What would green cities look like? Green_architecturever is the page where you can see these wonders
The task of the architect is to choose environmentally friendly materials and suitable technologies so as not only to minimize environmental damage, but also to ensure comfort for the residents of the house.
For example, the project of the Cypriot eco-city Neapolis provides for a waste recycling system, water conservation, as well as energy savings of 25% due to natural resources. At the same time, the city is building its own university, hospital, entertainment and business centers.
Green architects are also involved in the reorganization of existing cities, where they strive to create a more eco-friendly lifestyle. Rebuilding is more difficult than designing from scratch, so specialists have to organically introduce new technologies into ready-made urban spaces - organize a waste recycling system, introduce environmentally friendly transport, make buildings more energy efficient, think through a system of landscaping, etc.
1.Half green forest
3.The Palm House
Vancouver, for example, has been able to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 25% from 1990s levels. This was achieved through both the modernization of existing urban facilities towards energy efficiency, and the construction of new, more environmentally friendly infrastructure. And in Freiburg, Germany, 400 km of bike paths were built to make it more convenient and profitable for residents to ride bicycles, so there are only 393 cars per 1,000 residents.
In addition to professional knowledge in the field of architecture and urbanism, a “green” architect needs to understand the environmental agenda and sustainable production technologies. This will help to understand how to make the city and infrastructure eco-friendly.
According to the UN, about 55% of the world's population lives in cities, and by 2050 this figure will increase to 68%. Despite the fact that it is cities that are responsible for 75% of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. It is impossible to ignore the damage that megacities cause to the environment, so developed countries are trying to minimize it.
Cities of a new type are gradually emerging around the world: for example, in the UAE, the Masdar eco-city has been under construction since 2006 - each building in it is built from low-carbon cement and recycled materials, and also saves water and energy at least 40% more than usual. Saudi Arabia aims to complete The Line's zero-carbon city by 2025. It will have no cars or roads, only high-speed trains. And in Singapore, the Tengah eco-city is being built with vacuum waste collection and solar-powered air conditioners.
Eco-cities of the future are also being built in Denmark, China, Cyprus and many other countries.
The air in megacities is usually polluted, and parks can minimize this effect. But they need free territories, which, as a rule, are not available in large cities. A few years ago, the Italian architect Stefano Boeri, who created "vertical scaffolding", proposed a solution to the problem. Towers covered with gardens make a significant contribution to the ecology of the city and decorate its landscape.
A similar concept is being implemented by the Vietnamese architectural bureau Vo Trong Nghia. His portfolio includes many "green" and environmentally friendly buildings.
They resemble huge flower pots: plants take up as much space as possible, becoming not only a decoration, but also a functional part of the house. The method is suitable for both new buildings and those that need reconstruction. This perfectly illustrates the renovation of a dilapidated residential building in the center of Hanoi. The facade is entirely hidden behind plants creeping along the bars. They protect from the sun, provide residents with privacy and increase the number of green spaces in the city.
All the works of the architectural bureau have one goal: to return a person to the natural world. The idea is applied both in private and large commercial projects. So, by order of a large family from Ho Chi Minh City, a completely “green” residence was created: palm trees and other plants form courtyards that connect the living room, dining room, bedrooms and offices into a common space, and the vertical arrangement of the gardens provides natural ventilation.
And in the popular tourist city of Da Nang, a major hotel chain has built a futuristic restaurant with ponds and a rooftop garden with the help of Vo Trong Nghia.
The architecture of the future is often associated with futuristic buildings, but it is already difficult to surprise them. The whimsical facades of Zaha Hadid, for example, can hardly be called an innovation - this is an established style. Along with complex forms, content is now also valued, namely technologies that save energy and resources of the planet. A few years ago, few people thought about the importance of rainwater harvesting systems, but now it is an integral part of modern projects.
In the past, buildings with a positive energy balance could easily be called the architecture of the future - it's hard to imagine that an ordinary office building can power the trams that we use to go to work. Now this is a reality - there are already at least four such buildings in Norway. Inside, nothing reminds that these are mini-power plants: there are offices and co-working spaces, a restaurant, a conference room and a rooftop terrace overlooking the fjord. But the facade and sloping roof are lined with photocells.
The future has arrived. Houses are being built by giant 3D printers, the range of materials is replenished - now you can build not only from wood, brick and reinforced concrete, but even recycled plastic, Tetra Pack or hemp panels. What's next? Recently, at the conference "Dialogues on Art: Living Heritage and a Look into the Future", hosted by the House of Cartier, the architects tried to answer this and other questions.
8.Half city, Half forest
Junya Ishigami, Stefano Boeri and Solano Benitez discussed what technology is changing in modern architecture, whether it has learned to interact with nature, and the role of an architect in the 21st century.
“The acute period of COVID-19 is over. Now we must ask ourselves if we are ready to return to normal life, which, however, led to the emergence of a pandemic, says Stefano Boeri. “The arrogant enslavement of wildlife, the destruction of places of biological diversity (deforestation, intensive agriculture or monoculture farming) has greatly facilitated the transition of the virus from rodents to our species.”
Junya Ishigami also speaks about the connection between man and nature. In his latest project, a plaza on the grounds of the Kanagawa Institute of Technology, he tried to create close contact between people, the environment and architecture. The feeling of unity with nature arises when you sit on the ground, so it is logical that a similar feeling will arise with architecture if you sit on the floor.
In ordinary life, furniture separates architecture, but here it is not. Only an undulating floor and ceiling, which evoke associations with natural hills or a huge soft bed.
When entering the building, you need to take off your shoes, and then sit or lie down, enjoying the breath of the wind, the rays of the sun that make their way through the round holes, the echo or even the raindrops.
Junya's project is difficult to describe in one word - it would seem that this is a multifunctional space, but the architect did not focus on this at all. While everyone wanted to create multi-purpose buildings that can be used for different needs, Ishigami designed a place where you can just pass the time. The priority here is a person's physical experience over time.
In all projects of the bureau, of course, this is taken into account, so buildings and even cities turn out to be energy efficient and environmentally friendly. One of these - the district of the future in the ancient Indian city of Amaravati - is being built right now. Here, more than sixty percent of the area will be occupied by green spaces, canals and ponds. The city will be equipped with a data collection center and made as autonomous as possible through the widespread use of solar energy. In addition to electric vehicles and water taxis, Amaravati will have a large number of shady streets and squares encouraging people to explore the city on foot.
11.Flower of Qinghai
13.China Bay Arena
18.Project of future
23.The change is here
24.Design is a behavior
28.Greenland convention center
31.Des Plantes Park
34.A green city
36.Future is here
39.A walk here
44.Future US Pavlion
48.One more perfect project
One of the most famous among the oldest civilizations is the Mayan tribe. Until now, scientists in questions of the existence of the Maya civilization have left for themselves a lot of unknown. The researchers managed to determine that the Mayan civilization appeared in the 1st millennium BC. Their legacy lies in unusual writing and beautiful architectural structures, in advanced mathematics and astronomy, in art objects and in the famous incredibly accurate calendar.
Despite the huge amount of unknown facts, the most secret for historians was the question of what led to the fall of the highly developed Mayan civilization. At the same time, the first prerequisites for such a decay, according to scientists, appeared around the 9th century AD. Not only the decline of the Mayan civilization, but also many other mysterious moments from the life of this tribe to this day haunt scientists. The last place where such tribes were recorded was the north of Guatemala. Only archaeological excavations tell about the history and culture of the Maya.
1. Many people mistakenly assume that the Mayan tribe is extinct and the entire civilization is in the past, but this is not so. Maya to this day live in North America. Their number has decreased and today amounts to about 6 million.
2. The Maya never predicted the end of the world. This people had not 1, but 3 calendars. Each of them was not a harbinger of the apocalypse. The point was that the cycle of the longest Mayan calendar could reset to zero approximately every 2,880,000 days. One of these updates was planned for 2012.
3. The huge Mayan tribe lived in the vast territory of present-day Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize, in the west of Honduras and El Salvador. The development center of such a civilization was in the North.
4. Apart from the Babylonian systems, the Maya were the first to use the number "0". Indian mathematicians later began to use zero as a mathematical value in calculations.
5. Some linguists managed to prove that the word "shark" came to us from the language of the Mayan tribe.
6. The pre-Colombian Maya wanted to "improve" the physical characteristics of their own children. For this, mothers tied the boards to the child's forehead so that over time the forehead became flat.
7. Aristocrats from the Mayan tribes were hunchbacked, and their teeth were inlaid with jade.
8. In the ancient Maya tribes, all children were named according to the day they were born.
9. Some members of the Maya tribe to this day practice bloody sacrifices. Fortunately, chickens are now being sacrificed, not people.
10. All major cities of the Mayan civilization had stadiums. Their type of "football" involved decapitation. In this case, the team of losers was the victim. The severed heads, as historians suggest, were used as balls. The modern version of this game is called "ulama", but decapitation is no longer used.
11. Like the Aztecs, the Maya never used steel or iron in their construction. Their main weapon was obsidian or volcanic rocks.
12. They could create incredible constructions with geometric precision. Smooth corners and walls coupled with perfect computation is something that is difficult to achieve now. But in the Mayan civilization there were many such structures.
13. The main dish of the Maya in the diet was corn, and therefore it is not surprising that, according to Mayan mythology, the creator god Hunab created mankind precisely from the cob of corn.
14. The Maya played football, but their game was to use a rubber ball. It had to be hammered into a round hoop.
15. Baths and saunas played a large role in the Mayan civilization. This tribe believed that with the release of sweat, they got rid of not only dirt, but also from perfect sins.
16. Archaeologists have been able to find evidence that the Mayan tribes used human hair to sew up a wound. Representatives of this civilization treated unsurpassed not only bone fractures, but were also considered skilled dentists.
17. In the Maya tribe, prisoners, slaves, and other people who were to be sacrificed were painted blue and sometimes tortured. After that, they were brought to the top of one of the pyramids, where they were shot from a bow or their still beating heart was cut out from their chest. Sometimes the priests' assistants then removed the skin of the victim, which the high priest put on. Then a ritual dance was performed.
18. The Maya tribes had one of the most advanced writing systems among all the ancient civilizations. They wrote on everything that came to hand, especially on structures.
19. It was also possible to prove that the Maya used means of pain relief. So for various religious rituals, hallucinogenic drugs were used. They used them in everyday life quite widely. Such a hallucinogen was made from a specific mushroom, peyote, bindweed, and also from tobacco.
20. The Mayan pyramids were included in the list of 7 wonders of the world. Until now, many structures are hidden under a thick layer of earth, and their excavation has become difficult due to the impassability of the rainforest. Those constructions that have already been restored impress with their own extraordinary layering.
Many people around the world now live in modern multi-storey buildings, designed and built not at the beginning of the last century, but already in this century. Of course, these people are not the majority, but it is predicted that soon more than two-thirds of the world's population will live in urban areas. In the meantime, we want to share with you architectural buildings that are no less impressive than skyscrapers, and there are both modern masterpieces and buildings created in the 16th century.
Vertical garden in Madrid, Spain
Entrance gate of the Cathedral Mosque of St. Petersburg, Russia
One of the famous Stockholm metro stations, Sweden
Matsumoto Castle - an ancient Japanese castle in the city of Matsumoto, Nagano Prefecture, built at the end of the 16th century
Temple of the Sacred Heart of Jesus - Parish Church and Minor Basilica in Barcelona on Mount Tibidabo, Spain
Shah Jahan Mosque, built in the 17th century in Pakistan and known primarily for its geometric brickwork
An underground prayer space created around a giant Buddha statue, Sapporo, Japan
Mont Saint-Michel - a small rocky island, turned into a fortress island, on the north-west coast of France
Fort Baurtange - a fort in the form of a star in the village of Baurtange, Groningen province, Netherlands
Copper Temple on Taimu Mountain in Fujian City, China
Cathedral of St. Peter and the Indivisible Trinity, located in Gloucester, England
Colorful buildings in El Alto, Bolivia
Fishing village Shumash, Ryazan region, Russia
Art installation "House with Lightning", which was presented at the Milan Design Week 2019, Italy
Fisherman's Bastion, Budapest, Hungary
House in Ljubljana, Slovenia
Building houses is a rather difficult task, because in order to erect a structure, it is not enough to complete architectural courses, you need to have a wealth of experience and an understanding of what you are doing. But some people so passionately want to be in this profession that, even without taste, they undertake to build houses that are difficult to call such. There is even an Instagram account Web Ugly Melbourne Houses dedicated to such houses on the, and its name speaks for itself.
Looking at this house, anxiety comes naturally
When a friend doesn't invite you to their home and you really feel relieved
Only plaster lions are missing
Architect: - How do you see your house?
Customer: - Loud!
So much roof
This house could only have been designed by Picasso
These are not balconies, but giraffe feeders
It looks like this house was assembled from parts of other old houses.
Doesn't look too cozy
Do you see a garter belt for stockings too?
The hills have eyes
There are a couple of questions for these windows
It seems they could have squeezed another column in there.
Bushes are the only thing that inspires sympathy
The tenants of this house every day like Friday
It looks more like a shower than a place to live in.