50 interesting and fun facts about Russia that you probably didn't know
Russia is a country that impresses with its massive size and culture. At the same time, Russians are kind and nice people who are glad to welcome every guest. This country is associated with forests and mountains, clear lakes and endless rivers, diverse flora and fauna. It is here that people of different nationalities live, respecting the culture and customs of the locals. Next, we suggest reading more interesting and amazing facts about Russia and Russians. The country is made up of people, not the government.
1. Russia is the largest country in the world, with an area of more than 17 million km2, so its length from east to west covers 10 time zones at once.
2. The Russian Federation includes 21 national republics, which occupy 21% of the territory of Russia.
3. Throughout the world, Russia is considered a European country, but at the same time, 2/3 of its territory is in Asia.
4. Russia is separated from the USA by only 4 km, which separates the Russian island of Ratmanov and the American island of Kruzenshtern.
5. The area of frosty Siberia is 9.7 million km2, which is as much as 9% of the land mass of planet Earth.
6. Forests occupy most of the Russian territory and make up as much as 60% of the area of Russia. Russia is also rich in water resources, which include 3 million lakes and 2.5 million rivers.
7. The lake in Russia, which is located on the territory of the Valdai National Park, is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. It is said that the water in this lake is healing and holy.
8. In Russia, Swan Lake is not only the name of the ballet, but also the place in the Altai Territory, where about 300 swans and 2000 ducks arrive for wintering in November.
9. In Russia, mother nature is honored, therefore, 4% of the country's area is occupied by nature reserves.
10. Russia is the only state in the whole world whose territory is washed by 12 seas at once.
11. Russia is home to the largest active volcano in the world, Klyuchevskaya Sopka, which is 4.85 km high and has been erupting regularly for 7,000 years.
12. The climate in Russia is very diverse, and if in Sochi in winter the usual air temperature is +5°C, then in the settlement of Yakutia it can reach -55°C at the same time.
13. The record low air temperature was recorded in 1924 in the Russian city of Oymyakon, and it amounted to as much as -71 ° C.
14. The first place in the world in gas and oil production, as well as in the export of aluminum, steel and nitrogen fertilizers, is awarded to the Russian Federation.
15. The capital of Russia, Moscow, is one of the most densely populated cities in the world, with 11 million people living there, according to official figures.
16. In terms of population, Russia ranks 7th in the world and has 145 million people, with Russians in Russia making up 75% of the population.
17. Moscow is one of the richest and most expensive cities in the world, and the level of wages in this city differs from the level of wages in other Russian cities by 3, and occasionally 33 times.
18. In Russia there is one amazing city - Suzdal, on an area of is 15 km2 10,000 people live, and which is amazing in that there are as many as 53 temples, majestic in their beauty and decoration.
19. The Russian city of Yekaterinburg in 2002, according to the UNESCO rating, was included in the list of 12 most ideal cities for living in the world.
20. One of the oldest cities in the world where people still live in Russia is the Dagestan city of Derbent.
21. If you add together the territory of the Netherlands and Belgium, then their area will be equal to the area of the Tambov region.
22. The Russian Federation is considered the successor of the Roman Empire, because the double-headed eagle depicted on its coat of arms symbolizes the Byzantine idea of harmonious interaction between the power of church and state.
23. Russia is rich in its secrets. For example, there are more than 15 cities there that are hidden from everyone, because they are neither on maps, nor on road signs, but nowhere at all, and, of course, foreigners are strictly forbidden to enter there.
24. The Moscow metro is the most punctual metro in the world, because the intervals between trains during rush hour are only 1.5 minutes.
25. The deepest metro in the world is located in the cultural capital of the Russian Federation - St. Petersburg, and its depth is as much as 100 meters.
26. The Russian metro was the safest place during the air raids of World War II, and 150 people were born there during the bombing.
27. St. Petersburg is not just called the cultural capital of Russia, it's just that in this city there are 2000 libraries, 45 art galleries, 221 museums, about 80 theaters and the same number of clubs and palaces of culture.
28. Peterhof is one of the most amazing palace and park complexes in the world, because in addition to luxurious palaces, it has a huge number of fountains, of which there are 176 pieces, of which 40 fountains are truly gigantic.
29. They say that Venice is a city of bridges, but no matter how, because there are three times as many bridges in St. Petersburg.
30. Russia has the longest railway line - the Trans-Siberian Railway, connecting Moscow and Vladivostok. The length of this route is 9298 km, and during the trip it is possible to pass 8 time zones, 87 cities and 16 rivers.
31. Russia also has the largest freshwater lake in the world - Baikal, with a volume of as much as 23 km3. To imagine its greatness, it is enough to think about the fact that the 12 largest rivers in the world have to flow for a whole year in order to fill Baikal.
32. The most ancient, and therefore the most majestic mountains in the world are the Urals. For example, Mount Pencil, which is part of the Ural Mountains complex, arose more than 4 billion years ago.
33. One of the strangest mountains in the world is the Russian mountain Magnetic, located under the city of Magnitogorsk, which is almost entirely made of iron.
34. In Russia, there is the largest, densest and almost wild forest in the world - this is the Siberian taiga, half of which has not even been mastered by man yet.
35. In the capital of the Russian Federation there is one fountain, which is part of the architectural group "Alexander and Natalie", from which it is not ordinary water that beats, but drinking water, which you can gladly quench your thirst on a hot summer day.
36. Located on Borovitsky Hill, the Moscow Kremlin is the largest fortress in the world, preserved since the Middle Ages, and its area covers 27.5 hectares, and the length of the walls is 2235 m.
37. The largest and oldest museum in the whole world is the Russian Hermitage Museum, which contains 3 million exhibits, and if someone wants to examine them all, devoting only one minute to each exhibit, this person will have to go to the museum, as if to work, for 25 years.
38. The Hermitage is also famous for the fact that the staff of the museum includes not only people, but also the most ordinary cats who have their own passport with a photo and earn their Whiskas money by catching rodents in the museum, preventing them from spoiling the exhibits.
39. In Russia, there is the largest library in Europe - this is the Public Library, which was founded in Moscow in 1862.
40. In the small town of Kizhi there is a church resembling a work of art, which is interesting because not a single nail was spent on its construction.
41. In Russia, there is the world's largest university building - Moscow State University, whose height, together with an exquisite spire, is 240 meters.
42. In Moscow, you can see the highest building in Europe - the Ostankino TV tower, whose height is 540 meters.
43. The world's largest bell was cast in Russia by craftsmen Ivan Motorin and his son Mikhail. This is the Tsar Bell, which is 614 cm high and weighs 202 tons.
44. The oldest Christian temple is located on the territory of the Russian Federation - this is the Tkhaba-Erdy temple, built in the VIII-IX centuries, which is located in Ingushetia.
45. Russia has one of the largest urban parks in the world - this is Izmailovsky Park, which was founded in 1931 and whose territory is now as much as 15.3 km2.
46. The largest botanical garden in Europe is again Russian. This is the botanical garden. Tsitsing, which was founded immediately after the end of the Great Patriotic War in 1945.
47. The world's largest tram network is located in St. Petersburg and is as much as 690 km.
48. The most record-breaking issue of a paper newspaper took place in May 1990, when 22 million copies of Komsomolskaya Pravda newspapers were published.
49. The frame of the world-famous New York Statue of Liberty was smelted in one of the Russian cities - Yekaterinburg.
50. Russia is a paradise for tourists with many beautiful and interesting tourist and sightseeing routes, among which the Golden and Silver Rings of Russia, as well as the Great Ural Ring, are considered the best.
Despite the fact that foxes do not live with humans, they do not need special introduction. Thanks to folklore, children already at an early age get acquainted with a small animal, which compensates for weakness with cunning, but does not miss its own, if it is possible to offend a weaker one. Of course, it is worth separating the image of the fox, formed in our imagination under the influence of children's fairy tales and cartoons, from the real lifestyle of the fox.
As one of the most famous researchers, Charles Roberts, wrote, it is always difficult for a person describing the habits of highly organized animals to resist endowing them with some human traits. The notorious fox's cunning in real life appears only when the animal leaves the chase. At this time, the fox very skillfully winds around, confusing tracks, and can disguise itself in an instant, disappearing from sight.
On the hunt, foxes are quite straightforward. They operate according to the scheme “detection of prey - lightning attack - end of the hunt”. On average, foxes range in size from half a meter to a meter in length. The tail, which is approximately two-thirds of the body length, is counted separately. The maximum weight of foxes is 10 - 11 kg, while it is subject to significant seasonal fluctuations. Foxes are by no means exclusively forest dwellers. Rather, even, they can be conditionally attributed to the inhabitants of the forest-steppe and woodlands - it is in these natural zones that fox food lives and grows.
Geographically, foxes are found almost everywhere in the Northern Hemisphere, with the exception of extreme climates. In the Southern Hemisphere, foxes live only in Australia, where humans have successfully introduced them. However, the success of fox breeding in Australia is relative - they were turned on, desperate to cope with rabbits, but foxes, finding themselves on the smallest continent, preferred to hunt smaller fauna. The rabbits, to the desperation of the farmers, successfully continued to breed. Bemorepanda presents you some interesting facts.
1. Despite their small size, foxes are rarely hunted by larger animals. Of course, a wolf, bear, lynx or wolverine will not refuse the opportunity to catch a gaping fox. However, such a chance appears very rarely - foxes are attentive and fast. Purposefully, they practically do not hunt adult foxes. Young animals are in great danger. Even birds of prey hunt on it, not without success.
Taking into account the human factor - and the hunters, if possible, knock out foxes by the thousands - the average life span of a fox does not exceed three years. At the same time, foxes do not die at all because of the exhaustion of the body's resources - in captivity, cases were recorded when foxes lived for 20 - 25 years.
2. Foxes are practically not afraid of humans, so they are well studied and take root in captivity, allowing people to breed new subspecies. People living in rural areas naturally do not like foxes - red-haired beauties often destroy birds and small livestock. However, zoologists argue that the damage from foxes is often exaggerated.
3. English "Fox Hunting" fun did not come about because the villagers lacked entertainment. England is so densely populated that the last wolf was killed at the beginning of the 16th century. The disappearance of wolves has led to an unprecedented breeding of foxes, who have lost their last natural enemy. The consequences for the farmers were clear. Angry peasants began to organize massive fox hunts. They managed to kill some animals, but the noise raised by the crowd of “hunters” was more important.
The first mention of such a hunt dates back to 1534. The technology turned out to be more than successful - by 1600, specially bred dogs were required to hunt foxes. At the same time, economic processes were going on in England, which led to the deprivation of the peasants of free non-agricultural land, and fox hunting became the property of the nobility. It turned into a whole ritual with lush ladies' toilets, old-fashioned hunter's costumes, etc. At the beginning of the 21st century, after a short debate, the British Parliament banned fox hunting with the help of a pack of more than 3 dogs. One vote in the House of Commons was enough to abolish the age-old tradition.
4. There is a hunt for foxes without the death of these animals. This is still the unofficial name for sports radio direction-finding competitions. The role of foxes is performed by constantly working transmitters hidden in rough terrain. Athletes are armed with receivers. Their task is to find all transmitters in the shortest possible time (usually there are 5 of them). Fox hunting competitions were very popular during the Cold War.
The essence of the competition is very close to counterintelligence work to identify and eliminate intelligence channels of communication. Therefore, state structures, primarily the military and counterintelligence, supported the athletes in every possible way. The end of the Cold War and the rapid development of information technology devalued "fox hunting", and now only enthusiasts are engaged in this sport.
5. The caution and quickness of foxes forced hunters to invent several methods of hunting these animals. The fox is lured with a bait. The carcass of an animal or a large piece of meat is left in a well-shot place, and the hunters hide nearby. The fox is lured with decoys, and in recent years, two-module electronic decoys have gained popularity.
In them, the control path is in the hands of the hunter, and the luring sounds are emitted by an external loudspeaker. This design allows you to take the fox to a place convenient for shooting. Large companies of hunters practice hunting with a salary, with flags. Hunting dogs are used, both hounds and greyhounds, chasing foxes in the field (greyhounds also strangle fugitives themselves) and burrowing dogs, driving the fox out of the hole.
6. Despite the fact that fox hunting is popular wherever these animals are found, even the most successful hungry hunter will not be able to feast on fox meat in Russia. The fox is a very active predator, so there is practically no fat in the fox meat. This makes it extremely tough, fox meat is much tougher than the meat of other predators.
The refreshed carcass emits a very unpleasant odor, which is weakened, but does not completely disappear even after 12 hours of soaking in vinegar and salt. Finally, the rodents that make up the fox's diet are packed with parasites. Foxes have developed a very powerful immunity that humans do not have. Therefore, the meat must be subjected to long heat treatment. When boiling, the unpleasant odor reappears, so the only way to cook fox is stewing with a lot of seasonings and spices. The Scandinavians, striking everyone with their surstroemming - pickled herring - distinguished themselves here too. In Sweden and Denmark, foxes are raised for meat on special farms and even some of the products are exported. At retail, fox meat costs about 15 euros per kilogram.
7. Around the middle of the 20th century, foxes began to be bred and domesticated as pets. On a scientific basis, Dmitry Belyaev's group in Novosibirsk worked on this. A careful selection of the most intelligent and affectionate individuals gave results only after many years. D. Belyaev became an academician, a nice monument was erected to him and one of his pupils in the Novosibirsk town - the scientist and the fox sit on a bench, stretching out their hands to each other. But even many years of efforts did not lead to the development of a new breed. Scientists who continue to work on improving the behavioral qualities of foxes refer to their pets as “population” only. That is, it is just a large group of individuals living in a limited area.
8. Unscrupulous “breeders” of foxes have long managed to instill in cheating buyers the idea that a fox is the same dog, only a cat. In a sense, the animal is very loyal to the owner and, at the same time, cleanly and independently. And if the animal does not behave the way the owner wants, then this is the owner's problem. Only with the development of mass communications did the hapless fox breeders manage to share with the world the delights of keeping a fox as a pet. The character of the fox does not depend on the place of purchase, whether it is a special nursery, a reseller, or even the side of the road on which a potential pet was hit by a car.
Regardless of whether you got a rather extravagant pet for free, or you paid 10 or 80 thousand rubles for it, it will have extremely unpleasant behavioral features. He will shit anywhere; gnaw and dig wherever possible; make noise at night and stink around the clock. It is the smell that is the most serious negative property of the fox. It can be somehow accustomed to the tray (the contents of which will have to be changed at least twice a day), but the fox will never get rid of the habit of secreting the secret of the paranoid glands, which is unpleasant and painful in the eyes, with any strong emotion from love to fear. Therefore, keeping a fox pet is best in a spacious enclosure in a private house, but not in an apartment. But in any case, you need to take care of rubber gloves and strong detergents in commercial quantities.
9. Foxes adapt to almost any environment. There is little animal food - foxes easily switch to vegetable food, without suffering from this at all. It gets colder - we grow, to the delight of hunters, a thick undercoat. It gets warmer - the undercoat falls out, and the fox looks like a sick puppy. Even the color of foxes' fur depends solely on the environmental conditions.
If there are many predators in the habitat, foxes dig deep holes with branched passages and a dozen, or even more, exits. Such holes in area can reach 70 square meters. m. There are relatively few predators - and the hole will be short and shallow, and two or three emergency exits will be enough. In cold regions, the main entrance of the burrow faces south, in warm and hot regions - to the north, and in deserts and steppes - to where the winds blow less often.
10. "Fox hole" for some reason is called a type of residential buildings, similar to a hole, except for the location of the entrance on the slope. Modern "fox holes", projects of which are proposed by many construction companies, may not go deep into the ground at all - they are just structures, the walls of which are heaped with earth. Human "fox holes" have both advantages and disadvantages, but they have nothing to do with foxes, except for the name.
11. The tightening of hunting rules and environmental legislation everywhere leads to the fact that foxes are gradually approaching human habitation. It is much easier to find food near people than in the wild, than foxes enjoy and enjoy. On the territory of the countries of the former USSR, by and large, only residents of villages and small settlements located near forests suffer from them. It is impossible to fight thieves who destroy small animals. The law expressly prohibits shooting within populated areas only at rabid animals. To do this, you need to confirm the disease, which cannot be done without killing the fox - a vicious circle.
In Europe, foxes are firmly established in the largest cities. According to estimates of epidemiologists, about 10,000 foxes live in London. 86% of the townspeople have a positive attitude to the red-haired robbers who fight with dogs and cats, gut garbage bags, and shit wherever they have to. Humans, it turns out, feel guilty about animals that have been bullied for hundreds of years. In Birmingham, foxes became such a disaster that a special team had to be created to capture them.
The team did a great job, catching a hundred animals. They were taken to the nearest forest and released - it is inhumane to kill. The foxes returned back to the city (and it's good if they didn't bring friends and girlfriends with them) and continued their dirty deeds. The careless attitude of the townspeople towards foxes is surprising - foxes endure the most terrible infections, including rabies.
12. The sea fox is a stingray of a sizeable size (up to 1.2 meters in length). It lives off the coast of Europe, including the Black and Azov Seas, and along the entire Atlantic coast of Africa. Fox sharks can also be found in the water column. These are three species of predators, ranging in size from 3 to 6 meters. In theory, fox sharks are considered shy and not dangerous to humans. Flying foxes also belong to foxes solely by name. These are the largest fruit bats in the world, until recently they were combined with bats. The body of a flying fox reaches a length of 40 cm, and a wingspan of one and a half meters.
13. The English word “fox” - “fox” has nothing to do with the familiar phrase “Fox is the 20th century film company”. “Fox” in this case is the surname of an enterprising Hungarian whose name was either Wilhelm Fuchs, or even Vilmos Fried. Having arrived in the USA, the Hungarian changed his name for the sake of euphony and founded a film company. In 1930, the company was taken away from him during a hostile takeover. Fox - Fuchs - Freed fought but lost. From him the film company remained, as the song says, only the name.
14. "Desert Fox" - German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, who in 1940-1943 successfully commanded German troops in North Africa. However, Rommel did not use any special cunning in the command. Like all successful German military leaders of World War II, he knew how to concentrate forces on a narrow sector of the front and break through enemy defenses. When there was nothing to concentrate, "Desert Fox" abandoned troops in Africa and went to Hitler to ask for reinforcements.
15. “Fox's tail and a wolf's mouth” - this is how some jokingly and some shaking with fear called the policy of General Mikhail Loris-Melikov in Russia at the end of the 19th century. Under Emperor Alexander II, Loris-Melikov, who became famous in the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878, was simultaneously the Minister of Internal Affairs and the head of the gendarme corps. The authority of the Ministry of Internal Affairs at that time included practically all domestic politics, from the basic sectors of the economy to the care of the weak and orphans.
In this post, Loris-Melikov had a "fox's tail" - he advocated the weakening of laws, the growth of public initiative, etc. Having moved to the office of the chief of the gendarmes, the general used the "wolf's mouth", not letting the revolutionaries go (in his understanding) ... The fox tail involuntarily outplayed the wolf's mouth - on March 1, 1881, Emperor Alexander II was killed, and one of the captured terrorists said that their leader had been arrested before the assassination attempt, but Loris-Melikov's charges did not receive any evidence from him about the impending assassination attempt.
16. Foxes are firmly included in the mythology of dozens of peoples, and their influence on a person can be exactly the opposite, regardless of the place of residence of the peoples. Koreans, Chinese, and Japanese compete in the degree of fear experienced by foxes. The transformation of an animal into a seductive woman with the subsequent torture of the victim through pleasures is not yet the most terrible outcome that lies in wait for a Far Eastern man. Kitsune (in Japanese "fox") spread the life of those to whom they came in the form of a beauty, to smithereens - they ruin merchants or drive rulers into disgrace. It is difficult to imagine what they did in medieval Japan with the men to whom Kitsune appeared in the form of a handsome young guy.
At the same time, in India, the North American Indians and a number of European peoples, the fox symbolizes prosperity, good luck or wealth. Christians already at an early stage identified the fox as Satan's accomplices - beautiful, wagging its tail, and even wool the color of hellfire. Nevertheless, some peoples, including the Slavic, have retained a negative but complacent attitude towards the fox. “We know, the fox, about your miracles”, “And the fox is cunning, and they sell its skin”, “The fox takes care of, the cat curls up to it” - these proverbs clearly indicate that people have long imagined the nature of the red predator.
17. Employee of the Voronezh Zoo Tatiana Sapelnikova told a very interesting case. Zoo workers had to determine the concentration of small animals such as mice in one of the forest areas. During a routine procedure, zoo workers set traps for mice. However, the work of scientists was greatly hampered by the foxes living in the district. For several years, zoologists set up identical traps, and the number of mice caught in them determined the size of the population.
However, over time, the tracks showed that someone was reducing the number of mice trapped in the trap by carefully removing them and eating them nearby. Zoologists realized that the fox is no longer guided by mice, but by the smell of people setting traps. After a short game of "catch me" they managed to lure the fox - the zoologists originally nicknamed him Ginger - into a kind of aviary. The fox was absolutely not worried about bondage. When the scientists managed to carry out the necessary experiment with mice, Ryzhik was released. He did not run far, and even two chanterelles appeared nearby. They themselves did not figure out how to find the mice and take them out of the traps, but they unmistakably appreciated the extraordinary abilities of the future groom.
Ukraine's eighth day of war has been difficult but optimistic, said President Zelensky's adviser Aleksey Arestovich last night. Near Nikolaev, the invaders were bombed from Grads facilities. In Kherson, the Ukrainian Armed Forces destroyed about 1,000 assailants, 20 helicopters, 200 cars. In Gostomel, two street fights took place, Ukrainian defenders destroyed a concentration of troops.
Bemorepanda collected 10 videos that are showing the reality behind the situation in Ukraine.
Russian troops arrived in the center of the Ukrainian port of Kherson on Thursday, the first major accomplishment of the invasion launched last Thursday, and in the capital Kyiv and other big cities, the occupation forces continued the destructive bombing, without significant troop movements, probably due to logistical problems. . A Ukrainian delegation has left for a second round of talks with Russian ceasefire officials. A fire broke out on Friday morning at the Zaporizhia nuclear power plant, the largest of its kind in Europe, after a bombardment by Russian troops, causing concern around the world.
The United Nations says one million people have fled their homes in Ukraine to Poland and other neighboring countries.
The United Nations has overwhelmingly voted in favor of a resolution condemning Russia's invasion of Ukraine and calling for the immediate withdrawal of its forces, in a global expression of outrage that has highlighted Russia's growing isolation.
At an emergency session of the UN General Assembly, 141 of the 193 member states voted in favor of the resolution, 35 abstained and five voted against.
The only countries that voted in favor of Moscow were Belarus, North Korea, Eritrea and Syria.
Russia's longtime allies, Cuba and Venezuela have joined China in refraining.
It is the first time in the last 40 years that the Security Council has sent the General Assembly to discuss a crisis and the 11th emergency session since 1950 and so far, writes The Guardian.
The General Assembly was convened after the Security Council, due to the lack of unanimity of the permanent members, failed to exercise its main function of acting appropriately for the maintenance of international peace and security.
"It will not stop the Russian forces in their tracks, but it is a big diplomatic victory for the Ukrainians and the United States and for all those who supported them," said Richard Gowan, UN director at the International Crisis Group.
The Russians have captured the southern Ukrainian city of Kherson, while the International Court of Justice has opened an investigation into the allegations of genocide and will hold public hearings starting next week. Kyiv resists the siege of Russian troops, and the city of Mariupol is surrounded. One million Ukrainians have left the country since the beginning of the invasion, and Russia has changed its military strategy and is pursuing the slow annihilation of the Ukrainian army.
About 150 public radio stations in Europe will broadcast the song "Give Peace a Chance" on Friday at 07:45 GMT, the European Radio and Television Union (EBU) announced.
The famous song, composed by John Lennon, will be heard in more than 25 countries, including Ukraine, and private radio stations can join the initiative, according to EBU.
Ukrainian authorities say Russian bombings in the city of Toretsk (Donetsk region) have hit a gas pipeline, leaving more than 15,000 people without heat. 400 homes, 8 schools, 9 kindergartens and 10 hospitals are affected, according to the Emergency Service
women, a lot of children, people who want to escape the horror of war. In the city, since 4 in the morning, anti-aircraft sirens sounded, a sound that is heard more and more often in the city. Many people have nowhere to flee and are trying to find a safe place.
Inside the Odessa train station, the images are even more dramatic, with thousands of children fleeing the horrors of war. I don't know when they will return and if they will have a place to return.
Many Ukrainians who are at the station on Friday at noon say they want to go to Poland and look for accommodation there.
To find their loved ones alive is the greatest wish of the Ukrainians who are now fleeing, hoping that they will escape the war. It is extremely difficult for them, because they leave behind their house, their fortune, their grandparents and they pray to survive until they manage to buy a ticket back, with which to return home, to their relatives, to their homes.
Images from the Odessa train station are painful and difficult to describe in words. It is an atmosphere of deep pain and emotion. People say that they do not know what is happening to them and why they have to witness this conflict that they do not understand and they wonder when this nightmare that they are living will end.
There are a lot of simple people in Odessa who say they can't go to other cities because they don't have enough money to get safely elsewhere.
They end up playing a lottery, where the price is their own life and they pray to God to survive.
In Odessa there are also tourists, but also foreign students who came to study at the Maritime University, a prestigious university, and who want to save their lives, it is very difficult for them to keep in touch with relatives, parents, because the phone signal is very weak and frequently falls in the area.
There are a lot of armed soldiers on the streets, ready to open fire if they don't understand clearly who you are and why you are in the area. There are soldiers who want to protect their families. There are a lot of volunteers in the army, defense groups of the city, made up of simple people, who went out on the street at night with hunting weapons and who say they are not ready to give up, do not want to give up and will defend their country and each centimeter of territory.
The human brain has fascinated scientists since ancient times, as well as writers, poets, and musicians. So far no one was able to send in the perfect solution, which is not strange.
Every second, the brain collects and transmits signals to and from parts of your body. It keeps everything running, even when we sleep at night. Here you can take a quick tour of this great control center. You can see each part and later find out which parts perform different functions.
There are two types of cells in your brain: neurons and glial cells (glia - Greek word for glue). For a long time, biologists believed that neurons were the only cells that controlled our bodies, and that was where memories were stored. The glial cells were in the brain only to support the neurons, to isolate them, to feed them, and to do the basic cleansing. Recent research is beginning to show that glial cells do much more.
Read here the most interesting facts about the brain.
1. The human brain has about 80-100 billion nerve cells (neurons).
2. The left hemisphere of the human brain is 200 million richer in neurons than the right hemisphere.
3. Neurons in the human brain are very tiny. Their size reaches from 4 to 100 micrometers in width.
4. According to the research of scientists in 2014, there is more gray matter in the brain of a woman than in the brain of a man.
5. According to statistics, a large percentage of the so-called gray matter are people with a humanitarian mindset.
6. Constant physical stress can increase the amount of gray matter.
7. The components of 40% of the human brain are gray cells. They turn gray only after they die.
Bark: The wrinkled outer part of the brain is the largest part of the brain. This is also where our thinking comes from. It is also used to read this story in mathematics or in solving homework given by teachers. It is also the part of the brain that controls your voluntary muscles. These are the muscles used to press a mouse button, ride a bike, run a race, or hit a ball.
Are you using the left or right side of your brain?
Some researchers believe that the right and left sides of the cerebral cortex specialize in various activities. The right side is responsible for abstract things, such as colors, shapes, and music. The left side deals with math and speech and is the analytical part. It is also known that the right side of your brain controls the left side of your body and the left side of your brain controls the right side.
8. The brain of a living person has a bright pink hue.
9. The male brain has less gray matter but more cerebrospinal fluid and white matter.
10. White matter makes up 60% of the human brain.
11. Fat is bad for the human heart, but it is very good for the brain.
12. The average weight of the human brain is 1.3 kilograms.
13. The human brain occupies up to 3 percent of the total body mass but consumes 20% of oxygen.
14. The brain is capable of producing a large amount of energy. Even the energy of a sleeping brain can light a 25-watt light bulb.
The cerebellum: Behind the brain, the cerebellum helps you to make smooth, coordinated movements. Walking, running, writing. . . without the cerebellum, the movement would not take place properly.
Thalamus: Given the activity that takes place in the brain, there must be a switching station, and this is the function of the thalamus. This part of the brain takes the information that comes from the body and transmits it to the cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex also sends messages to the thalamus, which then transmits information to other areas of the brain and spinal cord.
Spinal cord: This is the main information bus. All information from different parts of the body moves to and from the brain through the spinal cord. It is connected to the brain through the brainstem. It is protected by the vertebral bones, which form the spine.
Hypothalamus: There is a thermostat in your house. This is the button on the wall that you can turn to warm or cool the room. The hypothalamus is your body's thermostat. When it is hot, it sends signals for your skin to sweat. If you are cold, it makes you shiver and goosebumps.
15. It has been proven that the size of the brain does not affect the mental abilities of a person, Albert Einstein had a smaller than average brain size.
16. The human brain has no nerve endings, so doctors can cut into a person's brain when he is conscious.
17. A person uses the capabilities of his brain by almost 100%.
18. The texture of the brain is very important, and the wrinkles of the brain enable it to contain more neurons.
19. Yawning cools the brain, and the absence of normal sleep raises its temperature.
20. Even a tired brain can be productive. Scientists say that in one day, on average, a person has 70,000 thoughts.
21. Information inside the brain is transmitted at high speed, from 1.5 to 440 kilometers per hour.
22. The human brain can process and scan the most complex images.
Hippocampus: Deep in your brain, the hippocampus works with the cerebral cortex to create memories. From five minutes ago to five years ago, the hippocampus helps you remember everything that has happened in your life. The hippocampus helps you remember how to navigate and how to navigate the environment, depending on how you've traveled in the past.
Callus Body: The callus body connects the right side of the brain to the left side. It allows the two parts of the brain to communicate with each other.
Pituitary gland: This small part of the brain is the size of a pea. It is the smallest part of the brain and one that controls when and how fast we grow. It releases special hormones that help you grow. He also works at puberty.
Brainstem: The brainstem connects three areas of the brain. These parts are the spinal bulb, Varolio's bridge, and the midbrain. The brainstem is located below the cerebellum and connects the brain to the spinal cord. It makes all the muscles work involuntarily. These are the muscles that you do not consciously control, such as the muscles that make your heartbeat. Together, these three parts of the brain keep us alive by controlling our breathing, digestion, and blood circulation.
23. Previously, it was believed that the human brain is fully formed already in the first years of life, but in fact, adolescents undergo changes in the cerebral cortex, which are responsible for emotional processing and impulse control.
24. Doctors say that brain development continues until the age of 25.
25. The human brain takes seasickness for a hallucination caused by poison, so the body turns on a defensive reaction in the form of vomiting impulses to get rid of the poison.
26. Archaeologists from Florida at the bottom of the pond found an ancient cemetery, some turtles had parts of the brain tissue.
27. The brain perceives the movements of annoying people slower than they are.
28. In 1950, the scientist found the pleasure center of the brain, and acted with electricity on this part of the brain, as a result, he imitated a half-hour orgasm to a woman using this method.
29. In the human stomach there is a so-called second brain, it has control over mood and appetite.
30. When you refuse something, the same parts of the brain work as with physical pain.
31. Obscene words are processed by a separate part of the brain, and they reduce pain.
32. It has been proven that the human brain can draw monsters for itself when a person looks in the mirror.
33. Human brain burns 20% of calories.
34. If you pour warm water into the ear, then his eyes will move towards the ear, if you pour cold water, then, on the contrary, I use this method to check the functioning of the brain.
35. Scientists have proven that not understanding sarcasm is considered a sign of brain disease, and the perception of sarcasm helps in solving problems.
36. A person sometimes does not remember why he entered the room, this is because the brain creates a “border of events”.
37. When a person tells someone that he wants to achieve some goal, this satisfies his brain as if he had already achieved this goal.
38. The human brain has a negative bias, because of it a person wants to find bad news.
39. The amygdala is part of the brain, its function is to control fear, if you remove it, you can lose the feeling of fear.
40. During rapid eye movement, the human brain does not process information.
41. Modern medicine has almost learned to do brain transplant operations, this was practiced on primates.
42. Phone numbers have seven digits for a reason, as this is the longest sequence that the average person can remember.
43. To create a computer with the same parameters as the human brain, it will have to perform 3800 operations in one second and store 3587 terabytes of information.
44. There are “mirror neurons” in the human brain, they encourage a person to repeat after others.
45. The inability of the brain to correctly assess the upcoming situation causes a lack of sleep.
46. Obulomania is a brain disorder that causes a person to have a constant feeling of indecision.
47. In 1989, a healthy child was born, even though his mother's brain completely died, and the body was artificially supported during childbirth.
48. The reaction of the brain in mathematics lessons and scary situations is identical, which means that mathematics is a great fear for those who do not understand it.
49. The most rapid development of the brain occurs in the range of 2 to 11 years.
50. Constant prayer reduces the frequency of breathing and normalizes the wave vibrations of the brain, stimulating the process of self-healing, because believers go to the doctor 36% less.
One of the most famous among the oldest civilizations is the Mayan tribe. Until now, scientists in questions of the existence of the Maya civilization have left for themselves a lot of unknown. The researchers managed to determine that the Mayan civilization appeared in the 1st millennium BC. Their legacy lies in unusual writing and beautiful architectural structures, in advanced mathematics and astronomy, in art objects and in the famous incredibly accurate calendar.
Despite the huge amount of unknown facts, the most secret for historians was the question of what led to the fall of the highly developed Mayan civilization. At the same time, the first prerequisites for such a decay, according to scientists, appeared around the 9th century AD. Not only the decline of the Mayan civilization, but also many other mysterious moments from the life of this tribe to this day haunt scientists. The last place where such tribes were recorded was the north of Guatemala. Only archaeological excavations tell about the history and culture of the Maya.
1. Many people mistakenly assume that the Mayan tribe is extinct and the entire civilization is in the past, but this is not so. Maya to this day live in North America. Their number has decreased and today amounts to about 6 million.
2. The Maya never predicted the end of the world. This people had not 1, but 3 calendars. Each of them was not a harbinger of the apocalypse. The point was that the cycle of the longest Mayan calendar could reset to zero approximately every 2,880,000 days. One of these updates was planned for 2012.
3. The huge Mayan tribe lived in the vast territory of present-day Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize, in the west of Honduras and El Salvador. The development center of such a civilization was in the North.
4. Apart from the Babylonian systems, the Maya were the first to use the number "0". Indian mathematicians later began to use zero as a mathematical value in calculations.
5. Some linguists managed to prove that the word "shark" came to us from the language of the Mayan tribe.
6. The pre-Colombian Maya wanted to "improve" the physical characteristics of their own children. For this, mothers tied the boards to the child's forehead so that over time the forehead became flat.
7. Aristocrats from the Mayan tribes were hunchbacked, and their teeth were inlaid with jade.
8. In the ancient Maya tribes, all children were named according to the day they were born.
9. Some members of the Maya tribe to this day practice bloody sacrifices. Fortunately, chickens are now being sacrificed, not people.
10. All major cities of the Mayan civilization had stadiums. Their type of "football" involved decapitation. In this case, the team of losers was the victim. The severed heads, as historians suggest, were used as balls. The modern version of this game is called "ulama", but decapitation is no longer used.
11. Like the Aztecs, the Maya never used steel or iron in their construction. Their main weapon was obsidian or volcanic rocks.
12. They could create incredible constructions with geometric precision. Smooth corners and walls coupled with perfect computation is something that is difficult to achieve now. But in the Mayan civilization there were many such structures.
13. The main dish of the Maya in the diet was corn, and therefore it is not surprising that, according to Mayan mythology, the creator god Hunab created mankind precisely from the cob of corn.
14. The Maya played football, but their game was to use a rubber ball. It had to be hammered into a round hoop.
15. Baths and saunas played a large role in the Mayan civilization. This tribe believed that with the release of sweat, they got rid of not only dirt, but also from perfect sins.
16. Archaeologists have been able to find evidence that the Mayan tribes used human hair to sew up a wound. Representatives of this civilization treated unsurpassed not only bone fractures, but were also considered skilled dentists.
17. In the Maya tribe, prisoners, slaves, and other people who were to be sacrificed were painted blue and sometimes tortured. After that, they were brought to the top of one of the pyramids, where they were shot from a bow or their still beating heart was cut out from their chest. Sometimes the priests' assistants then removed the skin of the victim, which the high priest put on. Then a ritual dance was performed.
18. The Maya tribes had one of the most advanced writing systems among all the ancient civilizations. They wrote on everything that came to hand, especially on structures.
19. It was also possible to prove that the Maya used means of pain relief. So for various religious rituals, hallucinogenic drugs were used. They used them in everyday life quite widely. Such a hallucinogen was made from a specific mushroom, peyote, bindweed, and also from tobacco.
20. The Mayan pyramids were included in the list of 7 wonders of the world. Until now, many structures are hidden under a thick layer of earth, and their excavation has become difficult due to the impassability of the rainforest. Those constructions that have already been restored impress with their own extraordinary layering.
On April 22, Earth Day will be celebrated all over the world - a holiday in which it is worth thinking about the future of our planet and what we can do for a common home. This tradition originated in 1970 at the initiative of US Senator Gaylord Nelson, whose goal was to draw public attention to the problems of environmental pollution. On the eve of the holiday, we will share with you the most interesting facts about the Earth.
Earth Day was founded by US Senator Gaylord Nelson in 1970 to awaken the political class from its disinterest in the environment and was celebrated in its first year by about 20 million Americans, mostly young people. and very young. After 2 decades, in 1990, over 200 million people in 141 countries turned Earth Day into a major event in human history, by joining them in the desire to advocate for a better future for our planet, and in year 2009,
The United Nations (UN) has declared April 22 as the official holiday of planet Earth and a common expression of everyone's desire to build a stable society for a cleaner and greener future. The genesis of the Earth took place several billion years ago from a cloud of dust and gas that revolved around the sun and is the third planet from the sun with a particular constitution in the solar system.
Bemorepanda collected some interesting facts for you.
1. The core of the Earth contains so much gold, which will be enough to cover the entire surface of our planet by almost 45 centimeters.
2. The inner core of the Earth has a radius of about 1220 kilometers, which is comparable to 70% of the radius of the Moon. In addition, based on geophysical and geochemical methods, there is an assumption that the inner core of our planet is about the same temperature as the Sun.
3. Lightning strikes the earth on our planet more than 8.6 million times a day.
4. Prior to space travel, the Earth was often depicted as a green world. Science fiction writer Frank Paul is believed to be the first to depict a cloudless blue planet with well-defined land on the back of the July 1940 issue of Amazing Stories magazine.
5. Scientific evidence indicates that the Earth was formed from a solar nebula about 4.54 billion years ago. Life on the planet appeared about 4.25 billion years ago, that is, shortly after its origin.
6. The conditions for the existence of life on Earth preserve the ozone layer and the Earth's magnetic field, which weaken the solar radiation harmful to life.
7. The oceans occupy about 70.8% of the surface of our planet. Liquid water, which is essential for all known life forms, does not exist on the surface of any known planet in the solar system other than Earth.
8. The average speed of movement of lithospheric plates on Earth is approximately equal to the growth rate of nails on human hands. After 200-300 million years, hypothetically, all the continents of the planet will merge into the supercontinent Pangea Ultima.
9. The force of gravity at the poles of the Earth is greater than at the equator. A person who weighs 150.8 pounds (68.4 kg) at the North Pole will weigh 400 grams less while at the equator.
10. More than 68% of the Earth's freshwater is solid, including glaciers, snow cover and permafrost.
11. The Earth was first photographed from space in 1959 by the Explorer-6 apparatus. The first ever image of the entire Earth was captured by the orbital station Lunar Orbiter V on August 8, 1967.
12. The most massive extinction in the entire history of the Earth occurred at the end of the Permian period (298.9 ± 0.15 million years ago), when more than 90% of living things on the planet died.
13. The highest point on the Earth's surface is Mount Everest (8,848 m above sea level), and the deepest is the Mariana Trench (10,994 m below sea level).
14. The deadliest tsunami known to have occurred on 26 December 2004 in Southeast Asia was triggered by a 9.3 magnitude submarine earthquake in the Indian Ocean. The total death toll exceeded 235 thousand people.
15. The most toxic plant on Earth is the yew, a genus of small conifers. Every part of this tree is poisonous, with the exception of its berries, however, their seeds are also poisonous.
16. If all the water of the World Ocean is evenly distributed over the surface, then a layer with a thickness of more than 2.7 kilometers would be obtained. Of all the water that is on Earth, only 2.5% is fresh, the rest is salty.
17. Without the greenhouse effect, the Earth's average temperature would be between -18 and -23 ° C, given that it is actually 14.8 ° C. Without this thermal insulation effect, life on our planet most likely would not exist.
18. The atmosphere passes into interplanetary space gradually, in the exosphere, starting at an altitude of 500-1000 kilometers from the Earth's surface. By definition, the boundary between the atmosphere and space is drawn along the Karman line, located at an altitude of about 100 kilometers, above which air flights become completely impossible.
19. Human breathing becomes impossible at an altitude of 9 kilometers, although the atmosphere contains oxygen up to about 115 kilometers.
20. At an altitude of about 19-20 kilometers, the pressure of the atmosphere decreases so much that it leads to the boiling of water and interstitial fluid in the human body. Outside the pressurized cockpit at these heights, death occurs almost instantly.
21. The seas lose more water due to evaporation than they receive with precipitation, on land - vice versa. Water circulates continuously around the globe, while its total amount remains unchanged.
22. The rotation of the Earth occurs from west to east. Due to tidal acceleration, each next day is longer than the previous ones by an average of 29 nanoseconds.
23. Due to tidal synchronization, the Moon is moving away from the Earth by about 38 millimeters per year. Millions of years from now, this tiny change, as well as an increase in Earth's day of 23 microseconds per year, will result in significant changes. So, for example, in the Devonian period (about 410 million years ago) there were 400 days a year, and a day lasted 21.8 hours.
24. The largest tidal waves on Earth are observed in the Bay of Fundy in Canada and are 18 meters.
25. Earth is the only name for the planet that was not taken from Greco-Roman mythology.
26. Lake Baikal in Russia accounts for about 20% of all world reserves of fresh lake water. It is the deepest and oldest lake in the world.
27. The ice sheet in Antarctica contains about 80% of all freshwater on the planet. If it melts completely, the level of the World Ocean will rise by almost 60 meters.
28. The Earth moves around the Sun at a distance of about 150 million kilometers at a speed of almost 30 kilometers per second.
29. The driest place on earth is the Atacama Desert in Chile. In some places of this desert, rain falls once every several decades.
30. If the history of the Earth were presented in the form of a 24-hour segment, then the dinosaurs would have died out at 23:41, and human existence would begin at 23:54 and 43 seconds of the same day.