50 interesting facts about Easter that you need to know in 2022
People from different cultures and countries have different attitudes towards Easter. They also have different interpretations of its original meaning and their own traditions on how to celebrate it. Here are a few facts about Easter that will impress you for sure.
Catholics and Orthodox use different calendars when counting: in the first case, the Gregorian, and in the second, the Julian. Therefore, it turns out that Catholics start from the spring equinox on March 21 according to the new style, and Orthodox - from the old date - April 3. Thus, in 2022 Easter will be:
- for the Orthodox - April 24;
- for Catholics - April 17.
Read the most interesting facts about Easter below.
Facts about Easter traditions
1. The concept of an Easter bunny giving eggs and candy originates in Germany. The first written document of this tradition appeared in the 16th century. By the 1700s, Dutch immigrants brought the idea of rabbits to the United States when they settled in Pennsylvania.
2. Traditional Easter clothing includes pastel colors and floral prints. This means the coming of spring. The trend suggests that people are spending around $3.3 billion on Easter clothing.
3. The Easter Bunny came to life from the legends.
4. In some cultures, rabbits are seen as a symbol of new life. The German legend of the Easter Bunny tells the story of a woman who plants hidden decorated eggs throughout the city during a famine. Finding the eggs, the children saw a big rabbit jumping around.
5. The official Easter flower is the white lily.
6. These "Easter lilies" symbolize grace and purity. Therefore, during Easter, people decorate their houses and churches with these flowers.
7. Easter in the United States is celebrated by leaving Easter baskets for children on the morning of the holiday.
8. This was one of the manifestations of how Protestants demonstrated their rejection of Catholic Easter traditions. Moreover, in some European countries there are other animals. The cuckoo brings eggs in Switzerland, and the fox in Westphalia.
9. Followers of the Greek Orthodox Church paint their Easter eggs red. It signifies the blood of Jesus and his victory over death. In addition, red also symbolizes the renewal of life.
10. In some European countries, people burn Easter bonfires. It is believed that this tradition represents fertility.
11. Pretzels were also used to celebrate Easter
12. Its shape evoked associations with Easter due to the similarity of the hands crossed in prayer.
13. On Easter morning, children raced to see who would get the rabbit's basket. Unlike regular gifts and wrapped boxes, Easter baskets are open. This design is intended to resemble a bird's nest in which eggs are kept.
14. Early egg dyes were made from natural materials. Some items used are flower petals, juices, onion skins, and tree bark.
15. Among the holiday eggs, there is one called "Real Easter Egg". This particular piece explains the Christian meaning of the holiday. Back in 2012, 90,000 real Easter eggs were sold to churches.
16. In Europe, it is called the Easter Bunny. From that point on, the rabbit jumped to fame in the US in the 1800s. In addition to Easter egg hunting, other Easter customs include the making of Easter baskets and the wearing of Easter bonnets.
17. The inhabitants of Scotland and North East England rolled dyed eggs over steep hills.
Some Americans also do this by pushing eggs with spoons.
18. The coloring of chickens for the Easter season has been the subject of controversy among celebrants.
19. Several hatcheries have already ceased participation. However, others argue that it is not harmful to their health as the dye sheds along with their down as they begin to grow feathers.
Facts in numbers about Easter
20. On average, children in the UK receive 8.8 Easter eggs a year. This number is equivalent to twice the recommended calorie intake for them for an entire week.
21. In some cases, candy sales are higher the week before Easter than the week before Halloween.
22. The first recorded use of decorated Easter eggs was in the 13th century. The resurrection of Jesus from the tomb is associated with the appearance of a new one from an eggshell. Eventually, it became the official symbol of the Resurrection.
23. The tradition of rabbits for Easter originated in the Protestant communities of Europe.
Although it began in the 17th century, it only became common in the 19th century. They believe that the Easter Bunny lays, decorates and hides Easter eggs.
24. "Easter Bonnet" originated from the ballad "Easter Parade". Composer Irving Berlin launched American pop culture in 1933. This song is still one of the most popular Easter tunes.
25. In 2011, Italy made the world's tallest chocolate Easter egg. It was 10.39 meters tall and weighed 7200 kilograms. In other words, the tall Easter egg is taller than a giraffe and heavier than an elephant.
26. Brazil set another Easter Bunny record in February 2017. Located in Minas Gerais, Brazil, the Equipe da Casa do Chocolate at Shopping Uberaba has created a giant cocoa bunny. Nine professional chocolatiers built the rabbit for eight consecutive days until they set a Guinness World Record.
27. In 2007, the largest Easter egg hunt took place in Florida. 9,753 children and 501,000 eggs took part in the hunt.
28. Contrary to what many people think, hollow chocolate bunnies are better. Since hard chocolate will be as hard as a brick, it can seriously damage your teeth. While the hollow pieces are of great value due to the chocolate trail they have.
29. A 2007 Faberge Easter egg was sold for around £9 million.
30. Marmalade was first introduced in the 1930s as an Easter treat. Today, consumption among Americans during the holiday reaches 16 million. This amount is enough for marmalade to circle the globe three times.
31. The US produces hundreds of millions of Easter candies every year. This production includes 90 million chocolate bunnies, 700 million eyes and 91.4 billion chocolate eggs.
Facts from Easter history
32. Easter is the oldest of the Christian holidays.
33. Eastern and Western Christians celebrated Easter at different times.
34. Eastern Christianity bases its Easter dates on the Julian calendar.
35. According to the Christian calendar, Easter comes after the forty days of Lent.
36. Sundays are not included in the calculation. Traditions include fasting and penance.
37. The Holy Week before Easter Sunday is dedicated to names and memorials.
38. One of them is Maundy Thursday, dedicated to the Last Supper, which Jesus arranged with his disciples. The other is Good Friday in recognition of His crucifixion. Holy Saturday is a transitional day for the Crucifixion and Resurrection.
39. Western Christianity celebrates Easter on the first Sunday after the first full moon after the vernal equinox.
40. It includes both Catholics and Protestants. Due to complex calculations, Easter Sunday could have been anytime between March 22 and April 25.
41. In Polish folklore, the Virgin Mary offered eggs to Christ's guards on the cross. When she begged for their mercy, her tears flowed, leaving stains on the eggs.
42. In the Middle Ages, Easter involved throwing an egg at a church. The custom began with the priest tossing a hard-boiled egg to a choir boy. Whoever catches it throws it to another, and so on. When the clock strikes 12, whoever holds the egg wins and keeps the egg.
43. President Rutherford Hayes initiated an annual tradition of egg rolls at the White House.
44. The first families after his reign have retained Easter customs to this day.
45. The former press secretary for President Donald Trump was a former Easter Bunny.
Sean Spicer dressed up as an Easter Bunny during the George W. Bush administration. The character has always been a part of the White House Easter Egg Roll since day one. Proud of his rabbit days, Spicer even lists it in his biography of the Republican Party.
46. About half of the US has banned painting chickens for Easter. Meanwhile, Florida took a different path when it repealed the 45-year-old law.
47. The tradition of buying new clothes for Easter began in New York City in the mid-1800s. People believed that new clothes for Easter would bring them good luck throughout the year. Until today, more and more people adhere to this custom.
48. There are many theories about the name of Good Friday before Easter. Despite the fact that Catholics celebrate the Passion of Christ on this day, they still believe that there is something good in it. They see the suffering and death of Jesus as a stepping stone to His Resurrection and victory over death and sin.
49. According to another theory, Good Friday originated from "God's Friday". However, there is no etymological basis for this theory. Linguist Ben Zimmer observed that Good Friday does not translate as "Gottes Freitag" or "God's Friday" in German. Instead, it is "Karfreitag" which means "Mournful Friday".
50. The latter theory refers to the ancient meaning of the word "good." Other names for the day include "Holy Friday" in Roman and "Good Friday" in Russian. Moreover, the Oxford English Dictionary can confirm this theory.
When you know the answer to something no one else in the room does, it makes you feel like a genius. So, if you're a fan of the little things, want your next night to be memorable, or just love learning new things that no one else knows about, you've come to the right place. You never know when you'll need to pull those facts, which is part of the fun. So, we invite you to play with us and check out our list of random facts.
Is there any useless information? Never. All those little random, interesting, funny, scary facts, or did you know that the facts you store in your brain exist for a reason and are sure to come in handy someday...even if it's just for you to could beat your best dude or surprise a bored toddler on a family field trip. Just in case you don't have enough information cluttering your brain, here are some more fun, interesting, or just plain fun tidbits to keep on hand.
Interesting and funny facts about animals
1. The fur of polar bears is actually clean, and their skin is black.
2. Baby flamingos are born grey, not pink.
3. A woodpecker's tongue actually wraps around its brain completely, protecting it from damage when it hits a tree.
4. The shrimp's heart is in its head.
5. Elephants suck their trunks for convenience.
6. Anteaters have no teeth.
7. Nine-banded armadillos always have quadrupeds, and they are always identical.
8. Wombat poop is cube shaped.
9. A flock of flamingos is called brightness.
10. Hippos and horses are actually distant relatives.
11. All clown fish are born male.
12. In the UK, the Queen legally owns all unmarked swans.
13. In order not to disperse, sea otters hold hands during sleep.
14. Goats have an accent.
15. Dolphins give each other names.
16. Gorillas can catch a cold, although you can probably still go to the zoo with a runny nose.
17. Forget bald eagles. The turkey was once almost called the national bird.
18. A group of owls is called a parliament.
19. There are 32 muscles in a cat's ear.
20. Snails can regenerate their eyes.
21. Want to know if your pet turtle is a boy or a girl? Listen carefully! Female turtles hiss and male turtles grunt.
22. A starfish can turn its stomach inside out.
23. French poodles are actually from Germany.
24. Seahorses mate for life and are often seen telling each other stories.
25. A group of porcupines is called a thorn.
26. Andrew Jackson's parrot had to be removed from his funeral because he wouldn't stop swearing. Polly wants to rinse her mouth.
27. Sloths can hold their breath for up to 40 minutes.
Interesting and funny historical facts
28. Henry VIII knighted all four of his Grooms of the Chair - the men in charge of wiping his ass for him.
29. Jeanette Rankin was elected to Congress four years before women could vote.
30. Women could not apply for a bank loan until 1974.
31. Before the invention of modern artificial teeth, dentures were usually made from the teeth of dead soldiers.
32. In ancient Egypt, servants were smeared with honey so that flies would fly to them instead of the pharaoh.
33. It was once considered blasphemous to use a fork.
34. Abe Lincoln was a champion wrestler. He was also a licensed bartender. Maybe they should call him Abe of all trades.
35. George Washington owned a whiskey distillery.
36. More than two percent of the American population died during the civil war.
37. Joseph Stalin removed people from photographs after their death or dismissal from office.
38. Since 1945, all British tanks have been equipped with everything necessary for making tea.
39. Pope Gregory IV once declared war on cats because he thought Satan was using black cats. His statement led to the mass extermination of cats.
40. The absence of cats led to an invasion of rats, which led to the spread of the plague.
50. John Adams was the first president to live in the White House.
51. Go to sleep! Chernobyl, the Exxon Valdez oil spill, and the Challenger explosion are all linked to lack of sleep.
Interesting and funny travel facts
52. The average person living in Sweden eats about 22 pounds of chocolate a year.
53. Although the Wright brothers are known as a couple, they actually flew together only once. They promised their father that they would always fly separately.
54. In Montana, there are three times more cows than people.
55. Parts of the Great Wall of China were made from sticky rice.
56. Ninety percent of the world's population lives above the equator.
57. There are more saunas in Finland than cars.
58. Sixty percent of the world's lakes (three million in total) are located in Canada.
59. Virginia is the only state that has the same staff flower and staff tree - Dogwood.
60. Think before the season. In Egypt, it is considered incredibly rude to salt the food you have been served.
61. Ninety percent of the territory of Libya is desert.
62. The height of the Eiffel Tower can vary up to six inches, depending on the temperature.
63. Do you spend too much on drinks when you eat out? A small town in Italy has a fountain that serves free wine.
64. Pilots and their co-pilots should eat differently before the flight so that both of them do not get sick with food poisoning.
65. About 600 Parisians work on the Eiffel Tower every day.
66. Do you want to go to Rome? Which one of? Six of the seven continents have a city called Rome. (You really fell, Antarctica.)
67. When you visit Key West, you are actually closer to Havana than Miami.
Interesting and fun facts about music
68. Mary, known as "Mary Had the Lamb", was a real person and the song is based on real events.
69. Happy Birthday was the first song ever played on Mars. Mars Rover Curiosity played this song to itself on its first anniversary on the planet.
70. When you listen to music, your heart is in sync with the beat.
71. President Nixon was an accomplished musician. He played five instruments, including the accordion.
72. Is the song stuck in your head? This is called an earworm.
73. None of The Beatles could read music.
74. However, George Harrison was reportedly able to play 26 instruments.
75. Barry Manilow didn't actually write I Write Songs.
76. Metallica is the only band to play on all seven continents.
77. Most department stores tend to play music slower to slow down shoppers and make them shop longer. The reverse is true for restaurants.
78. Monaco's orchestra is bigger than its army.
79. A concert promoter once sold a thousand tickets to a Spice Girls concert in Hawaii that were never booked. Maybe that's where the idea for Fyre Fest came from.
80. Leo Fender, inventor of the Stratocaster and Telecaster, couldn't play the guitar.
If you had the opportunity to travel back in time, what century would you go? Of course, it is difficult to immediately answer this question, because in each era there was something exciting and interesting. Today we will be your time machine and will try to cover different eras and centuries, so that you feel like you've been in the past.
Beer bottle melted by an atomic bomb, Nagasaki, 1945
"Pulp Fiction" at the Cannes Film Festival, France, 1994
Kiev, USSR, hot summer 1958
18-year-old Brigitte Bardot dancing on the roof, 1952
Marilyn Monroe, 1950s
Metal stamps with embedded needles used by Nazi soldiers to tattoo Jewish prisoners at Auschwitz, 1941
Installation for the Day of Beer in Moscow at the Luzhniki stadium in 1998
Sandra Bullock, 1995
Ice Skating Dress, 1896
At an exhibition of beauty salon owners in New York, Ruth Scott modeled a mask that warms up the face and tones the skin. The onlays on her fingers were brass thimbles that protected the nail polish until it dries, March 1940
On October 6, 1889, the Ball Moulin Rouge cabaret opened in Paris on Montmartre. In the photo - his main asset
Oldest known wine: An ancient Roman 1.5-liter jar of wine found in the tomb of a Roman nobleman, dating back to the 4th century
Participants of the contest "Miss Universe" 1951
Soviet store, Ukrainian SSR, Zaporozhye, 1970s
Exquisite pocket watch, 1645
In the very first film of 1913, Fantômas looked like this
Italian actress Maria Grazia Cucinotta, Benevento, Italy, 1995
Niagara Falls, 1885
Demonstration of the reliability and safety of London double-decker buses, 1933
Captain John "Wild Bill" Crump and his coyote Jeep, 1944
A border country located at the confluence of the EU and Russia, a former Soviet republic with a population of 46 million, independent since 1991, known abroad by stereotypes such as the "granary of the former USSR", the "Chernobyl catastrophe", "Gas crisis" or "orange revolution", Ukraine is trying to build an identity.
The difficulty in finding this identity stems from the fact that Ukraine has long been fragmented between the Russian and Austro-Hungarian empires, the current borders being drawn by Joseph Stalin. It is true that nationalist ideas took their place here in the nineteenth century, but it was only after the disintegration of the USSR that Ukraine became independent, except for a short period between 1917 and 1920.
You can read more interesting facts below.
1. If Russia, which is not entirely in Europe, is not taken into account, Ukraine is the state with the largest area on the "Old Continent". Ukraine has an area of 603,628 square kilometers;
2. Ukrainians celebrate National Day on August 24;
3. Arsenal in Kyiv is the deepest subway station in the world. It is located at a depth of 105 meters and was built in 1960 for military purposes. The reason? Threatening powerful states with nuclear bombs
4. Traditional Ukrainian food includes chicken, pork, beef, eggs, fish and mushrooms. Ukrainians also tend to eat a lot of fresh, pickled potatoes, cereals and vegetables.
5. The most famous Ukrainian dish is borscht. While many Russians claim to be from their homeland, many Ukrainians are passionate about believing that they are the founders of this dish.
6. Ukraine was at the center of one of the greatest catastrophes of the 20th century. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant exploded in April 1986. The blast was considered the worst accident in the history of nuclear power.
7. Unlike many civilized states in Ukraine, wedding rings are worn on the ring finger of the right hand.
8. The "Love Tunnel" also exists in Ukraine. Near the town of Klevan in Ukraine there is a railway line that is covered with vaults formed by the branches of the nearby trees. It has become a favorite destination for thousands of lovers.
9. The geographical center of Europe is located in Ukraine. In 1886, the geographers of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, using the technology of the time, established the geographical center of Europe in the village of Dilove.
10. The city of Druzhkivka in the Donetsk region is one of the few places in the world where fossilized trees are kept. The trees are almost 250 million years old and create an entire fossilized forest that covers an area of 1 hectare.
11. The first gas lamp in history was invented in the Ukrainian city of Lviv.
12. The Ukrainians, namely the Antonov Design Bureau, have developed an aircraft with the highest payload capacity in the world - the An-225 Mechta. At first it was designed to transport spacecraft. Now "Dream" carries out commercial cargo transportation.
13. The author of one of the first constitutions in the world is Ukrainian political and public figure Pylyp Orlyk. On April 5, 1710, he was elected hetman of the Zaporizhian army. On the same day, Pylyp Orlyk announced the "Constitution of the rights and freedoms of the Zaporizhian army." In the United States, the Constitution was adopted in 1787, in France and the Commonwealth - only in 1791. An interesting fact is that Pylyp Orlik was born on the territory of Belarus - in the village of Kosuta, Oshmyany Povet.
14. In recent years, Ukraine has confidently retained its place in the top three world leaders in honey production. Being several times ahead of European countries in terms of honey production, Ukraine is at the same time the first state in the world in honey production per capita (1.5 kg).
15. Ukraine has the world's largest reserves of manganese ore - 2.3 billion tons, or about 11% of the world's total reserves.
16. Only six monasteries in the world have the status of Lavra. Three of them are in Ukraine. These are the Holy Assumption Kiev-Pechersk Lavra in Kyiv, which received this status back in 1598, the Holy Assumption Lavra in the city of Pochaev and the Svyatogorsk Holy Assumption Lavra in the Donetsk region.
17. Ostroh Academy is the first higher educational institution in Eastern Europe, the oldest Ukrainian scientific and educational institution. In 1576, Prince Konstantin-Vasily of Ostrog founded the Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy in Ostrog.
18. The first kerosene lamp was invented in Lvov by Ignaty Lukasiewicz and Jan Zekh in 1853, under the Golden Star pharmacy workers.In the same year, the first surgical operation was performed in the Lviv hospital under the illumination of a kerosene lamp. Subsequently, the kerosene lamp was presented at the international exhibition in Munich, the invention was awarded a special diploma there.
19. Monuments to the famous Ukrainian poet Taras Shevchenko have been erected in 1200 cities around the world.
20. The Ukrainian wind instrument trembita is the longest wind musical instrument in the world.
21. The shortest main street of all the capitals of the world, but at the same time one of the widest and most beautiful - Khreshchatyk in Kyiv. Its length is only 1225 m.
22. The oldest map known to scientists, as well as the oldest settlement of Homo Sapiens, were found in Ukraine: in the village. Mesopotamia of the Rivne region. They are about 14.5-15 thousand years old. The map is engraved on a mammoth bone.
23. The longest cave in Ukraine is called "Optimistic" and is located in Podolia. This is a gypsum cave at a depth of 20 m with a length of 216 km. The longest gypsum cave in the world and the second longest in general, it is second only to Mammoth Cave in the United States.
24. The geographical center of Europe (well, yes, we also have it :)). In Ukraine, near the town of Rakhiv, surrounded by the picturesque Carpathians, is the geographical center of Europe.
25. The oldest tree in Ukraine is considered to be a 1300-year-old oak in the Yuzefin tract, Rivne region.
26. The third most visited McDonald's in the world is located in Kyiv near the railway station. This establishment consistently ranks among the top five busiest McDonald's in the world.
27. One of the largest historical transport routes ran through the territory of Ukraine (as well as through the territory of Belarus) - “the path from the Varangians to the Greeks” - a system of river routes and portages between them 3 thousand km long, connecting the northern lands of Ancient Russia with the southern Russian lands and the Baltic sea with Black. Throughout ancient history, Ukraine has acted as a bridge between the worlds of Eastern Europe and the Ancient East, Antique, Byzantine and Latin Europe.
28. Ukraine ranks fourth in the world in terms of the number of citizens with higher education. The population of Ukraine is among the most educated, and the number of people with higher education per capita is higher than the average European level.
29. Ukraine, on its own initiative, abandoned the world's third largest arsenal of nuclear weapons. At the time of declaration of independence, more than a thousand nuclear warheads and missiles were located on the territory of Ukraine, the third largest nuclear potential after Russia and America. The warheads and missiles were handed over to Russia, the bunkers were destroyed. In response, Ukraine received money for disarmament, as well as security guarantees from nuclear powers (as we can see, these guarantees are not respected today).
30. The international Ukrainian anthem consists of only six lines (four in verse and two in the chorus). The remaining lines of the anthem are considered politically incorrect. (for example, "Stand, brother, in a crooked way from Xiang to Don" implies Ukraine's claims to the territory of Russia and Poland). The anthem was born in 1863, and adopted as a state anthem in 2003.
31.At the language beauty contest in Paris in 1934, the Ukrainian language took third place after French and Persian in terms of phonetics, vocabulary, phraseology, and sentence structure. And in terms of melodiousness, the Ukrainian language took second place after Italian.
32. Until the almost complete destruction in 1240 by the Mongol-Tatars, Kyiv was one of the largest cities in Europe, fifty times larger than London, ten times larger than Paris. It reached its peak under Yaroslav the Wise (1010 - 1054), who became related to the royal families of France, Norway, Romania and Poland. The population of today's capital of Ukraine was about 50,000 inhabitants. It took about 600 years to reach such demographic indicators again. Quite possibly, if it were not for the destruction of that time, Kyiv could have been the most developed largest city in Europe for many years.
33. Pablo Picasso was delighted with the works of the Ukrainian artist Kateryna Bilokur (1900-1961). When in 1954 he saw her works at an exhibition, he said that they were brilliant and compared Catherine with the world-famous artist Serafin Louis.
35. One of the most famous Christmas songs in the world is Shchedryk, a folk song recorded by Ukrainian composer Mykola Leontovych. The world knows her as Carol of the Bells or Ring Christmas Bells. On Youtube, various performances of "Shchedryk" are gaining millions of views.
36. During the Anglo-Boer War (South Africa) in 1899 - 1902. the commander of one of the detachments of the Boers, Ukrainian Yuriy Budyak, saved a young English journalist from execution. Subsequently, the latter helped Budyak enter Oxford University. In 1917, Yuriy worked in the government of the Ukrainian People's Republic. In 1943 Yuri Budyak died in a Soviet concentration camp. The English journalist's name was Winston Churchill…
37. At the time of independence, there were 19.4 million pigs in Ukraine. Today, there are half as many of them - 8.3 million. Despite the reputation of a salo-eater, the average Ukrainian eats only 18 kg of pork per year. This is three times less than an ordinary German.
38. In Ukraine, near Nikopol, on a spit near the river. Lapinki, on one of the branches of the Dnieper, you can see, or rather hear a phenomenon that is rare in the world - singing sands. The "singing" of these, perhaps, the strangest sands appears after rain, when the top layer sticks together and forms a fragile crust. Walking along it, you can hear sounds similar to the whistling of air released from a car chamber.
39. In the town of Berdychiv (Zhytomyr region) in the church of St. Barbara on March 14, 1850, the local beauty Evelina Ganskaya was married to Honore de Balzac. Frederic Chopin lived in the same town for a long time, who, in addition to writing music, also supervised the restoration of the local organ.
40. It would be possible to collect a dictionary of Ukrainian surnames, distorted in the course of Russification by Russian officials. So, the Ukrainian clan Chekhov in the 19th century became Chekhov for some reason. Chekhov's grandfather was still a Czech. Anton Pavlovich himself wrote that his grandfather was a Ukrainian. Quite funny, the Deineks turned into Denikins. Cossacks Rozuma became Razumovsky, Chaikas become Tchaikovsky. The grandfather of Pyotr Tchaikovsky, the great composer - Pyotr Chaika - graduated from the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, and as a physician, the Russian government sent him as a head physician to Vyatka.
41. Probably, the Ukrainian atmosphere in the Tchaikovsky family was preserved much better than that of the Chekhovs, because from the age of 24, the future composer lived in Ukraine almost every year for several months, where he wrote more than 30 works, including the opera Blacksmith Vakula (Cherevichki ”), “Mazepa”, song-romance “Cherry Garden of Haiti”, duet “On the Novgorod near the Ford” to the words of T. Shevchenko. In the cruel times of the empire's offensive against the Ukrainian language, he sought the production of "Taras Bulba" by N. Lysenko (the famous Ukrainian composer), used many Ukrainian folk songs in his works.
42. The great writer Fyodor Dostoevsky was Ukrainian by origin, because the Dostoevsky family came from the village of Dostoev near Pinsk (Ukrainian-Belarusian border), so Belarusians can also consider him their fellow countryman. One of the Dostoevskys becomes a hieromonk of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra and in 1647 takes part in the election of the next metropolitan. It is interesting that among the Dostoevskys who lived in Podolia, most of all were representatives of the clergy. Andrei Dostoevsky was a priest of the Ukrainian Uniate Church.
43. He was the grandfather of the writer F. Dostoevsky. Andrei's son quarreled with his father and brother and went to Moscow. His name was Mikhail, and as a memory of his family and Ukraine, he took with him, preserved and passed on to his sons his own Ukrainian poems. The daughter of Fyodor Mikhailovich recalls: "... poetic abilities were already in the Ukrainian family of my father, and were not given only through my Muscovite mother, as Dostoevsky's literary friends suggest." It is a pity that F. Dostoevsky did not join the defense of Ukraine.
44. This, in principle, cannot be said about V. Mayakovsky. The poet sharply criticized the “Muscovites”: “Comrade Muscovite, don’t joke about Ukraine.” He also reminded that Russians from the history of Ukraine know only Shevchenko, Taras Bulba, borscht and lard (“Russians have a shallow thickness of knowledge”).
45. By the way, he wrote about himself: "I am a Cossack from my grandfather, on the other - a Sich." Researchers point out that the Ukrainian clans of Mayakovsky went, probably, from those Cossacks who stood guard over the barrows, at the lighthouses that were set on fire during the Tatar attacks.
46. Unfortunately, the Ukrainians of Ripa turned into Repins. Although Ilya Repin, who was born in the Kharkiv region, still retained his sense of belonging to the Ukrainians and painted himself as a Cossack leaning on a cannon. “It's time to think about the Ukrainian style in art,” the artist noted. But he not only spoke, but also created many works on Ukrainian themes, for example, “The Cossacks write a letter to the Turkish Sultan” - he wrote two versions of this picture.
47. In 1931, there were more Ukrainians in the USSR than Russians. In six years, 55 million disappeared ... This figure is indicated in the book "At the Great Construction Site", published in 1931 in Leningrad. The same data are presented in the first Soviet encyclopedia of 1926. Neither this encyclopedia nor the book is available in any library in Ukraine. We managed to find "At the Great Construction Site" in Moscow.
48. The figures of 81 million are clearly visible in these copies. It should be noted that the population of Ukrainian Galicia, which was part of Poland, was not taken into account here. Already the next census of 1937 indicates that only 26 million Ukrainians remained in the USSR. Where did all the rest go? Knowing such figures, the repressions of the 1930s seem even more terrible.
49. Freedom Square in Kharkov is the largest square in Europe.
50. The longest embankment in Europe is located in Dnepropetrovsk. Its length is 30 km.
Elephants are the only representatives of the ancient group that have survived to our time. Previously, there were 40 species, most of them bred until the end of the last ice age 12,500 years ago, there were pygmy elephants, mammoths, and dinotherium. Only three have survived to this day - the African savannah elephant, the African forest elephant, and the Asian elephant. We present to you the most interesting historical facts about them.
It is a well-known fact that elephants are the largest land animals on earth. The heart of an elephant can reach a weight of 25-30 kg. In its normal rhythm, it contracts about once every two seconds, driving blood through a huge body. In the wild, elephants spend up to 20 hours a day searching for food.
Troops of the nobility
According to the unwritten Aryan code of honor, the highest aristocracy first fought on chariots and later moved to elephants. The princes were taught the methods of training elephants as much as riding. The elephant was used both on the battlefields and during sieges: elephants scattered palisades and broke through city walls.
According to the Mahabharata epic, the ancient Indian military unit (Patti) included one elephant, one chariot, three horsemen, and five-foot soldiers.
The elephant crew consisted of two or three people, with the foremost warrior sitting on the neck of the animal and the rest on the rump; one of them could carry the badge of an aristocratic fighter or hold an umbrella over the nobleman. The weapons were darts and bows. The warriors sat on a colorful blanket or a special saddle, and the elephant itself was sometimes protected by a leather or metal shell, the design of which is unknown.
In any case, finds from Taxila, where rectangular iron plates 21.6 × 25.4 cm in size were made about 2000 years ago, speak of lamellar armor.
If the body of the elephant was invulnerable, then its legs were guarded by four-foot soldiers assigned to the animal - “guardians of the feet” (Kautilya’s treatise “Arthashastra” recommends strengthening the war elephant with fifteen warriors). In the Mahabharata, the elephant-hero could be accompanied by four chariots instead of infantry.
The classic variant of the correct battle was a battle by type of troops: elephants had to fight with the enemy's elephant, chariots with chariots, horse riders with horse riders, and foot soldiers against footmen. Of course, the rules were often broken in the heat of battle.
Where the elephants fought
As an example of the interaction of elephants with other branches of the military on the battlefield, one can cite the Battle of the Hydaspes in May 326 BC. e. between Alexander the Great and the Punjabi Raja Por.
Ancient historians describe the disposition of Por in sufficient detail: infantry was built in the center, in front of which there were about 130 elephants, and on the flanks - quadriga chariots, followed by cavalry.
Thus, the elephants became the main striking force of the Indian army: during the battle, the elephants of Por even attacked the famous Macedonian phalanx. However, tactical superiority remained on the side of Alexander: the Macedonians killed the Kornak drovers with darts, surrounded the enemy's elephant, and captured elephants as trophies.
The first known use of elephants outside of India is at the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC. e. The Persian king Darius III was supplied with 15 animals by the Indian allies against the Macedonians.
The Persians, having painted the place of the elephant in their written disposition, were afraid to bring the elephants to the battlefield so as not to scare away their horses and leave them in the camp. The battle was won by Alexander the Great, who captured the Persian base along with the elephants.
After the Battle of the Hydaspes, Alexander formed a guard detachment-agama from captured elephants in the Macedonian way, putting heavily armed hoplite foot soldiers on the backs of animals. Thus, in the first European elephant, the elephant crew consisted of an Indian Kornak and a Macedonian, equipped with their traditional weapons: a large round shield and a pike-sarisa. The hoplite held his lance with both hands and stabbed down.
After the collapse of the power of Alexander, his elephant was also divided: Antipater took half to Macedonia, and the second half went to the Asian strategist Antigonus One-eyed, who used elephants in the battle Orkinia in the spring of 320 BC. e., fighting with another heir of Alexander, Eumenes.
Two years later, Eumenes received from his supporter Eudamus, the strategist of North India, 125 elephants taken by Eudamus from the army of Por, who he killed. Thus, the elephants of Pore fought each other in two major battles: at Paretaken (317 BC) and Gabiene (316 BC).
Elephant of the Hellenistic era
The era of Hellenism is generally the heyday of the Mediterranean elephant. In the III - the middle of the II century BC. e. the armies of the most powerful states - Macedonia, Syria, Egypt - were armed with several dozen elephants.
The Epirus king Pyrrhus, having encountered Sicily in the 270s BC. e. with the Carthaginians, introduced the enemy to his elephant. By the time of the Second Punic War (218-201 BC), there were up to 300 elephants in the stalls of the Carthaginian army.
The founder of the dynasty of Syrian kings, Seleucus I, had the most significant number of war elephants - he received five thousand heads from India. Seleucid elephants participated in the major wars of the era: with Egypt, Rome, and the Jews.
Alexander's successors improved the elephant's equipment. The animal was dressed in a purple blanket. The protective armor was replenished with a forehead with a sultan and an entire shell. The tusks were reinforced with sharp tips, and weapons were given to the elephant's trunk.
Among the Greeks, elephants threw darts while brandishing heavy chains and swords in India. On the back of the elephant, they began to install a tower resembling a fortification. On the one hand, she gave the fighters solid support for the combat stance, and on the other hand, she covered them with arrows and spears.
This innovation likely appeared in the army of the already mentioned Diadochus Antigonus One-Eyed at the turn of 320-310 BC. e. 2-3 warriors stood in the tower, turning in different directions. In addition to a hook for controlling the animal, the leader-cork also received a chisel with a hammer to neutralize an enraged elephant: the chisel was driven into the back of the animal's head, causing immediate death. Cruel, but out of obedience, the elephants were no less dangerous for their warriors than for the enemy.
The idea of equipping the Kornak with a chisel is attributed to the younger brother of Hannibal, the Carthaginian commander Hasdrubal (245-207 BC).
Now the forces of elephants were not wasted on the siege of cities but used elephants mainly in field battles. The animals were arranged in a chain at a distance of about 30 m from each other; they usually had to charge the cavalry or fight against the enemy elephant.
The success of the attacks on the cavalry was because the horses, unaccustomed to the sight and smell of elephants, began to rage and got out of control. Elephants were soldered with wine before the fight for courage.
Asian monarchies used giant Indian elephants (height at the withers up to 3.5 m). At the same time, the armies of North Africa - the Egyptians, Carthaginians, Numidians, and Ethiopians - had smaller African forest elephants (height at the withers no more than 3 m).
This forest breed was afraid of its taller Asian counterparts: in the battle of Rafia in South Palestine on June 22, 217 BC. e., when the Indian elephants of the Seleucid king Antiochus III collided with the Egyptian elephant of Ptolemy IV, the Libyan elephants of the Egyptians simply retreated.
Depletion of natural resources
Although the Romans learned to fight the elephant successfully, they also acquired this branch of the army, receiving elephants mainly from Africa. The Elephant of the Eternal City fought with the Macedonians, the Spanish Celtiberians, and the Allobroge Gauls.
The last time elephants appeared in the Roman army was at the Battle of Thapsus (46 BC) between Caesar and the supporters of Pompey, who received animals from the Numidian king. Despite the unsuccessful actions of the elephants in that battle, Caesar wanted to use elephants against the Parthians, but his death in 44 BC. e. thwarted these plans.
Emperor Claudius (41-54 AD) was going to use elephants in a campaign in Britain in 43, and the emperor Caracalla (211-217) even formed a detachment of elephants.
However, the Romans were not destined to use it in battle, as historian Andrei Bannikov suggests, due to the loss of elephant combat training skills. It is also possible that the not too numerous elephants of North Africa had already died on the battlefield before Caesar, and the Romans had nowhere to replenish their elephant.
The elephant in the Middle Ages and after
Gradually, outside of Asia, Elephantery fell into disuse everywhere except in Ethiopia. The Africans also erected towers on animals, in which six archers fired in pairs on three sides.
In the 6th century, the Ethiopian ruler of Yemen, Abraha, sent an army to Mecca, including a white elephant. According to Islamic tradition, this event, described in the Koran in a separate sura "Elephant," took place in 570, when the prophet Muhammad was born.
Perhaps in the battles with the Ethiopians, the Arabs gained the experience that they needed when they conquered Persia. The number of elephants in the Shahinshah's army reached 300 heads. Iranian elephant successfully fought against the Romans and Armenians. According to sources, the Persians used elephants more often during sieges.
In the fatal battle of Qadisiya (637) for Iranian history, three dozen elephants located in front of the center and flanks of the Persian army fought fiercely with the Arabs on the first and third days of the four-day battle.
On the first day, the elephants attacked quite successfully. The Arabs stopped them with difficulty, shooting at the trunks and eyes of the animals and the carriages and cutting off the girths holding the towers. The whole second day, the Persians were repairing the equipment of elephants. Each animal was given an infantry detachment and a horse patrol. On the third day of the battle, the Arabs continued to shoot at the eyes of the elephants and put up special squads of swordsmen who managed to cut off several trunks, which led to a stampede of the animals. On the fourth day, the Persian commander died, and his army fled.
This battle dealt a blow to the reputation of the Elephant in the Middle East. However, elephants continued to serve in Ethiopia (at least until the 16th century), India (until the end of the 18th century), and Indochina (until the end of the 19th century). In the 16th-17th centuries, the Mughal kings of India had up to 12 thousand animals, while the kings of Siam and Burma - had five to six thousand.
Elephants received from India also fought in the armies of the most militant Muslim monarchs of the Middle East: Sultan Mahmud Ghaznevi (998-1030), Khorezmshah Muhammad (1200-1220), and Emir Tamerlane (1370-1405).
Afanasy Nikitin, who lived in Central India from 1471-to 1474, described the war elephants of the Bahmanid state in a story about the sultan's parade:
“300 elephants dressed in damask armor with towns, and the villages are chained. There are six people in armor with cannons and squeakers in the cities and 12 people on the great elephant. On each elephant, there are two large banners. Large swords are tied to the fangs, each center (about 40 kg), and heavy iron weights are tied to the trunks; between the ears sits a man in armor, and in his hands is a large iron hook, which he rules.
Nikitin also observed preparations for a campaign against the neighboring state of Vijayanagar: 100 elephants set out "in armor and with towns, and on each elephant, there are four people with squeakers."
Greek fire against artillery
Since the 14th century, the towers of the elephants of the army of the Delhi Sultanate were wooden, upholstered in metal, and shaped like closed towers. They were mounted on animals, protected by steel armor. The buildings housed archers, crossbowmen, throwers of discs or grenades with Greek fire, and for reinforcement, rockets were assigned to the animals - warriors who launched powder rockets at the enemy.
Detachments of five animals were supported by foot soldiers, whose task in battle was to cover the elephants from unexpectedly attacking horse riders. If at the time of Athanasius Nikitin, elephants armed with heavy arquebuses and bows fired from the towns, then later, under the Great Mughals (XVI-XVIII centuries), elephants usually did not carry towers.
The commander's elephant had a special seat (houdah), sheathed in metal in the combat version, for the commander and his guards or servants. Elephants were grouped into groups of 10, 20, and 30 heads.
Animals were actively used during sieges, where they kicked out gates and destroyed fortifications, and on the battlefield for a frontal attack. But against the artillery of the New Age, they were defenseless. In the pitched battle of Karnal (1739) between the troops of the Mughal Padishah Muhammad (1719–1748) and the Persians of Nadir Shah (1736–1747), the ruler of India fielded 2,000 elephants, which were put to flight by the fire of Iranian field guns transported on camels.
In the 16th-17th centuries, special light guns (gajnals) about 1.8 m long were mounted on some elephants, which served four gunners. Swords or knives tied to elephant tusks were sometimes poisoned, and in the trunk, the animal carried a sword or a heavy chain, sometimes with weights.
The elephant could be unarmored, protected by partially or fully covered armor, non-metallic or steel scaly, or ring-plate. Moreover, in Mughal times, the elephant's headband watched the entire trunk, except for the very tip, and had a pair of high-standing "ears" covering the Karnak in front.
At the Royal Armories in Leeds, England, a large part of Mughal elephant armor dating from around the 17th century has been preserved. The armor consisted of eight regions and covered the entire head with ears, trunk, and torso.
Its complete set was supposed to consist of 8349 large and small steel plates with a total weight of 159 kg. Rectangular plates were connected with chain mail and lined with wool, and each large scale was decorated with images of flowers, elephants, birds, and fish.
The elephant was a significant branch of the army in the states of Indochina. Here the warrior sat on the back of the head of the animal, a servant squire was placed in a high saddle, and the leader controlled the elephant, sitting behind. For one warrior with a pike, halberd, or trident, there were two archers, crossbowmen, or, later, shooters with muskets.
If the head of the elephant was a woman (and this happened often), then the entire crew consisted of the fair sex. The elephant was usually accompanied by four "foot guards" in the Indian manner.
In the first half of the 1540s, the ruler of Cochinchina (South Vietnam) had two hundred elephants equipped with towers and swords on their tusks. The Cambodian war elephant in the 19th century wore an iron shell, an open saddle with a hundred darts, and three helmeted warriors: a corner with a hook and a curved sword around his neck, an arrow or spearman in the saddle, and a javelin thrower behind.
Animals rarely wore a shell. Warriors were placed either directly on a blanket or, more often on a special saddle, sometimes covered with a shield at the back.
The artillery of the 19th century drove the elephants out of the first formation of the attacking armies. The tallest and most beautiful animals became “combat command vehicles,” from which the generals watched the battle's progress and, if necessary, participated in duels famous in the East between the leaders of the opposing armies. Elephants with less imposing appearance were increasingly used as tractors.
Their importance in the military affairs of Indochina is confirmed by the offer made in 1861 by the King of Siam Rama IV (1851-1868) to the American president: the king expressed his readiness to send his elephants to help the army of northerners in the transportation of goods. Abraham Lincoln, however, refused under the pretext that the US climate is not suitable for elephants.
In the 20th century, tractor elephants were replaced by steel equipment, although not everywhere: during the Second World War, animals served in the jungles of Burma as a universal transport. With the advent of helicopters, machines intercepted this function from elephants.
But the all-terrain qualities of animals continued to be used by the partisans of Indochina in their combat operations. Hmong and other Vietnamese Montagnards, participants in the Vietnam War, crossed the impenetrable forests on elephants. In 1997, God's Army's Burmese rebel patrols did the same. The civil war in Burma ended with a compromise in 2012: a peace treaty was concluded between the government of Myanmar and the ethnic separatists of the Karen National Union. Perhaps this document has become the last page in the annals of an elephant.
Easter is the most important moment of the religious calendar and the fundamental point on which the Christian faith rests. Easter focuses human hopes and aspirations on overcoming seemingly invincible limits and situations.
For many, the greatest joy of Easter is that the family gathers around the table full of goodies. There are many people that like to recieve messages that begin with "May the light of the holiday ..". But it is also funny to send some good memes to your friends. Easter has a long history, old spring festivals, religious disputes, various traditions and many commercial elements added in the last 250 years. For sure you will find this things in our memes.
Funniest memes to boost your mood for the 2022 Easter.
4.Holidays be like
Like Christmas, Easter has its roots in the great holidays of antiquity, practically in the ancient spring festivals. Elements from ancient times have been added and have come to be included in the holiday we know today. Then, in recent centuries, modern components have been added: the bunny, the gifts and the things that led to the excessive sale of the holiday.
Both Easter and Christmas are related to key moments of the year, they are strictly related to an optimistic time (spring, respectively winter) and an important astronomical moment (spring equinox, respectively winter solstice). In addition, both have changed a lot in the last 150 years, becoming family holidays, huge business holidays, and products related to these holidays appear in stores three months in advance. No wonder there have been calls in the UK this year for supermarkets not to bring chocolate eggs so quickly, as the obesity rate has reached record levels among children and the first eggs have appeared in stores since the first days of January.
Easter is different from other holidays and the fact that its date varies greatly from year to year. For example, in 2010 it was on April 4th, and in 2013 on May 5th, so on the night of the resurrection it can be in the cold years and below 0 degrees, and in the very warm ones, over 10 degrees. Every four or five years, the date of the Catholic Easter coincides with the date of the Orthodox Easter, but the calendar has in many cases caused controversy and discussions have been held to unify the data between Catholics and Orthodox, but no agreement has been reached.
The date of the celebration of Easter is based on two astronomical phenomena: the spring equinox and the rotating motion of the Moon around the Earth. Generally, the Catholic one is one week before the Orthodox one, but there are also cases in which the Catholic one is more than a month earlier.
6.Back in 3 days
Pâques (in French) or Pascua (in Italian) appeared on the same etymology. In English, Easter has an uncertain etymology, but a widely accepted scenario is that it came from Eostre or Eostrae, an Anglo-Saxon goddess of spring and fertility. The mention was made by the monk Venerable Bede in the 8th century, but it is disputed by some historians.
In the pre-Christian period, the coming of spring was celebrated with fasting, food and drink, especially in northern Europe where nature came back to life, the weather warmed up and the days became longer than the nights.
Many of the holiday traditions are much older and can be attributed to the so-called pagans. If we talk about the pagan roots of Easter, we can list the myth of the resurrection present in Sumerian, Egyptian or Roman deities, the presence of the lamb in Israelite sacrifice rituals or the tradition of egg exchange (egg being a symbol of fertility).
In many parts of Europe, there were pre-Christian spring holidays, carnivals, or processions designed to ward off evil spirits and "scare" the winter once and for all. In some villages there are still carnivals in which people disguised as monsters go to carols in the spring and receive sweets, meat or wine, a custom that is believed to derive from the fact that families helped themselves with food during times of great deprivation.
It would be wrong to say that modern Easter traditions come directly from pre-Christian peoples, but it would be just as erroneous to believe that we are facing a completely modern phenomenon. In the first three to four centuries of Christianity, the rising religion took over some of the traditions of the so-called barbarians.
Pagans were those who worshiped gods or idols or were of a religion other than Christianity. The pagans called them Christians and those who had no religion, did not believe in God, or were not baptized.
Traditions that seemed appropriate to them were gradually adopted by Christianity. In addition, the new religion soon found its place among the so-called barbarians as long as some of the old rituals were maintained, which can be seen as a sign of respect for those who converted.
The earliest evidence of the Passover is from the second century, but it is suspected that the resurrection of Jesus has been commemorated since the first century AD.