewers indulge the tastes of the public, addicted to Coca-Cola and other sweet sodas, which, as in the case of lambics, influenced the recipe for ales. Since the 1980s, the popularity of this style has been steadily declining, and some brown beer companies have gone bust.
86. In the French-speaking region of Belgium, the saison, a seasonal golden ale made from the remnants of the fall harvest for the summer, when additional workers were hired to the fields, was widespread among the peasantry. To quench their thirst, a light beer was brewed, refreshing in the heat. The saison recipe is optional: if a berry is born in the summer, then it can be added to the future beer, but if not, then the beer will be brewed from other ingredients. That is why it is now difficult to find two brewers following the same brewing method, since saison is more about a format than a specific taste. In France, there is a similar drink - bière de garde, or "beer for storage", which was also brewed in advance, before the season of active work, so that the peasants could devote all their time to the harvest, and not to cooking.about bière de garde these days. Little is said, and although there are many variations of it in its homeland - from light honey to darker and more fruity, craft brewers rarely use it in their experiments.
87. During the Reformation, the Catholic Cistercian order, which had branched off from the Benedictine order, began to decline. The monks from the Norman abbey of La Trappe decided that one should not succumb to sins and should focus on the strict discipline and asceticism that Saint Benedict bequeathed. The followers of the restrictions became known as Trappists, and in 1892 the Pope officially recognized them as a separate order. However, due to the French Revolution and the persecution of Catholics, Trappists settled throughout Europe, including Belgium. The monks themselves produced everything necessary for life, including brewing beer for themselves and for sale. They noticed that the wort can be filtered repeatedly, making it a lighter drink each time. The strongest first infusions they sold in the villages, the weaker ones, called petite beer - small beer, they kept for themselves or distributed to the poor. It is believed that this system gave names to the classic monastic ales - single, dubbel, triple and quadruple. The strongest varieties were marked by monks with four crosses (Quadrupel from the word quad - four), and the weakest - only one. Over time, the Trappists began to imitate, and in 1962 the monks filed a lawsuit against unscrupulous brewers using a false name. Since 1997, the International Trappist Association has existed: only 20 abbeys that are members of it are entitled to the original name of the beer.
Trappist monk in the brewery of the Abbey of La Trappe
88. The monks brewed a strong and aromatic beer without strong hoppy bitterness. Despite the ban on the use of the Trappist name in production and sale, no one restricted copying the recipe, so secular versions of the drink appeared, called abbey beer. The most common beer was the dowel - in 1926, Westmill Abbey released Dubbel Bruin, which gained a lot of followers and admirers. It is a dark amber beer with a complex malt sweetness and 6-7% ABV, and caramelized sugar is often added to it. The quadruple is considered to be a stronger version of the dowel - the amount of alcohol can be up to 14%. Tripel is a light golden beer also made famous by Westmill. Its fortress is kept in the region of 7-10%. A single is very rare due to its weakness (about 3%) and unsaturation.
89. While many beer styles revived after World War II, some of them have disappeared forever. This happened, for example, with the Berliner oud (or Berliner alto in German). A few years ago, the brewer Marco Loret discovered an old label. It indicated that the Berliner alto was produced by Gustaf Hustinks at the Pauw brewery in Culemborg. The brewery itself was opened in the 19th century, but Houstinks owned it for only a few years - from 1909 to 1913. Beer researcher Rowell Mulder has found advertising campaigns from different masters who have brewed this species since the 1880s, but could not find any recipes, so the taste of Berliner alto remains a mystery. Mulder suggests that it could be a Dutch imitation of German varieties, judging by the name, and most likely fantasy, because the style did not take root and faded into oblivion.
90. While roasted malt can add a coffee-like flavor to beer, natural coffee can be added to the beverage. It is most commonly used in porters, stouts, especially imperial, dark and pale ales. The taste will be very dependent on the grain and its roast, so there can be many variations of coffee beers. In America's new craft era, the plant began to be used in the 1990s, when radical blends of coffee, chocolate and oats or coffee, Mexican vanilla and sugar appeared. Interestingly, the coffee can be added whole, ground or already brewed, including by cold brew.
- Tomato goes from Saldens, a craft Russian brewery
91. Tomatoes are a popular ingredient in beer, especially gose. Most likely, the experiment with tomatoes originates from the famous Mexican cocktail that serves prepada, sometimes called chavela or michelada. According to legend, michelada was invented by a bartender in San Luis Potosi as a hangover and fatigue remedy in the 1910s. In addition to beer, its composition includes tomato juice, lime, spices and hot sauce, depending on the region.
92. Brewing with grapes is considered a special art, as the result is a wine-beer hybrid. The abundance of varieties of this fruit gives unusual flavors: for example, Viognier will give the drink aromas of melon and tropical fruits, and red varieties can give the beer the taste of black currant or cherry. Typically, red grapes like syrah or grenache are added to dark, rich beers like porter or strong ales, while white sauvignon blanc is ideal with gueuze or lambic. Since the 1970s, the Belgian company Cantillon has been brewing lambics every year with hand-picked nutmeg. When picking grapes, the smallest details should be taken into account: there will be a difference between the fruits harvested from the southern and northern sides of the vineyard, and if you cut off the bunches with branches, then a woody note will appear in the taste.
93. In the United States , pizza-flavored beer is brewed. In 2013, Tom and Anthea Seifert from Chicago brewed beer with oregano, basil, tomatoes, garlic and even pizza crumbs. Initially, it was assumed that the resulting mixture could be used as a marinade, but the drink turned out to be so good that they began to drink it just like that. Other brewers also picked up the idea - Liquid Margarita can now be found in many American companies and even in Russian artisans, for example, Pizza Boy from Selfmade Brewery.
94. In the last decade, more and more types of beer have been added to which avocado is added. In 2013, American brewery Angel City Brewery brewed an avocado beer, adding cilantro, red pepper, lime and honey to create a guacamole flavor. After that, Bush Shack Brewery in Australia and Rocky Knob in New Zealand did some experiments. This is a seasonal story, as beer is highly dependent on the harvest of the fruit. Avocado gives the drink not only taste, but also a delicate creamy texture.
95. There are several banana bread flavored breweries around the world, such as Eagle Brewery and Wells and Young's, which introduced the exotic beer in 2002.wort Mashed bananas are added to the, which, when combined with malt, give a bright taste of fruitcake. In general, bananas are a standard ingredient for beer in many African countries: in Rwanda they cook urwagwa, in the Congo - kasixi, in Uganda - mubishi. It is important for this drink to use bananas at their peak of ripeness, as overripe can ruin the taste. Boiled water and fried grains are added to mashed bananas, which have yielded juice. Beer is not heated, but must be filtered to prolong its short shelf life, as bananas are an excellent medium for microbial growth.
96. During the Victorian era in Britain, stout was often consumed with oysters in pubs - the bittersweet taste perfectly complemented the salty shellfish. It is believed that the shells could end up in beer vats because they purify the water, which means they can clarify the beer, masking low-quality or over-dried malt. It is not known exactly when oyster meat was added to the beer itself for flavor, but in 1939 New Zealand's Barnes Oysters began shipping oyster concentrate to British brewers. Sources say that it took at least 18 months to develop the drink, and the amount of concentrate in a bottle is equivalent to one whole oyster. Oyster stout has never been a mainstream beer, and doesn't even stand out as a distinct style, but today some craft breweries are making it experimentally.
97. Petersburg brewery Hophead Gose brewed with the taste of soups and national dishes. The line includes beer with the taste of okroshka, French onion soup, sour cabbage soup, Bulgarian chorba, Megrelian ajika, pickle, tom yam, pho bo, Armenian dogwood soup, kharcho, Indian curry and others. To create taste, edible ingredients are really added to the wort - vegetables, spices, herbs, cheese and even meat broths.
98. Although beer is not the most popular ingredient in cocktails, many drinks are made from it besides the ruff (a mixture of beer and vodka). One of the most famous cocktails, the Moscow mule, which consists of vodka and ginger beer, was invented in the United States and has many variations. In addition to it, in bars you can try shandy or radler (lager with lemonade), michelada, Mississippi porter-fur (porter with bourbon and rum), black velveteen (beer with champagne), beer mojito, chocolate mixtures of liqueurs and porters, and others. Sometimes there are some really weird recipes like beer with ice cream or eggs.
99.Wat Pa Maha Chedi Kaew Temple, 600 kilometers from Bangkok, has an unusual appearance, created from a large number of used Heineken beer bottles and a local type of beer.
100.The Vikings believed that in Valhalla, their heaven, a goat with a udder was waiting for them, which would always supply them with beer.
Every year, people drink almost 400 billion liters of beer: this ancient drink, known to the Sumerians and Egyptians, is still one of the most popular on the planet. Over its long history, beer has been constantly changing under the pressure of economic and political events, religious intrigue and cunning of peasants, bans on drunkenness and crop failures, technological progress and the creativity of brewers.
Bemorepanda collected a hundred facts about history, economics, production technology, unusual ingredients and variety of beer sorts tells who and when "invented" the foam, why it was women who brewed it for centuries, from what the color of beer depends, why in the 19th century women in labor were treated with stout, how the drink affects the risk of radiation damage, where you can swim in the beer pool.
1.Beer is the most popular alcohol on the planet and the third most popular drink after water and tea. People on the planet consume 396 billion liters of beer every year. For comparison: only 25 billion liters of wine. In the United States, men drink beer three times more often and twice as much as women who prefer wine.
2.The Czech Republic has been the record holder for 27 years for beer consumption per person for- 188 liters per capita are drunk there annually. Russia in this rating is inferior to thirty other countries - they drink about 60 liters, and this is less than, for example, in the United States, Mexico and Namibia. Most beer by volume is drunk in China.
3.The three most popular beer brands are two Chinese and one American. According to statistics, the Snow brand annually sells over 10 billion liters of beer, and Budweiser and Tsingtao about 4.9 billion. The top ten also includes Heineken, Bud Light, Corona, Harbin and Skol.
4.The most expensive beer in the world can be considered Allsopp's Arctic Ale, a bottle of which may have been sold on eBay for $ 503,000. This beer was brewed in 1852 for an Antarctic expedition, so it has become a collectible. The bottle was kept for a long time by the family of a young man who sold it in 2007 at an online auction for $ 304. However, he made a mistake in the announcement, omitting a letter in the name of the brewery, which is why the demand for the artifact was not so great. The new buyer shifted it again, but with detailed information and the correct name, and within a few days the rates rose to 503,000. A bottle of such beer is estimated at an average of several thousand dollars. In 2020, a similar bottle made only in 1875 was bought at auction for £ 3,300 - a rare copy went to Jamie Alsopp, the distant great-grandson of the brewer of the same beer.
The 1875 bottle that was auctioned
5.The science that officially studies beer is called zitology, from the Greek words zythos (beer) and logos (science). Zytology examines the fermentation and brewing processes of beer, as well as the influence of ingredients on production. And at the Munich University of Technology there is the Weihenstephan Research Center for Brewing and Food Quality. They carry out chemical, technological and microbiological analysis of raw materials, consult production facilities, test technical devices, produce and store yeast strains.
The cover of the first Guinness Book of Records
6.The famous Guinness Book of World Records was invented by Sir Hugh Beaver, who runs the Guinness Brewery, after he argued with a friend at a hunter meeting about which bird was the fastest. Knowing that controversies about the record of this or that phenomenon often arise in pubs, he decided to put all such facts together, and already in 1955 he released a book that gradually began to include strange and extravagant human records and in our time is updated every year.
7.A little about beer records: in 1977 in Pennsylvania, Stephen Petrosino drank 1 liter of beer in 1.3 seconds, which is 56% better than the previous world record set a few years earlier by Peter Dowdswell from England (2.3 seconds). And the German Reinar Würz set a record for the number of fit mugs in his hands - in 2008 he was able to carry 20 mugs of beer (about 50 kilograms) at a distance of 40 meters. The previous record of 17 glasses was set by a woman - Anita Schwartz.
8.For each type of beer, as well as for wine, they select their own glass so that the taste of alcohol is fully revealed. In the UK, there is a traditional ale glass that is a yard long and about 0.5 liters in volume, which has a strange shape like a telescope with a ball at the bottom. "Yard of Ale" has been known since the 17th century and was apparently used as a festive glass for toasts and was made drained at once, since it is not very convenient to drink from it. In Germany, beer is sometimes served in a boot glass: it is believed that this is a memory of how soldiers actually drank beer from boots during the First World War due to the lack of real glasses.
9.The strongest beer in the world - 55% The End of History from BrewDog. It is also one of the most expensive at $ 765 per bottle. To achieve this strength, this pale ale was subjected to extreme freezing. In total, 11 bottles were brewed, each of which was placed in a stuffed dead animal, made by a taxidermist.
10.Oktoberfest is the largest beer festival in the world, held annually in Munich in Theresa's Meadow and attended by about 6 million people. It was first held in 1810 on the occasion of the wedding of Crown Prince Ludwig and Princess Teresa, after whom the town square was named. Only locals can participate in the Oktoberfest Bavarian breweries, which brew special beer for the holiday,. The festival begins with the opening ceremony of the first barrel of beer, followed by costume processions and parades, competitions, concerts and a traditional mass for several weeks. For more than two hundred years of history, Oktoberfest has been canceled only a few times due to wars, epidemics and the economic crisis, including in 2020 and in 2021 due to the coronavirus pandemic.
11. Every year on March 17, the world celebrates another holiday associated with beer - the Day of St. Patrick, the Baptist of the Irish. It was invented by Irish emigrants to the United States in the 18th and 19th centuries, wanting to preserve the memory of their roots. Very little is known for certain about Patrick himself; some researchers even doubt his existence. Historically, it was not associated with alcoholic beverages, and the tradition of drinking strong dark beer on this day is quite new and, possibly, is associated with the promotion of the Guinness brand.
12.Beer Pong is a board game in which you have to hit the ball into one of the glasses of beer at the other end of the table. Two teams participate in the competition, and the winners drink the rivals' beer. It is not known exactly who invented the game, but it is believed that it originated among American college students sometime in the 1950s and 60s. The game has no strict rules. Although at the International Beer Pong Tournament they play only with rackets on a special sports table, in everyday life they often play with their hands on any surface, since this is primarily entertainment for parties where the necessary equipment is not always available. The game without rackets is called "Beirut" after the Lebanese capital, but it is not known exactly why. According to one version, in 1985, Dwayne Kotzen compared theto a game of ping-pong attack of Hezbollah terrorists on an American camp in Lebanon, in which almost 250 thousand people were killed,- this comparison gave the name to the game.
13.In beer, there are practically no proteins and fats, but there is alcohol and carbohydrates: the drink is made from high-carbohydrate grains that break down into simple sugars. Although the beer itself is not very calories - according to the National Nutrient Database, high inon average, 100 grams of beer contains about 43 kilocalories - due to the fact that alcohol increases the appetite, and the culture of drinking implies not the most healthy snacks like toasts, chips, onion rings or sausages, its use cannot be called dietary.
14.Beer is used as a medicinal and health-improving agent. Beer sanatoriums are common in the Czech Republic: in Karlovy Vary, Prague and other spas, guests are offered beer baths with the addition of mineral water in handmade oak tubs and massage, they are treated with malt bread and unlimited Czech foam. Such procedures can be visited in the resort cities of Germany, for example, Baden-Baden, Austria and even some spa centers in Russia. On numerous sanatorium sites they write that such bathing improves the quality of the skin, has a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system and promotes relaxation, but it is better to treat beer therapy as entertainment, not health, and not to abuse it once again.
In beer sanatoriums, guests spend their time something like this: swimming in huge vats and with a mug in hand. Baths actually do not consist entirely of beer, but of a mixture of yeast, malt, hops and water / Photo: The first beer spa in Karlovy Vary.
15.Beer, like alcohol in general, negatively affects human health: it causes addiction, can lead to cirrhosis of the liver, encephalopathy, in which nerve cells of the brain die en masse, or initiates fatal accidents. However, some research suggests that beverages can have positive effects as well. For example, polyphenolic compounds found in beer can have antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, estrogenic, and antiviral effects. True, these data were obtained only under laboratory conditions in vitro, that is, on cells in a test tube, and were not tested on humans. The Anderson American Cancer Prevention Center, on the other hand, points out that ethanol can damage DNA, reduce vital hormones and reduce the ability to absorb nutrients. It is beer that affects the risk of developing cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx, colon and esophagus.
16.There is research that shows that the risk of type 2 diabetes is lower for those who drink alcohol in moderation than those who consume a lot or do not consume at all. Such studies should be treated with caution: for example, in some experiments they do not specify whether abstainers mean people who have never consumed alcohol at all, or those who have drunk before, but at the time of the study was in a string. In addition, those who have completely given up alcohol due to adherence to the principles of a healthy lifestyle may more often go to doctors, as they take more care of their health, which means they will be diagnosed with more diseases.
17.Many researchers have linked moderate beer consumption to health benefits. Some argue that beer improves cognitive ability for old age, others that it decreases the risk of getting ulcers, and still others that it decreases the risk of kidney stones. There is even an opinion that the drink limits the chromosomal damage to leukocytes during radiation exposure. Even if this is true, the harm from alcohol is undeniable and far outweighs the potential positive effects. Despite the fact that WHO allows moderate consumption, representatives of the organization never tire of reminding: there is no safe amount of beer.
18.If alcohol is causing health problems, can non-alcoholic beer be safe and healthy? Studies have shown that drinking alcohol-free can reduce the level of damage from carcinogens, cholesterol, the risks of muscle inflammation after exercise, and upper respiratory disease. The advantages of non-alcoholic beer over alcoholic ones are obvious, but you shouldn't drink it in order to become healthier - it is better to use proven ways to strengthen the immune system and reduce the risk of disease in more effective ways.
19.Beer is one of the oldest drinks. It is still unknown when and where exactly it was first cooked, but most researchers are inclined to believe that it was known to the inhabitants of the ancient Near East already about 5 thousand years ago. It is absolutely certain that beer played a big role in the culture and economy of Mesopotamia - the oldest recipe for beer was found there, written on a clay tablet and dating back 3 thousand years BC. In addition, researchers periodically find ancient breweries in Egypt, then in China, then in Israel - the latter date back to the 13th millennium. However, you should not try to find the country of origin of the drink: beer could have been "invented" in different countries independently of each other.
20.Most likely the beer was discovered by accident. About 10 thousand years ago, they learned to grow cereals in the Middle East, and a little later - to make ceramic products. Germinated grains or crushed can get into the water in the pot and stay in the sun, where under influence of high temperature provoked yeast fermentation process.If such water remained near a fire or other source of heat at night, it gradually turned into a beer drink. The ancient brewer didn't need much: a supply of water and sprouted grains, fire and a container in which the product could be mixed and stored.
21.The Sumerians brewed beer from bread and malt. Recipes for the drink can be found in the Sumerian myths about the god Enki and in the hymn to the goddess Ninkashi, who disposed of alcoholic beverages. These recipes were very diverse - we know about white, red, black, sweet and other types. The Sumerians built taverns, in which women mostly worked, made special glasses and drank beer through a straw.
22.In Ancient Egypt, beer was also associated with mythology: it was believed that the god Osiris gave the drink to the Egyptians, although there was also a separate beer goddess Tenetite. Egyptians could be paid with foam mugs: it is known that when one of the pyramids was erected in Giza, workers were given several pints a day, and one of the construction teams called itself "Menkaur drunks", apparently due to excessive use. In addition, the Egyptian doctors used beer as a medicine, and they even gave it to children to drink, as they believed that it contains useful substances. And their opinion is justified: an alcoholic drink could be less dangerous than water from the Nile, infected with infections.
During excavations in Egypt, researchers found ancient vessels for making beer in Abydos, 280 miles south of Cairo. The ruins are believed to date back to the early first dynastic period around 3273-2987. BC. / Photo: The Supreme Council of Egypt for Antiquities
23.In the ancient world, wine was preferred, and beer was considered a drink of barbarians, therefore it was rarely brewed. The Romans believed that the barley from which the drink was made was only suitable for feeding livestock. Rare mentions of beer in literature most often refer to the distant borders of the Roman Empire - Germany, Gaul, Britain: for example, the historian Tacitus, describing the Germans, mentioned that they drink mash made from barley or wheat. Interestingly, the division of Europe into wine and beer is still evident - in the south you will most likely be offered a bottle of Sangiovese, and in the north - a mug of ale.
24.In Britain, beer has been known since 55 BC: Roman historians claim the existence of "intoxicating water" made from oats, barley and wheat, which the northerners willingly drink. Although the researchers note that grapes were grown on the islands, the grain grew better there. Most likely, by the 3rd century AD, beer had become an important commodity: among others, it was mentioned in the documents of Diocletian, written when the tetrarchy was introduced in the Roman Empire. During the Celtic era, there were places to eat and drink along the roads, and after the invasion of the Anglo-Saxon islands, ale became a regular part of the local diet. In the 8th century, it, like other products, was levied as a tax. Extant Anglo-Saxon documents tell us about 11 types of ale: soft, clear, light, double brewed, new, old, sour, clean, good, strong and weak.
25.In Europe until the 12th century, brewing was run by monasteries. When the Carolingians conquered territory for the establishment of the empire, they built in the new Länder large monasteries, inside which worked full brewery: for example, in terms of the Swiss St. Gallen you can see the malthouse, oven, a mill, a brewery and warehouses
25. In England, there has long been a difference between beer and traditional brown ale. Everything that was brewed in the country before hops were brought from Flanders was called ale, and already the new intoxicated drink was called beer. The ale had to be drunk immediately after brewing, while beer could last for a long time due to the plant's antiseptic properties. The proliferation of hops gave rise to commercial brewing, and by the 17th century, hops began to be used everywhere, so the distinction between "beer" and "ale" gradually disappeared.
26. In 1487, the Bavarian Duke Albert IV established that from now on, beer could only be made from barley, hops and water. The ban included not only various additives such as herbs, spices, fruits, but also other cereals - wheat, rye, millet. This law is known as the Deutsche Reinheitsgebot or the Purity Beer Act. It did not apply to all territories, but only to selected cities, but by the end of the 19th century, when Bavaria became part of the German Empire, it spread throughout the country. There were several reasons for the adoption of this law. One of them says that the grain restriction was introduced so that wheat and rye were used for bread and not for beer. The ban on additives could be due to poor quality raw materials used by brewers, and also due to the fact that some added a mixture of herbs called gruit to the beer, which causes psychotropic effects. This law could have abolished some types of beer, but exceptions were periodically added, such as wheat or coriander, which were required to make certain beers. This law is still in force today, and in the 1990s it spawned the "Brandenburg Beer War". After the reunification of the Federal Republic of Germany and the GDR, the East German brewery Neuzeller Kloster, which produces black beer Schwarzer Abt (Black Monk) with added sugar, fell under the general law and lost the right to call its product beer. They tried to appeal this decision in court for about ten years, until the judge nevertheless allowed privately to return to the drink its right to be beer.
27. Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, British beer laws became stricter. Taxes were constantly raised on raw materials, and brewers began to replace the usual ingredients: instead of burnt grain for porter, they could put licorice to preserve the dark color, and instead of hops - bitter kvass from South America. In 1689, brewers were forbidden to add sugar, honey or molasses to the drink. Since 1714 malt-keepers were not allowed to mix raw grain and malted beer, and since 1802, only malt and hops could be among the beer ingredients. These laws allow the authorities to continue to require taxes for the use of raw materials, while in 1880, British Prime Minister William Gladstone accepted the Free Mash-tun Act- a law allowing brewers to use completely different materials and brewing techniques, greatly diversifying the range of varieties.
28. Around the 10th century, craft and trade guilds began to be organized in Europe - professional collective formations that ensured the sustainability of the craft. A little later, brewers' guilds appeared, which regulated the quality and quantity of the brewed drink and the price for it. Usually,trade in goods only guild members were allowed to, since together they could keep prices low. All training in the art of brewing also took place within the community. Over time, disagreements arose in associations between the trade and craft factions, that is, between merchants and manufacturers, and they disintegrated or began to openly conflict. In 1292, the first mentions of the London guild Brewers' Company appeared, which later acquired the full name of The Master, Keepers or Wardens and Commonalty of theArt of Brewers of the City of London. city of London). The guild had general meetings and feasts, together they held charity events to distribute beer to the poor, did business and arranged funerals for deceased members. In 1406, Henry IV officially recognized the union of London brewers, instructed them to appoint a master and overseers to control the sale of beer, and also allowed all questions to be addressed to the Lord Mayor of London - the elected governor who controls the City area. This guild still exists today and promotes the brewing industry by providing premises for member companies and a forum for industry representatives.
29. Until the 1600s, brewing was dominated by women - for centuries they brewed beer, sold it on the streets, from home, or brought it on demand. This job was associated with low status and low pay, therefore it attracted little men and was considered to be excellent for women with their household responsibilities. In the 17th century, men took over brewing as the business became more profitable and prestigious. Researchers note that the decline in female participation in brewing occurred fairly quickly, citing as an example the situation in Havering on the outskirts of London, where in 1464 all two dozen brewers and ale sellers were women, and by the end of the century there was only one lady among the 15 artisans remaining.
Brewery. Engraving by Jost Amman, 16th century
30. In 1604, England passed a curious law according to which the owner of a pub could be fined if visitors stayed inside for too long. Workers were prohibited from staying in such an institution for more than one hour during their lunch break. The new law argued that pubs were meant to help travelers, and not "to entertain and shelter noisy and idle people who spend and consume their money and their time in a loud and drunken manner." The evil nature of this law had the undesirable effect:avid drinkers were forced to go underground in places where they were drinking in the Wolshih quantities. Moreover, such places did not bring money to the treasury. This led to the emergence of new legislation that was aimed at reducing drunkenness among the population, although alcohol consumption was very fashionable at the time. The number of pubs has decreased, the permitted volume of production has decreased and the permitted strength of drinks has decreased. All the money from the fines had to go to the poor.
31.In the Middle Ages, beer was drunk almost every day. Many argue that this was due to the quality of the water contaminated with feces and waste - there was no sewage system, and beer brewed with hops and other natural antiseptics also went through a long heating process. This version has not been refuted or proven, but there is an alternative opinion that Europeans drank a lot of beer because of its calorie content. And in order not to get drunk, they diluted it with water, reducing the temperature.
32. For a long time, brewers refused to use the achievements of science and technology. It is known that James Baverstock Jr. was one of the first to use a thermometer in production, but he hid it for a long time from his ultra-conservative father, who was against any innovations. The first thermometers began to be used only in the 1760s, before that the brewer estimated the temperature of alcoholic beverages using practical rules: either his hand could withstand the heat when immersed in the wort, or he could see the reflection of his face on the surface of the water shortly before it will be hidden by the ferry. The temperature of the wort leaving the mash tun was determined with your finger. The thermometer made it possible to brew beer in industrial volumes and control the similarity of batches. A little later, sugar meters and hydrometers began to be actively used, which made it possible to determine the amount of sugar and the density of the wort, which before that was also determined either tactilely or by taste.
An advertisement for an extra stout from the Vаn Vollenhoven brewery. The postcard reads: "The most invigorating drink for young and old."
33. In the 19th century, beer was considered healthy and sold as a medicine: for example, the dark beer Jopen from Danzig was presented as "very useful for diseases of the glands", and also helped against "pain in the stomach and shortness of breath. " And the Dutch brewery Van Vollenhoven in Amsterdam has been producing Extra Stout since 1880, "the most restorative drink for convalescents, anemic women and women in childbirth." In 1862, Johannes Hoff first announced the "beneficial effects of medicinal beer", citing a letter from a certain Mrs. J. Kuipers of Epe, who wrote that her sister "felt a little better after drinking 6 bottles." The German periodical Farmaceutische Centralhalle investigated the drink and it turned out that it was a regular brown beer in which the producers dissolved the laxative, sea buckthorn bark and water clover as a bitter agent. The cost of its production was 9 cents, while Hoff sold it five times more.
34. At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, the popularity and quality of beer began to decline. On the one hand, this was influenced by global conflicts: during the First World War, the work of pubs was reduced and the every possible way consumption of alcohol was unlimited inorder to exclude its influence on the soldiers. On the other hand, increased taxes and high competition forced many brewers to reduce the quality of their products in order to sell them cheaper. Large companies bought small businesses, reducing the variety in the market, as a result, brewery restaurants began to gradually die out. In 1900, a major scandal occurred in Britain: a wave of a strange disease hit Staffordshire, as a result of which 70 people died. Investigation revealed that arsenic was found in some brands of beer - it turned out that they all used sugar from the same source. This incident influenced the strengthening of the movement against alcohol, and in Parliament at that moment they were just considering the adoption of the Law on the Purity of Beer. The Brewing Society intervened and recommended the seizure and destruction of thousands of gallons of suspicious beer, and its members to take immediate quality control procedures to detect contamination. Their concerns were heeded, the Beer Purity Act was withdrawn, but the campaign against alcohol continued. So in 1902, they tried to solve the problem of drunkenness by prohibiting being in a state of alcoholic intoxication in a public place or being in the care of a child under seven years old in such a state. Selling alcoholic beverages to such people became a crime (that is, the seller needed to make sure that his buyer was not the father of a five-year-old child!). Lobbying for such bills changed social habits and beer consumption continued to decline.
This is how the Bavarian brewery Riegele looks inside, which dates back to 1386 / Photo: Riegele
35. In the second half of the 20th century due to the merger of small workshops and the purchase of small craft industries , mega breweries appeared. They tookBon most of the market, and are intended for mass consumption. Because of this, many not the most popular types of beer simply disappeared from their portfolios, and, as a result, from production in general. To speed up the manufacturing process, the time for grain malting, mashing and fermentation was reduced. The varieties that required a long maturation could not stand the competition with the species that did not take long. This did not always affect the quality of the product: technologies appeared that compensate for the required acceleration, for example, the continuous fermentation process. Hop extracts were developed that could be added to wort in the form of powder or granules - they allowed the brewer to have more control over the aroma and bitterness in his beer. Automation and standardization of processes made production cheaper, but also reduced beer variety. That is why at the end of the last millennium, new craft workshops, which began to brewcraft.Brewers have rediscovered old recipes that have almost sunk into oblivion due to social cataclysms and globalization. America has become one of the most vibrant crafting scenes, with local artisans constantly experimenting with styles, flavors and ingredients. In Russia, new beer has been actively developing in recent decades: according to 2019 data,operate in our country more than a thousand craft breweries.
36. Poured Massive scale beer was into glass bottles on a was only after World War II that, although glass was first used in the 17th century. It was not popular because it was expensive, thin and often exploded. Beer was stored in barrels and poured at the place of consumption, or poured into ceramic bottles, which, although they retained the taste and quality of the drink, were very heavy. Before the industrial production of glass, bottles were of different shapes and sizes - most often rectangular tall containers were used. Packaging with a high, thin neck, familiar to us, appeared only in the 1760s. The color has also changed: if earlier black and blue glass was used, now in stores it is most often brown, green and transparent.
Beer was poured into such bottles in the 19th century / Photo: Case Antiques
37. With the spread of bottles, corks also appeared. The first stoppers were made from cork, glass and ceramics. In 1879, Englishman Henry Barrett invented the screw-top beer bottle - it quickly gained popularity because the buyer could close the bottle to finish drinking later. In 1875, the American Charles De Quillfeldt patented the hinged lid, which soon became known as the zipper plug. And in 1892, William Painter invented the usual metal crown cap in the form of a crown.
38. The first mention of African beer is found among Arab travelers who visited Sudan in the 6th-7th centuries. Here they use not the usual barley or wheat, but sorghum. Sorghum beer is historically associated with women: it is they who brew it, passing on recipes from generation to generation. The drink symbolically means a woman who silently leads people to agreement. With its use, the ritual of transferring a dowry begins, in which two families surround a filled vessel and become related through joint drinking. Beer is consumed at weddings, at the birth of children, communication with ancestors, circumcision and prayer for rain, at funerals. There is even an annual drink festival.
Qingdao is one of the most popular Chinese types of beer, which can be easily found even in
39. Moscow. Although the production of alcohol has been known to the Chinese since ancient times, the first breweries in the country appeared only in the 19th century - they were founded by Russians, Germans and Czechs. Until recently, beer was not popular, but in the 1990s-2000s its consumption increased sharply, and the market surpassed the American market in terms of volume, although the per capita indicator here is still lower than in the United States - 38 liters against 74 in 2013. At the beginning of the 21st century, craft breweries began to spread - researchers attribute this to urbanization and the desire of young people to spend time outside the home. They serve traditional European beers and experimental beers Chinese-style using jasmine, oolong tea, osmanthus, Sichuan pepper and sweet yam. To promote their beer in a local cultural context, brewers often name the drink after a historical hero (or some local ingredient) to illustrate the special characteristics of the beer. For example, Beijing's Great Leap Brewery named one of its IPAs made from local Qingdao Flower hops, Little General, after Zhang Xueliang only recognized patriotic hero.
40. George Washington made whiskey, Thomas Jefferson made wine, but Barack Obama became the first US president to brew beer in the White House. It all started with the fact that he bought a home brewing machine, and ended up with three varieties - White House Honey Brown Ale, Honey Porter and Honey Blonde, which are brewed by professionals today. All three varieties use honey harvested from South Lawn hives. The presidential beer was unveiled in 2011 - then the White House was attended by participants in the US NFL Super Bowl, who could taste the Honey Ale. This is not the first time Obama and beer have appeared side by side: in 2009, the White House hosted the so-called "Beer Summit", at which President, Vice President Joe Biden, as well as participants in the ethnic scandal, Harvard professor Henry Louis Gates Jr. and a policeman James Crowley in his circles discussed the issue of race relations in America.
41. In the mythology of Ireland, there are many saints associated with brewing. Brigitte of Ireland or Kildare, who lived in the 5th-6th centuries, took upon herself the image of a pagan idol that existed earlier in traditional beliefs, and was organically intertwined with Christianity, according to tradition, devoting her life to serving Christ. Saint Brigitte performed many miracles, and one of them is associated with beer: once before Easter, when the monastery did not have enough vessels and products to prepare a drink for the holiday, she was able to turn water into wort and accelerate fermentation, providing foam to as many as 18 nearby parishes.
Image of Saint Columban on the stained glass window of the Bobbio monastery
42. And here is the legend about Saint Columban, the founder of the Bobbio monastery in Italy. According to his monastery charter, any novice who, through negligence, ruins even a little beer, will have to be punished. Once, one of the kelarai decided to draw beer from a barrel, but he was urgently summoned to the abbot. Distracted, he completely forgot that he had not turned off the tap when the barrel turned, and when he returned, he found that not a single drop had flowed out - this is how the Lord took two monks away from punishment.
43. The name of the legendary European king Gambrinus may be known to you from the names of numerous breweries and pubs around the world, including Russia. It is not known if this character has a real prototype, but some attribute his ancestry to the Brabant and French kings of the late Middle Ages. One such historical figure could have been the Duke of Brabant and Antwerp, Jan Primus, who was said to be an honorary member of the Brewers Guild. It is believed that Gambrinus patronized beer drinks and even built the first brewery. Usually depicted with a mug in hand or sitting on a keg.
44. Beer alcoholism, or gambrinism, is named after Gambrinus. This is not the official name of the disease: there is no such diagnosis in the international classification of diseases, because doctors do not separate it from alcoholism in general. However, dependence on beer can be more serious than dependence on strong alcohol: a person does not notice the amount he has drunk and does not attach importance to daily consumption. Due to the fact that intoxication comes slowly, beer alcoholism is less often drunk. Rather, it is characterized by daily drinking, which makes the diagnosis more difficult. The volume of consumption per day can reach 15 liters.
45. Among the sights of Brussels there is the famous statue of Manneken Pis - a little boy relieving himself in the pool. The sculpture appeared in the 15th century, and over the entire period of its existence, the statue was stolen more than once. Now the very first version of the boy has been lost, the original of 1619 is kept in the City Museum of Brussels, and a copy is installed on the street. It is not known exactly where the boy came from, but there is a legend that this is a sculptural image of the Duke of Brabant Gottfried III, who was left an orphan as a one-year-old baby. The enemies of the duchy took advantage of the vulnerability of the lands due to the lack of an intelligible ruler and attacked Brabant: the child, who was formally the commander-in-chief, was also taken to the battlefield, but settled in a hammock suspended from a tree. At the crucial moment, Gottfried turned to the enemies while lying down and gave out a powerful stream - it turned out that he had just been fed by a nanny, who had eaten lambic (one of the types of Belgian beer) before lunch, which allegedly increased the amount of breast milk. The kid's act inspired Gottfried's army so much that the soldiers were able to repel the attack, and upon returning to the city they praised the little duke and the lambic, who helped win the battle.
The statue of a pissing boy is often dressed up: not so long ago, he was dressed in the uniform of the Russian imperial guard / Photo: Balliauw
46. Judging by the common story, after Niels Bohr, the world famous physicist who created the first theory of the quantum atom, received the Nobel Prize, the Carlsberg brewing company presented him with a beer pipeline near Copenhagen. Bohr actually lived from 1932 to 1962 at the residence of Jacob Kristen Jakobson, founder of Carsberg, who bequeathed that after his death, researchers with merit in the field of science, culture and art should live in the house. No pipe through which beer would flow for free existed there - this is an urban legend. Niels Bohr could well have received a couple of bottles of Carlsberg as a gift, but this has not been reliably recorded.
47. Beer brewing begins with the choice of malt. Malt is the dried, germinated grains of cereals that start the fermentation process. It is used not only for brewing beer: it can be used to make kvass, whiskey, Ukrainian kvass and other drinks. The most commonly used malt is barley malt, since barley has little husk and a lot of starch, but brewers can take corn, wheat, buckwheat, rye or mix different types of malt. Malt can be dried in different ways, roasted at different temperatures and even burned, which results in drinks with completely different tastes and aromas: from chocolate, honey and toffee to the characteristic smell of bread crust or raisins.
48. There is base malt - wheat, barley, rye, ale, and special - smoked, roasted, caramel and others. There is even black malt, which was invented and patented by Englishman Daniel Wheeler in 1817. This type of malt is roasted at more than 200 degrees for 4-5 hours and is usually added to porters or stouts to enhance color and impart a subtle pungent taste. His invention allowed brewers to brew beer from traditional pale malt without the addition of roasted beans. By the way, the color of a beer is determined by how deeply the malt grains are roasted. For example, if lightly roasted grains are used in beer, the beer turns out to be light. If the malt fill contains heavily roasted and caramelized beans, the beer darkens. The color of a beer alone does not indicate how bitter or alcoholic it is.
49. The color of beer depends on the color and degree of roasting of the malt, and not on the strength or level of bitterness. The malt is crushed, mixed with water and heated - the resulting broth is called beer wort, and the process of making the wort is mashing. During mashing, the starch in the malt is broken down into simple sugars. Then the wort is filtered - first it is strongly heated, then it is separated from the grain and husk, at the final stage the grains (grains, husks and other solid particles) are washed, and the drained water is added to the previously filtered wort. Next, the wort is boiled, ingredients for flavor and aroma are added to it, filtered again and poured into fermentation tanks along with yeast, where the beer is cooled, oxygenated and matured.
50. Wort fermentation is impossible without microorganisms, and ready-made yeast, that is, unicellular mushrooms, is most often used for beer. Yeast consumes sugar, releasing carbon dioxide and alcohol. Depending on the type, they can impart specific flavors and aromas to the beer, or they can work completely without a trace - in this case, the output will be a regular light lager. In Belgium, for example, yeast strains are produced that produce fruity esters that give the banana flavor. Most often, yeast is sold in small dry sachets, in which can live about 6 billion cells, or in vials, where up to 100 billion microorganisms are in a liquid medium. To keep them in full, it is best to keep the yeast refrigerated and only use fresh produce. Yeast, by the way, can get stressed by sudden changes in temperature, so it may take several days to recover to get started.
We know for sure that even today we can't really define it, and any topic that starts with "Reddit" raises the question "What is this?". Today, Bemorepanda is trying its best: to explain Reddit and show you why this site can mean the other internet to you.
Reddit, the self-proclaimed "home page of the Internet," says it is now valued at over $ 10 billion after raising another $ 410 million in funding, with the final round expected to grow to $ 700 million. The company continues to grow and improve its business while eliminating racist, misogynistic and other controversial communities as it prepares to go public at some point in the future.
How do you use Reddit?
You can find something interesting on the internet: a picture, a video, a clip or a news article. Want to promote it beyond your Facebook or Twitter page Enter Reddit and choose a subreddit (a subcategory) to enter that post. You put the link and give it an attractive headline (like the front page of a newspaper). Your post is voted by users through Upvote and Downvote.
If your post is very popular and users appreciate it, it will reach the front page of the subsection or main page of Reddit, from where it will be distributed and voted on by hundreds of thousands of people. For this effort you receive points in the form of Karma. The more karma you have, the more popular your posts are and whether your style is appreciated by other users.
What is Reddit?
The downside of Reddit to many uninitiated is the way it looks. It is not a site that is based on design, but on content. It is pure content. The links are posted on the site, and there readers comment and vote. The popular mechanism for promoting news, images or videos makes a material that is the first a kind of balance of popularity.
It's hard for something to be popular on Reddit and not elsewhere. Reddit is thus a kind of social aggregator of news and content, which is based on the popular vote. The community is known to be very pretentious and tough, but the entry is harder, because Reddit catches on quickly, through the addiction it creates. What can be uploaded to Reddit? Almost anything. At the end of this material we have put some links to subreddits, i.e. subcategories of the site, based on common interests. But these are a tiny part.
Anyone can open a Subreddit and moderate it. It is important that users come to it. Indeed, the site is controversial because there are many subcategories that are quite difficult to digest, where even harsh images from road accidents or simply ... disgusting images are presented. But no one is forcing you to get there. What is erotic or porn is marked as such, what is boring or cliché is marked as such. Usually, what gets on the front page is very interesting. One of the most popular categories is IAmA, meaning Ask Me Anything, where over time many personalities have come to answer the questions of the rulers.
Bill Gates and Barack Obama were among the most popular sessions, with the US president even blocking the site due to the large number of visitors. Fascinating moments in Reddit history Some moments on Reddit were truly amazing, showing how powerful the internet is. Redeemers can donate money for certain causes with the help of Reddit Gold, and fundraising campaigns have been very successful if they have been well motivated. In December 2010, members of the Christian community on Reddit decided to raise funds.
Those in the subreddit of atheists wanted to give them a pleasant competition and they also raised money for Medecins sans Frontieres and the Clean Water Fund. The Islamist subreddit also raised money. In three weeks, the three communities raised $ 200,000. Also on Reddit is the biggest Secret Santa or Secret Santa program.
Every year since 2010, redditors come into play and receive another member for whom they will become Secret Santa. A total of 18,000 users participated and $ 662,000 was donated. In January 2010, Reddit donated $ 185,000 to the Haiti State Aid Fund.
If our explanations were not enough, we discovered this infographic on socialmouths.com and we need to share it with you.
Top 10 interesting facts why Reddit is successful.
- All memes that have appeared on the internet are from 4chan or Reddit.
- Everything that reaches the front page of Reddit is monstrously popular, with hundreds of thousands of views.
- Reddit has 2.5 billion monthly views.
- 34.9 million unique visitors enter Reddit.
- 8.3 million comments were given.
- A Reddit ad costs $ 20,000.
-Average income on Reddit is $ 25,000 - $ 50,000.
-Roughtly 55% of Reddit users are male.
-Creativity is king on Reddit.
-The average number of unique visitors is 34.9 million monthly.
More in the infographic below:
1. It is celebrated on the last Thursday of November by Americans, and Canadians celebrate it on the second Monday in October.
2.Thanksgiving Day is a holiday celebrated in many countries around the world, but especially in the United States and Canada, where the tradition of the holiday is carefully followed by all the inhabitants.
3. In the United States and Canada, Thanksgiving Day is, in fact, Harvest Day, more precisely, a day in which people thank the divinity for the harvests they had that year, regardless of the severe weather conditions they experienced. faced.
4. Since Thanksgiving Day is the holiday taken from the first settlers who arrived in the New World in 1621. They celebrated this day as a thank you for the rich harvest they obtained even in harsh weather conditions. .
5. In 1941, the United States Congress passed a resolution establishing that the fourth Thursday in November should officially become a national holiday of the United States.
6. Thanksgiving has become a family holiday, a day dedicated to spending time with family and friends.
7. There are no lack of traditional dishes on the holiday table, and among the most common are: Turkey; Pumpkin pie; Apple pie; Sweet potatoes; puree; Sweet corn; Cranberry sauce; Cranberry sauce; Ham.
8. What is the tradition of Thanksgiving turkey cooking - why Americans cook turkey Thanksgiving cooking tradition comes from Benjamin Franklin, because he decided to make this bird the symbol of the holiday.
9. The former American president pardoned a turkey that was to be slaughtered with the celebration of this day, and since then, every year, the tradition is respected by every American president.
10. A meal tradition is the prayer that people say at the beginning of the meal. Throughout the prayer, people hold hands and each of the people present states a reason to thank God for this day.
11. Thanksgiving has become an official federal holiday, and Americans participate in various charities on this day. They collect money or prepare food for the poor in the spaces arranged for them.
12. In the United States, there is no work on Thanksgiving. People have a day off just to spend time with their families and enjoy their reunion.
13. Recipes that you can prepare for Thanksgiving Day are: Whole turkey in the oven; Baked turkey stuffed with vegetables; Green beans; Mashed potatoes and mashed potatoes; Pumpkin pie or other pumpkin recipes; Baked sweet potatoes; American apple pie; Cranberry sauce with nuts.
14. According to archaeological evidence found in the Oaxaca region of central Mexico, turkey meat was consumed 1,500 years ago by the Zapotec civilization, and these birds were extremely popular.
15. The Mexican turkey is the ancestor of all turkeys that are consumed around the world.
So, the celebration of Thanksgiving Day gives us all the chance to think about the good things that happen to us every day, but also the chance to thank for everything we receive.
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20 times people stumbled upon something that they knew nothing about, but they were enlightened on the Internet
While some are trying in every possible way to escape from knowledge, others are only looking for an excuse to learn something new. Since you are reading this, it means that you are definitely one of the latter. Sometimes, to find something interesting, you don't have to go far, just look around your grandmother's closet or the basement of your house. All the curious gizmos that can be found there have only one problem - sometimes it is difficult to understand what it is. With such questions, users often contact the “What is this thing” community on Reddit, where other users, whenever possible, try to tell about the origin of a particular find. We have again put together a collection of fascinating questions and answers for our beloved inquisitive readers, and we hope you miss your new knowledge 💖
Question: “What are these liquid vests worn by Olympic sailing athletes for? They featured Dutch athletes Annemik Beckering and Annette Duez during a post-race interview. "
Answer: "These are cooling vests." These vests were
first talked about in 2020, when they were worn by nurses who were forced to wear poorly ventilated clothes during the pandemic, suffering from the heat. These same vests allow athletes to carry the Summer Olympics more comfortably and not overheat 🦺
Question: “What is this thing on the bar at my work? Made of metal, hollow inside "
Answer: “This is an old-fashioned bottle opener on the bar. I saw a lot of these in old pubs. ”
There is a special part behind the metal contraption, which is intended for opening bottles. Usually, after opening, the cork falls into a special container, although there may be an ordinary trash can below 🧺
Question: “A small curly spoon with a hole in the bottom. I think this is some kind of kitchen utensil, but I have no idea what it is. Help!"
Answer: "This is a fancy melon"
scoop.Works like an ice cream spoon.
Q: “My partner went to a yard sale and came back with an old can full of these things. Hard metal, measuring spoon for scale "
Answer: "This is a fastener for curtains that do not have special slots or loops" The
sharp part goes through the curtain fabric, like a safety pin, and the other clings to the rings 🧷
Question: “There is a microchip in my new bra, which I bought on the Internet. In my opinion, it is fake, but I cannot determine exactly what it is and why it was inside. "
Answer: “This is something of the" healing "things of the modern world. From the category of magnetic bracelets "
Now some Chinese lingerie manufacturers sew in such magnets. They are designed to improve blood circulation, and most often they can be found in underwear for "weight loss" 🏃♀️
Question: “I just bought a house by the lake and found three of these in the water next to the pier. Cross stack of corrugated tubing, wrapped in plastic mesh, with weights attached "
Answer: “This is the so-called fish nursery. They help the fry hide from predatory fish. They also improve fishing, as predatory fish will swim around these things in the hope that some babies will emerge from there. "
Question: “I just moved to a new house. The former tenant left it in the freezer. One-piece stainless steel cylinder, just over 15 cm long, rounded at one end and internally threaded at the other. Anchovies for scale. What is this thing? "
Answer: “This is a wine cooling stick with a lost second part. Freeze it in the freezer, then put it in a bottle of wine. "
Question: “What is this small camera or some kind of detector on the ceiling? I noticed waxing in the salon "
Answer: "This is an indicator that the ceiling lamp has an emergency backup battery and is fully charged."
Question: “This thing with a lot of handles. Mainly made of wood, has been in a thrift store in Mossel Bay, South Africa for years and no one ever knew what it was. Google doesn't know either "
Answer: “This is the control panel of the electrical slimming device. Something like an EKG machine, with the help of it an electric current was passed through certain points, and this was supposed to stimulate the muscles and give the same results as the exercises. "
Question: “A small metal object (about 10 cm) with various mechanical parts on one side. There is a spare gear inside the lined case. Age unknown, but possibly antiques. "
Answer: "This is a drawing tool for drawing dotted lines"
Typewriter part dipped in the ink, then the device had to be news along the lines that it has abandoned the dotted line or, as in this case, point.
Question: “A large cubic object attached to some channel near the dam. Usually found underwater. It looks like it's made of a translucent material? "
Answer: "This is a filter for the intake of water, which is drawn into a reservoir."
At this point, the filter is visible because the water level has dropped. Most likely, there are more such underwater.
Question: “Metal pins with round heads and rotating tubes in a wooden board. Most likely antiques. What?"
Answer: "This is a vintage tie hanger."
Question: "Heavy ball and flimsy wire ... Some kind of holder?"
Answer: "This is a holder for napkins, moreover, from IKEA"
Question: “Two rubber cups at the ends of the plastic arms that do not touch. What it is?"
Answer: "This is a shock massager for the back."
During a blow to the back, they hit the ball against another, adding additional vibration.
Question: “What is this thing that I found at a thrift store? It looks like a ceramic tray that stands on the table and holds something. "
Answer: "A flower vase, also known as a flower frog"
Often used to hold artificial flowers.
Question: “Small round clip with thumbs up. Stretches, but maintains a round shape "
Answer: "This is a phone holder"
The giant panda is considered the most valuable species of the bear family. For its specific culinary preferences, it is usually called the bamboo bear. Researchers initially assigned these animals to the raccoon family and only towards the end of the 20th century was it finally assigned to the bear family. Pandas are considered a jewel of China, rare animals and are carefully protected by the state. In this article, we will introduce our readers to interesting facts related to these funny animals.
1. The first time the giant panda was caught only in 1916 with the participation of local residents, but she quickly died. Only 20 years later, one American woman managed to buy a bear cub and bring it to America.
2. The giant panda is one of the rarest animals in the world. She lives only on the territory of the PRC. The main habitat is Sichuan province. Zoologists suggest that pandas may also have remained wild in Gansu province and parts of the Tibetan mountains.
3. The first panda that appeared in a foreign zoo was called Su-ling. She has lived in several zoos in the United States. Only after a fairly long period, after a long search, two more individuals were brought to America, and a little later these bears appeared in London.
4. In the Soviet Union, the first bamboo bear appeared in 1957 in the Moscow Zoo. The panda was a male named Pin-Pin. In 1959, the administration of the Moscow Zoo managed to find another individual for reproduction. The newly acquired panda was named An-An, and she turned out to be a male.
5. For the first time in the zoo, a panda was born in 1963, in Beijing. The bear cub was given birth by a female named Li-Li. The calf's weight was 142 grams. The bear was nicknamed Min-Min. A year later, Li-Li brought another cub, then scientists were able to establish that the period of bearing offspring in pandas is about one hundred and forty days.
6. The peak of activity of pandas is in the evening and at night. The animals are extremely clean and quiet. Bears cannot stand the rain, and try to hide from it.
7. Bamboo bears are extremely careful animals and try to avoid humans. Despite this, Buddhist monks living in the highlands often tame young animals. Pandas often come to monasteries for food alone and in groups.
8. Pandas love to roll head over hills, they have acquired this habit, fleeing from predators. Plus they run surprisingly well. The main natural enemies for bears are leopards.
9. Under natural conditions, the main diet of a bamboo bear is young bamboo shoots and fresh leaves. Besides, pandas love to feast on insects, fish, small rodents.
10. The closest relative of the bamboo bear is the spectacled bear that lives on the western slope of the Andes in the South American continent.
11. The genetic code of a panda and a human is 68% identical, and that of a dog and a bamboo bear is 80% identical.
12. In the summer season, in search of coolness, pandas climb the highlands, located four kilometers above sea level, and in winter they sink eight hundred meters.
13. Adult bears grow up to one and a half meters long and weigh 150 kilograms.
14. Every day panda spends about twelve hours on food and absorbs up to 15% of its own mass.
15. The body of the animal assimilates up to 20% of the absorbed feed.
16. The giant panda, unlike other bears, does not require hibernation.
17. Pandas often reproduce twins, but they feed only one bear cub. The second cub usually dies.
18. After birth, the cub spends with its mother for about three years.
19. The total number of pandas in their natural habitat is approximately 1600 individuals.
20. In China, bamboo bear hunting has been banned since 1962. Violation of the prohibition is punishable by death.
21. The giant panda is considered a national treasure of the PRC.
22. The Chinese government leases pandas to overseas reserves for one million US dollars a year. Moreover, all born panda cubs are considered the property of the Celestial Empire.
23. A newborn bear cub weighs 800 times less than its mother.
24. Pandas have a specific sixth toe, which is the transformed carpal bone.
25. The panda is listed in the Guinness Book of Achievements as the cutest animal on earth.
26. The red panda and the giant panda share the same habitat and diet, and both animals are also endangered.
27. According to legend, the panda was once an all-white bear. When a small girl tried to save a panda cub from being attacked by a leopard, the leopard killed the girl instead. Pandas came to her funeral wearing armbands of black ashes. As they wiped their eyes, hugged each other, and covered the ears, they smudged the black ashes.
28. Pandas can stand upright, but their short hind legs aren’t strong enough to support their bodies.
29. Little pandas are born white, but after a week they acquire their recognizable black and white color.
30. Pandas rely less on visual memory than they do on spatial memory to locate a mate’s home range area and preferred patches of bamboo
31. Pandas are slow creatures, they are capable of developing a very low speed, comparable to a quick step of a person, no more. Although this is still an order of magnitude faster than sloths move (see interesting facts about sloths).
32. The size of an adult giant panda is comparable to that of a brown bear.
33. A baby panda weighs only 150-200 grams at birth.
34. Many Chinese philosophers believe that the universe is made from two opposing forces, the Yin and Yang. The panda is one symbol of this philosophy.
35. For a full and calm life in its natural habitat, an adult giant panda needs about 10 square kilometers of space.
36. In the wild, giant pandas live for 15-20 years, in captivity - a little more. But they are very reluctant to breed in captivity.
37. China does not sell giant pandas but leases them to zoos around the world. Renting one panda brings China about $ 1 million annually.
38. A panda's tooth is 7 times larger than that of a human
39. Every day the panda is busy eating for more than 12 hours and eats about 12-15% of its weight.
40. A panda fur is worth between $60,000 and $100,000 on the illegal trade market.
41. Although a giant panda’s fur looks silky and soft, it is quite thick and wiry.
42. Pandas often give birth to twins, but after giving birth, the panda mother chooses a stronger baby, and the second, left unattended, soon dies.
43. A panda’s throat has a special lining to protect it from bamboo splinters.
44. Pandas have lived on Earth for two to three million years.
45. There are only about 1600 pandas left in the wild.
46. Hunting pandas has been completely banned since 1962, and killing a panda in China can be punishable by death.
47. The word “panda” may have developed from the Nepalese word poonya, which means “bamboo-eating animal” or “plant-eating animal.
48. In summer, pandas can move to an altitude of 4000 meters, fleeing the heat. In winter, they do not hibernate and do not equip a den.
49. An adult panda eats up to 30 kg of bamboo per day.
50. A panda’s entire mating process takes only about two or three days.