2022 Major League Baseball season schedule, top picks and other interesting facts that you need to know
Major League Baseball (MLB) is an American professional baseball organization and the oldest professional sports league in the United States and Canada. There are 30 teams in Major League Baseball: 15 in the National League (NL) and 15 in the American League (AL). NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1876 and 1901 respectively. Beginning in 1903, the two leagues cooperated but remained legally separate entities. Both leagues operated as separate legal entities until they merged into a single organization under the leadership of the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000.
This season is the last season in which the Cleveland Indians compete under the moniker after decades of controversy. On 14 December 2020, the team announced that they would be introducing their new nickname and associated kit and stadium changes prior to the 2022 season to replace the 106-year-old nickname.
As for games between leagues, matches will be between teams from the following divisions:
LA vs. Central LN
L.A. Central vs. West of LN
West of Los Angeles vs. L.N.
Meanwhile, it is the calendar of the regular MLB 2022 season. It will end on October 2, 2022.
Between the special dates, the calendar from the 2022 regular season of MLB is like this:
April 15, 2022 (Jackie Robinson Day)
July 19, 2022 (All-Star Game - All-Star Game at Dodger Stadium in Los Angeles ).
Already MLB teams publish their calendar for the 2022 Major season.
1. MLB oversees Minor League Baseball, which includes 256 teams affiliated with major league clubs. MLB and the World Confederation of Baseball Softball co-administer the World Baseball Classic international tournament.
2. The first fully professional baseball team was the Cincinnati Red Stockings, founded in 1869. Prior to this, some teams secretly paid some players. The first few professional baseball games were characterized by league-to-league rivalries and players who often moved from one team or league to another.
3. The period before 1920 is known as the dead-ball era, during which players rarely hit home runs. Professional baseball in the States survived a plot to fix the 1919 World Series that became known as the Black Sox Scandal.
4. The sport's popularity in the 1920s and experienced periods of decline during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier.
5. The 1950s and 1960s were a time of club expansion and relocation for the AL and NL. New stadiums and artificial turf started the rules of the game in the 1970s and 1980s.
6. The home run dominated the game during the 1990s, and the use of anabolic steroids among MLB players in the mid-2000s was discussed in the media. In 2006, an investigation resulted in the Mitchell Report, implicating many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team.
7. Today MLB is made up of 30 teams: 29 in the US and 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season, and five (5) teams per league advance to a four-round post-season tournament that culminates in the Best of the Best World Series. seven championship series between two league champions that date back to 1903.
8. Baseball games are broadcast on television, radio on the Internet in North America and in some other countries. MLB has the largest total season attendance of any sports league in the world with over 69.6 million viewers in 2018.
9. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution. This document has gone through several incarnations since its inception in 1876. Under the direction of the commissioner of baseball, MLB hires and maintains officiating teams and negotiates marketing, labor, and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique relationship of control over the sport, including the majority of Minor League Baseball.
10. This has much to do with the US 1922 Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, which held that baseball was not an interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law. In subsequent years, this rule was slightly relaxed.
11. The easing provided owners with more stability and led to double-digit price increases. There were several challenges to MLB championship in sports between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916; the last attempt at a new major league was the aborted Continental League in 1960.
12. The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner, currently Rob Manfred. COO is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president (business and media), chief public relations officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, and chief baseball officer.
13. Based in New York City, the multimedia division of MLB is MLB Advanced Media. This chapter oversees MLB.com and the websites of each of the 30 teams. Its bylaws state that MLB Advanced Media has an independent newsroom from the league, but is under the same ownership group and revenue sharing plan.
14. MLB Productions is a similarly structured wing of the league focusing on video and broadcast media. MLB also owns 67 percent of the MLB network, with the remaining 33 percent split between cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV.
15. In 1920, the weak National Commission that had been set up to manage relations between the two leagues was replaced by the much more powerful Baseball Commissioner, who had the power to decide all of professional baseball unilaterally. From 1901 to 1960, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams each.
16. In the 1960s, the MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first American team (Montreal Expos).
17. Two teams (Seattle Mariners and Toronto Blue Jays) were also added in the 1970s. From 1969 to 1993, each league consisted of an East and West division. In 1993, the National League expanded with two teams, the Florida Marlins and the Colorado Rockies, to equalize the number of teams in both leagues.
18. A third division, the Central Division, was formed in each league in 1994. Until 1996, the two leagues only met on the field during the World Series and the All-Star Game. The regular season of Interleague Play was introduced in 1997.
19. In March 1995, two new franchises, the Arizona Diamondbacks and the Tampa Bay Devil Rays (now known as the Tampa Bay Rays), were awarded by MLB to start play in 1998. This addition brought the franchise total to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to have one new team per league: Tampa Bay joined A.L. and Arizona joined the NL.
20. The original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league (15 in each league, five in each division), but in order for each team to play daily, this would require interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire period. the whole season.
21. However, it was not clear at the time if interleague play would continue beyond the 1998 season, as this would have to be approved by the players' union. For this and other reasons, it was decided. one existing club would have to change leagues.
22. The Milwaukee Brewers agreed in November 1997 to move from the AL to the NL, thus making the NL a 16-team league. At the same time, the Detroit Tigers agreed to move from East Albert to Al Central (to replace Milwaukee), with the Tampa Bay expansion Devil Rays joining East Albert.
23. Later, when the Houston Astros changed ownership prior to the 2013 season, the team moved from the Central Northern League to Alberta Western, resulting in both leagues having three divisions of five teams each and giving all teams a more balanced schedule. The Interleague is now played throughout the season.
24. In 2000, the AL and NL became a single general league similar to the National Football League (NFL), the National Basketball Association (NBA), and the National Hockey League (NHL), albeit with two components called "leagues" rather than "conferences" .
25. Both leagues use the same rules and regulations, with one exception: AL operates under designated hitter rules, while NL does not. This difference in rules between leagues is unique to MLB; other sports leagues in the United States and Canada have a single set of rules for all teams.
26. In the 1860s, with the help of soldiers playing in the camp during the Civil War, "New York" style baseball developed into a nationwide game and spawned baseball's first governing body, the National Baseball Players Association.
27. NABBP existed as an amateur league for 12 years. By 1867 over 400 clubs were members. Most of the top clubs remained clubs based in the Northeast United States. MLB uses 1869 as the founding year of Professional Baseball, when the first professional team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings, was formed.
28. Between professional and amateur ball players after the founding of the Cincinnati club. NABBP was divided into amateur and professional. The National Association of Professional Baseball Players, often known as the National Association (NA), was formed in 1871.
29. Her amateur counterpart disappeared after just a few years. The history of the modern Chicago Cubs and Atlanta Braves franchises dates back to the National Association of Professional Baseball Players in the 1870s.
30. In 1876, the National League Professional Baseball Clubs (later known as the National League or NL) were formed after the NA went underperforming.
31. The league has focused on the clubs, not the players. Clubs can now fulfill player contracts, preventing players from moving to higher paying clubs.
32. Clubs were required to play full game schedules instead of forgoing scheduled games when the club was no longer in contention for the league championship, which was often the case within North America. A concerted effort was made to limit gambling in games, which cast doubt on the validity of the results. The first game in the NL - Saturday, April 22, 1876 (at the Jefferson Street Grounds, Philadelphia) - is often cited as the start of MLB.
33. The early NLs were turbulent, with threats from rival leagues and players revolting against the hated "reserve clause" that restricts the free movement of players between clubs.
34. Teams have come and gone; 1882 was the first season in which the league line-up was the same as the previous season, with only four franchises surviving until 1900. Competitor leagues formed regularly and also broke up regularly.
35. The most successful was the American Association (1882–1891), sometimes called the "beer and whiskey league" for its tolerance of selling alcoholic beverages to spectators. For several years, the National League and American Association champions met in a postseason championship series - the first World Series attempt. The two leagues merged in 1892 into a single 12-team no-limit game, but no-limit football lost four teams after the 1899 season. This led to the formation of the American League in 1901 under AL President Ban Johnson, and the resulting betting war for players led to widespread contract breaches and litigation.
36. The war between the AL and the NL caused shock throughout the baseball world. At a meeting at the Leland Hotel in Chicago in 1901, the other baseball leagues agreed on a plan for their independence. A new National Association was formed to oversee these minor leagues. Although the NA still exists today (known as the Little League), at the time, Ban Johnson saw it as a tool to put an end to smaller rivals' threats that could spread to other territories and threaten his league's dominance.
37. After 1902, the NL, AL, and NA signed a new National Agreement that linked independent contracts to contracts with a reserve clause. The agreement also established a formal classification system for the minor leagues, which was refined by Branch Rickey.
38. Several other formerly non-existent baseball leagues are officially considered major leagues, and their statistics and records are included in those of the current two major leagues. . These included the AA, the Trade Union Association (1884), the Players' League (1890), and the Federal League (1914–1915). Both UA and AA are being researched by baseball researchers as major leagues due to the high level of play and number of star players.
39. Some researchers, including Nate Silver, have disputed UA's major league status, that franchises have come and gone, and that the St. Louis club was intentionally "linked"; the St. Louis club was owned by the league president and was the only club that came close to major league level.
40. The period from 1900 to 1919 is commonly referred to as the "dead ball era". Games of the era were generally low scoring and were often dominated by pitchers such as Walter Johnson, Cy Young, Christy Mathewson, Mordecai Brown. and Grover Cleveland Alexander. The term is also known as the condition of baseball itself.
41. Baseball used American wool yarn, not modern Australian wool yarn, and was not wound as tightly, which affected the distance he could walk. More importantly, they stayed in the game until they became crippled, soft and sometimes twisted. At the time, a baseball cost three dollars, equal to $44.24 today (adjusted for US dollar inflation), and the owners were reluctant to buy new balls. Fans were expected to throw away fouls and (rare) home runs. Baseballs have also been stained with tobacco juice, grass, and mud, and sometimes juice, which some players have chewed to discolour the ball.
42. In addition, pitchers could manipulate the ball using a spittoon. (In 1921, the use of this field was restricted to meals with a grandfather clause). In addition, many stadiums were large, such as the Chicago Cubs' West Side Grounds, which was 560 feet (170 m) from the field's center fence, and the Boston Red Sox's Huntington Avenue Grounds, which was 635 feet (194 m) away. m) from the center field fence, thus home runs were rare and "small ball" tactics such as singles, bunts, stolen bases, and run and run dominated the strategies of the time. Techniques such as the Baltimore Chop have been used to increase singles in the infield.
43. Baseball's popularity increased in the 1920s and 1930s. The 1920 season was marked by the death of Ray Chapman of the Cleveland Indians. Chapman, who was hit in the head by the field and died hours later, became the only MLB player to die from an injury on the field, a tragedy that led both leagues to require new white baseballs to be brought into play whenever a ball became scratched. or dirty, which helped end the dead-ball era.
44. The following year, the New York Yankees made their first World Series appearance. By the end of the 1930s, the team had competed in 11 World Series, winning eight of them. Slugger Yankee Babe Ruth set a single-season home run record in 1927 with 60 home runs; A few years earlier, Ruth had set the same record with 29 home runs.
45. Popular hardships of the Great Depression Baseball's popularity began to decline in the early 1930s. By 1932, only two MLB teams had made a profit. Attendance dropped at least in part due to a 10% federal entertainment tax added to baseball ticket prices. Baseball owners have reduced their rosters from 25 to 23, and even the best players have had to take pay cuts.
46. The onset of World War II created a significant shortage of professional baseball players, as over 500 men left MLB teams to serve in the military. Many of them play on service baseball teams that have entertained military personnel in the US or the Pacific.
47. MLB teams of the time were primarily made up of youths, older players, and those with a military 4F classification, indicating mental, physical, or moral unfitness for service. People like Pete Gray, the one-armed outfielder, were given a shot at promotion to the big leagues. However, there was not a single black player on the MLB roster until the end of the war. Black players, many of whom had served in the war, were still restricted from playing Negro League baseball.
48. Wartime restrictions designed to keep outdoor lighting levels low caused another problem for baseball. These rules restricted travel and night games to the point where the 1942 season almost had to be canceled.
49. On January 14, 1942, MLB Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis wrote a letter to U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt pleading for baseball to continue during the war in hopes of starting a new major league season. President Roosevelt replied, “I sincerely believe that it would be better for the country if baseball continued to develop. There will be fewer unemployed people and everyone will work longer and harder. And that means they should have a chance to relax and take their minds off work even more than before.”
50. With the approval of President Roosevelt, spring training began in 1942 and had little impact. The war interrupted the careers of stars such as Stan Musial, Bob Feller, Ted Williams, and Joe DiMaggio, but the baseball clubs carried on.
On November 20, 1902, the editor of the newspaper L'Auto, Henri Desgrange, and the journalist Géo Lefebvre, dined in one of the Parisian cafes. Their conversation turned to the then-famous cycling race along the route Paris - Brest - Paris. These competitions were sponsored by the newspaper Le Petit Journal, which gave it good publicity and new subscribers.
Suddenly, Geot Lefebvre asked the editor - why not organize your own bike race? After all, Henri Desgrange was a famous cyclist in his youth, the owner of several records in races of 50 and 100 kilometers, as well as 100 miles. Desgrange liked the idea, and in the summer of next year the first Tour de France cycling race took place, which then became the most prestigious competition for professional cyclists.
Already the first competition brought the newspaper "L'Auto" an unprecedented increase in popularity. During the Tour alone, the number of subscribers grew from 25,000 to 65,000. Moreover, the circulation of the newspaper only increased with each competition. Currently, the history of the Tour de France has more than 100 years. Races were not held only during the First and Second World Wars. Naturally, many interesting events have happened on the Tour de France over the years.
The race consists of 21 stages, each of which takes one day. During this time, participants overcome a total of 3-4 thousand kilometers. The record for the length of the race was set in 1926, when the athletes covered 5745 km. This is approximately equal to the distance from Paris to Omsk.
In the early years of the competition, racers carried with them all the tools and spare parts needed for repairs. They tried to fix the breakdowns right on the highway or went to the nearest settlement in search of, for example, a blacksmith. Indeed, in order for participation in the stage to be counted, the cyclist needs to reach the finish line.
The real legend of the Tour de France was the American cyclist Lance Armstrong, who was able to win a record number of races - seven. But, in 2013, the athlete admitted to doping. Adding at the same time that otherwise it was simply impossible to win such a number of victories. Armstrong was stripped.
1. The Tour de France has been held since 1903. It was originally an advertising project for the newspaper L'Auto (an ancestor of L'Équipe). Another newspaper, Le Petit Journal, had a Paris-Brest-Paris cycle race. Already after the first edition of the race, the number of subscribers increased from 25 thousand to 65, and in 1908 it exceeded 250 thousand. In 1933, a record 854,000 copies a day were sold during the race.
2. At first, the "Great Loop" (the second name of the "Tour de France") was a six-stage race with a length of 2428 km. For more than a century of history, it was not carried out only during the wars - World War I (1915-1918) and World War II (1940-1946).
3. The first winner of the Tour de France was the former chimney sweep Maurice Garin, who won the first stage and the last two. At the finish line in Paris, he was greeted by a cheering crowd, and the fee was 6075 gold francs.
4. Jacques Anquetil, Bernard Hino, Miguel Indurain and Eddy Merckx have won the Tour de France more often than others - five times each. Seven victories in a row on account of Lance Armstrong, but he was later disqualified.
5. In 1969, Eddy Merckx set a unique record by winning the general classification, as well as mountain and points.
6. Briton Chris Froome has won the Tour de France four times, but has missed the race for the second year in a row. In June 2019, Froome was seriously injured and took a long time to recover. This year he plans to start in the Vuelta a España.
7. The most prestigious multi-day event has four classifications. Each has its own jersey. Yellow jersey - for the leader of the general classification. It has been used since 1919. The color matches the color of the pages of the newspaper that founded the Tour de France.
8. The green jersey belongs to the rider with the most sprint points. They have been accrued according to the system determined by the organizers since 1953. Points can be earned at the end of the flat stages and intermediate sprint finishes. Each stage has its own coefficient.
9. Only four times in history has a Tour de France winner won the points classification. Eddy Merckx did it three times, and Bernard Hinault once. Peter Sagan won the green jersey more often than others - seven times. Eric Zabel was the top scorer six times.
10. The mountain king wears a pea jersey. It was introduced in 1975, although the best mountain racer has been awarded since 1933. The unusual coloring comes from the T-shirt's first sponsor, a French chocolate manufacturer that sold it in white packaging with red dots.
11. Mountain classification is considered the most difficult to predict on the Tour de France. The winner is the one who scored the most points at the finishes of the mountain stages or intermediate mountain finishes. Mountains have their own categories. The steeper and longer the mountain, the more points are given for it.
12. White jersey - best young rider trophy. It has been played since 1975 among those who, on January 1 of the year of the race, were not 25 years old. There have been five occasions in the history of the Tour de France when one rider has won both the white and yellow jerseys. Such success has been achieved by Laurent Fignon (1983), Jan Ulrich (1997), Alberto Contador (2007), Andy Schleck (2010) and Egan Bernal (2019).
13. Colombian Egan Bernal (Ineos) is the youngest winner of the Tour de France in the last 100 years. He won the Big Loop at the age of 22 years 196 days. Younger were only Henri Cornet (19 years and 355 days) in 1904 and Francois Faber (22 years 187 days) in 1909. In addition, Bernal is the first South American winner.
14. Bernal put on the yellow jersey of the leader in the 19th stage, shortened due to weather conditions. It is clear that he also got the white jersey of the best young rider. “My father could not utter a word at first, but when he got over it, he congratulated me, almost crying. For us, this is a dream. We used to watch the Tour de France on TV, we thought it was something unattainable. As a child, you think: "How cool it would be to be there one day." But it looked so far away. And here we are.
15. The winner of the mountain classification was Romain Bardet (France, AG2R), points - Peter Sagan (Slovakia, Bora-Hansgrohe). Ilnur Zakarin took 51st place. Leading 14 days Julian Alaphilippe finished fifth.
16. Due to the pandemic, the 107th start of the Great Loop was postponed by two months. The route, approved back in 2019, passes only through the territory of France. It consists of 9 flat stages, 6 mountain stages, 5 mid-mountain stages and one time trial. The total length of all stages is 3484 kilometers.
17. The 2020 Tour de France has 19 world tour teams and three pro-continental teams. Each has eight cyclists, totaling 176.
18. The most experienced rider in the 2020 Tour de France is Spaniard Alejandro Valverde, who took part in this race 12 times. He is also the oldest - 40 years 127 days.
19. In addition to last year's winner Egan Bernal (Team INEOS Grenadiers), Primož Roglič (Jumbo - Visma), Emanuel Buchmann (Bora-hansgrohe), Nairo Quintana (Arkea-Samsic), Mikel Landa (Bahrain-Merida), Thibault Pino (Groupama - FDJ), Rigoberto Uran (EF Education-First), Tom Dumoulin (Jumbo - Visma), Richie Porte (Trek-Segafredo), Bauke Mollema (Trek-Segafredo), Miguel Lopez (Astana), Tadej Pogacar ( UAE Team Emirates).
20. During one Tour, teams use about 42,000 cycling bottles. It is noteworthy that many of them are thrown to the side of the road, and viewers can get not only a memorable, but also a useful souvenir.
21. Eddy Merckx has been on the podium the most times. 37 times the Belgian became the winner of the stages.
22. The Tour de France is often referred to as "LaGrande Boucle", which means "big loop", and marks the route encircling France around.
23. The average cyclist burns about 124,000 calories during the Tour. 252 double cheeseburgers in a month can be eaten by riders at least without harm to their figure.
24. Based on an average cadence of 90 revolutions per minute, then for 3 weeks of the race the cyclist produces 486 thousand revolutions of the pedals.
25. Up until the 1960s, it was considered normal practice to drink an alcoholic drink after a race to numb muscle pain. Soon alcohol was banned, as it was considered a stimulant.
26. About 12 million spectators line the tracks of the Tour de France to watch the graceful cycling. This makes the "big loop" the biggest sporting event in the world!
27. In 1919, only 10 people reached the finish line - the smallest number for the entire duration of the race.
28. During the Tour, cyclists do not rest a day from the bike. Even on "weekend" days, they pedal for at least 2 hours to disperse the lactic acid and stay focused on the race. They must have really good bike saddles.
29. The smallest gap in the general standings was recorded in 1989. Then the American Greg LeMond was ahead of his French colleague Lauren Fignon by 8 seconds. A journey of 21 days and only 8 seconds of separation. Brutal sport.
30. Five-time Tour de France winner Bernard Hinolt once said an interesting phrase: “A beginner should think very carefully before attempting to ride one stage of the Tour. Two stages will obviously require a visit to the doctor, and after three you will need a psychiatrist. If more, be sure to make sure that the rider has made a will.”
31. The total prize money of the Tour de France is $4.3 million.
32. Three and a half billion viewers watch the Tour de France at least once on TV each year.
33. The peloton wears out a total of 790 tires in a three-week race.
34. In the early years, riders had 14 rest days instead of the current two. Then the stages very often ended at night, and the cyclists needed a day to recover.
35. The winner of the 1947 Tour, Jen Robick, is famous for stuffing himself full of canteens of water at the top of the mountain in order to descend faster. Cunningly.
36. Eddy Merckx has worn the yellow jersey for the longest time - 96 days over several years.19. The very first Tour de France winner was Maris Garin. In 1904 he repeated his success, but was later disqualified for fraud. At one of the stages, Maris used the train to win in the Alps. About times, about customs. Looks like he didn't use a bike bag.
37. The maximum average speed at the stage was recorded in 2005 - 41.36 km / h. For example, in 1919 the average was only 24 km/h. Although this is a good indicator, you will agree.
38. In the early years of the Tour de France, riders rode bikes without derailleurs. In extreme cases, they were allowed to manipulate the chain, but they did not give much effect. In 1910, when difficult mountainous sections appeared on the track, it became clear that gear shifting was indispensable.
39. At the dawn of the history of the Tour de France, cyclists were "self-service" - namely, they carried all the necessary spare parts and tools for repairs with them (and don't even try to imagine how much all this stuff weighed, which had to be pulled uphill without changing gears ). Of course, they also produced themselves in haste. If the breakdown could not be fixed alone and quickly, the participant dropped out of the race. There is a well-known story of an Englishman by the name of Christophe, who led the races three times, but eventually lost, as he broke his fork and was forced to look for a forge on foot.
40. The heaviest participant in the Tour de France was the Swedish rider Magnus Wakstedt, who weighed 94 kg and received the nickname Big Maggy for this. And the Frenchman Jean Robich, who, due to his slender physique, would have been more suitable for the role of a jockey than a cyclist (with a height of 161 cm, he weighed 60 kg), carried with him two bottles of water, where he added lead. Thus, the rider increased the weight and more or less equalized his chances with his rivals on the descents. He won the Tour de France in 1947. WADA did not exist then, and lead was not considered doping.
41. Speaking of doping. Until the early 1960s, Tour de France participants were allowed to drink alcohol right during the races (ether was also used for pain relief during exertion). Then a law was passed banning stimulants, and the former courage left the race - but not everyone. For example, when the British athlete Tom Simpson in 1967 felt ill at the 13th stage of the competition and died a few hours later, the doctors found that the man was "charged" with a cocktail of alcohol and drugs.
42. By the way, the most titled participant in the Tour de France, Lance Armstrong, who won seven victories, lost all awards in 2012 by decision of the US Anti-Doping Agency.
43. The first winner of the Tour de France, Maurice-Francois Garin (1904 champion), was later disqualified for cheating: as it turned out, he ate food from one of the cars, which was against the rules.
44. It has been established that the average Tour de France rider spends 4-5 thousand kcal at each stage and almost 124 thousand kcal in total (that's about 252 double cheeseburgers), and then they lose such a volume of fluid that is equivalent to 39 trips to the toilet. Between rides, cyclists don't rest, riding for about 2 hours a day to flush lactic acid from the muscles and maintain focus.
45. Cyclist Miguel Indurain, who won the Tour de France five times in a row, has unique physiological features: his pulse is 28 beats per minute (at a rate of 60-70 beats), his lung capacity is 8 liters (with an average volume of 6 liters), and the circulatory system pumps 7 liters of oxygen per minute (for an ordinary person - 3-4 liters, and for other professional cyclists - 5-6 liters).
46. During the existence of the "Tour de France" it has acquired organizational traditions. For example, an advertising caravan usually rides in front of cyclists - cars from which food and souvenirs are distributed to the audience (alas, cases of death of freebie hunters under the wheels of these cars are known).
47. The organizers are trying to lay out the route in such a way that it runs through little-known settlements and attracts tourists there, and with them profit for local residents. Every year, among the spectators, "loop hooligans" are hiding - people who, for some reason, cannot stand bicycles, cycling races, and specifically the Tour de France. They try to arrange different antics, interfering with the racers. Every year, up to 100-120 people find themselves behind bars in the police station because of this.
48. Cyclist Miguel Indurain, who won the Tour de France five times in a row, has unique physiological characteristics.
49. If the pulse of an ordinary person is 60-70 beats per minute, Indurain's figure at the peak of his career was 28.
50.His lung capacity is 8 liters, while the average volume is 6 liters. His circulatory system pumped 7 liters of oxygen per minute at a rate of 3-4 liters for an ordinary person and 5-6 liters for professional cyclists.
50 most interesating and fun facts about the Roland Garros Tennis Championship that you need to know in 2022
“Roland Garros” is on the lips of everyone who is not indifferent to tennis, and especially in the second half of May and early June, when the French Open takes place - the unofficial world championship on clay courts. This name is given to the tennis stadium in Paris. However, not all tennis fans know the history of this name. The French championship at the beginning of the 19th century did not have a permanent residence permit and until 1928 was held on the courts of the capital's clubs "Racing Club de France", "l'île de Puteaux" and "Stade Francais".
In 1925 it was declared "International", after which it began to be considered as an unofficial world championship on clay courts. There were not enough courts at the existing tennis bases. The French Lawn Tennis Federation (FFLT) realized that the time had come to build a tennis stadium with more courts and grandstands and began to look for a place for it.
In 1928, the owner of the Stade Francais club (author's note - Located in the Parc Saint-Cloud - a suburb of Paris) Emile Lesieur agreed to donate part of his territory (3.25 hectares) for this purpose, but with one condition - the stadium must bear the name of the famous Frenchman Roland Garros, with whom he was on friendly terms since his studies at the HEC Paris business school (1906-1908), and during the First World War they were both pilots. In addition, Garros played for the club's rugby team - the most titled at that time. The condition was accepted. And not only the stadium was named Roland Garros, but the French Championship itself (Internationaux de France, French Open) began to be called by the same name.
1. Roland Garros, which by the way is called the French Open only outside of France, was not always open. The tournament was first held in 1891, and then only men, members of French tennis clubs, could participate in it.
2. A women's rank was added in 1897, and foreign athletes were able to compete on French courts in 1925.
3. Men are winning the Musketeers Cup, named after the "Four Musketeers' ' Jacques Brugnon, Jean Borotra, Henri Cochet and René Lacoste, who brought France its first Davis Cup victory in 1927. Women get the Suzanne Lenglen Cup, named after the French tennis player who at the beginning of the 20th century won 12 Grand Slam singles tournaments and was an Olympic champion.
4. The tournament bears the name of the French pilot and aviator Roland Garros, who participated in the First World War.
5. Garros was the first to cross the Mediterranean in an airplane, and invented a machine gun that could be mounted behind a propeller and fired without damaging it. Well, besides this, Garros loved rugby and, of course, tennis. The pilot was a member of one of the French tennis clubs and regularly went to the court while studying in Paris.
6. First, the arena that hosts the French Open was named after him, and then the entire tournament.
7. The arena, which bears the name of Roland Garros, was built specifically in 1928 for the French tennis team, which had won the Davis Cup a year earlier and was supposed to defend the title against the US team. There were simply no other suitable structures in France.
8. When the stadium was built, it was handed over to the French Tennis Federation on the condition that it would bear the name of the famous pilot.
9. This is the smallest arena of all that hosts Grand Slam tournaments, and the organizers plan to reconstruct it in 2016.
10. It was Roland Garros that became the first Grand Slam tournament, which allowed both professional and amateur tennis players to take part in competitions. This happened in 1968.
11. The tournament has been held since 1891, but during the Second World War, the competition was still interrupted. However, even in wartime conditions, small tennis tournaments were held in France. Only the French could participate in them.
12. The question of moving Roland Garros to another city was raised, but the unequivocal decision was made that the tournament should remain in Paris.
13. This is the only Grand Slam tournament that takes place on clay, and the participants require special stamina - the balls fly slower and higher, and good preparation is needed to stay in the game.
14. In addition, the clay surface deprives the masters of the serve, for example, Andy Roddick, during his career at Roland Garros, could not go beyond 4 rounds.
15. The hosts of the Parisian courts cannot boast a long list of achievements. Only three girls and two men have won Roland Garros in singles.
16. The last winner with a French passport was Mary Pierce, who won the tournament in 2000. In men, the last victory of the hosts dates back to 1983 - it was won by Yannick Noah.
17. Yannick Noah was not only the last French winner of the Roland Garros, but also the first black winner of this tournament. His son Joachim Noah did not become a tennis player and plays basketball, he currently plays for the Chicago Bulls NBA team.
18. In women, the first black winner was American Atea Gibson. She won the competition in 1956, the same year she also won the doubles Roland Garros. In addition, she is the first black winner of Wimbledon.
19. Roland Garros, like many major tournaments, has its own museum, which is called "tennisseum". It was opened in 2003 and covers 2200 square meters.
20. This is the first multimedia museum dedicated to tennis, with almost 4,400 hours of audiovisual programs on the history of the tournament, the oldest of which date back to 1897.
21. In addition to multimedia materials, the museum also presents ordinary exhibits. For example, more than 100 rackets, the oldest of which date back to the 50s of the XX century.
22. The youngest winner in 1989 was the American Michael Chang, at that time he was 17 years and 3 months old. In the women's category, the youngest winner is an American of Yugoslav origin, Monica Seles. In 1990, she won the tournament at the age of 16 years and 6 months.
23. Roland Garros record holders for the number of victories are Chris Evert in women and Rafael Nadal. Both won on the Parisian courts 7 times.
24. Spaniard Nadal won in 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011 and 2012. American Chris Evert won the tournament in 1974, 1975, 1979, 1980, 1983, 1985, and 1986.
25. Nadal won the French Open 4 times in a row (as did Bjorn Borg, who won a total of 6 victories at Roland Garros) and defended the title in the 2013 season. In the women's part of the tournament, the current winner is Russian Maria Sharapova.
26. In 1891, the Union of French Societies of Athletic Sports (USFSA) organized the first French tennis championship, which took place within one day in Paris on the clay courts of the Racing Club. The tournament did not arouse much interest either among tennis players or among spectators, since only the French or members of French tennis clubs were allowed to participate. But by the beginning of the twentieth century, the championship became the largest French tournament.
27. However, in 1912, the number of participants decreased sharply, as a new World Clay Tennis Championship appeared, organized in cooperation with the Stade Français club. After 11 years, this tournament exhausts itself, which leads to the resumption of the previous championship of France. In 1925, foreign players were admitted to the championship for the first time, and it acquired the status of the French Open. Tournaments start at the same time on the courts of Stade Français and Racing Club.
28. In 1927, the magnificent French four Jacques Brunion, Jean Borotra, Henri Cochet and Rene Lacoste, whom the press and fans called only the “four musketeers”, defeated American tennis players in the Davis Cup. The rematch was supposed to take place in the home of the Musketeers, and such a major sporting event required a stadium of a decent standard. The Stade Français club is donating three hectares of land to the French Tennis Federation in Porte d'Auteuil, a suburb of Paris.
29. The only stipulation was that the new stadium would bear the name of former French hero club member and military pilot Roland Garros, the first person to fly non-stop across the Mediterranean and who died just five weeks before the end of the First World War. In May 1928, the opening of the stadium took place, on the courts of which a few weeks later the French championship was held, and then the long-awaited rematch with the Americans took place. Since that time, the French Open has received a permanent registration and became the fourth Grand Slam tournament. In 1968, the French were the first of the big four to allow professional players onto their courts.
30. In 1974, 18-year-old Bjorn Borg and 19-year-old Chris Evert won in Paris. These two victories marked the beginning of a new era. From 1974 to 1981, the Swede won the championship six times, and the American won seven titles between 1974 and 1986. These successes have made tennis players Roland Garros record holders. In terms of the total number of victories won in all categories, the best are the Frenchman Henri Cochet (nine titles) and the Australian Margaret Smith Court (13 titles).
31. In 1983, 37 years after the victory of Marcel Bernard, to the delight of all France, their compatriot Yannick Noah won. And the last Frenchwoman to win in Paris was Marie Pierce in 2000. In total, French athletes have won 16 titles in the 85-year history of the Open Championship (ten men, six women). The champions among men are the Spaniards (13 titles), and among women, the Americans are out of competition (27 times).
32. In 1989, the tournament was won by Michael Chang. He is only 17 years old, becoming the youngest champion of the French Open and the first American in 34 years (the last was Tony Trabert in 1955). Among the girls, the youngest champion is Monica Seles (16 years 6 months).
33. Monica is also the third tennis player in the history of the French Open, who managed to win the tournament three times in a row (1990-92). Helen Wills-Moody (1928-30) and Hilde Sperling (1935-37) did it before her. In the future, this achievement will be able to repeat Justine Henin (2005-07). The record among men is four victories in a row. Two managed to do this - Bjorn Borg (1978-81) and Rafael Nadal (2005-08).
34. Helen Wills-Moody holds another record - she has not lost a single set in all four championships she has won. Bjorn Borg (1978, 1980), Rafael Nadal (2008, 2010) and Justine Henin (2006-07) each have two such championships.
35. Most victories on the courts of Paris won: for men - Guillermo Vilas (56 wins in 73 matches), for women - Steffi Graf (84 wins in 94 matches).
36. The record holders for the longest matches in the championship are the French: for men - Fabrice Santoro - Arnaud Clement 6:4, 6:3, 6:7, 3:6, 16:14 (2004, 393 min.), And for women - Virginie Busson - Noel van Lotton 6:7, 7:5, 6:2 (1995, 247 min.).
40. The shortest final was played in 1988, when Steffi Graf defeated Natasha Zvereva - 6:0, 6:0 (34 min.) The German woman also holds the record for the longest final (1996), in which she defeated Arancha Sanchez - Vicario 6:3, 6:7, 10:8 (184 min.) Among men, the longest final was played in 1982 - Mats Wilander - Guillermo Vilas 1:6, 7:6, 6:0, 6:4 (282 min.).
41. In 1993, 12-year-old Martina Hingis at Roland Garros became the youngest champion in the history of junior Grand Slam tournaments. It's a paradox, but it is the French championship that will remain a white spot in her professional career. Among men, the main loser of Paris is considered to be the great Pete Sampras.
42. In 1997, Gustavo Kuerten won in Paris, being the 66th racket of the world. It was the first professional title in the Brazilian's career. In 2001, he won the tournament for the third time and became the first champion of Roland Garros, who had to play match points on the way to the title.
43. Three years later, another unseeded player, Gaston Gaudio, will win a sensational championship victory, while winning back two championship points. In total, in the history of the championship, only four men won without being seeded players.
44. Among women, the only unseeded champion was Margaret Scriven (1933). Until last year, this was the only time that a tennis player not included in the Top 10 seeding became the champion.
45. The record holder for the number of performances in Paris is the Frenchwoman Natalie Tosia (18 times).
46. The 1998 Men's Championship went down in history as the first Grand Slam tournament in the Open Era in which only one of the top eight seeds made it past the second round. In addition, at the French Open, it has not yet happened that a tennis player who made his way to the main draw through qualification defeated the current champion: Marat Safin - Gustavo Kuerten 3:6, 7:6, 3:6, 6:1, 6:4.
47. In the same year, the Williams sisters played their first Grand Slam final. In the mixed doubles competition, the victory went to the eldest: Venus, paired with Justin Gimelstob, defeated Serena and Luis Lobo 6:4, 6:4.
48. Russian finals were played twice in Paris: in 2004, Anastasia Myskina beat Elena Dementieva 6:1, 6:2, and in 2009 Svetlana Kuznetsova defeated Dinara Safina 6:4, 6:2. And the first Russian woman to win the Roland Garros was Olga Morozova, who won the doubles title in 1974. In total, Russian tennis players have won seven titles. Yevgeny Kafelnikov became the champion in singles (1996) and won three times in doubles. Evgenia Manyukova and Andrey Olkhovsky won the mixed doubles competition (1993).
49. Roland Garros is considered the most romantic Grand Slam tournament. As many believe, this is facilitated by the nearby Bois de Boulogne and the special Parisian aura. More than one tennis romance happened here. And the biggest love story was born in 1999, when Andre Agassi and Steffi Graf were celebrating their victories.
50. Pink geranium has always been an indispensable attribute of the center courts of the stadium. However, in the middle of the last decade, for unknown reasons, this color began to annoy some tennis leaders, and the geranium bloomed its current red color.
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Now it is difficult to imagine the football life of Europe without such a tournament as the Champions League. However, the history of this tournament is not much more than 50 years old.
Preparations for the first draw of the most prestigious European club trophy started a month after the first UEFA Congress, held on March 2, 1955 in Vienna. Interestingly, the idea of organizing the "European Cup" did not belong to the football union.
At that time, members of the football union were concerned about the organization of tournaments with national teams, and the editor of the French sports newspaper L'Equipe ("Equipe") Gabriel Hanot suggested the creation of a club tournament on a European scale. !December 6, 1954, the next issue of the newspaper came out with a catchy "hat" - "We offer the football European Cup." Ano and his colleague Jacques Ferrand proposed to play the matches of the new tournament on Wednesday evening.
Ano's proposal received a favorable response from most of Europe's top teams. Already in January 1955, the editors of "Ekip" sent out to all European clubs and football associations the regulation on the draw, which, with minor changes, was valid until the beginning of the 90s. On April 2, sixteen representatives of European club football gathered in Paris and signed a document on the birth of a new competition - the European Champions Cup.
Bemorepanda collected some interesting facts about the UEFA Champions League.
1. France is the country with the most players (471)
2. Players from 124 nationalities participated in matches
3. Daniel Amokachi - scorer of the first goal (11/25/1992 Brugge-CSKA 1:0)
4. Lionel Messi and Luis Adriano have scored the most goals in one match (5)
5. Francesco Totti is the oldest goalscorer (38 years and 59 days)
6. Celestine Babayaro - the youngest debutant (16 years and 87 days)
7. Raul is the youngest hat-tricker at the age of 18 years 114 days (10/18/1995 Real Madrid 6-1 Ferencváros (24, 25, 84 minutes)
8. 13 Spanish teams have participated in at least one Champions League (Atletico, Atlético, Barcelona, Betis, Valencia, Villarreal, Deportivo, Málaga, Mallorca, Real Madrid, Real Sociedad, Sevilla, Celta)
9. Luis Figo and Ruud Van Nistelrooy have scored the most penalties (10)
10. Manchester United - team with the most draws (52 times)
11. Most own goals scored by Barcelona (9)
According to the rules agreed by the organizers, participation in the drawing of the champions of individual countries was not mandatory at first. The L'Equipe team considered that it would be more profitable to invite the most popular clubs to participate in the tournament.
June 21, 1955 The UEFA Emergency Committee decides to organize a tournament called the European Cup. It is noteworthy that by this moment even the pairs of teams of the 1/8 finals had already been named - the only case when the composition of the pairs was determined not by a draw, but by the organizers. Despite the name, not all participants represented the champions of their countries, and many national federations refused to delegate their representatives to the European Cup. Among those who refused were the founders of football, the British, as well as the USSR.
So, 16 teams participated in the first draw, divided at the discretion of the organizers into eight pairs (drawing lots were already held at the subsequent stages). The first match of the European Cup took place on September 4, 1955 in Lisbon. The honor to open a new competition fell to the local "Sporting" and the Belgrade "Partizan". In the debut match of the new tournament, "Sporting" and "Partizan" scored each other three goals. In the second leg in Belgrade, the Yugoslavs celebrated the victory with a score of 5: 2, and they advanced to the next round.). The Portuguese striker Martins became the author of the first goal scored in the 14th minute after the start of the match.
The first Champions Cup final was played in Paris on June 13, 1956 between the teams Stade de Reims and Real Madrid (Madrid) and ended with a score of 3:4, in favor of Madrid.
During the first five draws, the best club team was the Spanish "Real" (Madrid), which was a kind of team made up of the "stars" of South American and European football. He had the longest winning streak, subsequently winning the trophy after another 5 years, however, he had to wait 32 years for the next win, when in 1998 he finally won the Champions League Cup.
In addition to Real Madrid, Ajax and Bayern had a series of victories, and Liverpool won four victories between 1977 and 1984 with four almost different compositions.
12. Marco Van Basten - the author of the first hat-trick in the Champions League (11/25/1992 Milan-Gothenburg)
13. Glasgow Rangers - the team that won the first away victory (09.12.1992 CSKA-Glasgow Rangers 0:1). Although formally the meeting was held in Bochum (Germany)
14. Donetsk Shakhtar - the author of the biggest away victory 7:0
15. Real Madrid have not scored the most penalties (11)
16. Most referees sent off players against Barcelona (29 times)
17. Real Madrid is the team with the most wins in a single competition (12 - 2001/2002)
18. Maccabi Haifa (2009/2010) and Deportivo (2005/2005) didn't score a single goal
19. Iker Casillas is the player with the most starts (149 times) and the most finisher (145 times)
20. Alessandro Nesta - player who has not scored in 99 matches
The turning point in the development of the tournament is the 1992/93 season, when the Champions League came to replace the Champions Cup. The group stage tested a year before was added to the playoff stages. The growth in popularity has led to the fact that the number of participants in the main draw of the tournament has grown over time from 16 to 32. Champions League matches are played on Tuesdays and Wednesdays.
The popularity of the European Cup and the number of its participants grew every year, and soon two more tournaments appeared in Europe - the Cup Winners' Cup (now merged with the UEFA Cup) and the Fairs Cup (now the UEFA Cup).
There are three qualifying rounds. They involve the champions of those countries that have a "low" football level, as well as teams from countries of a "high" football level that have not taken the necessary places to get into the main draw automatically. The participating teams are divided into pairs and play two matches according to UEFA rules (home and away matches). Teams that are defeated in the 1st and 2nd qualifying rounds on aggregate leave the tournament. If a football club loses in the 3rd quarter. round, he advances to the 1st round of the UEFA Cup. Teams that successfully pass the qualifying rounds enter the main draw of the Champions League.
The group stage is the first stage of the Champions League main draw. 32 European teams play here. Participants are divided into 8 groups of 4 teams each (groups A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H). Each football club must play with opponents in the group twice (home and away matches). Teams that take first and second place in their group go to the 1/8 finals of the Champions League. The third-placed football club continues to play in Europe, namely, in 1/16 of the UEFA Cup.
16 teams participate in the 1/8 finals. Participants are divided into pairs, two matches are played according to the rules of UEFA (home and away matches). The winner of the pair advances to the quarter-finals, and the winners of the quarter-finals to the semi-finals. Matches 1/4 and 1/2 finals of the Champions League are held by analogy with the 1/8 finals. Only in 1/4 there are already 8 teams (4 pairs), and in 1/2 - 4 teams (two pairs). The winners of the two semi-final pairs meet in the final, where they will compete for the most important and prestigious football trophy in Europe.
The final consists of one match. The venue for the final is determined long before the start of the Champions League tournament. In case of a draw after the end of normal time, two more halves of 15 minutes are added before the Silver goal. If the score remains tied after two added halves, the match is decided in a penalty shoot-out. The winner of the Champions League receives a cup, which you can find out about on this website in the section "About the main trophy"
21. Vanden Borre - 23 consecutive unbeaten player
22. Xavi is the player with the most wins (91)
23. Raul was the first to play 100 Champions League matches
24. Cristiano Ronaldo opened the scoring most times in matches (29 times)
25. Biggest win in tournament history - Liverpool-Besiktas 8-0 (06.11.2007)
26. Carles Puyol as captain has won the most trophy - 3 times
27. Roy Makaay - the author of the fastest goal 10.12 seconds (03/07/2007 Bayern-Real Madrid)
28. Milan most played in finals (6 times), Bayern, Barcelona and Juventus (5 times), Real Madrid and Manchester United 4 times each
29. Juventus lost the most finals (4 times), Milan and Bayern 3 times each
30. Real Madrid (4) and Porto (1) have never lost a final
31. Cristiano Ronaldo has scored the most in one competition - 17 goals (2013/2014)
32. The biggest difference in the final - Milan-Barcelona (4:0) 05/18/1994
33. Liverpool-Milan (3:3) - the most productive final (05/25/2005)
34. 5 players scored doubles in finals - Daniele Massaro (1993/1994), Karl Heinz Riedle (1996/1997), Hernan Crespo (2004/2005), Filippo Inzaghi (2006/2007), Diego Milito (2009/2010)
35. 4 players scored in two finals - Raul (1999/2000 and 2001/2002), Cristiano Ronaldo (2007/2008 and 2013/2014), Lionel Messi (2008/2009 and 2010/2011), Samuel Eto'o (2005 /2006 and 2008/2009)
36. Carlo Ancelotti has won the trophy three times (2002/2003, 2006/2007 with Milan and 2013/2014 with Real Madrid)
37. Coaches who won the trophy with different teams - Otmar Hitzfeld (Borussia Dortmund 1996/1997 and Bayern Munich 2000/2001), Jupp Heynckess (Real Madrid 1997/1998 and Bayern Munich 2012/2013), José Mourinho (Porto 2003/2004 and Inter 2009 /2010), Carlo Ancelotti (Milan 2002/2003, 2006/2007 and Real Madrid 2013/2014)
38. The oldest winning coach - Raymond Gutals (71 years and 232 days)
39. 6 times the winner was determined in a penalty shootout - Juventus-Ajax (1995/1996), Bayern-Valencia (2000/2001), Milan-Juventus (2002/2003), Liverpool-Milan (2004/2005), Manchester United-Chelsea (2007/2008), Chelsea-Bayern (2011/2012)
40. 1 time winner determined in extra time - Real Madrid-Atletico 2013/2014 (4:1)
41. The oldest field player - Alessandro Costacurta 40 years and 213 days (21.11.2006 AEK - Milan 1:0)
42. Clarence Seedorf is the only one to win the Champions League with 3 different clubs (Ajax 1994/1995, Real Madrid 1997/1998, Milan 2002/2003, 2006/2007)
43. Frank Rijkaard is the only one to have won the Champions League as a player (Ajax 1994/1995) and coach (Barcelona 2005/2006)
44. Final Milan-Liverpool (2004/2005, 2006/2007) and Barcelona-Manchester United (2008/2009, 2010/2011) played twice
45. Real Madrid and Bayern are the teams with the most consecutive victories (10)
46. 130 teams have participated in the tournament at least once
47. Barcelona have won the most away games - 45 matches
48. 20 different stadiums hosted the Champions League final
49. 13 of them had a different winner
50. 14 teams lost every match in the Champions League group stage - Kosice (1997/1998), Fenerbahce (2001/2002), Spartak Moscow (2002/2003), Anderlecht (2004/2005), Rapid (2005/2006), Levski (2006/2007), Dynamo Kyiv (2007/2008), Debrecen (2009/2010), Zilina (2010/2011), Partizan (2010/2011), Maccabi Haifa (2009/2010), Villarreal (2011/2012), Ocelul (2011/2012), Olympique Marseille (2103/2014)
Muscles must be constantly kept in good shape! But is there not enough time for long training? There is a way out! Forty stretching exercises you can compose, combine and arrange in any order you like, creating a flexible system - from a light 15-minute warm-up to a volume workout for different muscle groups of 40-50 minutes or more.
Stretches to relieve muscle tension
Conveniently, the exercises are broken down into groups and body parts—there are stretches for the hips, hamstrings, back, shoulders, neck, and more—so you can easily find the ones that are right for your body. Warm up, stretch and relax wisely!
One word of caution: You'll get the most benefit from these stretches when you do them when your body and muscles are warm, so save them for a while after walking, biking, running, or cardio, which will only improve your results and prevent injury.
1. Hamstring Stretch: Active Stretch
- Standing on your right foot, step forward with your left foot, bending your toes.
- Reach your left hand to your toes, keeping your back straight - you should feel a slight stretch in the back of your thigh. Hold this position for a moment, then place your left foot next to your right and return to the upright position.
- Switch sides to stretch your right hamstring. Continue alternating sides for 20-30 seconds.
2. Hamstring Stretch: Hurdles
This essential exercise is ideal for stretching the legs of those with much tension in the hamstrings.
- Sit on the floor, and straighten your left leg in front of you. Bend your right knee, placing the sole of your right foot on the inside of your left thigh.
- Bend your left leg, keep your back straight, and bend your left knee if necessary. Hold for 30 seconds, then switch legs.
3. Hamstring Stretch: Forward Bend
This exercise is good for stretching both the hamstrings and tight shoulders.
- Stand with your feet shoulder-width apart. Interlace your hands behind your back.
- Keeping your legs straight, bend them at the hips. Press your chin and raise your arms above your head.
- Relax the back of your neck. If the stretch is too intense, relax your hands by placing them on your thighs' backs and your knees.
- Hold for 30 seconds and slowly rise to the starting position.
4. Hamstring Stretch: Scissors
This hamstring stretch is excellent if you're overextended.
- Stand up with your feet together. Step your right foot back about 20 centimeters and lean forward from the hip joint, keeping your back and both legs straight.
- Place your hands on your shins if necessary.
- After holding for 30 seconds, switch sides.
5. Hamstring Stretch: Single Leg Standing Stretch
Try this variation if the last stretch isn't deep enough for you. Ideal for exercising on the bench after a run in the park.
- Place your left heel on a surface below your hips, such as a chair, step, or bench. Bend your leg.
- To increase the stretch, lean towards your bent leg, flexing your hips.
- Hold for 30 seconds and switch legs.
6. Hamstring Stretch: Seated Forward Bend
During this stretch, keep your back straight instead of rounding it towards your legs to ensure you're pulling your hamstrings and not your back muscles.
- Sit on the floor with both legs straight out in front of you, feet together.
- Tilt your torso forward towards your hips, bending your hips. Try to keep your chest straight and your back straight.
- Hold here for 30 seconds, and then slowly sit down.
7. Hamstring Stretch: Bent Over One Leg Stretch
- Lie on your back. Raise your left leg as high as possible while keeping your lower back on the floor. While holding the lower thigh, move the leg towards the head. Bend your leg to stretch your calf.
- To intensify the stretch, place a yoga strap or towel on the ball of your foot and use your hands to pull the sash toward you.
- Hold for 30 seconds, then switch legs.
8. Glute Stretch: Seated Curl
- Sit on the mat with your legs straight out in front of you.
- Bend your right knee and place your right heel as close to your left sitting bone as possible.
- Stretch your right arm behind you and rest your palm or fingertips on the floor. Place your left hand or elbow on your right knee or thigh and gently pull your knee to the left until you feel a stretch in your buttocks.
- Hold for 20-30 seconds, then repeat the stretch on the other side.
9. Glute Stretch: Cross Legs Sitting on the Floor
- Sit on a mat with your legs crossed or your feet touching each other. Raise your left leg and hook your calf in your left arm. Grasp your legs for support.
- Slowly lift your left leg until you feel a stretch in your buttocks and thighs. You can gently rock the portion from side to side to stretch different parts of the muscles.
- Hold for 30 seconds, then switch legs.
10. Stretching the gluteal muscles: lying on your back
- Lie on your back on the mat and place your right knee over your left. Pull both knees towards your chest, keeping your back and neck neutral.
- If you don't feel a stretch, lower your arms to your feet, aiming your palms at your ankles. Make sure you keep your head down.
- Hold here for 30 seconds to one minute and repeat on the opposite side.
11. Gluteus and Piriformis Stretch: Fourth Pose
This stretch targets the piriformis muscle - it's not technically part of the gluteal muscle group, but it's in the same area and tends to be tight.
- Lie on your back with both feet in the air. Place your left ankle on your right thigh just above the knee.
- Grab your left thigh with your hands and slowly pull your thigh towards your chest. You should feel a stretch on the outside of your left thigh.
- Hold for 20-30 seconds, then repeat the stretch on the other side.
12. Gluteus and Piriformis Stretch: Dove Yoga Pose
If your hips are tight, this stretch will begin to relax your glutes and the smaller muscles around the back of your thighs.
- Stand on the mat, then take your right leg back. Tilt your torso forward with your forearms on the carpet. Take your left knee out.
- Bend your elbows to increase the stretch.
- Hold for one minute, then switch legs.
13. Lower Back & Glute Stretch: Knee Hugging
Lie on your back and pull your knees towards your chest to stretch your lower back slightly.
Increase the stretch by bringing your forehead closer to your knees. Hold for 20-30 seconds.
14. Stretching the lower back and gluteal muscles: twisting lying down
- Lying on your back, stretch your arms to the sides. Bend your knees and place your right foot over your left.
- Slowly turn your knees to the right, letting them touch the floor. It's okay if your left shoulder comes off the floor. Hold for 20-30 seconds, then slowly return your knees to their original position.
- Repeat on the other side, crossing your legs, so the opposite leg is on top and twisting in the other direction.
15. Quadriceps Stretch: Lying on Your Side
- Lie on your side and raise your head with your hand.
- Pull the leg to the buttocks, grabbing it with the hand on the same side. Bend your lower knee if you find it challenging to maintain a stable posture.
- Hold for 30 seconds, then switch sides.
16. Quadriceps Stretch: Standing
- Stand on one leg with your knees touching. If you need to, hold on to a chair or wall for support.
- Grab your left leg with your left hand and pull it toward your buttocks. Do not arch your back or lean forward; Consider pursuing your glutes to ensure you feel the stretch in your quads.
- Hold for 20-30 seconds, then repeat on the opposite side.
17. Quadriceps Stretch: Kneeling Stretch on All Fours
- Start in a high lunge with your right foot forward. Then slowly lower your left knee to the floor.
- Take a few minutes to find the balance. Once you are stabilized, lift your left leg and extend your left arm back to grab onto your left toes.
- Tighten your glutes to ensure you feel the stretch in your quads.
- Hold for 30 seconds, then repeat the stretch on the opposite side.
18. Stretching the back and oblique muscles: standing side bends
- Stand with your feet shoulder-width apart and interlace your fingers above your head with your palms facing the ceiling.
- Stretch the right side of your torso, leaning to the left.
- Hold for five seconds, then repeat on the opposite side.
19. Back Stretch: Cat-Cow Pose
- Start on all fours on the floor. Ensure your knees are under your hips and your wrists are under your shoulders.
- Exhale and round your spine towards the ceiling, drawing in your buttocks and imagining that you are pulling your navel towards your spine. Press your chin to your chest and relax your neck. Hold for five to ten seconds. This is the cat pose.
- As you inhale, arch your back and relax your stomach. Gently raise your head and, at the same time, tailbone up. Hold for five to ten seconds. This is the cow pose.
- Continue moving from cat to cow pose, matching your movement with your breath.
20. Back Stretch: Baby Pose with Arm Outstretched
- Kneel on the mat and sit with your buttocks resting on your heels.
- With your knees slightly wider than hip-width apart, rest your torso on your hips and your forehead on the floor. Stretch your arms forward. Hold this position for 20-30 seconds.
- Move your arms to the left to lengthen the right side of your spine. Focus on your breath. Hold for 15-20 seconds, then repeat on the opposite side.
21. Triceps Stretch: Overhead Triceps Stretch
This arm stretch lengthens your triceps and the back of your shoulder muscles.
- Stretch your right arm above your head to stretch the right side of your body. Maintain length by bending your right elbow and bringing your fingers to the middle of your upper back.
- Grab your right elbow with your left hand and gently pull it towards your left.
- Hold for 15-20 seconds, then repeat the same on the opposite side.
22. Shoulder stretch
To stretch the back of your shoulders, try this over-the-shoulder stretch.
- Stretch your left arm across your body at chest level. Support your left hand with your right elbow.
- Use your right hand to pull your left hand closer to your chest to deepen the stretch.
- Hold this stretch for 20 seconds, then repeat on the opposite side.
23. Shoulder Stretch: Baby Pose Against a Wall
- Get on your knees in front of a wall. If your knees are uncomfortable, kneel on a rolled-up blanket or towel. Spread your knees slightly wider than your hips.
- Stretch your arms above your head and place your palms on the wall.
- Let gravity pull your torso towards the floor. It's okay if your head also rests on the wall. If you don't feel any stretch in your shoulders and neck, move your knees further away from the wall.
- Breathe deeply for 30 seconds, then relax.
24. Shoulder and Chest Stretch
- Start the exercise by sitting on your heels. Lean back and place your palms on the floor about 20 to 25 centimeters behind you with your fingertips pointing out to the side.
- Press your hands firmly into the ground to lift your chest high, arch your back, and rest your hips on your heels. Lower your head behind you to deepen the stretch, further stretching your neck and the front of your chest. Hold for 30 seconds.
- To deepen this stretch and target one shoulder at a time, lift one arm into the air for 30 seconds, then repeat on the other side.
25. Stretching the pectoral muscles: opening the chest
- Stand up, feet shoulder-width apart. Interlock your arms behind your back and squeeze your shoulder blades together to stretch your chest.
- Move your arms slightly to one side and then to the other to stretch each side separately.
- Hold for 20-30 seconds.
26. Neck and Shoulder Stretch
- Start in Child Pose with your shins and forehead on the floor. Stay in this position for a few breaths as you work to lengthen your spine by relaxing your chest and hips.
- When you're ready, clasp your hands behind your back into a double fist. If you can, squeeze your palms together to increase the stretch of your shoulders. Then raise your arms as high as you can.
- Inhale to shift your weight forward and lift your hips off your heels. Stop at the top of your head and stretch your arms as close to the floor as possible.
- Hold for 10 seconds, then lower your hips to your heels.
27. Neck stretch: sitting cross-legged
You can do this gentle neck stretch while standing.
- Sit cross-legged on the floor or a chair with your feet flat on the floor.
- Stretch your right arm next to your right knee or along the right side of the chair. Place your left hand on top of your head and slowly tilt your head to the left. Apply light pressure with your hand to intensify the stretch.
- To feel a deeper stretch, hold on to your right knee or chair seat. This stabilizes the torso and allows you to isolate the time on the side of the neck.
- Hold for 30 seconds. Slowly raise your head and repeat on the other side.
28. Neck stretch: arms behind back
- Stand with your feet hip-distance apart, arms at your sides. Put both hands behind your back, and hold on to your left wrist with your right hand.
- With your right hand, gently straighten your left arm and pull it slightly to the right. Slowly lower your right ear towards your shoulder.
- Hold for 30 seconds, then repeat on the opposite side.
29. Neck and Upper Back Stretch: Seated - Hands Behind Head
- Sit comfortably in a chair or on the floor.
- Clasp your hands and bring both palms to the back of your head. Sitting with a straight spine, firmly press your hips to the floor.
- From this pose, gently press your hands to your hips, pressing your chin to your chest. Pressing down, use your palms to move your head away from your shoulders. This will further enhance the stretch.
- Hold for 30 seconds.
30. IT-Band stretch: crossed legs with twist
- Start in a cross-legged stance, right over left, toes pointing forward. Bend forward at the hips to reach the hands to the floor, bending the knees if necessary.
- Rotate your upper body to the right by extending your right arm. Hold for 10 seconds.
- Place your right hand on the floor, and then repeat the twist to the left, raising your left hand toward the ceiling. Place your right hand on the floor, and then repeat the twist to the left, raising your left hand toward the top. Hold for 10 seconds.
- Then repeat, crossing your left leg in front.
31. Hip Flexor Stretch: Runner Lunge
You can do this stretch alone or alternate it with the next hip flexor stretch.
- From a standing position, step your left foot back into a lunge. Place your hands just above your right knee for support.
- Stretch your left heel to stretch the front of your left thigh.
- Hold this position for 20-30 seconds, then repeat on the opposite side.
32. Hip Flexor Stretch: Lunge with Stretch and Twist
- From a runner's lunge, place your right hand outside your right foot. Stretch your left arm toward the ceiling, increasing the stretch on the left side of your body. Hold for 10-15 seconds.
- Then place your left hand on the inside of your right foot. Turn to the right and reach the ceiling with your right hand. Hold this position for 10-15 seconds.
- Repeat this sequence on the other side.
33. Roller Hip Flexor Stretch: Psoas
This passive relaxing stretch lengthens the psoas, one of the deep hip flexors.
- Place the roller perpendicular to your spine and lie on the roller with your sacrum (the back of your pelvis) instead of your spine.
- Pull your left knee towards your chest while keeping your right heel on the ground. You should feel a stretch in the front of your right thigh.
- To intensify the stretch, extend your right arm above your head and slightly move your left knee to the left.
- Hold for 30 seconds, then switch legs. Repeat as needed.
34. Inner thigh stretch: legs apart
- While sitting, spread your legs as wide as necessary to feel the stretch in your inner thighs. If you are very tense, try sitting on a pillow or try stretching one leg at a time.
- To intensify the stretch, walk your arms forward, keeping your back straight, leaning forward from your hips. Hold for 20-30 seconds.
- Then round your back, bringing your head closer to the floor; hold for 20 to 30 seconds.
35. Stretching the inner surface of the thigh: against the wall - legs apart
Targeting the inner thighs, this deep passive stretch is excellent after a long, hard workout.
- Lie on your back as close to the wall as possible.
- Raise your legs, resting your heels on the wall. Spread your legs and slide them down the wall to the floor.
- Hold this position for two to three minutes or longer if needed.
- When you're ready to come out of the stretch, slide your legs together. Pull your knees up to your chest and roll onto your side into a fetal position. Hold this position for a few breaths. Then roll onto your knees and stand up.
36. Calf stretch: Calf stretch against the wall
- Stand a little less than arm's length from the wall.
- Take a step forward with your left foot and step back with your right foot, keeping your feet parallel.
- Bend your left knee and press down on your right heel. Change position as needed to ensure you can feel the stretch in your right calf.
- Hold for 20-30 seconds, then repeat on the opposite side.
37. Calf Stretch: Downward Dog Pose
- Start in plank pose with your hands under your shoulders, then lift your pelvis, forming a "V" with your body. If necessary, move your feet to your hands.
- Work on pressing your heels into the ground to stretch your calves.
- To increase the stretch, try to "pedal" slightly by pressing down on one heel and bending the other leg (as shown in the photo above). Hold for a few seconds on each leg, then switch.
- Do this for 30 seconds.
38. Calf stretch: seated calf stretch with belt
- Sit on the floor with your left leg extended and your right leg bent, placing your right foot inside your left thigh.
- Wrap a yoga strap, band, or strap around the ball of your left foot. Use the belt to pull your toes up towards your head.
- Hold for 20-30 seconds, then repeat on the opposite side.
39. Calf Stretch: Wall Sock
- Find a wall and stand at a distance of 5 centimeters. Step one foot to the wall, placing your toes and heel on the floor.
- Hold for 10-15 seconds, then repeat on the opposite side.
- You can also do this stretch using a curb or step with your heels hanging over a ledge.
40. Calf and Shoulder Stretch: Standing against a wall, chest and calf stretch
This stretch is a great multitasking stretch that will open up your shoulders and calves.
- Stand in front of a wall, feet shoulder-width apart. Place your hands on the wall shoulder-width apart.
- Shift your weight onto your heels without blocking your knees, so your toes are off the ground. Pull your hips back as far as you can, lengthening your spine. Slightly lift the
- Lift your chin slightly to feel a deep stretch at the back of your neck.
- Hold for 30 seconds.