From beetles and parasites to whale vomit: the disgusting ingredients in cosmetics
We must recognize that most of us, do not read what is on the list of ingredients on cosmetics, or we do not understand the meaning of all those words. If we had enough knowledge, we would be surprised at what we really use.
The expensive perfume contains feces and whale vomit
Ambergris is a yellow, waxy, solid substance that is produced in the whale's intestines to protect them from the sharp objects they sometimes swallow. It is often called "sea gold". Just half a pound of feces or whale vomit can be worth up to $ 10,000. Whales either vomit the substance or eliminate it along with their feces.
Most lipsticks contain broken parasitic beetles
Cactus beetles (Dactylopius Coccus) are small insects that feed on cactus plants in Central and South America. Cochineal female beetles eat the red fruits of cacti, so when the beetles are crushed, a very strong red dye is produced.
Cochineal dye has been used for centuries and is very safe for most people, so it is commonly used in lipstick, ice cream, candy, yogurt and eyeshadow. In fact, Starbucks admitted a few years ago that they used a red cochineal dye in some of their drinks, which turned out to be a big problem for their vegetarian fans.
Animal fat in lipstick, eyeshadow and soap
Seoul is a common ingredient in many cosmetics. It is present in: eyeshadows, lipsticks, foundations, shampoos, shaving soaps, moisturizers and skin care products. Seoul is made from animal carcasses.
Seoul is made from animal fat, which means boiling carcasses to create fat products. Dead animals used to make tallow come from many sources, including laboratories, slaughterhouses, zoos, shelters, and yes, animals killed on the road are also used.
Bull semen in hair products
Due to its high protein content, bull semen has become a popular ingredient in hair products. Used mainly for dry or damaged hair, the semen is mixed with a plant called Katera and applied to the hair in expensive beauty salons. The process takes about 45 minutes, costs about $ 90-120 dollars and has been described as "Viagra for hair."
Snail secretions in moisturizers
Snail exudate is collected and used as an ingredient in many famous moisturizers. Glycolic acid and elastin in snail secretion protect the skin from wounds, bacteria and UV rays, making it a great source of protein that removes dead cells and regenerates the skin. It is also useful for removing scars, stretch marks and curing acne.
Infant foreskin in anti-aging products
The recovery complex marketed by TNS SkinMedica claims to use cells derived from human infantile foreskin (NouriCel-MD) in a "revolutionary" line of anti-aging products. Using a combination of soluble collagen, antioxidants, natural growth factors and proteins, they claim to slow down the aging process and encourage the growth of new cells for a younger complexion.
Many companies have already announced that they have given up some of these ingredients, opting for "more pleasant" alternatives, but others, given their effect, will not do so too soon.
“No parabens” is the motto of people who are used to reading the list of ingredients carefully. Are they right when they avoid this component?
Sometimes a broad discussion of the action of certain ingredients is a significant phenomenon that helps people maintain their health. We have already understood the beneficial and harmful properties of silicones. This time, let's talk about parabens, among the "victims" of such discussions. Everything is not so simple, and before passing a verdict on them, it is necessary to study the properties of these substances in more detail and get acquainted with the opinion of scientists on this matter. How can parabens in cosmetics be harmful, and are they harmful at all? Let's figure it out right now, but at the same time, we'll see if it's worth choosing natural paraben-free cosmetics as a replacement.
About parabens in cosmetics
Parabens are chemical compounds (to be more precise, we are talking about esters of para-Hydroxybenzoic acid) that are famous for their antiseptic properties and have been used as preservatives for a long time, both in the food industry and in the pharmaceutical and beauty industries.
Parabens can be synthesized or obtained from plants in the laboratory - yes, there are natural parabens found, for example, in cranberries, lingonberries, and sour.
In the composition of medicines or cosmetics, parabens allow you to extend their shelf life by preventing the growth of bacteria.
Why are parabens dangerous? This is where the controversy begins. The trouble with parabens began when scientists studying breast cancer discovered high concentrations of parabens in tumors. And some have linked it to cosmetics containing parabens (such as deodorants that are applied to the underarm area).
So far, it has not been possible to accurately confirm that cosmetics affect the development of this type of cancer. Still, even a hypothesis was enough for many people to take up arms against parabens.
Properties of parabens in cosmetic
Parabens are considered the most popular preservative today. What is the reason for such a choice?
Thanks to parabens in jars and tubes with cosmetics, there will be no active reproduction of bacteria and fungi. This means they can be used safely for longer without fear that the skin will react with irritation or inflammation.
Ability to stabilize the formula
Another plus of parabens is that they perform a stabilizing function in the formulas of products: their presence in the procedure maintains the desired consistency and allows all components to coexist harmoniously.
Parabens, unlike other preservatives, are effective in small concentrations. Manufacturers who emphasize the natural composition of their cosmetics can use natural preservatives. They are needed in much larger quantities to keep the product fresh for a long time. Organic acids and essential oils are potent allergens. There is a high risk that these products will cause an adverse reaction in the skin.
The downside is that parabens can cause allergies. But the long-term practice of their use shows that the risks are more diminutive in the case of parabens. They are used in the food industry. International standards ensure maximum safety. The creators of cosmetics use these substances in a limited amount.
What cosmetics contain parabens?
Parabens are needed primarily in the composition of funds with a liquid, cream,m or gel texture. In a word, in cosmetics that contain water. A humid environment is favorable for the reproduction of bacteria, and parabens prevent this.
Due to the presence of parabens, tonal foundations “live” from six months to 1.5 years. The expiration date,e in this case, is affected not so much by the concentration of preservatives as by the texture of the product - for example, the fluid will serve you less than a thick and dense foundation.
Mascara cannot be made without parabens, but its shelf life is the shortest compared to other beauty products: it is recommended to use mascara no longer than 3 months after opening the package.
Parabens extend the shelf life of this product to about six months.
With these tools - the same story as with the category of concealers: you can do makeup with them only for about six months. But without parabens, this period would be even shorter.
Liquid shadows, highlighters, bronzers, lipstick,s and other water-based products also contain parabens. The most common areethyl parabenss andmethyl parabenss. They are safe and resistant to external influences, including thermal. But dry shadows will last you a long time and without parabens in the composition. True, by the end of the expiration date, they will likely no longer fit perfectly. But from the,m it will be possible to make lipstick of an unusual shade. Just follow this video guide.
How are parabens identified in cosmetics?
We have already discussed the general rules that will help you quickly check the composition of cosmetics here. Since parabens are a whole group of substances, you will have to remember a few bare names and symbols to recognize them on the packaging. Parabens that are often used in the manufacture of cosmetics include methylparaben (it can be found in the list of ingredients under the codes E218 and E219), ethylparaben (E214), propylparaben (E216), butylparaben, benzyl paraben, isobutyl paraben.
In addition, among the designations of parabens are met again, propagation, nipagin, and nipazol. They can even be combined under the general name "hydroxybenzoic acids, without specifying the details.
Are there cosmetics without parabens?
Today, the list of brands that produce cosmetics without parabens and sulfates is quite extensive. In the absence of these ingredients in the composition of their products, many manufacturers use them as an advertisement. Therefore it may seem that such beauty products are becoming more common. However, statistics show the opposite: more than 75% of cosmetics still contain parabens.
Those who are not going to give up cosmetics with parabens completely, but are still afraid of this controversial ingredient, should pay attention to thorough skin cleansing.
What is the best way to remove paraben makeup? One of the leading "working" means micellar water - the features of its production allow you not to use sulfates and parabens. The same applies to many hydrophilic oils.
It's good that cosmetics lovers have a choice. Science is not yet able to provide accurate data proving that parabens in cosmetics are harmful and cause life-threatening diseases. But for those who want to eliminate any risks associated with parabens, products labeled paraben-free can be preferred.
Cosmetics without parabens
It is essential to understand that the absence of parabens does not always make cosmetics 100% safe. So, substitutes for parabens arepropanoll,quaternion-15, butyl hydroxy anisole (E320 or BHA), and butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) - and these substances have been proven toxic and carcinogenic. However, they are found not only in cosmetics but also in food.
About natural cosmetics, manufacturers of natural beauty products also use paraben-free labels. They use vitamins E and C, tea tree oil, eucalyptus oil, propolis, and grapefruit seed extract as preservatives. The last component has gained particular popularity as a natural disinfectant and preservative.
Grapefruit seed extract
In the case of natural cosmetics, the question arises, how effective are the preservatives used in it. If methyl and ethyl parabens in cosmetics, as a rule, are no more than 0.4% of the composition, natural substitutes will be required in much higher concentrations to compare with them in terms of strength. Do not forget that many natural ingredients that can increase the shelf life of cosmetics can cause allergic reactions.
A good primer should smooth out skin imperfections on the face and keep the make-up in perfect condition for as long as possible. We have collected the most effective makeup bases - read and choose the one that is right for you.
Facial primers are a controversial product. Today there are a huge number of them on the market and it is not so easy to find a quality makeup base. It is not always clear whether it is needed at all. Let's try to figure it out, and at the same time, we will tell you about those basics for makeup, which, in our opinion, are worth paying attention to.
What is a makeup base?
Primers solve several problems at once:
- Mask imperfections, age spots, uneven tone.
- Makes skin texture smoother.
- Improve the properties of tonal products and increase the durability of makeup.
- A primer cannot replace either foundation or skin care creams, it has a narrow, limited functionality. The basis for makeup does not have to be in a woman's cosmetic bag. However, you can’t do without it if you need impeccable and persistent make-up.
It is important to know that many makeup bases necessarily contain silicones, so due to frequent use, skin pores can become clogged, which will provoke rashes on the face. To prevent this from happening, thoroughly cleanse your skin every evening and, if possible, use a make-up base, not every day.
How to choose a primer according to skin type?
Today, the beauty industry offers a large selection of makeup bases. You need to choose those products that are most suitable for the type and color of the skin.
For normal skin types, a brightening make-up base with sunscreen is ideal. A primer with reflective particles is also suitable.
For dry skin types, it is recommended to use light moisturizing makeup bases with a creamy or oily consistency. To give the face visual moisture, use a product with a shimmer.
For oily skin types, a make-up base is best suited to mattify and mask pores. It will control the appearance of oily sheen throughout the day. The primer can be either water-based or silicone-based. If the skin has inflammation and redness, use a base with a green tint.
For combination skin, you can take a mattifying makeup base and apply it only to problem areas. On other "dry" areas, use a moisturizing primer.
For sensitive skin, you will need a makeup base, with the function of protecting against toxins, toxins, and negative environmental factors. Look for fragrance-free products. If redness and inflammation often appear on the skin, choose a color-correcting primer with a green pigment.
Is there a difference between budget and luxury makeup bases?
Unfortunately, there is no definitive answer here. Choosing a good makeup base requires personal experience. The most important thing in any cosmetic product is how it suits your skin. Hence the relativity of rankings - what has become a panacea for a thousand lucky ones, for you may turn out to be a waste of money.
When choosing a primer, pay attention to the following:
- how effectively it evens out the complexion, hides skin imperfections;
- how long does it keep makeup in perfect condition;
- what type of skin is suitable for.
To make it easier for you to navigate, we have compiled a list of 19 good makeup bases, one of which is potentially suitable for you.
Face Primer Urban Defense Complexion Primer SPF 30, Urban Decay
It is a pleasure to apply it on the skin: the delicate gel texture does not leave any stickiness or film feeling! And the composition itself makes the skin smooth and prepares for the application of foundation, minimizing bumps and pores. You can be calm about the skin, especially in spring and summer: with this primer, care and sun protection are provided.
The basis for the perfect complexion Le Blanc de Chanel Multi-Use Illuminating Base, Chanel
This makeup base is indispensable for creating a flawless look, because it is suitable for any skin tone, hiding visible imperfections and gently illuminating the face. In addition, the product contains caring elements (witch hazel extract, licorice extract and a moisturizing complex) that help preserve the beauty of the skin.
Multifunctional primer Naked Face Balancing Primer, Holika Holika
This tool pleases even externally: inside the bottle there are capsules of three different shades, which, mixing when the dispenser is pressed, give a base that adapts to skin color. The mixture is dense enough to even out the microrelief of the face and last for several hours. Another plus is that you will need significantly less foundation, because the primer provides the necessary undertone.
Cellular Performance Glow Makeup Base Brightening Make-Up Base, Sensai
This base immediately deeply moisturizes, smoothes and brightens the skin, giving firmness and radiance - so that wrinkles and unevenness become less noticeable. A special complex of apricot essence, OH-neutralizer, hyaluronate and collagen stimulators helps the base to fight the first signs of aging. They prevent loss of tone and neutralize pigmentation.
Pore-covering makeup base Master Prime, Maybelline New York
This primer from Maybelline perfectly evens out the texture of the skin, giving it a delicate glow. And at the same time pleases with a very affordable price!
Waterproof face primer You better work! Gym-proof Primer Essence
Thanks to its special waterproof formula, this primer not only hides skin imperfections, but also prevents makeup from "floating" from sweat or heat - ideal for holidays or active workouts, if it is important for you to look "on parade". Bonus: UV filter with SPF 20.
Leveling face primer Prime and Fine Pore Refining Anti-Shine Base, Catrice
The lightweight texture of this primer ensures perfect pairing with any foundation and extra hold. No unwanted shine and enlarged pores!
Makeup base, concealing redness, Base Full HD 16 hours, Eveline
Worried about redness, vascular network and manifestations of rosacea? Then you need the Full HD Base 16 hours from Eveline - the perfect camouflage tool. By the way, she also mattes.
Makeup base Prisme Primer Color Correcting, Givenchy
This makeup base has a light, velvety texture, easy to apply and blends well. The coating is quite dense without the "mask effect". Moreover, this primer not only masks imperfections (it is especially good at fighting dark circles around the eyes), but also gives the skin elasticity over and over again due to vegetative
x extracts in the composition.
Face primer with reflective particles Perfect Glow Primer, Thalgo
Marine spring water and verbena extract, together with reflective particles and color-correcting pigment, give a stunning effect. Firstly, the caring ingredients really take care of the skin - and its natural color evens out over and over again. Secondly, the tone becomes radiant, as if glowing from within.
Primer for flawless skin Smooth Affair Facial Primer & Brightener, Jane Iredale
A sheer, mineral-based soft pink, this primer is virtually invisible on the skin, but that doesn't stop it from effectively tightening pores, unifying skin texture, and giving it a luxurious matte finish. In addition, the formula of the product is enriched with plant components that have an anti-aging effect. Namely - extracts of grapefruit, apple, green and white tea, algae and olive leaves.
Prelude in the Clouds Aqua Base, Rouge Bunny Rouge
This moisturizing foundation is 70% water and literally hydrates the skin for the whole day. Ideal as a make-up base! It contains extracts of sea buckthorn and Florentine iris root, bisabolol and vitamins A and E. With regular use, you will notice that your skin has become softer and more elastic, and inflammation and irritation have decreased.
Face primer Encre de Peau All Hours Primer, YSL Beauty
This base makes it easier to apply the foundation, makes it last longer and helps to keep the matte finish until the evening. Instant perfection for the whole day!
Mattifying base for makeup, masking pores Instant Poreless Pore-Blurring Matifying Primer, Clarins
Despite its light texture, Instant Poreless mattifying base erases pores like an eraser! Thanks to the universal shade, this tool can be used as a base for makeup, or solo. In any case, you are guaranteed perfectly smooth porcelain skin.
Makeup base Photo Finish Foundation Primer, Smashbox
With this primer, you don't need Photoshop or Facetune, because it not only prolongs the durability of makeup, but also visually fills pores and wrinkles, evening out skin texture and tone.
Leveling and illuminating makeup base Radiant Boost Face Base, Kiko Milano
This base visibly improves and refreshes the complexion due to its delicate pinkish tint. The lightweight formula helps the product absorb quickly, smoothing imperfections and giving the skin a slight shimmer.
Makeup base UV Master Primer, Giorgio Armani
Ideal if you are concerned about enlarged pores and uneven skin texture in general. The base will smooth out unevenness and give a soft natural glow, as if you just returned from vacation. Speaking of vacations, this foundation will also come in handy there, because it contains UVA and UVB filters that provide sun protection with an SPF 40 factor.
Aqua-fluid for the face Moisture Genius, L'Oreal
Innovations on guard of your beauty! This product, enriched with aloe juice and hyaluronic acid, immediately turns into a liquid upon contact with the skin and is instantly absorbed, moisturizing the skin, normalizing the hydro-lipid balance and preventing the appearance of oily sheen. Amazing combination of moisturizer and primer!
Moisturizing cream primer for face Hydro Priming Cream InBetween, Blithe
This tool is not just a primer, but a complete care that is suitable for both morning and evening use. Thanks to its elastic formula, this cream is suitable for any skin type, effectively smoothing its texture, correcting tone and mattifying. Bonus: nice lavender scent.
A border country located at the confluence of the EU and Russia, a former Soviet republic with a population of 46 million, independent since 1991, known abroad by stereotypes such as the "granary of the former USSR", the "Chernobyl catastrophe", "Gas crisis" or "orange revolution", Ukraine is trying to build an identity.
The difficulty in finding this identity stems from the fact that Ukraine has long been fragmented between the Russian and Austro-Hungarian empires, the current borders being drawn by Joseph Stalin. It is true that nationalist ideas took their place here in the nineteenth century, but it was only after the disintegration of the USSR that Ukraine became independent, except for a short period between 1917 and 1920.
You can read more interesting facts below.
1. If Russia, which is not entirely in Europe, is not taken into account, Ukraine is the state with the largest area on the "Old Continent". Ukraine has an area of 603,628 square kilometers;
2. Ukrainians celebrate National Day on August 24;
3. Arsenal in Kyiv is the deepest subway station in the world. It is located at a depth of 105 meters and was built in 1960 for military purposes. The reason? Threatening powerful states with nuclear bombs
4. Traditional Ukrainian food includes chicken, pork, beef, eggs, fish and mushrooms. Ukrainians also tend to eat a lot of fresh, pickled potatoes, cereals and vegetables.
5. The most famous Ukrainian dish is borscht. While many Russians claim to be from their homeland, many Ukrainians are passionate about believing that they are the founders of this dish.
6. Ukraine was at the center of one of the greatest catastrophes of the 20th century. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant exploded in April 1986. The blast was considered the worst accident in the history of nuclear power.
7. Unlike many civilized states in Ukraine, wedding rings are worn on the ring finger of the right hand.
8. The "Love Tunnel" also exists in Ukraine. Near the town of Klevan in Ukraine there is a railway line that is covered with vaults formed by the branches of the nearby trees. It has become a favorite destination for thousands of lovers.
9. The geographical center of Europe is located in Ukraine. In 1886, the geographers of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, using the technology of the time, established the geographical center of Europe in the village of Dilove.
10. The city of Druzhkivka in the Donetsk region is one of the few places in the world where fossilized trees are kept. The trees are almost 250 million years old and create an entire fossilized forest that covers an area of 1 hectare.
11. The first gas lamp in history was invented in the Ukrainian city of Lviv.
12. The Ukrainians, namely the Antonov Design Bureau, have developed an aircraft with the highest payload capacity in the world - the An-225 Mechta. At first it was designed to transport spacecraft. Now "Dream" carries out commercial cargo transportation.
13. The author of one of the first constitutions in the world is Ukrainian political and public figure Pylyp Orlyk. On April 5, 1710, he was elected hetman of the Zaporizhian army. On the same day, Pylyp Orlyk announced the "Constitution of the rights and freedoms of the Zaporizhian army." In the United States, the Constitution was adopted in 1787, in France and the Commonwealth - only in 1791. An interesting fact is that Pylyp Orlik was born on the territory of Belarus - in the village of Kosuta, Oshmyany Povet.
14. In recent years, Ukraine has confidently retained its place in the top three world leaders in honey production. Being several times ahead of European countries in terms of honey production, Ukraine is at the same time the first state in the world in honey production per capita (1.5 kg).
15. Ukraine has the world's largest reserves of manganese ore - 2.3 billion tons, or about 11% of the world's total reserves.
16. Only six monasteries in the world have the status of Lavra. Three of them are in Ukraine. These are the Holy Assumption Kiev-Pechersk Lavra in Kyiv, which received this status back in 1598, the Holy Assumption Lavra in the city of Pochaev and the Svyatogorsk Holy Assumption Lavra in the Donetsk region.
17. Ostroh Academy is the first higher educational institution in Eastern Europe, the oldest Ukrainian scientific and educational institution. In 1576, Prince Konstantin-Vasily of Ostrog founded the Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy in Ostrog.
18. The first kerosene lamp was invented in Lvov by Ignaty Lukasiewicz and Jan Zekh in 1853, under the Golden Star pharmacy workers.In the same year, the first surgical operation was performed in the Lviv hospital under the illumination of a kerosene lamp. Subsequently, the kerosene lamp was presented at the international exhibition in Munich, the invention was awarded a special diploma there.
19. Monuments to the famous Ukrainian poet Taras Shevchenko have been erected in 1200 cities around the world.
20. The Ukrainian wind instrument trembita is the longest wind musical instrument in the world.
21. The shortest main street of all the capitals of the world, but at the same time one of the widest and most beautiful - Khreshchatyk in Kyiv. Its length is only 1225 m.
22. The oldest map known to scientists, as well as the oldest settlement of Homo Sapiens, were found in Ukraine: in the village. Mesopotamia of the Rivne region. They are about 14.5-15 thousand years old. The map is engraved on a mammoth bone.
23. The longest cave in Ukraine is called "Optimistic" and is located in Podolia. This is a gypsum cave at a depth of 20 m with a length of 216 km. The longest gypsum cave in the world and the second longest in general, it is second only to Mammoth Cave in the United States.
24. The geographical center of Europe (well, yes, we also have it :)). In Ukraine, near the town of Rakhiv, surrounded by the picturesque Carpathians, is the geographical center of Europe.
25. The oldest tree in Ukraine is considered to be a 1300-year-old oak in the Yuzefin tract, Rivne region.
26. The third most visited McDonald's in the world is located in Kyiv near the railway station. This establishment consistently ranks among the top five busiest McDonald's in the world.
27. One of the largest historical transport routes ran through the territory of Ukraine (as well as through the territory of Belarus) - “the path from the Varangians to the Greeks” - a system of river routes and portages between them 3 thousand km long, connecting the northern lands of Ancient Russia with the southern Russian lands and the Baltic sea with Black. Throughout ancient history, Ukraine has acted as a bridge between the worlds of Eastern Europe and the Ancient East, Antique, Byzantine and Latin Europe.
28. Ukraine ranks fourth in the world in terms of the number of citizens with higher education. The population of Ukraine is among the most educated, and the number of people with higher education per capita is higher than the average European level.
29. Ukraine, on its own initiative, abandoned the world's third largest arsenal of nuclear weapons. At the time of declaration of independence, more than a thousand nuclear warheads and missiles were located on the territory of Ukraine, the third largest nuclear potential after Russia and America. The warheads and missiles were handed over to Russia, the bunkers were destroyed. In response, Ukraine received money for disarmament, as well as security guarantees from nuclear powers (as we can see, these guarantees are not respected today).
30. The international Ukrainian anthem consists of only six lines (four in verse and two in the chorus). The remaining lines of the anthem are considered politically incorrect. (for example, "Stand, brother, in a crooked way from Xiang to Don" implies Ukraine's claims to the territory of Russia and Poland). The anthem was born in 1863, and adopted as a state anthem in 2003.
31.At the language beauty contest in Paris in 1934, the Ukrainian language took third place after French and Persian in terms of phonetics, vocabulary, phraseology, and sentence structure. And in terms of melodiousness, the Ukrainian language took second place after Italian.
32. Until the almost complete destruction in 1240 by the Mongol-Tatars, Kyiv was one of the largest cities in Europe, fifty times larger than London, ten times larger than Paris. It reached its peak under Yaroslav the Wise (1010 - 1054), who became related to the royal families of France, Norway, Romania and Poland. The population of today's capital of Ukraine was about 50,000 inhabitants. It took about 600 years to reach such demographic indicators again. Quite possibly, if it were not for the destruction of that time, Kyiv could have been the most developed largest city in Europe for many years.
33. Pablo Picasso was delighted with the works of the Ukrainian artist Kateryna Bilokur (1900-1961). When in 1954 he saw her works at an exhibition, he said that they were brilliant and compared Catherine with the world-famous artist Serafin Louis.
35. One of the most famous Christmas songs in the world is Shchedryk, a folk song recorded by Ukrainian composer Mykola Leontovych. The world knows her as Carol of the Bells or Ring Christmas Bells. On Youtube, various performances of "Shchedryk" are gaining millions of views.
36. During the Anglo-Boer War (South Africa) in 1899 - 1902. the commander of one of the detachments of the Boers, Ukrainian Yuriy Budyak, saved a young English journalist from execution. Subsequently, the latter helped Budyak enter Oxford University. In 1917, Yuriy worked in the government of the Ukrainian People's Republic. In 1943 Yuri Budyak died in a Soviet concentration camp. The English journalist's name was Winston Churchill…
37. At the time of independence, there were 19.4 million pigs in Ukraine. Today, there are half as many of them - 8.3 million. Despite the reputation of a salo-eater, the average Ukrainian eats only 18 kg of pork per year. This is three times less than an ordinary German.
38. In Ukraine, near Nikopol, on a spit near the river. Lapinki, on one of the branches of the Dnieper, you can see, or rather hear a phenomenon that is rare in the world - singing sands. The "singing" of these, perhaps, the strangest sands appears after rain, when the top layer sticks together and forms a fragile crust. Walking along it, you can hear sounds similar to the whistling of air released from a car chamber.
39. In the town of Berdychiv (Zhytomyr region) in the church of St. Barbara on March 14, 1850, the local beauty Evelina Ganskaya was married to Honore de Balzac. Frederic Chopin lived in the same town for a long time, who, in addition to writing music, also supervised the restoration of the local organ.
40. It would be possible to collect a dictionary of Ukrainian surnames, distorted in the course of Russification by Russian officials. So, the Ukrainian clan Chekhov in the 19th century became Chekhov for some reason. Chekhov's grandfather was still a Czech. Anton Pavlovich himself wrote that his grandfather was a Ukrainian. Quite funny, the Deineks turned into Denikins. Cossacks Rozuma became Razumovsky, Chaikas become Tchaikovsky. The grandfather of Pyotr Tchaikovsky, the great composer - Pyotr Chaika - graduated from the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, and as a physician, the Russian government sent him as a head physician to Vyatka.
41. Probably, the Ukrainian atmosphere in the Tchaikovsky family was preserved much better than that of the Chekhovs, because from the age of 24, the future composer lived in Ukraine almost every year for several months, where he wrote more than 30 works, including the opera Blacksmith Vakula (Cherevichki ”), “Mazepa”, song-romance “Cherry Garden of Haiti”, duet “On the Novgorod near the Ford” to the words of T. Shevchenko. In the cruel times of the empire's offensive against the Ukrainian language, he sought the production of "Taras Bulba" by N. Lysenko (the famous Ukrainian composer), used many Ukrainian folk songs in his works.
42. The great writer Fyodor Dostoevsky was Ukrainian by origin, because the Dostoevsky family came from the village of Dostoev near Pinsk (Ukrainian-Belarusian border), so Belarusians can also consider him their fellow countryman. One of the Dostoevskys becomes a hieromonk of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra and in 1647 takes part in the election of the next metropolitan. It is interesting that among the Dostoevskys who lived in Podolia, most of all were representatives of the clergy. Andrei Dostoevsky was a priest of the Ukrainian Uniate Church.
43. He was the grandfather of the writer F. Dostoevsky. Andrei's son quarreled with his father and brother and went to Moscow. His name was Mikhail, and as a memory of his family and Ukraine, he took with him, preserved and passed on to his sons his own Ukrainian poems. The daughter of Fyodor Mikhailovich recalls: "... poetic abilities were already in the Ukrainian family of my father, and were not given only through my Muscovite mother, as Dostoevsky's literary friends suggest." It is a pity that F. Dostoevsky did not join the defense of Ukraine.
44. This, in principle, cannot be said about V. Mayakovsky. The poet sharply criticized the “Muscovites”: “Comrade Muscovite, don’t joke about Ukraine.” He also reminded that Russians from the history of Ukraine know only Shevchenko, Taras Bulba, borscht and lard (“Russians have a shallow thickness of knowledge”).
45. By the way, he wrote about himself: "I am a Cossack from my grandfather, on the other - a Sich." Researchers point out that the Ukrainian clans of Mayakovsky went, probably, from those Cossacks who stood guard over the barrows, at the lighthouses that were set on fire during the Tatar attacks.
46. Unfortunately, the Ukrainians of Ripa turned into Repins. Although Ilya Repin, who was born in the Kharkiv region, still retained his sense of belonging to the Ukrainians and painted himself as a Cossack leaning on a cannon. “It's time to think about the Ukrainian style in art,” the artist noted. But he not only spoke, but also created many works on Ukrainian themes, for example, “The Cossacks write a letter to the Turkish Sultan” - he wrote two versions of this picture.
47. In 1931, there were more Ukrainians in the USSR than Russians. In six years, 55 million disappeared ... This figure is indicated in the book "At the Great Construction Site", published in 1931 in Leningrad. The same data are presented in the first Soviet encyclopedia of 1926. Neither this encyclopedia nor the book is available in any library in Ukraine. We managed to find "At the Great Construction Site" in Moscow.
48. The figures of 81 million are clearly visible in these copies. It should be noted that the population of Ukrainian Galicia, which was part of Poland, was not taken into account here. Already the next census of 1937 indicates that only 26 million Ukrainians remained in the USSR. Where did all the rest go? Knowing such figures, the repressions of the 1930s seem even more terrible.
49. Freedom Square in Kharkov is the largest square in Europe.
50. The longest embankment in Europe is located in Dnepropetrovsk. Its length is 30 km.
The Belarusian president has already said more than once that he is "full of power”.
President Lukashenko likes to emphasize that he is called Europe's last dictator.
In one of the many - and very frank at times - interviews, he himself called himself Old Man.
Batka in Belarusian means father.
And parents, as you know, are not chosen…
1. Political scientist Valery Karbalevich, author of the book "Alexander Lukashenko. A Political Portrait", states: "Lukashenko's greatest achievement is that he managed to create a special social model - a Belarusian social model, an alternative to those transformation projects that were demonstrated by the post-Soviet countries" .
2. Despite pessimistic forecasts and statements by critics about the incapacity of such a management system in the center of modern Europe, this model has been operating for 28 years and is still working very fruitfully, Karbala Vich notes, specifying: if we evaluate not economic, but sociological indicators, the level of support for the president.
3. “However, Lukashenka’s main weakness is precisely in the model he created. It helps Lukashenka to retain power, but does not allow the Belarusian society to develop. This is a dead-end model of conservation, Belarusians have yet to pay for the fact that we have been existing outside of development for so many years,” he says.
4. The union with Russia and participation in the integration formations initiated by the Kremlin are called by experts a beneficial project for Lukashenka. Aggregate support for the Belarusian business model has cost Moscow about $100 billion over 20 years, analysts say. Meanwhile, Lukashenko did not allow Russian business to privatize large Belarusian enterprises and periodically demonstrated intractability - as when signing an agreement on the creation of the EAEU, declaring the protection of national interests.
5. The 1996 referendum, which officially approved Lukashenka's proposed changes to the country's Constitution, allows the president to be elected an unlimited number of times. The referendum, which ex-speaker of parliament Mieczysław Hryb called a constitutional coup, expanded the rights of the president and limited the powers of parliament.
6. Agro-towns are a large-scale residential construction in the countryside, which started with the adoption of the "State Program for the Revival and Development of the Village for 2005-2010". By the end of the deadlines indicated by the state program, almost 1,500 agro-towns were erected and landscaped in Belarus, and about 8,000 residential buildings were built.
7. Critics note the high cost of the project (the state program approved 69.7 trillion Belarusian rubles for this purpose in mid-2000s prices, but, according to officials, more was spent) with the low quality of construction work, the virtual impossibility for new settlers to privatize the housing they received, and the lack of new settlers themselves - youth from
8. Belarusian villages massively rushed to the cities 15-20 years before the start of the project. Despite the rows of brand new streets pleasing to the eye of a visiting traveler, agro-towns have not brought Belarusian agriculture closer to self-sufficiency and profitability; the industry is still subsidized by the state.
9. In 2004, four high-ranking Belarusian security officials suspected of organizing the disappearances of Lukashenka's political opponents were denied entry to the EU, the US and Canada. In 2006, President Lukashenko was also included in the sanctions list.
10. The sudden death in 1999 of the opposition politician Gennady Karpenko, who, according to studies of that time, was able to compete with Lukashenka in the struggle for the presidency, is also called by a number of researchers a "removal operation." Karpenko suddenly felt ill after drinking a cup of coffee during a business conversation.
11. President Lukashenko swore only once to avenge a "political" death - when in October 1997, a friend and ally of the president, Yevgeny Mikolutsky, head of the state control committee in the Mogilev region, was killed by an explosion in the entrance of the house. The deceased was awarded the title of Hero of Belarus.
12. The press and analysts connected the arrests of Vasily Starovoitov, the famous collective farm chairman from Soviet times, twice Hero of Socialist Labor, and the Minister of Agriculture, Vasily Leonov, with the progress of the investigation. But officially, the customers, perpetrators and motives for the murder have not yet been named.
13. Lukashenka's personal losses include the death of Health Minister Lyudmila Postoyalka - she is considered the unofficial mother-in-law of the Belarusian president, Kolya Lukashenko's grandmother. Alexander Lukashenko patronized the minister, but sent only a wreath to the funeral at the Palace of the Republic, and the responsible officials, appreciating the sign given by the president, tried to leave the mourning ceremony as soon as possible.
14. The execution of Dmitry Konovalov and Vladislav Kovalev, accused of blowing up the Minsk metro, is still considered hasty by many in Belarus, and the circumstances of the tragedy are unclear. The explosion thundered at the Oktyabrskaya station at rush hour on April 11, 2011, claimed the lives of 15 people, hundreds of people were recognized as victims. Even before the court verdict was passed, Alexander Lukashenko presented investigators with state awards who, a day after the terrorist attack, reported on the disclosure of the crime.
15. The list of political protesters against the Lukashenka regime who went through prisons is in the hundreds. Several dozen high-ranking officials ended up in cells in the course of the fight against corruption - a problem at the forefront of the relevance of which, in fact, the once little-known director of one of the Belarusian state farms was promoted to the presidency.
16. "In order to maintain the status quo and stability, the authoritarian regime needs fear dispelled in different sectors of society. Hence the regular replenishment of cells - both for corruption and "for politics." In foreign policy terms, these arrests cut Belarus off from the European community: Europe is sensitive to the presence of political prisoners , every time such arrests turn on the red light, slow down the development of relations with official Minsk," human rights activist Lyudmila Gryaznova notes.
17. Tamara Vinnikova, the head of the National Bank and a showy woman whom Lukashenka called "our orchid," was arrested in mid-January 1997, immediately after a meeting with the president. Until November, she was kept in the KGB pre-trial detention center on suspicion of committing an official crime and causing damage to the state on an especially large scale. Due to health problems, she was transferred under house arrest (although there was no such measure of restraint in Belarusian criminal law at that time), then - on April 7, 1999 - she suddenly disappeared. In December, Vinnikova showed up in London, where she stated that she was in the UK in the status of a political refugee. How she managed to escape from around the clock strict security is still not clear. In one of her interviews, Tamara Vinnikova said that she took advantage of the opportunity when she was "transferred from the security group to the group of physical destruction." Until the summer of 2011, the Interpol website posted information about the international search for Tamara Vinnikova, then this information disappeared.
18. Professor Yury Bandazhevsky, one of the leading experts in the field of medical radiology, was accused of accepting bribes for the post of rector of the Gomel Medical Institute and arrested in July 1999. Human rights activists note that the accusations and arrest followed after Bandazhevsky's research on the detrimental effects of small doses of radiation on the human body became known in the West, and then in Belarus: the scientist's conclusions contradicted Lukashenka's setting for a shock revival of the lands affected by the Chernobyl accident. In June 2001, Professor Bandazhevsky was sentenced by the military board of the Supreme Court to eight years in prison. He was recognized as a prisoner of conscience by the international human rights community. Released on August 5, 2005, emigrated from Belarus.
19. Politician Nikolai Statkevich, former candidate for the presidency of Belarus in the 2010 elections, is still in prison. Arrested on the evening after the elections, on December 19, after a forceful dispersal of a protest rally against fraud. Accused of organizing mass riots, in May 2011 sentenced to six years in a penal colony. Five more opposition politicians who fought with Alexander Lukashenko for the presidency also went through the KGB pre-trial detention center, prisons, house arrest, but to this day they are at large (ex-presidential candidates Andrei Sannikov and Ales Mikhalevich were forced to leave Belarus). According to political analysts, President Lukashenko cannot forgive Mikalai Statkevich for his disobedience and harsh speeches in the media during the election campaign. Statkevich appealed to Lukashenka: "Give back the elections to the people!", accusing the authorities of falsifying election campaigns.
20. Human rights activist Ales Bialiatskiwas released in 2014, after 1,050 days of imprisonment. He was accused of non-payment of taxes on funds accumulated in foreign accounts. He pleaded not guilty, saying that the accounts in Lithuania and Poland were used for the needs of human rights activities. Even before the verdict was passed, the damage that the state demanded compensation was repaid by voluntary donations from citizens. Over the past three years, Ales Belyatsky, head of the Viasna human rights center deregistered by the Belarusian authorities and vice-president of the International Federation of Human Rights, has been nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize.
21. Student Anton Suryapin became known to the world after his arrest for a photo: Surya Pin posted on the Internet a photo of teddy bears dropped with calls to respect human rights by a Swedish light aircraft illegally entering Belarusian airspace. In August 2012, Surya Pin and realtor Basharimov, who somehow helped the Swedes rent housing in Belarus, were accused of illegally crossing the border, although initially they were only suspected of complicity in such actions. After a short stay in the KGB pre-trial detention center, student Suryapin was released and returned to his studies. The "plush landing" of the Swedish bears cost several high-ranking military posts and turned into a diplomatic conflict: the Belarusian authorities forced the Swedish ambassador Stefan Erickson to leave Minsk.
22. The American lawyer Emanuel Zeltser and his assistant Vladlena Funk in the Minsk KGB pre-trial detention center, popularly referred to as the "American", turned out to be almost according to the plot of a Hollywood detective. Zeltser and Funk, who spent more than a year in Belarusian places of detention, said after their release that they woke up at the Minsk airport after meeting Boris Berezovsky in London. In Minsk, they were accused of using forged documents and commercial espionage. The Belarusian press claimed that the arrest of Zeltser and his assistant was connected with the case of a dispute over the inheritance of businessman Badri Patarkatsishvili, who died in London, and Boris Berezovsky, who was put on the wanted list by allied Russia, repeatedly flew to the Minsk “American”, demanding that the arrested lawyer issue “Belarusian assets” "Patarkatsishvili. Later, Zeltser and Funk confirmed this information, also reporting that Berezovsky was present in Minsk at a closed court session. Emmanuil Zeltser, sentenced in Belarus to three years in prison, was pardoned by President Lukashenko in early July 2009. Vladlena Funk served a one-year term in a women's colony appointed by the court.
23. At the end of August 2013, the Investigative Committee of Belarus announced the arrest and detention of the general director of the Russian company Uralkali, Vladislav Baumgertner. Later, President Lukashenko confirmed that the Russian top manager was arrested after a meeting initiated by Belarusian Prime Minister Myasnikovich. "He (Baumgertner - ed.) arrived, a jerk, he was invited by the prime minister. He sat down cross-legged and said: this will not happen, this will not happen. He went out, spat on the Government House and laughed at the airport," Lukashenka said about the circumstances of the arrest. Minsk also threatened a number of other Russian managers and the Russian oligarch Suleiman Kerimov with bringing to justice for causing significant harm to the state and public interests of Belarus. A month before Baumgertner's arrest in Minsk, Uralkali announced the termination of sales through the Belarusian Potash Company, a structure created in December 2005 on a parity basis with the Belarusian side (before the break in relations, the company provided 43% of world potassium chloride exports). The participating parties of the BPC accused each other of failing to fulfill contractual obligations to use the common commodity distribution network. The fate of Baumgertner arrested in Minsk, judging by press reports, was dealt with by the top leadership of Russia. Baumgertner was extradited to Russia on November 21, 2013, in Russia a criminal case was initiated against him, including on the basis of materials collected and handed over to the Russian side by Belarusian investigators.
24. Belarusian businessman Nikolai Autukhovich, who was recently released from prison after his second term, spent a total of more than seven and a half years behind bars and was recognized by human rights activists as a political prisoner as a victim for criticizing the authorities and active citizenship. The once successful business of Autukhovich (he created a network of private taxis and cafes in the city of Volkovysk) is ruined, the health of the released Afghan veteran is undermined.
25. Ex-president of Kyrgyzstan Kurmanbek Bakiyev is often called a “Belarusian prisoner” in Minsk, although the leader who fled from his country was received personally by President Lukashenko and Bakiyev, who arrived in Belarus in 2010, long ago received Belarusian citizenship. In Kyrgyzstan, Kurmanbek Bakiyev was sentenced to 25 years in prison, his brother Zhanybek, who was once discovered by Minsk photographers on the streets of the Belarusian capital, was sentenced to life imprisonment. Bishkek periodically demands the extradition of the Bakiyevs. The ex-president and his relatives have cut off communication with the press, the place of residence of the Bakiyevs is kept secret, although the non-state press in Belarus periodically reports on mansions allegedly built by the family in prestigious cottage settlements.
26. "Prisoner of the West" is Zianon Paznyak, one of the founders of the Belarusian Popular Front, the head of the Conservative Christian Party of the Belarusian Popular Front. He was the first to tell the world about Kurapaty - a tract near Minsk, where hundreds of thousands of inhabitants were shot during the years of Stalinist repressions. The organizer of protest mass actions and a sharp critic of Lukashenka, Paznyak, was forced to flee the country in 1996, according to a number of researchers in the modern history of Belarus, due to the threat of physical destruction. In the same year he received political asylum in the United States. In exile, he continues to be actively involved in politics, regularly and sharply criticizes the "imperial aspirations of Russia" and the Belarusian leadership.
Most popular sayings of President Lukashenko
"If you don't have money for a restaurant, talk to a girl in a student dormitory. Buy kefir and a bun"
"He took the eggs - the milk was gone!" - President Lukashenko once talked about attempts to overcome the food shortage. He promised: "Our people will live badly, but not for long."
“Belarusians are the same Russians, only with a quality mark,” he once said as a compliment.
Such phrases of President Lukashenko have long become proverbial jokes, but in almost every public speech the Belarusian leader adds a couple of figurative expressions to the popular dictionary of phraseological units.
Vladimir Podgol, Ph.D. in Philosophy, author of a number of books, including "Fundamentals of Political Psychology", explains: Lukashenka is moving away from diplomatic language, because his mentality is a scientific phenomenon. "A person has the genetic ability to awaken the archetype with further mental inflation," Vladimir Podgol tries to explain.
Archetype is a term introduced by Carl Jung and used in his theory to denote the deepest foundation of personality, which is a set of basic ideas inherited by a person from his ancestors and defining his modern psychology and behavior. Inflation is not only an economic word, but also a term of social psychology. This is the expansion of the human psyche to the awakened archetype. At certain stressful moments, these processes are activated in the personality, and the person reveals himself to others not even by himself, but by the carrier of the "base" of ancestors. “This is such a psychotype, it was also characteristic of Hitler, to a certain extent, Stalin,” says Vladimir Podgol.
The Belarusian philosopher paid for the parallels between Lukashenka and Hitler 18 years ago. A fragment of Vladimir Podgol's doctoral dissertation was a comparative analysis of the mentality of the Germans in the 30s of the last century and Belarusians who suddenly gained sovereignty. The scientist also analyzed the mentality of the leaders of these states, and Lukashenka used quotes as material for research.
“I collected quotes that contained archetypes. My dissertation was taken to the presidential administration, then to the KGB, and from that moment I stopped being a doctoral student and I can’t get a job anywhere in our state,” says Vladimir Podgol.
Vladimir Podgol continues his collection of statements by the Belarusian President - however, anyone can record what was impressive in the speeches and interviews of Alexander Lukashenko.
The Belarusian president tried to disown this quote, spread by the German newspaper Handelsblatt, by telling the NTV program that the statement was "a fake, fabricated in Poland by the CIA." But German journalists insist that at the dawn of his presidency, in 1995, in an interview with the Handelsblatt newspaper, Lukashenka stated the following: “The history of Germany is, to some extent, a mold of the history of Belarus at certain stages. At one time, Germany was raised from the ruins, thanks to the very tough power known by Adolf Hitler... Not everything that was bad in Germany was associated with Adolf Hitler.The German order was formed over the centuries, under Hitler this formation reached its highest point.This is what corresponds to our understanding of the presidential republic and the role of the president in it ...".
However, it is much more interesting to listen to how the father teaches the Belarusians order.
"Every Belarusian will have a cup and crackling on the table!" (1994).
"They bought sugar, they got to the point where they started buying up vinegar. They turned everything into warehouses ... Now drink vinegar and eat sugar!" (2011).
"Why do you eat potatoes with meat at night? How will you sleep? Do not eat with meat - eat with herring!" (year 2014).
“It is necessary that there is hot water in the agricultural town, so that every milkmaid and pig-herd goes to bed with a peasant in the evening.” (2011).
"If you don't have money for a restaurant, talk to a girl in a student dormitory. Buy kefir and a bun." (2004).
"They reached the point of absurdity: what to do if a married woman loves someone on the side. We are not going to hang chastity belts on the corresponding parts of the body for anyone. You dispose of yourself as you see fit." (2005 year).
“Two boys? That’s good. And where is the girl? If you get pregnant, God forbid, and want to give birth, come to Belarus, we will arrange everything for you. From a Belarusian, from a Jew, from a Pole, we have Ukrainians, good Russians. Choose." (year 2013).
"I had a meeting in a women's team, at work. I tell them: the first child is yours, the second is also yours. The third child is mine and a little bit yours. One hundred percent the fifth and next is mine ... They are silent. Well , here, give birth. I can't do it for you." (2011).
"They showed me the outfit, to which I replied that I would not wear it. They brought green pants. How will the president of the country walk in green pants? It's good that they are not blue, honestly." (year 2014).
"If you want to say that your president should walk or ride a bike, that's fine too. I won't get rusty - I can sit on a bike and ride. It'll just be embarrassing for you." (year 2013).
Russia is a country that impresses with its massive size and culture. At the same time, Russians are kind and nice people who are glad to welcome every guest. This country is associated with forests and mountains, clear lakes and endless rivers, diverse flora and fauna. It is here that people of different nationalities live, respecting the culture and customs of the locals. Next, we suggest reading more interesting and amazing facts about Russia and Russians. The country is made up of people, not the government.
1. Russia is the largest country in the world, with an area of more than 17 million km2, so its length from east to west covers 10 time zones at once.
2. The Russian Federation includes 21 national republics, which occupy 21% of the territory of Russia.
3. Throughout the world, Russia is considered a European country, but at the same time, 2/3 of its territory is in Asia.
4. Russia is separated from the USA by only 4 km, which separates the Russian island of Ratmanov and the American island of Kruzenshtern.
5. The area of frosty Siberia is 9.7 million km2, which is as much as 9% of the land mass of planet Earth.
6. Forests occupy most of the Russian territory and make up as much as 60% of the area of Russia. Russia is also rich in water resources, which include 3 million lakes and 2.5 million rivers.
7. The lake in Russia, which is located on the territory of the Valdai National Park, is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. It is said that the water in this lake is healing and holy.
8. In Russia, Swan Lake is not only the name of the ballet, but also the place in the Altai Territory, where about 300 swans and 2000 ducks arrive for wintering in November.
9. In Russia, mother nature is honored, therefore, 4% of the country's area is occupied by nature reserves.
10. Russia is the only state in the whole world whose territory is washed by 12 seas at once.
11. Russia is home to the largest active volcano in the world, Klyuchevskaya Sopka, which is 4.85 km high and has been erupting regularly for 7,000 years.
12. The climate in Russia is very diverse, and if in Sochi in winter the usual air temperature is +5°C, then in the settlement of Yakutia it can reach -55°C at the same time.
13. The record low air temperature was recorded in 1924 in the Russian city of Oymyakon, and it amounted to as much as -71 ° C.
14. The first place in the world in gas and oil production, as well as in the export of aluminum, steel and nitrogen fertilizers, is awarded to the Russian Federation.
15. The capital of Russia, Moscow, is one of the most densely populated cities in the world, with 11 million people living there, according to official figures.
16. In terms of population, Russia ranks 7th in the world and has 145 million people, with Russians in Russia making up 75% of the population.
17. Moscow is one of the richest and most expensive cities in the world, and the level of wages in this city differs from the level of wages in other Russian cities by 3, and occasionally 33 times.
18. In Russia there is one amazing city - Suzdal, on an area of is 15 km2 10,000 people live, and which is amazing in that there are as many as 53 temples, majestic in their beauty and decoration.
19. The Russian city of Yekaterinburg in 2002, according to the UNESCO rating, was included in the list of 12 most ideal cities for living in the world.
20. One of the oldest cities in the world where people still live in Russia is the Dagestan city of Derbent.
21. If you add together the territory of the Netherlands and Belgium, then their area will be equal to the area of the Tambov region.
22. The Russian Federation is considered the successor of the Roman Empire, because the double-headed eagle depicted on its coat of arms symbolizes the Byzantine idea of harmonious interaction between the power of church and state.
23. Russia is rich in its secrets. For example, there are more than 15 cities there that are hidden from everyone, because they are neither on maps, nor on road signs, but nowhere at all, and, of course, foreigners are strictly forbidden to enter there.
24. The Moscow metro is the most punctual metro in the world, because the intervals between trains during rush hour are only 1.5 minutes.
25. The deepest metro in the world is located in the cultural capital of the Russian Federation - St. Petersburg, and its depth is as much as 100 meters.
26. The Russian metro was the safest place during the air raids of World War II, and 150 people were born there during the bombing.
27. St. Petersburg is not just called the cultural capital of Russia, it's just that in this city there are 2000 libraries, 45 art galleries, 221 museums, about 80 theaters and the same number of clubs and palaces of culture.
28. Peterhof is one of the most amazing palace and park complexes in the world, because in addition to luxurious palaces, it has a huge number of fountains, of which there are 176 pieces, of which 40 fountains are truly gigantic.
29. They say that Venice is a city of bridges, but no matter how, because there are three times as many bridges in St. Petersburg.
30. Russia has the longest railway line - the Trans-Siberian Railway, connecting Moscow and Vladivostok. The length of this route is 9298 km, and during the trip it is possible to pass 8 time zones, 87 cities and 16 rivers.
31. Russia also has the largest freshwater lake in the world - Baikal, with a volume of as much as 23 km3. To imagine its greatness, it is enough to think about the fact that the 12 largest rivers in the world have to flow for a whole year in order to fill Baikal.
32. The most ancient, and therefore the most majestic mountains in the world are the Urals. For example, Mount Pencil, which is part of the Ural Mountains complex, arose more than 4 billion years ago.
33. One of the strangest mountains in the world is the Russian mountain Magnetic, located under the city of Magnitogorsk, which is almost entirely made of iron.
34. In Russia, there is the largest, densest and almost wild forest in the world - this is the Siberian taiga, half of which has not even been mastered by man yet.
35. In the capital of the Russian Federation there is one fountain, which is part of the architectural group "Alexander and Natalie", from which it is not ordinary water that beats, but drinking water, which you can gladly quench your thirst on a hot summer day.
36. Located on Borovitsky Hill, the Moscow Kremlin is the largest fortress in the world, preserved since the Middle Ages, and its area covers 27.5 hectares, and the length of the walls is 2235 m.
37. The largest and oldest museum in the whole world is the Russian Hermitage Museum, which contains 3 million exhibits, and if someone wants to examine them all, devoting only one minute to each exhibit, this person will have to go to the museum, as if to work, for 25 years.
38. The Hermitage is also famous for the fact that the staff of the museum includes not only people, but also the most ordinary cats who have their own passport with a photo and earn their Whiskas money by catching rodents in the museum, preventing them from spoiling the exhibits.
39. In Russia, there is the largest library in Europe - this is the Public Library, which was founded in Moscow in 1862.
40. In the small town of Kizhi there is a church resembling a work of art, which is interesting because not a single nail was spent on its construction.
41. In Russia, there is the world's largest university building - Moscow State University, whose height, together with an exquisite spire, is 240 meters.
42. In Moscow, you can see the highest building in Europe - the Ostankino TV tower, whose height is 540 meters.
43. The world's largest bell was cast in Russia by craftsmen Ivan Motorin and his son Mikhail. This is the Tsar Bell, which is 614 cm high and weighs 202 tons.
44. The oldest Christian temple is located on the territory of the Russian Federation - this is the Tkhaba-Erdy temple, built in the VIII-IX centuries, which is located in Ingushetia.
45. Russia has one of the largest urban parks in the world - this is Izmailovsky Park, which was founded in 1931 and whose territory is now as much as 15.3 km2.
46. The largest botanical garden in Europe is again Russian. This is the botanical garden. Tsitsing, which was founded immediately after the end of the Great Patriotic War in 1945.
47. The world's largest tram network is located in St. Petersburg and is as much as 690 km.
48. The most record-breaking issue of a paper newspaper took place in May 1990, when 22 million copies of Komsomolskaya Pravda newspapers were published.
49. The frame of the world-famous New York Statue of Liberty was smelted in one of the Russian cities - Yekaterinburg.
50. Russia is a paradise for tourists with many beautiful and interesting tourist and sightseeing routes, among which the Golden and Silver Rings of Russia, as well as the Great Ural Ring, are considered the best.