50 interesting facts about NATO and why it matters in today's Ukraine and Russian war
NATO is the organization that has dominated military relations in the 28 member states on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean for more than six decades. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is one of the world's leading international institutions. It is a political and military alliance of 28 member states in Europe and North America.
The alliance makes all decisions by consensus. Each Member State, no matter how large or small, is on an equal footing in the discussions and decisions taken. Member States are committed to respecting and promoting individual freedom, democracy, human rights and the rule of law. These values are NATO's main transatlantic bonds.
You can read the 50 interesting facts about NATO below:
1. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is one of the most important institutions in the world. NATO is a military alliance of 28 member states in Europe and North America. All decisions of the alliance are taken by consensus.
2. Each Member State has an equal position in every discussion and decision that is taken. Member States are committed to respecting individual freedoms, democracy, human rights and the rule of law. These values are extremely important in NATO's transatlantic relationship.
3. The alliance's primary responsibility is to protect and defend the territories of the Member States. Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty provides for a commitment to collective defense, and an attack on a Member State is an attack on the organization.
4. However, Article 5 was invoked only once in NATO's 67-year history on September 12, 2001, a day after the World Trade Center terrorist attacks.
5. NATO has a permanent and integrated command structure, with military personnel from all member states. The Alliance has two Strategic Leaderships, Allied Command Operations in Mons, Belgium, and Allied Command Transformation in Norfolk, USA.
6. Subordinate to these two strategic leadership are two joint command forces, based in Brunssum, the Netherlands, and in Naples, Italy, which are responsible for conducting and managing military operations.
7. The Command Structure also includes an Air Force Command Center (Ramstein, Germany), a Center for Land Forces (Izmir, Turkey) and a Navy (Northwood, UK).
8. NATO has a number of active permanent forces, which contribute to the collective defense of the Western military bloc on a permanent basis.
9. These standing forces include four navies, ready to act on the first signal. NATO also has an integrated air defense system, which maintains contact with the national air force and includes the missile shield.
10. NATO is taking part in several air missions in which Alliance fighter jets fly over the airspace of member states that do not have a military air force. NATO permanently defends the airspace of Albania, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Slovenia.
11. NATO benefits from military expertise from the 28 member states. This expertise includes tanks, submarines and fighter jets. When the alliance collectively decides to conduct a military operation, member states are called upon to place their troops and equipment under NATO command.
12. Soldiers taking part in NATO operations are collectively treated as "NATO forces", even if they represent multinational forces from bloc member states, and in some cases from partner countries or contributing troops.
13. The only military equipment that is owned by NATO is the AWACS air fleet. From 2013. NATO will operate five Global Hawk monitoring drones. The procedure for requesting troops and military equipment is called "force generation".
14. The 28 member states contribute directly and indirectly to covering the costs of NATO operations and the implementation of Alliance policies and activities.
15. But most of the contributions are indirect, through the participation of allies in NATO military operations. Member States shall cover the costs of operations whenever they agree to participate in such activities.
16. Direct contributions to NATO's common budget are made by member states according to a cost-sharing formula that takes into account national GDP. These contributions finance the costs of integrated structures, common equipment and NATO facilities.
17. In the five decades since World War II, the military alliance has successfully prevented an open conflict between the United States and Russia.
18. Under the security umbrella offered by NATO, people in European states, the United States and Canada were able to enjoy the benefits of democratic elections, the rule of law and substantial economic growth.
19. NATO relies on a combination of conventional and nuclear military capabilities to deter the aggressiveness of third countries, and these remain a key element of the Alliance's strategy.
20. Member States are also committed to controlling firearms, supporting the disarmament and non-proliferation of nuclear warheads.
21. NATO has often acted to maintain international security and peace. In 1995, the Western military alliance contributed to the end of the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the implementation of the peace agreement.
22. In 1999, NATO put an end to the massacre and expulsion of ethnic Albanians from Kosovo. NATO troops continue to operate in Kosovo under a UN mandate.
23. Since 2003, the NATO presence under the UN mandate has assured the world that Afghanistan will never be a safe haven for terrorists again.
24. In 2011, NATO acted on a UN mandate to ensure the security of Libyan citizens. Alliance ships are fighting piracy off the Somali coast and conducting counterterrorism operations in the Mediterranean.
25. Since February 2016, NATO has provided assistance to European authorities, who have had to deal with a large number of migrants.
26. NATO vessels are taking part in surveillance, monitoring and intelligence gathering operations to support international efforts to reduce illegal migration from the Aegean Sea.
27. NATO forces have repeatedly delivered humanitarian aid, including to the United States, following the devastating Hurricane Katrina and the 2005 earthquake that hit Pakistan hard.
28. It faces threats such as terrorism, piracy, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and cyber warfare, which knows no borders.
29. For this reason NATO has developed a global network of security partners, which includes 40 states around the world and international organizations: the United Nations, the European Union, the OSCE and the African Union.
30. NATO's mission in Afghanistan includes 13 partner states. Kosovo's operations are supported by eight partner states. In addition to partners involved in NATO missions and operations, the Western military bloc has developed a wide network of partnerships, including the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, the Mediterranean Dialogue Forum, the Istanbul Cooperation Initiative, and other partners around the world, including Australia, Japan and South Korea.
31. Any European state that can contribute to the security and principles of the Alliance is invited to join. However, accession depends on the decision of that state.
32. Six times, between 1952 and 2009, a number of 16 European states chose to join the alliance and became member states. This process has helped to maintain peace and stability in Europe.
33. On 19 May 2016, Member States' foreign ministers signed a protocol inviting Montenegro to join NATO. Following the signing of the protocol, Montenegrin representatives may attend allied meetings as observers.
34. After the Allies ratify the protocol, Montenegro can become a full member of NATO. Currently, three states aspire to join NATO, namely Georgia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Macedonia.
35. The allies evaluate each candidate state according to its own merits. A wide range of political, economic and security reforms must be implemented before a state can join NATO.
36. Member States consult and make decisions on a daily basis on security issues at all levels and in a variety of areas.
37. A "NATO decision" is the expression of the collective will of all 30 Member States, as all decisions are taken by consensus.
38. Hundreds of officials, as well as civilian and military experts, come daily to NATO Headquarters to exchange information, share ideas and help prepare decisions when needed, in cooperation with national delegations and NATO headquarters staff.
39. 40 non-member states work with NATO on a variety of political and security issues. These states pursue dialogue and practical cooperation with the Alliance, and many contribute to NATO-led operations and missions. NATO also cooperates with a wide network of international organizations.
40. Partner States do not have the same decision-making authority as Member States.
41. NATO has always innovated and adapted to ensure that its policies, capabilities and structures take into account current and future threats, including the collective defense of its members.
42. NATO is committed to respecting the principle that an attack on one or more of its members is considered an attack on all. This is the principle of collective defense, enshrined in Article 5 of the Washington Treaty.
43. So far, Article 5 has been invoked only once, in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11 in the United States of America in 2001.
44. NATO is an alliance of states in Europe and North America. The alliance represents a unique link between these two continents, giving them the opportunity to consult and cooperate in the field of defense and security and to carry out multinational crisis management operations together.
45. The strategic concepts specify the Alliance's core tasks and principles, its values, the evolving security environment, and the Alliance's strategic objectives for the next decade. The 2010 strategic concept defines NATO's core tasks, such as collective defense, crisis management and cooperation-based security.
46. Membership of NATO is open to "any other European State capable of developing the principles of this Treaty and contributing to the security of the North Atlantic area."
47. NATO has what the Treaty calls the Accession Action Plan. It helps aspiring members prepare for membership and meet key requirements by providing practical advice and personalized assistance.
48. NATO benefits from the capabilities and expertise of its members. This includes tanks, submarines and fighter jets. When the Alliance collectively decides to carry out an operation, it calls on the Allies to place troops and equipment under NATO command.
49. Personnel involved in a NATO operation are often collectively referred to as "NATO forces", these are strictly speaking the multinational forces of NATO member countries, and in some cases, it is the partner countries or other countries that contribute troops to these operations.
50. The only military equipment that NATO has is a fleet, AWACS (Airborne Warning and Control) aircraft. Starting in 2018, NATO will also operate five surveillance drones, called the Global Hawk. The procedure for requesting forces and equipment for an operation is often called "force generation".
Best guide ever 😂
Video is being processed...
Feel free to roam the site while you wait.
Most horrible facts you didn't know about Lukashenko, the president of Belarus
Lukashenko has already sat out Brezhnev, the longest-serving of the Soviet general secretaries, at the leading post.
The Belarusian president has already said more than once that he is "full of power”.
President Lukashenko likes to emphasize that he is called Europe's last dictator.
In one of the many - and very frank at times - interviews, he himself called himself Old Man.
Batka in Belarusian means father.
And parents, as you know, are not chosen…
1. Political scientist Valery Karbalevich, author of the book "Alexander Lukashenko. A Political Portrait", states: "Lukashenko's greatest achievement is that he managed to create a special social model - a Belarusian social model, an alternative to those transformation projects that were demonstrated by the post-Soviet countries" .
2. Despite pessimistic forecasts and statements by critics about the incapacity of such a management system in the center of modern Europe, this model has been operating for 28 years and is still working very fruitfully, Karbala Vich notes, specifying: if we evaluate not economic, but sociological indicators, the level of support for the president.
3. “However, Lukashenka’s main weakness is precisely in the model he created. It helps Lukashenka to retain power, but does not allow the Belarusian society to develop. This is a dead-end model of conservation, Belarusians have yet to pay for the fact that we have been existing outside of development for so many years,” he says.
4. The union with Russia and participation in the integration formations initiated by the Kremlin are called by experts a beneficial project for Lukashenka. Aggregate support for the Belarusian business model has cost Moscow about $100 billion over 20 years, analysts say. Meanwhile, Lukashenko did not allow Russian business to privatize large Belarusian enterprises and periodically demonstrated intractability - as when signing an agreement on the creation of the EAEU, declaring the protection of national interests.
5. The 1996 referendum, which officially approved Lukashenka's proposed changes to the country's Constitution, allows the president to be elected an unlimited number of times. The referendum, which ex-speaker of parliament Mieczysław Hryb called a constitutional coup, expanded the rights of the president and limited the powers of parliament.
6. Agro-towns are a large-scale residential construction in the countryside, which started with the adoption of the "State Program for the Revival and Development of the Village for 2005-2010". By the end of the deadlines indicated by the state program, almost 1,500 agro-towns were erected and landscaped in Belarus, and about 8,000 residential buildings were built.
7. Critics note the high cost of the project (the state program approved 69.7 trillion Belarusian rubles for this purpose in mid-2000s prices, but, according to officials, more was spent) with the low quality of construction work, the virtual impossibility for new settlers to privatize the housing they received, and the lack of new settlers themselves - youth from
8. Belarusian villages massively rushed to the cities 15-20 years before the start of the project. Despite the rows of brand new streets pleasing to the eye of a visiting traveler, agro-towns have not brought Belarusian agriculture closer to self-sufficiency and profitability; the industry is still subsidized by the state.
9. In 2004, four high-ranking Belarusian security officials suspected of organizing the disappearances of Lukashenka's political opponents were denied entry to the EU, the US and Canada. In 2006, President Lukashenko was also included in the sanctions list.
10. The sudden death in 1999 of the opposition politician Gennady Karpenko, who, according to studies of that time, was able to compete with Lukashenka in the struggle for the presidency, is also called by a number of researchers a "removal operation." Karpenko suddenly felt ill after drinking a cup of coffee during a business conversation.
11. President Lukashenko swore only once to avenge a "political" death - when in October 1997, a friend and ally of the president, Yevgeny Mikolutsky, head of the state control committee in the Mogilev region, was killed by an explosion in the entrance of the house. The deceased was awarded the title of Hero of Belarus.
12. The press and analysts connected the arrests of Vasily Starovoitov, the famous collective farm chairman from Soviet times, twice Hero of Socialist Labor, and the Minister of Agriculture, Vasily Leonov, with the progress of the investigation. But officially, the customers, perpetrators and motives for the murder have not yet been named.
13. Lukashenka's personal losses include the death of Health Minister Lyudmila Postoyalka - she is considered the unofficial mother-in-law of the Belarusian president, Kolya Lukashenko's grandmother. Alexander Lukashenko patronized the minister, but sent only a wreath to the funeral at the Palace of the Republic, and the responsible officials, appreciating the sign given by the president, tried to leave the mourning ceremony as soon as possible.
14. The execution of Dmitry Konovalov and Vladislav Kovalev, accused of blowing up the Minsk metro, is still considered hasty by many in Belarus, and the circumstances of the tragedy are unclear. The explosion thundered at the Oktyabrskaya station at rush hour on April 11, 2011, claimed the lives of 15 people, hundreds of people were recognized as victims. Even before the court verdict was passed, Alexander Lukashenko presented investigators with state awards who, a day after the terrorist attack, reported on the disclosure of the crime.
15. The list of political protesters against the Lukashenka regime who went through prisons is in the hundreds. Several dozen high-ranking officials ended up in cells in the course of the fight against corruption - a problem at the forefront of the relevance of which, in fact, the once little-known director of one of the Belarusian state farms was promoted to the presidency.
16. "In order to maintain the status quo and stability, the authoritarian regime needs fear dispelled in different sectors of society. Hence the regular replenishment of cells - both for corruption and "for politics." In foreign policy terms, these arrests cut Belarus off from the European community: Europe is sensitive to the presence of political prisoners , every time such arrests turn on the red light, slow down the development of relations with official Minsk," human rights activist Lyudmila Gryaznova notes.
17. Tamara Vinnikova, the head of the National Bank and a showy woman whom Lukashenka called "our orchid," was arrested in mid-January 1997, immediately after a meeting with the president. Until November, she was kept in the KGB pre-trial detention center on suspicion of committing an official crime and causing damage to the state on an especially large scale. Due to health problems, she was transferred under house arrest (although there was no such measure of restraint in Belarusian criminal law at that time), then - on April 7, 1999 - she suddenly disappeared. In December, Vinnikova showed up in London, where she stated that she was in the UK in the status of a political refugee. How she managed to escape from around the clock strict security is still not clear. In one of her interviews, Tamara Vinnikova said that she took advantage of the opportunity when she was "transferred from the security group to the group of physical destruction." Until the summer of 2011, the Interpol website posted information about the international search for Tamara Vinnikova, then this information disappeared.
18. Professor Yury Bandazhevsky, one of the leading experts in the field of medical radiology, was accused of accepting bribes for the post of rector of the Gomel Medical Institute and arrested in July 1999. Human rights activists note that the accusations and arrest followed after Bandazhevsky's research on the detrimental effects of small doses of radiation on the human body became known in the West, and then in Belarus: the scientist's conclusions contradicted Lukashenka's setting for a shock revival of the lands affected by the Chernobyl accident. In June 2001, Professor Bandazhevsky was sentenced by the military board of the Supreme Court to eight years in prison. He was recognized as a prisoner of conscience by the international human rights community. Released on August 5, 2005, emigrated from Belarus.
19. Politician Nikolai Statkevich, former candidate for the presidency of Belarus in the 2010 elections, is still in prison. Arrested on the evening after the elections, on December 19, after a forceful dispersal of a protest rally against fraud. Accused of organizing mass riots, in May 2011 sentenced to six years in a penal colony. Five more opposition politicians who fought with Alexander Lukashenko for the presidency also went through the KGB pre-trial detention center, prisons, house arrest, but to this day they are at large (ex-presidential candidates Andrei Sannikov and Ales Mikhalevich were forced to leave Belarus). According to political analysts, President Lukashenko cannot forgive Mikalai Statkevich for his disobedience and harsh speeches in the media during the election campaign. Statkevich appealed to Lukashenka: "Give back the elections to the people!", accusing the authorities of falsifying election campaigns.
20. Human rights activist Ales Bialiatskiwas released in 2014, after 1,050 days of imprisonment. He was accused of non-payment of taxes on funds accumulated in foreign accounts. He pleaded not guilty, saying that the accounts in Lithuania and Poland were used for the needs of human rights activities. Even before the verdict was passed, the damage that the state demanded compensation was repaid by voluntary donations from citizens. Over the past three years, Ales Belyatsky, head of the Viasna human rights center deregistered by the Belarusian authorities and vice-president of the International Federation of Human Rights, has been nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize.
21. Student Anton Suryapin became known to the world after his arrest for a photo: Surya Pin posted on the Internet a photo of teddy bears dropped with calls to respect human rights by a Swedish light aircraft illegally entering Belarusian airspace. In August 2012, Surya Pin and realtor Basharimov, who somehow helped the Swedes rent housing in Belarus, were accused of illegally crossing the border, although initially they were only suspected of complicity in such actions. After a short stay in the KGB pre-trial detention center, student Suryapin was released and returned to his studies. The "plush landing" of the Swedish bears cost several high-ranking military posts and turned into a diplomatic conflict: the Belarusian authorities forced the Swedish ambassador Stefan Erickson to leave Minsk.
22. The American lawyer Emanuel Zeltser and his assistant Vladlena Funk in the Minsk KGB pre-trial detention center, popularly referred to as the "American", turned out to be almost according to the plot of a Hollywood detective. Zeltser and Funk, who spent more than a year in Belarusian places of detention, said after their release that they woke up at the Minsk airport after meeting Boris Berezovsky in London. In Minsk, they were accused of using forged documents and commercial espionage. The Belarusian press claimed that the arrest of Zeltser and his assistant was connected with the case of a dispute over the inheritance of businessman Badri Patarkatsishvili, who died in London, and Boris Berezovsky, who was put on the wanted list by allied Russia, repeatedly flew to the Minsk “American”, demanding that the arrested lawyer issue “Belarusian assets” "Patarkatsishvili. Later, Zeltser and Funk confirmed this information, also reporting that Berezovsky was present in Minsk at a closed court session. Emmanuil Zeltser, sentenced in Belarus to three years in prison, was pardoned by President Lukashenko in early July 2009. Vladlena Funk served a one-year term in a women's colony appointed by the court.
23. At the end of August 2013, the Investigative Committee of Belarus announced the arrest and detention of the general director of the Russian company Uralkali, Vladislav Baumgertner. Later, President Lukashenko confirmed that the Russian top manager was arrested after a meeting initiated by Belarusian Prime Minister Myasnikovich. "He (Baumgertner - ed.) arrived, a jerk, he was invited by the prime minister. He sat down cross-legged and said: this will not happen, this will not happen. He went out, spat on the Government House and laughed at the airport," Lukashenka said about the circumstances of the arrest. Minsk also threatened a number of other Russian managers and the Russian oligarch Suleiman Kerimov with bringing to justice for causing significant harm to the state and public interests of Belarus. A month before Baumgertner's arrest in Minsk, Uralkali announced the termination of sales through the Belarusian Potash Company, a structure created in December 2005 on a parity basis with the Belarusian side (before the break in relations, the company provided 43% of world potassium chloride exports). The participating parties of the BPC accused each other of failing to fulfill contractual obligations to use the common commodity distribution network. The fate of Baumgertner arrested in Minsk, judging by press reports, was dealt with by the top leadership of Russia. Baumgertner was extradited to Russia on November 21, 2013, in Russia a criminal case was initiated against him, including on the basis of materials collected and handed over to the Russian side by Belarusian investigators.
24. Belarusian businessman Nikolai Autukhovich, who was recently released from prison after his second term, spent a total of more than seven and a half years behind bars and was recognized by human rights activists as a political prisoner as a victim for criticizing the authorities and active citizenship. The once successful business of Autukhovich (he created a network of private taxis and cafes in the city of Volkovysk) is ruined, the health of the released Afghan veteran is undermined.
25. Ex-president of Kyrgyzstan Kurmanbek Bakiyev is often called a “Belarusian prisoner” in Minsk, although the leader who fled from his country was received personally by President Lukashenko and Bakiyev, who arrived in Belarus in 2010, long ago received Belarusian citizenship. In Kyrgyzstan, Kurmanbek Bakiyev was sentenced to 25 years in prison, his brother Zhanybek, who was once discovered by Minsk photographers on the streets of the Belarusian capital, was sentenced to life imprisonment. Bishkek periodically demands the extradition of the Bakiyevs. The ex-president and his relatives have cut off communication with the press, the place of residence of the Bakiyevs is kept secret, although the non-state press in Belarus periodically reports on mansions allegedly built by the family in prestigious cottage settlements.
26. "Prisoner of the West" is Zianon Paznyak, one of the founders of the Belarusian Popular Front, the head of the Conservative Christian Party of the Belarusian Popular Front. He was the first to tell the world about Kurapaty - a tract near Minsk, where hundreds of thousands of inhabitants were shot during the years of Stalinist repressions. The organizer of protest mass actions and a sharp critic of Lukashenka, Paznyak, was forced to flee the country in 1996, according to a number of researchers in the modern history of Belarus, due to the threat of physical destruction. In the same year he received political asylum in the United States. In exile, he continues to be actively involved in politics, regularly and sharply criticizes the "imperial aspirations of Russia" and the Belarusian leadership.
Most popular sayings of President Lukashenko
"If you don't have money for a restaurant, talk to a girl in a student dormitory. Buy kefir and a bun"
"He took the eggs - the milk was gone!" - President Lukashenko once talked about attempts to overcome the food shortage. He promised: "Our people will live badly, but not for long."
“Belarusians are the same Russians, only with a quality mark,” he once said as a compliment.
Such phrases of President Lukashenko have long become proverbial jokes, but in almost every public speech the Belarusian leader adds a couple of figurative expressions to the popular dictionary of phraseological units.
Vladimir Podgol, Ph.D. in Philosophy, author of a number of books, including "Fundamentals of Political Psychology", explains: Lukashenka is moving away from diplomatic language, because his mentality is a scientific phenomenon. "A person has the genetic ability to awaken the archetype with further mental inflation," Vladimir Podgol tries to explain.
Archetype is a term introduced by Carl Jung and used in his theory to denote the deepest foundation of personality, which is a set of basic ideas inherited by a person from his ancestors and defining his modern psychology and behavior. Inflation is not only an economic word, but also a term of social psychology. This is the expansion of the human psyche to the awakened archetype. At certain stressful moments, these processes are activated in the personality, and the person reveals himself to others not even by himself, but by the carrier of the "base" of ancestors. “This is such a psychotype, it was also characteristic of Hitler, to a certain extent, Stalin,” says Vladimir Podgol.
The Belarusian philosopher paid for the parallels between Lukashenka and Hitler 18 years ago. A fragment of Vladimir Podgol's doctoral dissertation was a comparative analysis of the mentality of the Germans in the 30s of the last century and Belarusians who suddenly gained sovereignty. The scientist also analyzed the mentality of the leaders of these states, and Lukashenka used quotes as material for research.
“I collected quotes that contained archetypes. My dissertation was taken to the presidential administration, then to the KGB, and from that moment I stopped being a doctoral student and I can’t get a job anywhere in our state,” says Vladimir Podgol.
Vladimir Podgol continues his collection of statements by the Belarusian President - however, anyone can record what was impressive in the speeches and interviews of Alexander Lukashenko.
The Belarusian president tried to disown this quote, spread by the German newspaper Handelsblatt, by telling the NTV program that the statement was "a fake, fabricated in Poland by the CIA." But German journalists insist that at the dawn of his presidency, in 1995, in an interview with the Handelsblatt newspaper, Lukashenka stated the following: “The history of Germany is, to some extent, a mold of the history of Belarus at certain stages. At one time, Germany was raised from the ruins, thanks to the very tough power known by Adolf Hitler... Not everything that was bad in Germany was associated with Adolf Hitler.The German order was formed over the centuries, under Hitler this formation reached its highest point.This is what corresponds to our understanding of the presidential republic and the role of the president in it ...".
However, it is much more interesting to listen to how the father teaches the Belarusians order.
"Every Belarusian will have a cup and crackling on the table!" (1994).
"They bought sugar, they got to the point where they started buying up vinegar. They turned everything into warehouses ... Now drink vinegar and eat sugar!" (2011).
"Why do you eat potatoes with meat at night? How will you sleep? Do not eat with meat - eat with herring!" (year 2014).
“It is necessary that there is hot water in the agricultural town, so that every milkmaid and pig-herd goes to bed with a peasant in the evening.” (2011).
"If you don't have money for a restaurant, talk to a girl in a student dormitory. Buy kefir and a bun." (2004).
"They reached the point of absurdity: what to do if a married woman loves someone on the side. We are not going to hang chastity belts on the corresponding parts of the body for anyone. You dispose of yourself as you see fit." (2005 year).
“Two boys? That’s good. And where is the girl? If you get pregnant, God forbid, and want to give birth, come to Belarus, we will arrange everything for you. From a Belarusian, from a Jew, from a Pole, we have Ukrainians, good Russians. Choose." (year 2013).
"I had a meeting in a women's team, at work. I tell them: the first child is yours, the second is also yours. The third child is mine and a little bit yours. One hundred percent the fifth and next is mine ... They are silent. Well , here, give birth. I can't do it for you." (2011).
"They showed me the outfit, to which I replied that I would not wear it. They brought green pants. How will the president of the country walk in green pants? It's good that they are not blue, honestly." (year 2014).
"If you want to say that your president should walk or ride a bike, that's fine too. I won't get rusty - I can sit on a bike and ride. It'll just be embarrassing for you." (year 2013).
20 key facts about Area 51 that you should know - Bemorepanda
Area 51 has been in the public eye over time through military activities and, obviously, through conspiracies related to aliens.
In recent months, Area 51 has been in the public eye because of interns who planned to storm it. Over time, the area has attracted public attention through the military activities that have taken place here and the conspiracy theories that certain individuals have maintained.
Bemorepanda has created a list of 20 facts about everything you need to know about Area 51.
1. The name
The name Area 51 was given by officials who oversaw nuclear tests in the 1950s and was used on military maps of the region. For these tests was created in the desert, 100 kilometers from Las Vegas, Nevada Test Site, now known as the Nevada National Security Site. In these areas delimited by the military authorities, several hundred nuclear weapons tests took place, of which about 100 took place outdoors.
To a greater or lesser extent, Area 51 has been in the public eye since the nuclear tests. However, worldwide fame came in the 1980s, when Robert Lazar told a Las Vegas television station that he was working on S-4, a base near Area 51 as part of a flying saucer reverse engineering project. .
When these statements were made public, they sparked a growing interest in the activities taking place in Area 51. However, not long after, the whole story that Robert Lazar built was dismantled. Thus, investigators were able to prove that he did not work at Los Alamos Laboratories and that he had not graduated from MIT or Caltech.
3. Access forbidden
Currently, the US Army uses the Area for aircraft testing and therefore its entire perimeter is continuously patrolled. Colloquially, these guards are called by the locals and the press "camouflaged boys" because of the equipment they use. Unfortunately for the military who are part of these patrols, this activity proves to be extremely dangerous, some of them claiming that they suffer from breathing problems due to the compounds used to make the aircraft "invisible" on radar.
Landing, in turn, has attracted the attention of people interested in conspiracy theories. In a 1974 book, "We Never Went to the Moon: America's Thirty Billion Dollar Swindle," Bill Kaysing argued that all images of Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin were made in Area 51.
Theories about a false landing have been dismantled over the decades, the only link between Area 51 and the Apollo program is testing some of the space equipment in Nevada.
5. Military base
Area 51 is currently part of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), which is under the authority of the Nellis Base of the United States Air Force. Officials in this part of the US military say the military base covers about 1.2 million hectares.
6. Functions of Area 51
The Nevada Test and Training Range, of which the Area is a part, is used to train military pilots for combat scenarios. In the past, this base has been used to test and design military technologies: airplanes, helicopters and drones. One of the most famous "products" of this base is the U-2 spy plane, used for high altitude espionage.
7. The desert community
While the U.S. military was working on U-2 spy planes, engineer Kelly Johnson proposed building a settlement for the staff working on the project and their families. This place was called Paradise Ranch.
For ufologists and those who believe in various conspiracy theories, Area 51 is proving to be an endless source of mysteries. The truth is that the lack of transparency that military activities and espionage raise is at the source of these conspiracy theories. Naturally, the multitude of resources that the American government allocates to this base and the relative silence regarding the activities that take place there raise a series of questions whose answers can be transformed into conspiracy theories.
According to declassified CIA documents, most of the UFOs that were reported in the area were, in fact, U-2 aircraft under test.
9. Continuous activity
After the U-2 program, Area 51 was used for other military espionage programs. These projects include the Lockheed A-12 Oxcart and D-21 Tagboard aircraft.
Satellite images show that Area 51 is still used today, with the addition of various buildings and facilities to the base. In 2016, images from Google Earth showed that a new runway was built, with security experts believing that it would be used for drones.
10. It is not a tourist attraction
As the last few months have shown, internet users are more than happy to enter the territory of Area 51. However, any attempt to enter the territory of this base is discouraged by the military. Those who enter without permission risk six months in prison and $ 1,000 fines.
11. Soviet engineering
Although there is no evidence that Alien 51 experimented with extraterrestrial technology, documents declassified in 2013 showed that the United States obtained and tested Soviet MiG fighter jets in the 1970s and 1980s.
12.The Roswell phenomenon
However, the public perception that the US government is hiding evidence of alleged extraterrestrial visits to Earth also originated in Roswell, New Mexico, more than 70 years ago.
In July 1947, a flying object made of thin metal foil crashed near a farm in Roswell during a storm. The Air Force quickly picked up the remains on the spot for research. A local newspaper, the Roswell Daily Record, published an article about a "flying saucer" or "flying saucer" found on the farm.
13.The Mogul Project
The Mogul project successfully discovered a nuclear activity of the Russians, until it was closed in 1950. The balloons used were made of polyethylene, according to the Times, a material unknown at the time and which was the basis for the release of meteorological equipment into the atmosphere, later. The balloons were not very suitable for monitoring nuclear explosions, but they proved to be very good for radio communications.
14.U-2 spy plane project
From the documents declassified by the CIA, it results that in the period 1954-1974 two spy plane projects were developed: the U-2 aircraft project and the Oxcart project (construction of the Lockheed A-12 spy planes).
An interesting fact reported by the CIA document on U-2 planes is President Eisenhower's desire to recruit only foreign nationals for espionage missions. In the event of a U.2 plane crash, the US could have denied its involvement in the activity carried out by the respective foreign pilot.
Area 51 is currently undergoing a program to build new drones, military equipment that has become increasingly in demand by the U.S. military and intelligence services, especially in the war on terror that has followed terrorist attacks in the United States. September 11, 2001. The American drone program came to the fore in 2002, through the tragic event in Yemen, where a drone accidentally killed 13 people who were part of a wedding procession.
16.Existence of Area 51
The US government officially recognized the existence of the base only in 2013, with the publication by the CIA of declassified documents on the U-2 and A-12 reconnaissance and espionage aircraft programs.
17.Storm Area 51, They Can’t Stop All of Us
The internet has been invaded by Area 51 memes inspired by a joke Facebook event to take over the secretive military site and find the supposed aliens kept inside. The event, called “Storm Area 51, They Can’t Stop All of Us, was planned for Sept. 20, and so far 1.5 million people have signed on.
18.Location of Area 51
The base is huge, covering over 125,000 hectares with at least 22 runways. The land was chosen for its isolated location, and for the large areas of perfectly flat land, which allowed the construction of long tracks, many of them unpaved.
19.The secret around Area 51
The secrecy surrounding Area 51 goes far beyond these proactive measures. In 1994, a group of civilian contractors and their widows filed a lawsuit alleging that they had been exposed to hazardous materials that had been burned in an open ditch. The case was dismissed for lack of evidence after the government refused to publish details of those materials, claiming it would harm national security. This was reinforced by a presidential order signed by Bill Clinton.
20.There is no real fence around area 51
At such a heavily guarded facility by the US military, it would appear that Zone 51 would have a physical boundary to hold citizens. After all, it is not a very safe military installation if you can get through the protected area just by a simple walk.
That's right. Area 51 has no fence at all and we refer to "always". While some of its indoor installations are protected by perimeters, the entire base has no physical boundaries. This does not mean that it is wise to just enter, as there are magnetic sensors and watchtowers in many places that would surely pull you if you try.
Copyright © 2020 Bemorepanda Limited. All Rights Reserved.
The content available on the Bemorepanda.com website can be copied and republished in the limit of 200 characters and in the limit of 10 pictures and must include the URL of the article. It is forbidden to completely copy the material and place it anywhere else without indicating the link and the full name of the page.
The most emotional 10 videos from the Ukraine war that are too emotional to ignore
Ukraine's eighth day of war has been difficult but optimistic, said President Zelensky's adviser Aleksey Arestovich last night. Near Nikolaev, the invaders were bombed from Grads facilities. In Kherson, the Ukrainian Armed Forces destroyed about 1,000 assailants, 20 helicopters, 200 cars. In Gostomel, two street fights took place, Ukrainian defenders destroyed a concentration of troops.
Bemorepanda collected 10 videos that are showing the reality behind the situation in Ukraine.
Russian troops arrived in the center of the Ukrainian port of Kherson on Thursday, the first major accomplishment of the invasion launched last Thursday, and in the capital Kyiv and other big cities, the occupation forces continued the destructive bombing, without significant troop movements, probably due to logistical problems. . A Ukrainian delegation has left for a second round of talks with Russian ceasefire officials. A fire broke out on Friday morning at the Zaporizhia nuclear power plant, the largest of its kind in Europe, after a bombardment by Russian troops, causing concern around the world.
The United Nations says one million people have fled their homes in Ukraine to Poland and other neighboring countries.
The United Nations has overwhelmingly voted in favor of a resolution condemning Russia's invasion of Ukraine and calling for the immediate withdrawal of its forces, in a global expression of outrage that has highlighted Russia's growing isolation.
At an emergency session of the UN General Assembly, 141 of the 193 member states voted in favor of the resolution, 35 abstained and five voted against.
The only countries that voted in favor of Moscow were Belarus, North Korea, Eritrea and Syria.
Russia's longtime allies, Cuba and Venezuela have joined China in refraining.
It is the first time in the last 40 years that the Security Council has sent the General Assembly to discuss a crisis and the 11th emergency session since 1950 and so far, writes The Guardian.
The General Assembly was convened after the Security Council, due to the lack of unanimity of the permanent members, failed to exercise its main function of acting appropriately for the maintenance of international peace and security.
"It will not stop the Russian forces in their tracks, but it is a big diplomatic victory for the Ukrainians and the United States and for all those who supported them," said Richard Gowan, UN director at the International Crisis Group.
The Russians have captured the southern Ukrainian city of Kherson, while the International Court of Justice has opened an investigation into the allegations of genocide and will hold public hearings starting next week. Kyiv resists the siege of Russian troops, and the city of Mariupol is surrounded. One million Ukrainians have left the country since the beginning of the invasion, and Russia has changed its military strategy and is pursuing the slow annihilation of the Ukrainian army.
About 150 public radio stations in Europe will broadcast the song "Give Peace a Chance" on Friday at 07:45 GMT, the European Radio and Television Union (EBU) announced.
The famous song, composed by John Lennon, will be heard in more than 25 countries, including Ukraine, and private radio stations can join the initiative, according to EBU.
Ukrainian authorities say Russian bombings in the city of Toretsk (Donetsk region) have hit a gas pipeline, leaving more than 15,000 people without heat. 400 homes, 8 schools, 9 kindergartens and 10 hospitals are affected, according to the Emergency Service
women, a lot of children, people who want to escape the horror of war. In the city, since 4 in the morning, anti-aircraft sirens sounded, a sound that is heard more and more often in the city. Many people have nowhere to flee and are trying to find a safe place.
Inside the Odessa train station, the images are even more dramatic, with thousands of children fleeing the horrors of war. I don't know when they will return and if they will have a place to return.
Many Ukrainians who are at the station on Friday at noon say they want to go to Poland and look for accommodation there.
To find their loved ones alive is the greatest wish of the Ukrainians who are now fleeing, hoping that they will escape the war. It is extremely difficult for them, because they leave behind their house, their fortune, their grandparents and they pray to survive until they manage to buy a ticket back, with which to return home, to their relatives, to their homes.
Images from the Odessa train station are painful and difficult to describe in words. It is an atmosphere of deep pain and emotion. People say that they do not know what is happening to them and why they have to witness this conflict that they do not understand and they wonder when this nightmare that they are living will end.
There are a lot of simple people in Odessa who say they can't go to other cities because they don't have enough money to get safely elsewhere.
They end up playing a lottery, where the price is their own life and they pray to God to survive.
In Odessa there are also tourists, but also foreign students who came to study at the Maritime University, a prestigious university, and who want to save their lives, it is very difficult for them to keep in touch with relatives, parents, because the phone signal is very weak and frequently falls in the area.
There are a lot of armed soldiers on the streets, ready to open fire if they don't understand clearly who you are and why you are in the area. There are soldiers who want to protect their families. There are a lot of volunteers in the army, defense groups of the city, made up of simple people, who went out on the street at night with hunting weapons and who say they are not ready to give up, do not want to give up and will defend their country and each centimeter of territory.
A border country located at the confluence of the EU and Russia, a former Soviet republic with a population of 46 million, independent since 1991, known abroad by stereotypes such as the "granary of the former USSR", the "Chernobyl catastrophe", "Gas crisis" or "orange revolution", Ukraine is trying to build an identity.
The difficulty in finding this identity stems from the fact that Ukraine has long been fragmented between the Russian and Austro-Hungarian empires, the current borders being drawn by Joseph Stalin. It is true that nationalist ideas took their place here in the nineteenth century, but it was only after the disintegration of the USSR that Ukraine became independent, except for a short period between 1917 and 1920.
You can read more interesting facts below.
1. If Russia, which is not entirely in Europe, is not taken into account, Ukraine is the state with the largest area on the "Old Continent". Ukraine has an area of 603,628 square kilometers;
2. Ukrainians celebrate National Day on August 24;
3. Arsenal in Kyiv is the deepest subway station in the world. It is located at a depth of 105 meters and was built in 1960 for military purposes. The reason? Threatening powerful states with nuclear bombs
4. Traditional Ukrainian food includes chicken, pork, beef, eggs, fish and mushrooms. Ukrainians also tend to eat a lot of fresh, pickled potatoes, cereals and vegetables.
5. The most famous Ukrainian dish is borscht. While many Russians claim to be from their homeland, many Ukrainians are passionate about believing that they are the founders of this dish.
6. Ukraine was at the center of one of the greatest catastrophes of the 20th century. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant exploded in April 1986. The blast was considered the worst accident in the history of nuclear power.
7. Unlike many civilized states in Ukraine, wedding rings are worn on the ring finger of the right hand.
8. The "Love Tunnel" also exists in Ukraine. Near the town of Klevan in Ukraine there is a railway line that is covered with vaults formed by the branches of the nearby trees. It has become a favorite destination for thousands of lovers.
9. The geographical center of Europe is located in Ukraine. In 1886, the geographers of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, using the technology of the time, established the geographical center of Europe in the village of Dilove.
10. The city of Druzhkivka in the Donetsk region is one of the few places in the world where fossilized trees are kept. The trees are almost 250 million years old and create an entire fossilized forest that covers an area of 1 hectare.
11. The first gas lamp in history was invented in the Ukrainian city of Lviv.
12. The Ukrainians, namely the Antonov Design Bureau, have developed an aircraft with the highest payload capacity in the world - the An-225 Mechta. At first it was designed to transport spacecraft. Now "Dream" carries out commercial cargo transportation.
13. The author of one of the first constitutions in the world is Ukrainian political and public figure Pylyp Orlyk. On April 5, 1710, he was elected hetman of the Zaporizhian army. On the same day, Pylyp Orlyk announced the "Constitution of the rights and freedoms of the Zaporizhian army." In the United States, the Constitution was adopted in 1787, in France and the Commonwealth - only in 1791. An interesting fact is that Pylyp Orlik was born on the territory of Belarus - in the village of Kosuta, Oshmyany Povet.
14. In recent years, Ukraine has confidently retained its place in the top three world leaders in honey production. Being several times ahead of European countries in terms of honey production, Ukraine is at the same time the first state in the world in honey production per capita (1.5 kg).
15. Ukraine has the world's largest reserves of manganese ore - 2.3 billion tons, or about 11% of the world's total reserves.
16. Only six monasteries in the world have the status of Lavra. Three of them are in Ukraine. These are the Holy Assumption Kiev-Pechersk Lavra in Kyiv, which received this status back in 1598, the Holy Assumption Lavra in the city of Pochaev and the Svyatogorsk Holy Assumption Lavra in the Donetsk region.
17. Ostroh Academy is the first higher educational institution in Eastern Europe, the oldest Ukrainian scientific and educational institution. In 1576, Prince Konstantin-Vasily of Ostrog founded the Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy in Ostrog.
18. The first kerosene lamp was invented in Lvov by Ignaty Lukasiewicz and Jan Zekh in 1853, under the Golden Star pharmacy workers.In the same year, the first surgical operation was performed in the Lviv hospital under the illumination of a kerosene lamp. Subsequently, the kerosene lamp was presented at the international exhibition in Munich, the invention was awarded a special diploma there.
19. Monuments to the famous Ukrainian poet Taras Shevchenko have been erected in 1200 cities around the world.
20. The Ukrainian wind instrument trembita is the longest wind musical instrument in the world.
21. The shortest main street of all the capitals of the world, but at the same time one of the widest and most beautiful - Khreshchatyk in Kyiv. Its length is only 1225 m.
22. The oldest map known to scientists, as well as the oldest settlement of Homo Sapiens, were found in Ukraine: in the village. Mesopotamia of the Rivne region. They are about 14.5-15 thousand years old. The map is engraved on a mammoth bone.
23. The longest cave in Ukraine is called "Optimistic" and is located in Podolia. This is a gypsum cave at a depth of 20 m with a length of 216 km. The longest gypsum cave in the world and the second longest in general, it is second only to Mammoth Cave in the United States.
24. The geographical center of Europe (well, yes, we also have it :)). In Ukraine, near the town of Rakhiv, surrounded by the picturesque Carpathians, is the geographical center of Europe.
25. The oldest tree in Ukraine is considered to be a 1300-year-old oak in the Yuzefin tract, Rivne region.
26. The third most visited McDonald's in the world is located in Kyiv near the railway station. This establishment consistently ranks among the top five busiest McDonald's in the world.
27. One of the largest historical transport routes ran through the territory of Ukraine (as well as through the territory of Belarus) - “the path from the Varangians to the Greeks” - a system of river routes and portages between them 3 thousand km long, connecting the northern lands of Ancient Russia with the southern Russian lands and the Baltic sea with Black. Throughout ancient history, Ukraine has acted as a bridge between the worlds of Eastern Europe and the Ancient East, Antique, Byzantine and Latin Europe.
28. Ukraine ranks fourth in the world in terms of the number of citizens with higher education. The population of Ukraine is among the most educated, and the number of people with higher education per capita is higher than the average European level.
29. Ukraine, on its own initiative, abandoned the world's third largest arsenal of nuclear weapons. At the time of declaration of independence, more than a thousand nuclear warheads and missiles were located on the territory of Ukraine, the third largest nuclear potential after Russia and America. The warheads and missiles were handed over to Russia, the bunkers were destroyed. In response, Ukraine received money for disarmament, as well as security guarantees from nuclear powers (as we can see, these guarantees are not respected today).
30. The international Ukrainian anthem consists of only six lines (four in verse and two in the chorus). The remaining lines of the anthem are considered politically incorrect. (for example, "Stand, brother, in a crooked way from Xiang to Don" implies Ukraine's claims to the territory of Russia and Poland). The anthem was born in 1863, and adopted as a state anthem in 2003.
31.At the language beauty contest in Paris in 1934, the Ukrainian language took third place after French and Persian in terms of phonetics, vocabulary, phraseology, and sentence structure. And in terms of melodiousness, the Ukrainian language took second place after Italian.
32. Until the almost complete destruction in 1240 by the Mongol-Tatars, Kyiv was one of the largest cities in Europe, fifty times larger than London, ten times larger than Paris. It reached its peak under Yaroslav the Wise (1010 - 1054), who became related to the royal families of France, Norway, Romania and Poland. The population of today's capital of Ukraine was about 50,000 inhabitants. It took about 600 years to reach such demographic indicators again. Quite possibly, if it were not for the destruction of that time, Kyiv could have been the most developed largest city in Europe for many years.
33. Pablo Picasso was delighted with the works of the Ukrainian artist Kateryna Bilokur (1900-1961). When in 1954 he saw her works at an exhibition, he said that they were brilliant and compared Catherine with the world-famous artist Serafin Louis.
35. One of the most famous Christmas songs in the world is Shchedryk, a folk song recorded by Ukrainian composer Mykola Leontovych. The world knows her as Carol of the Bells or Ring Christmas Bells. On Youtube, various performances of "Shchedryk" are gaining millions of views.
36. During the Anglo-Boer War (South Africa) in 1899 - 1902. the commander of one of the detachments of the Boers, Ukrainian Yuriy Budyak, saved a young English journalist from execution. Subsequently, the latter helped Budyak enter Oxford University. In 1917, Yuriy worked in the government of the Ukrainian People's Republic. In 1943 Yuri Budyak died in a Soviet concentration camp. The English journalist's name was Winston Churchill…
37. At the time of independence, there were 19.4 million pigs in Ukraine. Today, there are half as many of them - 8.3 million. Despite the reputation of a salo-eater, the average Ukrainian eats only 18 kg of pork per year. This is three times less than an ordinary German.
38. In Ukraine, near Nikopol, on a spit near the river. Lapinki, on one of the branches of the Dnieper, you can see, or rather hear a phenomenon that is rare in the world - singing sands. The "singing" of these, perhaps, the strangest sands appears after rain, when the top layer sticks together and forms a fragile crust. Walking along it, you can hear sounds similar to the whistling of air released from a car chamber.
39. In the town of Berdychiv (Zhytomyr region) in the church of St. Barbara on March 14, 1850, the local beauty Evelina Ganskaya was married to Honore de Balzac. Frederic Chopin lived in the same town for a long time, who, in addition to writing music, also supervised the restoration of the local organ.
40. It would be possible to collect a dictionary of Ukrainian surnames, distorted in the course of Russification by Russian officials. So, the Ukrainian clan Chekhov in the 19th century became Chekhov for some reason. Chekhov's grandfather was still a Czech. Anton Pavlovich himself wrote that his grandfather was a Ukrainian. Quite funny, the Deineks turned into Denikins. Cossacks Rozuma became Razumovsky, Chaikas become Tchaikovsky. The grandfather of Pyotr Tchaikovsky, the great composer - Pyotr Chaika - graduated from the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, and as a physician, the Russian government sent him as a head physician to Vyatka.
41. Probably, the Ukrainian atmosphere in the Tchaikovsky family was preserved much better than that of the Chekhovs, because from the age of 24, the future composer lived in Ukraine almost every year for several months, where he wrote more than 30 works, including the opera Blacksmith Vakula (Cherevichki ”), “Mazepa”, song-romance “Cherry Garden of Haiti”, duet “On the Novgorod near the Ford” to the words of T. Shevchenko. In the cruel times of the empire's offensive against the Ukrainian language, he sought the production of "Taras Bulba" by N. Lysenko (the famous Ukrainian composer), used many Ukrainian folk songs in his works.
42. The great writer Fyodor Dostoevsky was Ukrainian by origin, because the Dostoevsky family came from the village of Dostoev near Pinsk (Ukrainian-Belarusian border), so Belarusians can also consider him their fellow countryman. One of the Dostoevskys becomes a hieromonk of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra and in 1647 takes part in the election of the next metropolitan. It is interesting that among the Dostoevskys who lived in Podolia, most of all were representatives of the clergy. Andrei Dostoevsky was a priest of the Ukrainian Uniate Church.
43. He was the grandfather of the writer F. Dostoevsky. Andrei's son quarreled with his father and brother and went to Moscow. His name was Mikhail, and as a memory of his family and Ukraine, he took with him, preserved and passed on to his sons his own Ukrainian poems. The daughter of Fyodor Mikhailovich recalls: "... poetic abilities were already in the Ukrainian family of my father, and were not given only through my Muscovite mother, as Dostoevsky's literary friends suggest." It is a pity that F. Dostoevsky did not join the defense of Ukraine.
44. This, in principle, cannot be said about V. Mayakovsky. The poet sharply criticized the “Muscovites”: “Comrade Muscovite, don’t joke about Ukraine.” He also reminded that Russians from the history of Ukraine know only Shevchenko, Taras Bulba, borscht and lard (“Russians have a shallow thickness of knowledge”).
45. By the way, he wrote about himself: "I am a Cossack from my grandfather, on the other - a Sich." Researchers point out that the Ukrainian clans of Mayakovsky went, probably, from those Cossacks who stood guard over the barrows, at the lighthouses that were set on fire during the Tatar attacks.
46. Unfortunately, the Ukrainians of Ripa turned into Repins. Although Ilya Repin, who was born in the Kharkiv region, still retained his sense of belonging to the Ukrainians and painted himself as a Cossack leaning on a cannon. “It's time to think about the Ukrainian style in art,” the artist noted. But he not only spoke, but also created many works on Ukrainian themes, for example, “The Cossacks write a letter to the Turkish Sultan” - he wrote two versions of this picture.
47. In 1931, there were more Ukrainians in the USSR than Russians. In six years, 55 million disappeared ... This figure is indicated in the book "At the Great Construction Site", published in 1931 in Leningrad. The same data are presented in the first Soviet encyclopedia of 1926. Neither this encyclopedia nor the book is available in any library in Ukraine. We managed to find "At the Great Construction Site" in Moscow.
48. The figures of 81 million are clearly visible in these copies. It should be noted that the population of Ukrainian Galicia, which was part of Poland, was not taken into account here. Already the next census of 1937 indicates that only 26 million Ukrainians remained in the USSR. Where did all the rest go? Knowing such figures, the repressions of the 1930s seem even more terrible.
49. Freedom Square in Kharkov is the largest square in Europe.
50. The longest embankment in Europe is located in Dnepropetrovsk. Its length is 30 km.