Top 50 interesting and curios facts about Super Bowl in 2022 that you need to know
In February 2022, the 2022 Super Bowl will take place - the final of the National Football League.
Ahead of the match, which is just some days away, the NFL has announced a roster of performers who will play during halftime.
The audience will be entertained by four famous rappers - Dr. Dre, Eminem, Snoop Dogg and Kendrick Lamar. Also on stage will be the hip-hop singer Mary J. Blige.
This is the final game of the American football season between the two best teams in the United States. At the same time, it is the most rated event of the year on American television, which gathers the maximum audience from television screens. The Super Bowl is not only watched by sports fans, because it is one of the main events of modern pop culture.
Every year, on the first Sunday in February, the US hosts the final game of the National Football League - The Super Bowl. From a purely sporting event, the Superbowl has long turned into a super show. We tell the story of the best performances of this cup, which have become iconic in pop culture and fashion - from Carol Channing to The Weeknd.
Bemorepanda collected some interesting facts about The Super Bowl.
1. Super Bowl - in American football, the title of the final game for the title of champion of the National Football League (NFL) of the United States of America. The game and its attendant celebration over the years is Super Bowl Sunday.
2. Any holiday, in my opinion, is great: it is a good mood, emotions, meeting interesting people and friends (if you are watching a company) and a reason for discussion the next day. Well, in America they know how to decorate holidays beautifully and celebrate on a large scale.
3. During the break, the stadium turns into a large-scale concert venue. One star is putting on an amazing mini-concert!
4. Huge audience attracts advertisers' attention. During the Super Bowl, the most expensive and high-quality advertising in the world is shown - the cost of showing a 30-second video is $ 5 million. Film companies showcase exclusive trailers of the most anticipated films of the year.
5. At the same time there are 22 people on the field - 11 attacking players of one team against 11 defense players of the other. The task of attacking in 4 attempts to go 10 yards. In this case, the ball can be passed through the air or immediately run with it in hand. If you miss 10 yards in your available attempts, either give the ball to an opponent or kick the ball into the goal to score 3 points.
6. If the attack goes all the way and the player is in the end zone with the ball, this is called a touchdown and the team scores 6 points plus the chance to score one extra. The task of the defense, therefore, is to prevent the attack from passing all those yards.
7. The Denver Broncos are playing against the Carolina Panthers. For Denver, the main figure is 39-year-old quarterback Peyton Manning, one of America's most famous and respected athletes. For him, this is most likely the last game of his career and a chance to say goodbye to sports beautifully by winning the championship ring.
8. Carolina are a young and mischievous team with outstanding defense, having suffered only 1 defeat in 18 games of the season (including the playoffs). The leader is quarterback Cameron Newton, who will soon be named the best player of the regular season.
9. From the point of view of non-Americans, the hysteria around, in fact, a football match seems to be a surprising phenomenon.
10. The amazing thing is: Since 1967, when the National Football League and the American Football League began merging, the Super Bowl has grown in popularity until it has become a national phenomenon.
11. Now the final game of the season, during which the NFL champion is determined, in the United States has the character of a national holiday: fashionable department stores like Bergdorf Goodman decorate windows in her honor and come up with capsule collections, and Americans themselves sit en masse in front of TV screens - on the day of the final in the USA they buy and eat only slightly less food than they did on Thanksgiving.
12. The TV broadcast of the game is so popular that the match itself has been shifted over the years to the evening time, so that the breaks fall on Sunday prime time.
13. For this broadcast, brands of all stripes traditionally release separate commercials (one minute of airtime during the Super Bowl costs about $ 8 million) - this is how the first iPhone advertisement was shown for the first time, and this year the Tiffany & Co. campaign will be presented during the broadcast. starring Lady Gaga.
14. Falling into big news feeds, the fashion industry could not ignore such an event and throughout the existence of the Super Bowl systematically worked its way inside the football game. In the interval between the halves, since 1970, they have been organizing mini-concerts - a little less than 15 minutes, the so-called halftime performances, at which the most famous artists at the time of the game perform.
15. The next morning, the sports media talked about the score, and the rest of the media talked about the performances and costumes prepared by the fashion brand teams for the Super Bowl. We have selected the most iconic ones.
16. Raymond James Stadium in Tampa, Florida attracted three times fewer people than usual. Due to antiquated measures, the performances had to be moved from the field to the stage installed in the stands (for the first time in the 55-year history of the Super Bowl!). However, even this did not stop them from staging a grand show. Super Bowl 2021 headliner The Weeknd was accompanied by poet Amanda Gorman, r'n'b singer Jazmine Sullivan, singer H.E.R. and Miley Cyrus.
17. Viewers first saw Cyrus performing a special TikTok Tailgate show in honor of the doctors (with a Tik Tok broadcast, of course).
18. On the stage, Miley appeared first in the form of a cheerleader by Michael Schmidt, and then in the interpretation of football equipment that Gucci designers created especially for Miley, by the way, the FTW inscription on the top stands for for the win.
19. To the delight of older viewers, rock legends Billy Idol and Joan Jett appeared on stage with Cyrus (they also worked with Miley on her last disc). After Miley, Amanda Gorman, the 22-year-old poet most of us knew about at Biden's inauguration, came up with a new poem about Americans fighting a pandemic. Amanda changed her Prada coat to a Moschino from the Spring 2021 collection, and a red rim for a pearl one. Star stylist Jason Bolden, who works with the main figures of American pop culture, from Alicia Keys to Serena Williams, gathered her for the ceremony (you can find out how his everyday life as a stylist goes on in Bolden's author's show on Netflix Styling Hollywood.
20. Although on the eve of the Super Bowl, The Weeknd complained that he did not have enough money to repeat the appearance of Diana Ross (in 1996, the singer landed at the stadium by helicopter), his appearance on the impromptu stage turned out to be no less spectacular.
21. The Weeknd decided not to deviate from the narrative set in 2020, and again used the image of Robert De Niro from "Casino" by Martin Scorsese. The outfit was in charge of Givenchy creative director Matthew Williams, who said it took 250 hours of work to create the rhinestone-studded jacket. But The Weeknd made it easier for the makeup artists - this time the singer went on stage without bandages on his face.
22. Dancers have appeared in them, and according to The Weeknd, this is a hairpin towards celebrities who change their appearance for public recognition. The performance has already been sold into memes, including because at the same time as The Weeknd there were thousands of his "clones" on stage - some fans decided that in the middle of the show Abel himself was a little confused.
23. J-Lo and Shakira's performance during the Super Bowl 2020 halftime ended just a few hours ago, and it is already being called one of the most spectacular shows in the history of halftime performances. Designer Peter Dundas was responsible for Shakira's costumes. One of them - a red crop top with Swarovski crystals and a transforming dress - has been compared on the Internet to the Gazelle outfit from the Zootopia cartoon, voiced by Shakira. Red, which is so popular on similar tracks, in the Super Bowl, on the contrary, was an exception. Oddly enough, the last time Diana Ross performed in such a dress on the show was back in 1996.
24. The choice of outfit for Jennifer Lopez was predictable. “When people think of Jennifer, they think of Versace,” said one of the singer's stylists, Mariel Hann. In just a 14-minute performance, J.Lo changed four outfits, while it took her only 8 seconds to change clothes for the longest time. So, during Jenny From The Block, she was in a leather jumpsuit with rivets (like she wore to concerts in the early 2000s), and Get Right sang in a sparkling bodysuit.
25. There were also political statements at the Super Bowl. So, for the finale of the performance, Jay Lo wore a voluminous cape of multi-colored feathers that form an American flag on the outside, and a Puerto Rican one from the inside.
26. Shakira's performance was regarded as an homage to Middle Eastern culture. The singer took the stage with the Colombian dance troupe Swing Latino (and performed a belly dance herself), and when she played the track My Hips Don’t Lie, she imitated the manner of Arab women to festively "hoot" with joy. True, not everyone understood the allusion - and so the singer became the main meme of the Super Bowl.
27. The end of the show was held under the auspices of girl power. Shakira and J. Lo sang Let’s Get Loud together - Lopez's hit from her 1999 debut album. And on stage they were joined by a chorus of girls led by the 11-year-old daughter Jennifer Lopez Emmy (American Vogue has already read her a great future).
28. The performance at the 2016 Super Bowl was discussed, firstly, because the game was jubilee - the fiftieth, and all the artists tried to make their performances as patriotic as possible.
29. The incident was that absolutely everything was decided to express love for the native country in the outfits of Italian designers: Lady Gaga was in Gucci, Bruno Mars - in Versace, Beyonce - in Dsquared2, and only Chris Martin's sneakers were American. Otherwise, the patriotic component of halftime performance was all right: for example, the costumes of Beyoncé dancers, which Zana Bane did, were an allusion to the uniforms of the Black Panthers, a radical political group that fought against the oppression of black Americans, and on the day before Super Bowl, the singer presented composition Formation and a clip for it (you yourself know what).
30. Jeremy Scott was responsible for the costumes of Perry: he came up with four extravagant (in some places even just weird) looks for the singer - from a beach ball costume to a dress of flames, in which Katy rode out onto the field, sitting astride a huge mechanical dog.
31. Scott is known for his commercial approach to fashion, and about the appearance of Moschino clothes at the Super Bowl he said honestly: "This is the most popular show of the year - it has more viewers than the Oscars!" As for Missy Elliott, in her case, the news feed was in her very appearance on the stage after a ten-year hiatus. Thanks to the Super Bowl, her album sales grew more than 900 percent in the week after the match.
32. Since 2012, bespoke clothing from big brands has become an important part of Super Bowl performances. For example, three years ago, the fashionable component of the performance split in two - on the one hand, there was Bruno Mars in a gold Yves Saint Laurent jacket, on the other - the opera singer Renee Fleming in a black Vera Wang dress made especially for her with white draperies.
33. According to Vera's plan, the dress was supposed to embody all the greatness of American culture, sit comfortably on Fleming and look good against the background of the orchestra. It seems that everything turned out, and in such a way that Rene did not want to donate the outfit to the museum later (in the end, she was persuaded).
34. The Super Bowl has had dozens of amazing performances, but Beyoncé is Beyoncé. The show, which the singer, her team and the group Destiny's Child came up with, was so entertaining and polished that it seemed as if the audience was watching a 3D clip.
35. Beyoncé came out in a transforming bodysuit, from which she unfastened parts during the performance until only transparent leather lace remained on her. The outfit was invented by the young American couturier Rubin Singer - according to him, the Super Bowl 2013 completely turned his career around. And we join Vogue.com's question: how did it happen that Beyoncé never lost her breath throughout the entire performance?
36. The most epic performance in Super Bowl history goes to Madonna. In the guise of an Egyptian queen, she rode out onto the field in a huge golden chariot, which was carried by hundreds of athletes, and then sang her hit Vogue and several compositions with M.I.A. and Nicki Minaj.
37. The costumes for the show were made by Ricardo Tisci - he has already collaborated with Madonna during her three-year Sticky & Sweet tour. “People say that there is a limit to everything, but there are no borders from Madonna. So glad that after trying herself in different roles, she decided to return to the music scene. Not only to give us music, but also to create fashion, create iconic performances, ”said Tisci. For his Super Bowl performance, he came up with three looks: with a long gold cape, with a long black cape and a short dress with over the knee boots. The dancers' costumes were also ordered by Givenchy.
38. The Black Eyed Peas were still performing in full force back then, and each costume deserved a separate discussion. Fergie wore a leather dress with huge overhead shoulders (like those of American football players) covered with crystals, and her fingers glittered with huge ring claws worn on the last phalanx. The rest of the band were wearing leather suits with built-in LEDs. Plus the costumes of four hundred dancers glowed. Minnesota-based dance studio Just For Kix took on this challenging design and technical work. Six years have passed since then, and LEDs on clothes and shoes are gradually becoming a common place (the future is somewhere nearby).
39. The stage in the form of a purple cartoon letter P, the same guitar and sky-blue pantsuit with an orange shirt: this appearance of Prince is invariably included in all lists of the best images of the singer, and outside of such listings it can be safely called the most obvious proof of what he knew how to wear nuclear colors like no one else.
40. Perhaps the most scandalous costume in the history of the Super Bowl. During the joint performance of Rock Your Body, Timberlake tore off Janet's suit - the right cup of a leather corset, exposing the singer's chest. This incident became so high-profile that the English-language Wikipedia has a separate article dedicated to it. CBS was fined a record 550,000 dollars, critics said Janet's trick was a sign of moral decline in the United States, and Jackson herself had to make a public apology.
41. The singer's PR service later explained that Janet let the suit down, but no one believed them: the singer's nipple was prudently covered with an ornament in the form of the sun. The bare-chested fragment was cut from the Super Bowl recording, but it was sent to each other anyway. YouTube co-founder Javed Karim even believes that the episode was one of the reasons for the popularity of the video platform.
42. Strictly speaking, in 2001 she was not the only one performing at the Super Bowl - the singer was accompanied by Aerosmith, * NSYNC and Mary J. Blige. But Britney was the epitome of the early 2000s. In low-rise white trousers, a crop top and a pierced navel, she was the face of a decade, defining the look of the most fashionable girls for years to come. That same year, Pepsi, the official sponsor of the Super Bowl, shot a commercial starring Britney that looked like a sequel to her performance with Aerosmith.
43. Diana Ross wouldn’t be herself if her Super Bowl performance hadn’t been built around her as the main diva of the nineties. First, she changed four costumes: she came out in a red fluffy dress, which was transformed into a mini; then she appeared in an orange-pink mermaid dress, changed it to a gold cloak with leggings and a fuchsia-colored corset, and ended the performance in a pink and orange suit.
44. Ross flew away from the stadium in a helicopter. Thirdly, people lined up in giant letters Diana Ross - so that they could be seen even from space. Her performance is ranked ninth in the Top 10 Super Bowl Performances: Diana turned the costumes into part numbers for the first time.
45. The press unanimously considers Michael Jackson to be the founding father of the standard halftime performance format - in general, he invented a lot of pop cultural phenomena that did not exist before him. Jackson turned his Super Bowl performance into a hit potpourri for the first time, and produced individual dance routines that flow into each other.
46. The singer's costume became no less legendary than the performance itself: black aviator glasses, a black military jacket with a decorative gold bandolier and black cropped trousers with white socks. The Dsquared2 leather jacket that Beyoncé wore at last year's Super Bowl is a homage to Jackson's 1993 look.
47. It is believed that halftime performance first became a full-fledged pop show in 1991, when the Super Bowl was headlined by boy band New Kids on the Block. Firstly, for their performance, a real Disneyland was built on the field with a huge castle and hundreds of children dressed as Disney characters. Second, all four members of the group could outperform the models from men's glossy magazines: wide-leg trousers with a high waist, a straight jacket under Adidas sweatpants, a vest for a naked body and a golden leather jacket, like Mick Jagger.
48. The king of the twist Chubby Checker in tight black trousers and a silver shirt with a wrap and shoulder pads, plus the famous dance group The Rockettes (44 girls in gold top hats and bodysuits), and 88 more white pianos and pianists - just imagine this party on the football field. After Checker, there were many worthy performances, and some of them were much more spectacular, but there was never more fun in the Super Bowl.
49. Actress and singer Channing became the first artist to perform at the Super Bowl. She told The Guardian that she was asked to perform the hit from the Broadway musical Hello, Dolly! literally a week before the match. That halftime performance was built, by the way, not around her performance, but around the Southern University Orchestra - according to Carol, it was like her debut on Broadway.
50.Channing stepped onto the moving platform stage in a white long coat with a hood trimmed with fluffy fur. Presumably, its author was the American couturier Nolan Miller, and the coat itself later became the hallmark of the actress, and she put it on more than once for her other performances.
Ever since some Sheffield cricketers decided to try a new sport and set up the first football club in history, every team that has ever tied on the square or on the grass of the world's great stadiums has been looking for opponents on measure. There have been club tours in Europe since the 19th century, in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, then continued in various forms among the world wars until the 1950s, but the history of the Champions League, as we know it today, would begin in South America!
8 groups of 32 teams in the first round guarantee a minimum of 6 matches played for each club and this new format replaces the eliminatory scheme played in the old CCE. The UEFA Champions League began its adventure of conquering the world in the autumn of 1992 (exactly when the first season of the Premier League began!).
Bemorepanda has collected 100 interesting facts for you.
1. Real Madrid scored the most goals - 439
2. And missed the most 231 goals
3. Porto suffered the most losses - 51
4. Zlatan Ibrahimovic, Nicolas Anelka, Javier Saviola each played for 6 different teams
5. Ryan Giggs is a player with most Champions League appearances (19 rallies)
6. Iker Casillas played the most minutes (13,450)
7. Raul is the fielder with the most playing minutes (11,999)
8. Thierry Henry missed the most penalties (5)
9 . Zlatan Ibrahimovic and David Luiz are most removed - 4 times
10. Marco Balotta - the age goalkeeper (43 years and 253 days)
11. Cristiano Ronaldo - the player who won the most consecutive wins (14)
12. Péteri Ofori-Kwai - the young goalscorer (17 years and 195 days)
13. Arsene Wenger is the coach with the most appearances (19 rallies)
14. Carlo Ancelotti has coached the most teams (6)
15. Alex Ferguson is the coach with the most Champions League appearances (190 )
16. Arsene Wenger - coach with naib with most losses (49 matches)
17. Real Madrid (winner of the 2013/2014 season) with most goals per match (3.15)
18. Totalplayed 2533games Champions League
19. Total 1261 home wins, 650 away wins and 622 draws
20. Total scored 6,783 goals
21. Total shot 534 penalties, 125 missed
22. The most popular 1: 1 score met in 280 games
23. Real Marid, Barcelona, Porto and Manchester United are the teams with the most participation (20 draws )
24. Most productive match Monaco - Deportivo 8: 3 (05.11.2003)
25. Glasgow Rangers-Unira - the game with the most own goals (3 -20.10.2009)
26. Final (Real Madrid - Atlético) - the game with the most yellow cards (12)
27. The most common penalty is prescribed ingate the Arsenal(22 times)
28. most often disposed of players Juventus(20 times)
29. Kim Milton Nielsen - the referee, judging the most (53 games)
30. France - the country, represented the largest number of players (471)
31. Players of 124 nationalities played in matches
32. Daniel Amokachi - scorer of the first goal (25.11.1992 Bruges-CSKA 1: 0)
33. Lionel Messi and Luiz Adriano scored the most goals in one match (5)
34. Francesco Totti - oldest goal scorer (38 years and 59 days)
35. Celesten Babayaro - youngest debutant (16 years and 87 days)
36. Raul - youngest hat-trick at the age of 18 years 114 days (18.10.1995 Real Madrid - Ferencvaros 6: 1 (24, 25, 84 minutes)
37.13 Spanish teams have participated in at least one Champions League (Athletic, Atlético, Barcelona, Betis, Valencia, Villarreal, Deportivo, Malaga, Mallorca, Real Madrid, Real Sociedad, Sevilla, Celta)
38. Luis Figo and Ruud Van Nistelrooy scored the most spenalti (10)
39. Manchester United - the team the most times played a draw (52 times)
40. Barcelona scored the most goals in the gate (9)
41. Marco Van Basten - the author of the first het-trick Champions League (25.11.1992 Milan-Gothenburg)
42. Glasgow Rangers - the team that won the first away victory (09.12.1992 CSKA-Glasgow Rangers 0: 1). Although formally the meeting took place in Bochum (Germany)
43. Donetsk Shakhtar - the author of the biggest away victory 7: 0
44. Real Madrid did not score the most penalties (11)
45. The referees most often sent off players in matches against Barcelona (29 times)
46. Real Madrid is the team with the most victories in one competition (12 - 2001/2002)
47. Maccabi Haifa (2009/2010) and Deportivo (2005/2005) have not scored a single goal
48. Iker Casillas - the player who played most often in the starting lineup (149 times) and finished the match (145 times)
49. Alessandro Nesta - the player who did not score in 99 matches
50. Vanden Borre - the player who did not win in 23 matches in a row
51. Xavi - the player with the most wins (91)
52. Raul was the first to play 100 matches in the Champions League
53. Cristiano Ronaldo opened the scoring most often (29 times)
54. The biggest victory in the history of the tournament - Liverpool-Besiktas 8: 0 (06.11.2007 )
55. Carles Puyol won the trophy most of all as captain - 3 times
56. Roy Macaay - scored the fastest goal 10.12 seconds (07.03.2007 Bayern-Real Madrid)
57. Milan most often played in the finals (6 times), Bayern, Barcelona and Juventus (5 times), Real Madrid and Manchester United 4 times
58. Juventus lost more than all finals (4 times), Milan and Bayern 3 times
59. Real Madrid (4) and Porto (1 time) have never lost in the final
60. Cristiano Ronaldo has scored the most in one draw - 17 goals (2013 / 2014)
61. The biggest difference in the final - Milan-Barcelona (4: 0) 05/18/1994
62. Liverpool-Milan (3: 3) - the most productive final (05/25/2005)
63. 5 players with doubles in the finals - Daniele Massaro (1993/1994), Karl Heinz Riedle (1996/1997), Hernan Crespo (2004/2005), Filippo Inzaghi (2006/2007), Diego Milito (2009/2010)
64.4 players scored in two finals - Raul ( 1999/2000 and 2001/2002), Cristiano Ronaldo (2007/2008 and 2013/2014), Lionel Messi (2008/2009 and 2010/2011), Samuel Eto'o (2005/2006 and 2008/2009)
65. Carlo Ancelotti won the trophy three times (2002/2003, 2006/2007 with Milan and 2013/2014 with Real Madrid)
66. Coaches who won the trophy with different teams - Otmar Hitzfeld (Borussia D 1996/1997 and Bayern 2000/2001), Jupp Heinckess (Real Madrid 1997/1998 and Bayern 2012/2 013), Jose Mourinho (Porto 2003/2004 and Inter 2009/2010), Carlo Ancelotti (Milan 2002/2003, 2006/2007 and Real Madrid 2013/2014)
67. Oldest winning coach - Raymond Gutals (71 and 232 days)
68.6 times the winner was determined in a penalty shootout - Juventus-Ajax (1995/1996), Bayern-Valencia (2000/2001), Milan-Juventus (2002/2003), Liverpool-Milan (2004/2005), Manchester United -Chelsea (2007/2008), Chelsea-Bayern (2011/2012)after
69.1 time winner extra time - Real Madrid-Atlético 2013/2014 (4: 1)
70. Oldest fielder - Alessandro Costacurta 40 years old and 213 days (21.11.2006 AEK - Milan 1: 0)
71. Clarence Seedorf - the only one who won the Champions League with 3 different clubs (Ajax 1994/1995, Real Madrid 1997/1998, Milan 2002/2003, 2006/2007)
72. Frank Rijkaard is the only one who won the Champions League as a player (Ajax 1994/1995) and coach (Barcelona 2005/2006)
73. Final Milan-Liverpool (2004/2005, 2006/2007) and Barcelona-Manchester United (2008/2009 , 2010/2011) played twice
74. Real Madrid and Bayern - the team, who had gained the most consecutive wins (10)
75. 130 teams at least once participated in the draw of the tournament
76. Barcelona more than any win on the road - 45 matches
77 20 different stadiums hosted the final of the Champions League
78. In 13 of them the different winner was ahead
79. 14 teams lost all matches in the group stage of the Champions League - Kosice (1997/1998), Fenerbahce (2001/2002), Spartak Moscow (2002/2003), Anderlecht (2004/2005), Rapid (2005/2006), Levski (2006/2007), Dynamo Kiev (2007/2008), Debrecen (2009/2010), Zhilina (2010/2011), Partizan (2010/2011), Maccabi Haifa (2009/2010), Villarreal (2011/2012), Otelul (2011/2012), Olympique Marseille (2103/2014)
80. Real Madrid-Bayern have met the most in the Champions League - 22 times
81. Liverpool-Chelsea more often all met as representatives of one of the country - 10 times
82 5 finals played by representatives of the same country (Real Madrid-Valencia 1999/2000, Milan-Juventus 2002/2003, Manchestr e United-Chelsea 2007/2008, Bayern-Borussia D 2012/2013, Real Madrid-Atlético 2013/2014)
83. And only once by teams from the same city (Real Madrid-Atlético 2013/2014)
84. Marcel Desailly (Olympique 1992 / 1993 and Milan 1993/1994), Paulo Sousa (Juventus 1995/1996 and Borussia D 1996/1997), Gerard Piqué (Manchester United 2007/2008 and Barcelona 2008/2009) and Samuel Eto'o (Barcelona 2008/2009 and Inter 2009/2010) have won the Champions League twice in a row
85. Marcelo Lippi, Alex Ferguson and Carlo Ancelotti with their teams have4 times playedin the Champions League final
86. Jupp Hynckess, Rafael Benitez, Josep Guardiola, Carlo Ancelotti, Roberto Di Matteo and Luis Enrique won the trophy in their very first season
87. Chelsea is the only team to be eliminated in the group stage after winning the Champions League (2012/2013)
88. Athens (Olympiacos, Panathinaikos, AEK - 2003/2004), and London (Arsenal. Chelsea, Tottenham - 2003/2004) represented 3 teams each in the Champions League
89. Only Juventus (1995/1996) and Borussia D (1996/1997) managed to become winners in their country
90. Only Spanish teams won the Champions League in a row (Real Madrid 2013/2014 and Barcelona 2014/2015)
91. Brothers who won the Champions League - Frank and Ronald de Boers, Gary and Phil Neville, Gabi and Diego Milito
92. Brazilians scored the most in the Champions League - 747 goals
93. Raul was the first to reach marks of 50 goals
94. Van Tiggelen became the first player sent off in the match (25/11/1992 Porto - PSV 2: 2)
95. Alex Ferguson is the first coach to score 100 wins
96. 3,002 goals scored in the first half
97. 3,764 scored in the second half
98. 9 goals scored in extra time
99. 5848 players have played at least one minute in the match
100 343 coach took part in at least one match
Sometimes you can learn a lot of useful things from the Internet by simply leafing through pictures. In this post Bemorepanda collected different facts about everything that will help broaden our horizons, as well as distract for a couple of minutes from the routine.
1. In 2016, a Chinese businessman Xiong Shuihua demolished all the houses in his native village and built villas in their place.
2. You would be confused to see such a door in your entrance for the first time. This is just a drawing with an optical illusion.
3. The Varani people live in Ecuador. After lengthy litigation, they won a case against an oil company claiming their land. In the photo, members of the Amazon tribe in the courtroom.
4. In 2015, Ford installed wide-angle front and rear 1-megapixel cameras on its cars that allow "seeing from around the corner." The problem of "blind" zones has been solved.
5. Animal rights advocates have figured out how to protect elephants from poachers: they painted the animal tusks with pink paint, which is marked with banknotes in banks. It does not harm the animal, but it is impossible to wash it off. Buyers do not need such tusks.
6. Does it look edible? In fact, in the photo there is not grapes, but a mineral called "grape chalcedony".
7. This is the cross sea. It looks like this because of wave systems moving at different angles.
8. This is a tree called Jabuticaba (or Brazilian grape tree). Its fruits grow directly from the bark.
9. The guy took off the lightning for 2 hours and then combined all the frames in one.
10. City in Peru around the oasis in Huacachina.
11. In the Congaree National Park, the water in the lake turns different colors at a certain temperature.
12. Blacks couples born white baby. No, the DNA test confirmed that the spouses are the biological parents of the baby. Perhaps these are white dormant genes or mutating albinism.
13. Scientists have tracked eagle movements using GPS for 20 years. Here are his flights.
14. Trace after a needle prick on the skin, taken with a microscope.
15. This is how entrants of the GITIS acting faculty are evaluated in the era of coronavirus.
Because a refreshing event is approaching, namely Oktoberfest, the Bemorepand team decided to find the most interesting, useful and, in some places, funny curiosities about one of the most popular drinks in the world - beer.
Blonde, brown, unfiltered or wheat, with summery and fresh aromas - these are just a few features of beer, a drink that, by the way, in limited quantities, can take care of your thirst and health this summer. From the boundless space of the internet, Bemorepanda gathered the most interesting and unusual curiosities about beer.
Here comes the second part of Top 100 facts about beer. Here you can view the first part.
51. Sometimes brewers use the secondary fermentation method called kreusening. Fresh fermenting wort is added to the already poured chilled beer. An additional portion of yeast speeds up the fermentation process, cleans up the by-products released during fermentation and improves the taste of the beer, as hops and other additives retain flavor and aroma longer.
51. Hops are one of the classic beer ingredients, although not required for fermentation. It has been used in Europe since the 8th century, but it's real heyday came during the Reformation. If you put hops in the wort during boiling, the beer will get a characteristic bitterness, since when the plant is heated it releases resin. If you add it already during fermentation, when the beer “reaches” in a vat or barrel, the drink will take only aroma from the hops - this process is called “dry hopping”. Brewers only use bumps of female plants - they can be bought dried, in pellets or even briquettes. Hops, by the way, are poisonous: fresh buds can irritate and discomfort their pickers.
The types of hops that are used in brewing. Some of them impart a more bitter taste to the drink, while others, such as Liberty, are more likely to be used for flavoring.
52. Previously, beer was aged in wooden barrels, but with the transition to industrial brewing, manufacturers began to choose steel vats. With the flourishing of crafting, wood has regained its popularity: firstly, wood absorbs the tastes and aromas of aged drinks, passing them on to the next. Secondly, it gives the beer a special woody flavor, which sometimes contains notes of coconut, vanilla or caramel. And thirdly, the wood allows air and microorganisms to pass through, which also change the taste of the wort. Modern brewers don't always use barrels - instead of vats, they can use oak chips, cubes, or spirals. Sometimes the wood is even burned if they want to achieve a drink with a strong and toasty "character".
53. In Africa, where traditional crops grow poorly in subtropical and prairie conditions, sorghum is grown, which easily adapts to different soils. It is from sorghum that local beer is brewed, which is called differently in different countries: in Benin and Togo - chukutu, in Tanzania - mtama, in Sudan - merissa, and in South Africa - kaffir. Although the brewing process is similar to the European one, the taste of beer is very different from the usual lagers and ales due to the use of specific raw materials and a large amount of lactic acid bacteria entering the vessels. Although sorghum beer is traditionally used during festivals and rituals, many Africans prefer to buy European varieties because they contain more alcohol and the brewing process is more hygienic. The drink is loved by the poorest segments of the population, as it perfectly saturates due to its high calorie content.
This is what purple corn looks like, from which chicha morada is prepared.
54. Chicha - a beer-like drink from South America made from corn. It is especially popular in Bolivia and Peru, where this cereal is actively growing, and its strength varies from 2 to 12 degrees. In ancient times, corn was chewed and then spat into a vat, where it was fermented under the influence of saliva, and the starch was broken down into simple sugars. This method exists to this day, moreover,, resort to it even craft breweries, which have special equipment for pasteurizing the drink. Chicha morada is made from purple corn with the addition of pineapple peels, sugar, cloves and cinnamon, which makes the drink look like mulled wine. In addition to corn, South Americans chew cassava, sweet potatoes, and other fruits.
55. Sake, which has been produced for over 1,300 years, is very often called rice vodka or wine, although it is closest to beer because it is made by fermenting grain. For the drink, not all the grain of rice is used, but only its most starchy central part: for this, the rice is polished, removing the bitter shell and upper layers. Although there are special varieties of rice for sake, the specific variety is not so important because during the manufacturing process the producers try to make the drink so pure that it does not leave the grain flavor in it. After the polishing of rice, moisture evaporated, and then added to the koji spores of the fungus, which is known for its taste "umami",as the rice grain has no enzymes. The resulting drink is filtered after fermentation, and two types are distinguished - a slightly filtered unclear nigori and a crystal clear "imperial" one. The strength of sake reaches 20%, but it is often diluted with water up to 15%.
56. In the 19th century in Germany, they began to brew beer from potatoes: raw potatoes were grated, heated to 156 degrees together with water to a state of thick gruel, then a thick syrup was obtained from which the drink was prepared. Potatoes are great for beer, as they are high in starch, which means they are an excellent raw material for yeast. Today, potato beer is not uncommon, and besides the classic varieties,are also used in brewing sweet potatoes, yams and cassava.
57. During the colonial era, pumpkin was widely eaten in North America, which still occupies a significant part of the US gastro culture, especially in the fall. In addition to pies and pumpkin puree, the pilgrims brewed beer: grated vegetable pulp was an excellent source of sugars, replacing cereals, most of which were sent to bread. In 1771, the American Philosophical Society published a recipe for a pure "pompion ale," as it was then called. With the development of cereal crops, the popularity of pumpkin beer gradually faded away, the malt drink we were already familiar with began to be imported from Europe, and the vegetable was no longer used in production. In the wake of craft brewing in the United States at the end of the 20th century, pumpkin was again remembered: it is believed that Bill Owens discovered the recipe in the works of George Washington and tried to implement it. They began experimenting with the vegetable in every possible way: for example, they added nutmeg, cinnamon and cardamom to the wort, imitating the taste of pumpkin pie. Pumpkin porters, stouts and lagers emerged and are now popular in the United States.
There are a lot of breweries in the USA that make pumpkin beer. For example, Rouge itself grows vegetables for beer, picks them in August, dries them, and by September fresh pumpkin ale appears on the shelves
58. Kvass was known in Russia back in the 11th century - at that time it was more alcoholic and looked much like beer. Strong kvass is called melted, that is, boiled, and not arbitrarily fermented. It was prepared from wheat and barley malt or rye bread, adding wormwood, hops, cumin and St. John's wort for flavor and aroma. A little later, kvass was distilled, which is why the amount of alcohol in it increased. Interestingly, there was a disease called "yazya kvass", in which a headache was severe - most likely such an ancient diagnosis was made to those suffering from a hangover after excessive drinking. Now kvass is not considered an alcoholic drink, although according to GOST its strength can reach 1.2%; and the past of the drink reminds us of the verb "ferment", that is, "get drunk."
59. Honey is added to some types of beer, but there is mead - a completely separate brew drink, which does not contain malt. Honey can be anything you like - buckwheat, lime, orange, because of this, the drink turns out to be different in color, density and strength. To taste, it can be not only sweet, but also semi-sweet and even dry. In Russia, nutritious honey was already known in the 10th century: they were both boiled and set, that is, they were left for natural fermentation. Mead was available to ordinary people, since the farm often had its own apiaries, but with the spread of stronger alcoholic beverages, for example, vodka, they practically stopped drinking it. Although you can now buy a drink at any store, industrial meads have little in common with ancient Russian honeys. Besides Russia, mead is popular in the USA and Europe. The American Mead Association notes that new companies are constantly opening in the states that brew different styles: melomel (mead with fruits), metheglin (mead with spices and herbs), kesira (mead with apples), piment (mead with grape juice) and others.
One of the largest mead plants in Russia is located in Suzdal - the industrial history ofbegan here in the 19th century.
60. Braggot is a mead with malt, but it is classified as beer. The drink got its name from the ancient Celtic word bracis, meaning the shape of the grain from which it was made. In England braggot often passed off as pure mead that was condemned even by the Church, so gradually that it is highlighted in a separate style. Initially, braggot was made by mixing mead and ale, then it was seasoned with pepper, ginger, cinnamon, galangal and cloves. It became a traditional wedding drink in some British regions, but its popularity declined in the 17th century.
61. Cider is neither beer or wine, although it is often tried to be included in the classification of these drinks. Cider is made from apple juice that is fermented naturally or by adding yeast. Although it is preferable to prepare the drink from special coarse varieties of fruits rich in tannins, sometimes ordinary table apples are taken. There are many styles of cider produced all over the world: dry and sweet, yellow and pink, highly carbonated and quiet, with added spices, herbs, other fruits and hops. Cider analogs - Poiret or Perry - are made from pears.
62. There are several hundred beer styles in the world, however, craft breweries often transcend traditional and well-known recipes, making it nearly impossible to create a complete guide to all styles. Craftsmen can take as a basis classic beers from Belgium, Germany or the UK, add strange, unusual ingredients to them, or change the brewing process. Also, styles don't just happen: for a trendy new beer to become a style, it has to be made by more than one brewery, so the process takes time. The most recognized guide in the world, American Brewers Association, changes every year, with new varieties being added and definitions of old ones rewriting.
63. Most styles can be divided into two types: ales, or top-fermented beers, and lagers, or bottom-fermented beers. During top fermentation, which occurs at higher temperatures (about 20 degrees), and therefore more ancient, the yeast rises to the surface. During bottom fermentation (about 10 degrees), which spreads when refrigeration machines appear, the yeast is concentrated at the bottom of the container. In the modern world, the second type of fermentation is most often used.
64. Lager is the most popular beer style. 87% of the beer market in the United States Lagers like Corona and Budweiser account for, and the most common type of lager is Pilsner, named after his hometown of Pilsen, Czech Republic. Beer brewing in Pilsen began in the 1200s, but it was the light golden lager that was first made by the Bavarian Josef Groll in 1842. Since then, it has been marketed under the brand name Pilsner Urquell, which prides itself on using Saaz hops, which give the beer a particularly mild flavor, and is named after the Polish town of Zatec.
Despite the fact that Schwarzbier is black, this is a lager, although it is more common to see lagers as golden.
65. Lagers are made on all continents. The Bavarians are very close to the Czech Republic, so they quickly adopted the Pilsner brew, modifying it - the German Pilsners are fresher and more bitter, due to the fact that they use different hops there. Lagers are actively made in the USA, Austria and Japan - in the latter can be to them , rice, potatoes, soybeans and corn added. The public is more accustomed to seeing light lagers, but there are also black ones, such as Schwarzbier, one of the most popular beers in Germany. This beer is a great example of how a dark beverage can be light and refreshing: it has a mild roasted flavor with very clean notes of caramel and coffee. The German brewery Köstritzer is best known for its Schwarzbiers, which has almost five hundred years of history. In addition, such unusual lagers as India Pale Lager are brewed in the world with hopping like IPA or brut lagers, which the amylase enzyme gives sparkle like champagne.
66. The German town of Einbock was a major brewing center in the late Middle Ages: since it was part of the Hanseatic League, local artisans exported most of their produce before the Hanseatic fell into decay in the 16th century. Almost half of the inhabitants of the city made beer: the malt was dried in attics, and it was brewed in a special mobile boiler, which belonged to the city and was brought into the courtyards one by one. This interesting practice, among other things, is evidenced by urban architecture: in many houses, instead of gates, there were huge arches. There is a legend that one of the Bavarian dukes Maximilian was so fond of Einbeck beer that he could not survive the interruptions in supply, so he called the local brewer Elias Pichler to his place to ensure that the drink was always available. Initially, bock - and this is exactly what this beer was called - was made by top fermentation, but Pichler adapted it to Bavarian tastes and over time this style began to be brewed in a larger way. It is believed that the block was the favorite style of theologian and reformer Martin Luther. There are several sub-styles of the bock: a stronger and denser doppelbock, a light tee, and a dark.
67. Not all brewers agree with the strict division, which is why they lager / ale brew hybrid beers. These are ales brewed at typical lager temperatures and vice versa. Or ales that used lager yeast. This brewing method conveys the characteristics of both beer categories, and their styles are nearly impossible to classify. There are several varieties that are produced in this manner. For example, Altbier (old beer) is a typical Düsseldorf style, a bottom-fermented bitter variety, although in many respects it is similar to lagers. Or steam beer, which has been brewed in the States since the 19th century. Initially, it was a lager, which was fermented at unusual temperatures for speed - because of this, its quality deteriorated, but the price became low. Why it was named "steam" is unknown: according to one version, this is due to the fact that it was exposed to the street for rapid cooling, and it emitted steam. On the other, there was so much carbon dioxide in the barrels that it had to be released as steam.
68. Everything that was produced in the German city of Cologne used to be called Kölsch. However, at the beginning of the 20th century, this word was firmly entrenched in local beer - light, highly fermented, hopped, top-fermented, produced in accordance with the Law on Purity. To protect the name and outline the main conditions for the production of the variety, in 1985 24 Cologne breweries signed the Kölsch Convention, which specified the requirements for packaging, labels, advertising, as well as the rules for sale, sale and cooperation with intermediaries. Today, in Cologne bars, köbs - waiters in traditional blue cardigans - pour kölsch into long narrow 0.2-liter glasses and serve it on a special tray with a handle - a kölsch-kränz.
Cologne Köbs waiter with a Kölsch fender in hand
69. Barleywine is a strong, dark, almost black English ale, around which a lot of controversy arises. The term Barley Wine was originally used as a poetic synonym for ale. Beginning in the 1870s, a beer that began to be sold in Britain the brewers themselves called Barleywine, such as the Bass Brewery in Burton-upon-Trent. According to researcher Martin Cornell, there is no difference between barleywine and traditional strong aged ales - this is just a marketing ploy that has spread since the 20th century. In barleywine, alcohol can reach 12%, so it was traditionally sold in small bottles. Perhaps in order to give the beer a more wine-like flavor, in accordance with its name, it was aged in barrels from port, whiskey or bourbon.
70. Due to the numerous British wars at the end of the 17th century, there was a sharp increase in taxes and prices in the country, including for brewing raw materials. It became particularly expensive because of malt, which is why its share and the quality of the product fell sharply.But on hops recently imported from the mainland, taxes did not rise as quickly, so the amount in beer increased. However, for the British, such a drink was too strong and sour, because they were accustomed to the traditional swedish ale, therefore, to save money, they began to mix two types of beer, and then leave for a long exposure - over time, the taste softened and the bitterness of the hops disappeared. The new dark drink became very popular with the working class and was named "porter" after the porters and stevedores who loved to drink it. While it is widely believed that porter was invented by London brewer Ralph Harwood around the 1720s, mixing several different varieties with each other, documents found indicate that porters were known to the British in the past. Due to the possibility of long-term storage, the porter could be imported to other countries, where it took root in its variations. In Poland, for example, a Baltic porter has emerged, which is made with yeast for lagers rather than ales. In pre-revolutionary Russia, this style became known as "imperial stout" because it was loved at the court of Catherine II. Today, the most popular American porters, which are craft brewers, revived after the repeal of "Prohibition" in the United States.
71. Initially, any strong beer was called a stout, and a little later - a stronger porter. In the second half of the 19th century, less black malt than porters and more brown malt began to be added to stouts, giving the stouts a drier flavor. Today, between them there are practically no technological differences, except for the one that is usually used for porters solozhony barley, and for stouts - nesolozhonyzhzhony,but even this rule has exceptions. Inside the stouts, oats (with the addition of oats), Irish, grown from Guinness porters on roasted malt, sweet tropical, made for export to hot countries, and others are distinguished.
72. Tax increases for raw materials has led to the appearance of the Paleales.In the early 18th century, it became cheaper to brew beer at home than to buy it in pubs and shops; in addition, at home it is easier to control the quality of the ingredients, and hence the quality of the drink. When people moved around the country, they were looking for something similar to their familiar home-brewed beer. This led to the fact that artisans began to experiment with beer, trying to find the very taste - and so a highly hopped bitter pale ale, brewed with light malt, was born. The public got tired of the porter, and with the proliferation of transparent glasses, there was a demand for a beautiful, non-cloudy beer that was more difficult to counterfeit. So pale ale became a real British hit. Especially popular was the pale ale from Burton-upon-Trent, a small town in Staffordshire that was formerly known for its quality brown ales. The mineralization of the local springs was believed to be ideal for preparing light strong ales.
Burton-upon-Trent has been famous for its breweries for centuries. Here is the National Brewery Center, where you can get acquainted with the history of the drink in the city
73. By the 19th century, the British East India Company gradually colonized India, discovering unhindered trade in the country. Brewers also drew attention to this market, and the most notable among them was James Hodgson: from the 1780s he practically monopolized the supply of various beers, united under the name Indian Ale, to the colony. However, already in the 1820s, other companies and artisans were able to win the true love of the local public with a brighter beer. Burton brewers sent their pale ales to India. At that time, the transportation of products was possible only by sea and took about six months, and during this time the beer fell into disrepair. Only heavily hopped varieties could preserve their freshness and taste, but porter, although it was familiar to British soldiers, who were full in the country due to national uprisings against the colonialists, was too dense and heavy for the hot climate. Pale ales, on the other hand, are bright, sparkling, with a bitter taste - perfect for quenching thirst and refreshing. Like many other styles of beer, India Pale Ale or IPA virtually disappeared during the World Wars of the 20th century, but reemerged in America in the 1970s with the rise of craft beer.
74. Already in our time, a new style of pale ale was born - NEIPA, which most often stands for New England India Pale Ale. Even though NEIPA emerged in the 2000s, it's hard to say who came up with it. It is believed that the Alchemist and Hill Farmstead breweries in Vermont, and then TreeHouse and Trillium in Massachusetts, began brewing it at about the same time. This style is cloudy, sweet, light, like a tropical juice, while the IPA is clear and very bitter due to the high hop content. NEIPA also has hops, but it is added at the very end of the boil, so it gives its aroma to the drink, without having time to make it bitter. This style is very popular in the USA, where even small artisans brew it.
75. Before hops became one of the most important ingredients, the Netherlands, France, Belgium, Germany and other northern countries used gruit, a mixture of herbs to add flavor and aroma to beer, usually including wormwood, wild rosemary, horse and dog mint, yarrow, juniper, rosemary, marsh myrtle and other plants. The composition of this mixture depended on local traditions and the available plants, many of which are poisonous or known for their psychotropic effects, making the drink highly intoxicating. The first mention of fruit dates back to the 10th century, when the German king Otto II granted the right to trade in the mixture to some churches: at that time, when buying beer raw materials, a tax had to be paid, so only bishops, nobles or large farmers could sell gruit. In many cities there were special people - gruyters who made the mixture and sold it to the brewers. Over time, the Catholic Church practically monopolized the sale of gruit, and hops became an increasingly common ingredient without paying for it. The last nail in the coffin of the herbal mixture was the Protestants. They promoted austerity and abstinence, which influenced the adoption in the 16th-18th centuries of a number of laws prohibiting the use of psychotropic additives in brewing. But the main reason for the disappearance of gruit was religious politics and the decline in the influence of Catholicism in the northern countries. Now gruits are also boiled, but very rarely.
76. In some bars you can see the Sauer - it's not exactly a beer style, but rather a general name for all kinds of acid.Lambics, Gueuze, Gose, Flemish ales, Berliner Weisse or smoked German ales - Liechtenheiners can be hiding here. The latter were once common throughout Germany, but now they are very rare. They are brewed with wheat or barley smoked over an open fire, which give the beer a smoky aroma. And the sour taste appears due to lactic acid bacteria. By the way, in Germany there is another famous beer that is brewed with smoked malt - rauchbier.
Rauchbier was historically made in Franconia, in the city of Bamberg
77. Lambic is made according to the old technology of "spontaneous fermentation": the wort for lambic is boiled, and then left to ferment in an open vessel, without adding special brewer's yeast there.can enter the vessel Any microorganisms, so it is impossible to accurately predict the taste of the resulting drink, however, it cannot be called completely unpredictable either, since brewers still observe the temperature regime and limit the ingress of some bacteria into the mash. The special sour taste of lambics is largely attributed to the yeast strains of Brettanomyces, the most famous of which are B. bruxellensis and B. lambicus, named after the Belgian capital and local style. If in the barrels the beer still tastes too different, then it can be mixed with each other so that the batch is homogeneous. It is believed that real lambic, like champagne, is made only in the Senne river valley - the Pajottenland region and near Brussels, and everything else is just beer "in style".
78. Lambic began to be brewed around the 17th century, but by the 19th it had become a hit. By 1900, there were about 80 breweries in the vicinity of Brussels, specializing in lambic. It became an everyday drink, and farmers often took a bottle with them to work in the fields. From the middle of the century, the popularity of the style began to decline: large players appeared on the market who offered a simpler and more understandable to the consumer light lager, and the popularity of soda with a lot of sugar influenced the mass love for sweet beer. Some breweries closed, others began to sweeten their product on purpose, and as a result, the quality of the lambics dropped. It wasn't until the 1990s that a revival began, fueled by a general interest in local production, especially craft beer, the proliferation of the internet, and the publication of books such as Tom Webbs' LambicLand. Brewers began to come up with cultural events to promote lambics: interactive production tours, tastings, and festivals. Currently, this style of beer is perceived by the Belgians as one of the elements of the country's cultural heritage.
79. Gueuze is a type of lambic for which young (about a year old) and old (about 2-3 years old) beer is mixed. After filling in a bottle, the drink is fermented and becomes highly carbonated. Gueuze is called "Brussels champagne": it is believed that when Napoleon's troops occupied Belgium, a general fashion for sparkling wine began. An enterprising brewer from Geuzenstraat collected empty champagne bottles and poured lambic into them - the beer was so successful that it gained popularity and got its name from Geuzen Street. Although the Lindemans company, which is famous for its lambics, believes that the name comes from the French gazeux, that is, carbonated. Gueuze is usually sweetish in taste with a strong sour aftertaste.
Map of the 1997 Toer de Geuze festival. This is a festival in the Pajottenland region, held twice a year, during which you can get free guided tours and tastings of gueuze and lambics at local breweries
80. Cherry lambic is called scream. It is also made by blending two lambics of different ages with the addition of overripe sour Morello cherries: according to tradition, they are not crushed, but dipped into a barrel of beer, either whole or with a slightly damaged skin. In addition to cherry lambic in Belgium, other types of lambic are made - framboise (raspberry), peche (peach), cassis (black currant) and faro, to which caramelized sugar is added.
81. Gueuze is often confused with gosé - a German beer with a thousand-year history, which is also produced by spontaneous top fermentation with the addition of coriander and salt. It began to be brewed in the city of Goslar in Lower Saxony, but this style gained particular popularity in Leipzig, where by 1800 there were about 80 taverns specializing in gose. Despite strong love, it remained a regional drink, as lagers supplanted almost all ales, and may have completely disappeared due to the wars, but its recipe has survived. The style revived at home at the end of the 20th century and continues to develop now, including among craft breweries on the Russian market.
The area of distribution of sahti and other Scandinavian beer drinks
82. Sahti is a type of beer produced in Finland based on barley, rye, juniper and baker's yeast. It was originally brewed for home use rather than commercial sale, so the recipe has remained largely unchanged over the years. Most often it was made for family events like weddings. Sahti was especially common in western Finland, while in the eastern regions of the country, low-alcohol kalya beer was preferred, whose traditional recipe has practically disappeared. Interestingly, saunas were often used to malt the grain, in which it was possible to maintain a high temperature for a long time. Usually sahti is infused in barrels, not steel vats, protected from oxidation and not filtered - the beer tastes sweet with hints of milkshake. Today in Finland there are only six breweries that brew this style, but for none it is the main one.
83. Berliner Weiss is a cloudy wheat beer with noticeable sourness and high carbonation. It contains only about 3% alcohol. This style is shrouded in many legends. Someone says that Berliner Weiss was inspired by the Huguenots who moved to the German capital from France in the 18th century and missed their usual wine. Someone that one famous 16th century brewer Kord Broyhan from Hanover, while traveling in Hamburg, tasted a previously unknown beer and tried to copy it at home. There is a widespread story that Napoleon called this beer "Northern Champagne". Today Berliner Weiss is very popular in Berlin and is often drunk at dinner, adding various syrups such as raspberry or apple. Berliner has a protected geographic name and can only be produced in the German capital and the surrounding area; however, it is prepared only in two companies - Berliner Kindl and Schultheiss.
Rodenbach Grand Cru - one of the benchmarks for sour ales
84. Flemish or Belgian red ales have their roots in experiments with porter. In the early 1870s, Fleming Eugene Rodenbach studied at a brewery in England, from where he returned home with recipes for this rich dark beer. He began to brew ale, aging it in oak barrels for several years and adding to the yeast lactobacilli, which gave the drink a characteristic sour taste. Later, he founded the Rodenbach Brewery, which sold ready-made blended yeast to other artisans within 50 km of Roeselare, and these breweries produced their own Belgian red and sour brown beer from it. Although the practice of yeast blending spread throughout Europe, Rodenbach is still considered the benchmark for red ales.
85. Brown is another classic Flemish ale. In 1829, Dr. Jean-Baptiste Vrankin wrote that "a dark beer that burns the palate and constricts the throat" is poured in Flanders, and a little later the brewer Georges Lacambre noted its "bitter, rough and tart taste." The popularity of brown beer gradually grew and by the end of the 19th century it became a hit of sales: it was thanks to it that Liefmans, after the damage to its buildings during the First World War, was still able to become the 21st largest brewery in Belgium in terms of production. At that time, these ales tasted quite sour, so they were compared to wine. Over time, it softened: brewers indulge the tastes of the public, addicted to Coca-Cola and other sweet sodas, which, as in the case of lambics, influenced the recipe for ales. Since the 1980s, the popularity of this style has been steadily declining, and some brown beer companies have gone bust.
86. In the French-speaking region of Belgium, the saison, a seasonal golden ale made from the remnants of the fall harvest for the summer, when additional workers were hired to the fields, was widespread among the peasantry. To quench their thirst, a light beer was brewed, refreshing in the heat. The saison recipe is optional: if a berry is born in the summer, then it can be added to the future beer, but if not, then the beer will be brewed from other ingredients. That is why it is now difficult to find two brewers following the same brewing method, since saison is more about a format than a specific taste. In France, there is a similar drink - bière de garde, or "beer for storage", which was also brewed in advance, before the season of active work, so that the peasants could devote all their time to the harvest, and not to cooking.about bière de garde these days. Little is said, and although there are many variations of it in its homeland - from light honey to darker and more fruity, craft brewers rarely use it in their experiments.
87. During the Reformation, the Catholic Cistercian order, which had branched off from the Benedictine order, began to decline. The monks from the Norman abbey of La Trappe decided that one should not succumb to sins and should focus on the strict discipline and asceticism that Saint Benedict bequeathed. The followers of the restrictions became known as Trappists, and in 1892 the Pope officially recognized them as a separate order. However, due to the French Revolution and the persecution of Catholics, Trappists settled throughout Europe, including Belgium. The monks themselves produced everything necessary for life, including brewing beer for themselves and for sale. They noticed that the wort can be filtered repeatedly, making it a lighter drink each time. The strongest first infusions they sold in the villages, the weaker ones, called petite beer - small beer, they kept for themselves or distributed to the poor. It is believed that this system gave names to the classic monastic ales - single, dubbel, triple and quadruple. The strongest varieties were marked by monks with four crosses (Quadrupel from the word quad - four), and the weakest - only one. Over time, the Trappists began to imitate, and in 1962 the monks filed a lawsuit against unscrupulous brewers using a false name. Since 1997, the International Trappist Association has existed: only 20 abbeys that are members of it are entitled to the original name of the beer.
Trappist monk in the brewery of the Abbey of La Trappe
88. The monks brewed a strong and aromatic beer without strong hoppy bitterness. Despite the ban on the use of the Trappist name in production and sale, no one restricted copying the recipe, so secular versions of the drink appeared, called abbey beer. The most common beer was the dowel - in 1926, Westmill Abbey released Dubbel Bruin, which gained a lot of followers and admirers. It is a dark amber beer with a complex malt sweetness and 6-7% ABV, and caramelized sugar is often added to it. The quadruple is considered to be a stronger version of the dowel - the amount of alcohol can be up to 14%. Tripel is a light golden beer also made famous by Westmill. Its fortress is kept in the region of 7-10%. A single is very rare due to its weakness (about 3%) and unsaturation.
89. While many beer styles revived after World War II, some of them have disappeared forever. This happened, for example, with the Berliner oud (or Berliner alto in German). A few years ago, the brewer Marco Loret discovered an old label. It indicated that the Berliner alto was produced by Gustaf Hustinks at the Pauw brewery in Culemborg. The brewery itself was opened in the 19th century, but Houstinks owned it for only a few years - from 1909 to 1913. Beer researcher Rowell Mulder has found advertising campaigns from different masters who have brewed this species since the 1880s, but could not find any recipes, so the taste of Berliner alto remains a mystery. Mulder suggests that it could be a Dutch imitation of German varieties, judging by the name, and most likely fantasy, because the style did not take root and faded into oblivion.
90. While roasted malt can add a coffee-like flavor to beer, natural coffee can be added to the beverage. It is most commonly used in porters, stouts, especially imperial, dark and pale ales. The taste will be very dependent on the grain and its roast, so there can be many variations of coffee beers. In America's new craft era, the plant began to be used in the 1990s, when radical blends of coffee, chocolate and oats or coffee, Mexican vanilla and sugar appeared. Interestingly, the coffee can be added whole, ground or already brewed, including by cold brew.
- Tomato goes from Saldens, a craft Russian brewery
91. Tomatoes are a popular ingredient in beer, especially gose. Most likely, the experiment with tomatoes originates from the famous Mexican cocktail that serves prepada, sometimes called chavela or michelada. According to legend, michelada was invented by a bartender in San Luis Potosi as a hangover and fatigue remedy in the 1910s. In addition to beer, its composition includes tomato juice, lime, spices and hot sauce, depending on the region.
92. Brewing with grapes is considered a special art, as the result is a wine-beer hybrid. The abundance of varieties of this fruit gives unusual flavors: for example, Viognier will give the drink aromas of melon and tropical fruits, and red varieties can give the beer the taste of black currant or cherry. Typically, red grapes like syrah or grenache are added to dark, rich beers like porter or strong ales, while white sauvignon blanc is ideal with gueuze or lambic. Since the 1970s, the Belgian company Cantillon has been brewing lambics every year with hand-picked nutmeg. When picking grapes, the smallest details should be taken into account: there will be a difference between the fruits harvested from the southern and northern sides of the vineyard, and if you cut off the bunches with branches, then a woody note will appear in the taste.
93. In the United States , pizza-flavored beer is brewed. In 2013, Tom and Anthea Seifert from Chicago brewed beer with oregano, basil, tomatoes, garlic and even pizza crumbs. Initially, it was assumed that the resulting mixture could be used as a marinade, but the drink turned out to be so good that they began to drink it just like that. Other brewers also picked up the idea - Liquid Margarita can now be found in many American companies and even in Russian artisans, for example, Pizza Boy from Selfmade Brewery.
94. In the last decade, more and more types of beer have been added to which avocado is added. In 2013, American brewery Angel City Brewery brewed an avocado beer, adding cilantro, red pepper, lime and honey to create a guacamole flavor. After that, Bush Shack Brewery in Australia and Rocky Knob in New Zealand did some experiments. This is a seasonal story, as beer is highly dependent on the harvest of the fruit. Avocado gives the drink not only taste, but also a delicate creamy texture.
95. There are several banana bread flavored breweries around the world, such as Eagle Brewery and Wells and Young's, which introduced the exotic beer in 2002.wort Mashed bananas are added to the, which, when combined with malt, give a bright taste of fruitcake. In general, bananas are a standard ingredient for beer in many African countries: in Rwanda they cook urwagwa, in the Congo - kasixi, in Uganda - mubishi. It is important for this drink to use bananas at their peak of ripeness, as overripe can ruin the taste. Boiled water and fried grains are added to mashed bananas, which have yielded juice. Beer is not heated, but must be filtered to prolong its short shelf life, as bananas are an excellent medium for microbial growth.
96. During the Victorian era in Britain, stout was often consumed with oysters in pubs - the bittersweet taste perfectly complemented the salty shellfish. It is believed that the shells could end up in beer vats because they purify the water, which means they can clarify the beer, masking low-quality or over-dried malt. It is not known exactly when oyster meat was added to the beer itself for flavor, but in 1939 New Zealand's Barnes Oysters began shipping oyster concentrate to British brewers. Sources say that it took at least 18 months to develop the drink, and the amount of concentrate in a bottle is equivalent to one whole oyster. Oyster stout has never been a mainstream beer, and doesn't even stand out as a distinct style, but today some craft breweries are making it experimentally.
97. Petersburg brewery Hophead Gose brewed with the taste of soups and national dishes. The line includes beer with the taste of okroshka, French onion soup, sour cabbage soup, Bulgarian chorba, Megrelian ajika, pickle, tom yam, pho bo, Armenian dogwood soup, kharcho, Indian curry and others. To create taste, edible ingredients are really added to the wort - vegetables, spices, herbs, cheese and even meat broths.
98. Although beer is not the most popular ingredient in cocktails, many drinks are made from it besides the ruff (a mixture of beer and vodka). One of the most famous cocktails, the Moscow mule, which consists of vodka and ginger beer, was invented in the United States and has many variations. In addition to it, in bars you can try shandy or radler (lager with lemonade), michelada, Mississippi porter-fur (porter with bourbon and rum), black velveteen (beer with champagne), beer mojito, chocolate mixtures of liqueurs and porters, and others. Sometimes there are some really weird recipes like beer with ice cream or eggs.
99.Wat Pa Maha Chedi Kaew Temple, 600 kilometers from Bangkok, has an unusual appearance, created from a large number of used Heineken beer bottles and a local type of beer.
100.The Vikings believed that in Valhalla, their heaven, a goat with a udder was waiting for them, which would always supply them with beer.
The giant panda is considered the most valuable species of the bear family. For its specific culinary preferences, it is usually called the bamboo bear. Researchers initially assigned these animals to the raccoon family and only towards the end of the 20th century was it finally assigned to the bear family. Pandas are considered a jewel of China, rare animals and are carefully protected by the state. In this article, we will introduce our readers to interesting facts related to these funny animals.
1. The first time the giant panda was caught only in 1916 with the participation of local residents, but she quickly died. Only 20 years later, one American woman managed to buy a bear cub and bring it to America.
2. The giant panda is one of the rarest animals in the world. She lives only on the territory of the PRC. The main habitat is Sichuan province. Zoologists suggest that pandas may also have remained wild in Gansu province and parts of the Tibetan mountains.
3. The first panda that appeared in a foreign zoo was called Su-ling. She has lived in several zoos in the United States. Only after a fairly long period, after a long search, two more individuals were brought to America, and a little later these bears appeared in London.
4. In the Soviet Union, the first bamboo bear appeared in 1957 in the Moscow Zoo. The panda was a male named Pin-Pin. In 1959, the administration of the Moscow Zoo managed to find another individual for reproduction. The newly acquired panda was named An-An, and she turned out to be a male.
5. For the first time in the zoo, a panda was born in 1963, in Beijing. The bear cub was given birth by a female named Li-Li. The calf's weight was 142 grams. The bear was nicknamed Min-Min. A year later, Li-Li brought another cub, then scientists were able to establish that the period of bearing offspring in pandas is about one hundred and forty days.
6. The peak of activity of pandas is in the evening and at night. The animals are extremely clean and quiet. Bears cannot stand the rain, and try to hide from it.
7. Bamboo bears are extremely careful animals and try to avoid humans. Despite this, Buddhist monks living in the highlands often tame young animals. Pandas often come to monasteries for food alone and in groups.
8. Pandas love to roll head over hills, they have acquired this habit, fleeing from predators. Plus they run surprisingly well. The main natural enemies for bears are leopards.
9. Under natural conditions, the main diet of a bamboo bear is young bamboo shoots and fresh leaves. Besides, pandas love to feast on insects, fish, small rodents.
10. The closest relative of the bamboo bear is the spectacled bear that lives on the western slope of the Andes in the South American continent.
11. The genetic code of a panda and a human is 68% identical, and that of a dog and a bamboo bear is 80% identical.
12. In the summer season, in search of coolness, pandas climb the highlands, located four kilometers above sea level, and in winter they sink eight hundred meters.
13. Adult bears grow up to one and a half meters long and weigh 150 kilograms.
14. Every day panda spends about twelve hours on food and absorbs up to 15% of its own mass.
15. The body of the animal assimilates up to 20% of the absorbed feed.
16. The giant panda, unlike other bears, does not require hibernation.
17. Pandas often reproduce twins, but they feed only one bear cub. The second cub usually dies.
18. After birth, the cub spends with its mother for about three years.
19. The total number of pandas in their natural habitat is approximately 1600 individuals.
20. In China, bamboo bear hunting has been banned since 1962. Violation of the prohibition is punishable by death.
21. The giant panda is considered a national treasure of the PRC.
22. The Chinese government leases pandas to overseas reserves for one million US dollars a year. Moreover, all born panda cubs are considered the property of the Celestial Empire.
23. A newborn bear cub weighs 800 times less than its mother.
24. Pandas have a specific sixth toe, which is the transformed carpal bone.
25. The panda is listed in the Guinness Book of Achievements as the cutest animal on earth.
26. The red panda and the giant panda share the same habitat and diet, and both animals are also endangered.
27. According to legend, the panda was once an all-white bear. When a small girl tried to save a panda cub from being attacked by a leopard, the leopard killed the girl instead. Pandas came to her funeral wearing armbands of black ashes. As they wiped their eyes, hugged each other, and covered the ears, they smudged the black ashes.
28. Pandas can stand upright, but their short hind legs aren’t strong enough to support their bodies.
29. Little pandas are born white, but after a week they acquire their recognizable black and white color.
30. Pandas rely less on visual memory than they do on spatial memory to locate a mate’s home range area and preferred patches of bamboo
31. Pandas are slow creatures, they are capable of developing a very low speed, comparable to a quick step of a person, no more. Although this is still an order of magnitude faster than sloths move (see interesting facts about sloths).
32. The size of an adult giant panda is comparable to that of a brown bear.
33. A baby panda weighs only 150-200 grams at birth.
34. Many Chinese philosophers believe that the universe is made from two opposing forces, the Yin and Yang. The panda is one symbol of this philosophy.
35. For a full and calm life in its natural habitat, an adult giant panda needs about 10 square kilometers of space.
36. In the wild, giant pandas live for 15-20 years, in captivity - a little more. But they are very reluctant to breed in captivity.
37. China does not sell giant pandas but leases them to zoos around the world. Renting one panda brings China about $ 1 million annually.
38. A panda's tooth is 7 times larger than that of a human
39. Every day the panda is busy eating for more than 12 hours and eats about 12-15% of its weight.
40. A panda fur is worth between $60,000 and $100,000 on the illegal trade market.
41. Although a giant panda’s fur looks silky and soft, it is quite thick and wiry.
42. Pandas often give birth to twins, but after giving birth, the panda mother chooses a stronger baby, and the second, left unattended, soon dies.
43. A panda’s throat has a special lining to protect it from bamboo splinters.
44. Pandas have lived on Earth for two to three million years.
45. There are only about 1600 pandas left in the wild.
46. Hunting pandas has been completely banned since 1962, and killing a panda in China can be punishable by death.
47. The word “panda” may have developed from the Nepalese word poonya, which means “bamboo-eating animal” or “plant-eating animal.
48. In summer, pandas can move to an altitude of 4000 meters, fleeing the heat. In winter, they do not hibernate and do not equip a den.
49. An adult panda eats up to 30 kg of bamboo per day.
50. A panda’s entire mating process takes only about two or three days.
1. It is celebrated on the last Thursday of November by Americans, and Canadians celebrate it on the second Monday in October.
2.Thanksgiving Day is a holiday celebrated in many countries around the world, but especially in the United States and Canada, where the tradition of the holiday is carefully followed by all the inhabitants.
3. In the United States and Canada, Thanksgiving Day is, in fact, Harvest Day, more precisely, a day in which people thank the divinity for the harvests they had that year, regardless of the severe weather conditions they experienced. faced.
4. Since Thanksgiving Day is the holiday taken from the first settlers who arrived in the New World in 1621. They celebrated this day as a thank you for the rich harvest they obtained even in harsh weather conditions. .
5. In 1941, the United States Congress passed a resolution establishing that the fourth Thursday in November should officially become a national holiday of the United States.
6. Thanksgiving has become a family holiday, a day dedicated to spending time with family and friends.
7. There are no lack of traditional dishes on the holiday table, and among the most common are: Turkey; Pumpkin pie; Apple pie; Sweet potatoes; puree; Sweet corn; Cranberry sauce; Cranberry sauce; Ham.
8. What is the tradition of Thanksgiving turkey cooking - why Americans cook turkey Thanksgiving cooking tradition comes from Benjamin Franklin, because he decided to make this bird the symbol of the holiday.
9. The former American president pardoned a turkey that was to be slaughtered with the celebration of this day, and since then, every year, the tradition is respected by every American president.
10. A meal tradition is the prayer that people say at the beginning of the meal. Throughout the prayer, people hold hands and each of the people present states a reason to thank God for this day.
11. Thanksgiving has become an official federal holiday, and Americans participate in various charities on this day. They collect money or prepare food for the poor in the spaces arranged for them.
12. In the United States, there is no work on Thanksgiving. People have a day off just to spend time with their families and enjoy their reunion.
13. Recipes that you can prepare for Thanksgiving Day are: Whole turkey in the oven; Baked turkey stuffed with vegetables; Green beans; Mashed potatoes and mashed potatoes; Pumpkin pie or other pumpkin recipes; Baked sweet potatoes; American apple pie; Cranberry sauce with nuts.
14. According to archaeological evidence found in the Oaxaca region of central Mexico, turkey meat was consumed 1,500 years ago by the Zapotec civilization, and these birds were extremely popular.
15. The Mexican turkey is the ancestor of all turkeys that are consumed around the world.
So, the celebration of Thanksgiving Day gives us all the chance to think about the good things that happen to us every day, but also the chance to thank for everything we receive.
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