The most interesting facts about diamonds that you probably didn't know about
The natural world is divided into three major groups: the animal world, the plant world, and the mineral world.
The latter is not and has never been alive, it is an inorganic world. Diamond is part of the category of minerals. Each of the minerals is defined by the types, the relativity of the atoms it contains, and the way they are arranged.
Differences in structure and chemical composition give minerals unique properties. For example, spinel atoms are arranged in the same way as diamond atoms, the difference being that the spinel is made up of different chemical elements.
Diamonds are women’s best friends
A chemical element is a substance that contains only one kind of atom. Most minerals are made up of two or more such substances. Once used to imitate diamonds, Spinel is made up of three chemical elements: magnesium, aluminum, and oxygen.
Diamond is the only stone made up of a single element: carbon.
The diamond usually consists of 99.95% carbon, with the remaining 0.05% being other elements whose atoms are not part of the chemical structure of the diamond. Some of these elements are used to determine the color of the diamond.
The way it is formed gives the minerals a special identity. Diamonds are formed at extremely high temperatures and under conditions of special pressure, which exist only at certain distances below the earth's surface. Graphite, for example, is made in the same way as diamond, made of carbon, but in such different conditions that graphite is so soft that it can be used in writing, while a diamond can only be scratched by another diamond.
The composition, the structure, and the way of forming give the diamond the qualities that make it so extraordinary.
GET TO KNOW THE FOUR “Cs”
As with other stones, diamonds with special qualities are rarer and more valuable than lower-quality diamonds.
The 4Cs are universal and are an effective means of characterizing diamonds and are used both in trade and among members of the diamond processing community. These four factors professionally describe the quality of diamonds and refer to:
- carat (weight)
One of the value factors of a diamond stands out precisely because this stone is rare. Most diamonds have shades of yellow or brown and this is why colorless diamonds have a better color rating than those that tend to yellow.
The value and rarity of a diamond are closely related, and the four C's describe the qualities of the diamond in very precise terms.
Like most elements of nature, Diamond is not perfect in all respects. Diamonds may have inclusions and surface irregularities; together they are characteristics of the clarity of a diamond.
- a defining characteristic of the clarity of a diamond, practically enclosed in a stone or extending from the surface of the stone to its interior.
- a defining characteristic of the clarity of a diamond that is found only on the outer surface of a polished stone.
As with the rest of the factors that give the value of a diamond, clarity is directly correlated with the rarity.
Flawless is the highest degree of clarity in the GIA (Gemological Institute of America) diamond clarity rating scale. Diamonds classified as flawless have no visible inclusions on examination at 10 times magnification by an experienced gemologist.
Cataloging Diamonds by Clarity:
F - Flawless
IF - Internally Flawless
VVS1 and VVS2 - Very Very Slightly Included
VS1 and VS2 - Very Slightly Included
SI1 and SI2 - Slightly Included
I1, I2, and I3 - Included
Most people think of a diamond as a colorless stone, but in fact, it is very rare. Most diamonds used in jewelry are almost colorless but have light yellow to brown shades.
There is a wide range of colors, the rarest diamonds are those colored in pink, dark red, and green, and a higher color intensity automatically means a higher value.
The larger the diamond, the more obvious the color. Color differences can be very subtle, but they can still cause dramatic price changes.
The color grading table for diamonds was compiled by the GIA in the 1950s.
It describes the normal color grading range from D (colorless) to Z (slightly yellow and brown). Today, the GIA's diamond color grading scale is the most widespread in the world, and it is often referred to as the "D-to-Z scale."
Each letter represents a range of colors based on a combination of tones - both light and dark - and saturation - intensity.
Diamonds can have noticeable differences in color depth but still belong to the same color group.
A well-cut diamond manages to best highlight the other three qualities, important features of the diamond: brilliance, stone fire, and sparkle.
Shine - is the white light reflected from the surface and inside of a polished diamond.
Fire - the brightness of color that we see when we look at a polished diamond.
Sparkle - the flashes of light that we see when a diamond or the light source we are looking at is moving.
The term “brilliant cut” is used as a general term for stones of any shape, which have most of the faces cut in a triangular shape and which start radiantly around a central point. By far the most popular diamond cut is the round brilliant. The diamond has 57 or 58 sides, depending on the presence or absence of the package (the bottom of a diamond).
But let's see what the names of a diamond's faces are:
- Crown - is the top of the diamond and is located above the round
- Ronda (or belt) - is the narrow section of a polished diamond that makes the connection between the crown and the diamond flag (bottom) being the point of attachment of the stone in the jewelry.
- The pavilion - the bottom of a faceted diamond, the part that is under the roundabout.
- Facet - a flat, polished surface of a stone.
- The package - is the underside of a polished stone, from which the flag practically rises.
- Cuts in shapes other than round are called fancy cuts.
Diamonds are weighed with great precision, and the unit of measurement is the metric carat which is abbreviated as "cts" or "ct".
The subdivision of the metric carat is the point (abbreviated "pt"), and 100 points are the equivalent of one carat.
Weights over one carat are usually expressed in carats and decimals. A 1.03 ct stone will be described as "one comma zero three-carat". The weight is expressed in dots for diamonds weighing less than one carat. For example, 0.83 ct will read "eighty-three points".
The price of diamonds is set according to all factors: color, cut, clarity. The weight is just another factor that has a say in the price of a diamond.
!!! Do not confuse the terms "carat" and "karat". Karat is the unit of measurement that defines the purity - or fineness - of gold.
SUMMARY OF THE HISTORY OF DIAMOND CUTTING
There was a time when people believed that diamonds had magical qualities. It was believed that unpolished diamonds have the power to protect against evil spirits, that they have the power to cure various ailments, and to make the one who carries the stone on him indestructible, just like a diamond. It was also believed that if you tried to grind that gem, the miraculous powers of diamonds would disappear.
When they started giving up superstitions, diamonds began to lose their charm. This is because a diamond in a shape other than an octagon with clean facets, a rough diamond, was no longer of interest. In most diamonds, irregular surfaces hide their outstanding optical qualities.
Things began to change in the 14th and 15th centuries when diamond grinding techniques began to develop. Although they did not find a way to grind diamonds, the first diamond grinders discovered that they could use diamond powder to remove irregularities and make natural surfaces more transparent.
In the 16th century, grinders could process a diamond by grinding the point upwards, thus creating a flat-faced facet. The result was called a "flat cut." At the beginning of the 17th century, the grinding process (grinding, rolling) was already a little more advanced. The grinders used it to cut roses in the shape of roses (roses), with a flat base and with the top facets that joined at a certain point. Although this process gave rise to more carefully processed diamonds, much of the unpolished diamond was lost.
People began to split diamonds in the 17th century. At the very least, the shape of the future diamond could be traced from the unpolished stone. The number of losses decreased because they no longer had to practically grind the diamond in the grinding process.
The rotary cutter, introduced around 1900 and the lasers introduced in the 1970s, created the possibility of obtaining even more perfect cuts.
Diamond cutting today consists of 3 or 4 steps: splitting or cutting (sometimes even both processes), grinding, and finishing.
WHY ARE ETERNAL DIAMONDS?
"Diamonds are forever" is one of the best slogans in the advertising industry in this field. This slogan has several meanings. It refers to the fact that for centuries, diamond has been the most coveted stone, it refers to the beauty of diamonds that remain unchanged forever and it refers to the durability of these stones.
Durability is the property of diamonds to withstand degrading factors caused by wear, heat, or chemicals. The hardness varies from one stone to another and depends on the chemical structure and their structure.
The way the diamonds were formed and the fact that they withstood the road to the surface of the earth is a miracle.
The arid desert of South Africa, the Siberian platforms, the tundra of northeastern Canada, or the oceanic coasts of southwestern Africa, are important areas in diamond mining.
The process of diamond extraction is very complex and time-consuming. Thus, in addition to digging mines, digging tens of thousands of tons of earth, mining companies have to build real cities around these mines. Given the large number of people involved in this process of diamond mining, mining companies are building real cities near the mines to house and feed hundreds of workers and even create leisure conditions for them.
Mining involves a lot of work and fabulous expenses, and yet the quantities of diamonds obtained are relatively small. Identifying a possible diamond deposit alone costs a few million dollars.
Miners have to process about a ton of rock to get half a carat of crude. Diamond deposits in any mine are limited. For example, the Ekati mine in Canada began operations in 1998. It is currently estimated that the entire mine will be exploited for about 20 years, and the number of diamonds mined will be about 3-4 million carats (raw material). ).
But not only the quantity plays an important role in the profitability of a mine, but also the quality of the extracted diamonds. For example, the Argyle mine in Australia has a huge diamond deposit and has one of the best ratios of rough diamonds per tonne of rock extracted (3 carats per tonne), but the amount of polished diamonds obtained is very small. . Thus, only 5% of the number of rough diamonds extracted is of gem quality and does not require additional processing operations to obtain diamonds for mounting in jewelry. 70% of the extracted rough diamonds require special and additional processing to be able to make polished diamonds for jewelry, and the remaining 30% is only of industrial quality and is used to make cutting and abrasive tools.
Continuing the discussion on the subject of hardness and strength, we must say that Jade, for example, is very hard, but not hard at all… it cannot be easily broken, but it is soft enough to be modeled with simple tools. A diamond, on the other hand, can only be broken if it is hit in the right place and is so strong that it can only be scratched by another diamond.
A diamond in jewelry language is a synonym for true love, blessings of fortune, and freedom from material worries. A diamond found in a dream seems realistic: here it is, right in your palm, playing with its edges in the light!
Why are there diamonds in a dream?
Seeing a diamond is a big, often financial, success. The shining diamond found is evidence of an equally brilliant acquaintance. Expect replenishment in telephone contacts: there is a high probability that a fateful meeting awaits you soon.
For free girls, a dream about a sparkling find promises a potential groom or a quick marriage; those who suffer from loneliness - a friend or girlfriend, and if you recently started a startup - a business partner, or an experienced individual entrepreneur who will be happy to share the subtleties over a business lunch.
The discovered diamond promises a quick profit. What will it be - material dividends or the bounties of the human soul, the dream book does not specify, but it is pleasant to receive karma bonuses. We can only say: that those who need funds can be offered a part-time job, and those looking for a dream job have the same chance.
A gift is seen in a dream - A Ring With A Diamond?
Most often, this type of decoration appears in a dream. Famous dream books, including those of Miller and Vaenga, interpret dreams with a diamond in much the same way: it matters how the shining pebble appeared before you and what actions were taken.
Woman dreaming of diamonds: Interpretations
A diamond ring will highlight a significant acquaintance or a magnificent, beautiful wedding for an unmarried girl. For married people, the dream promises a faithful, transparent relationship and a quick gift from a spouse.
For a pregnant woman, a diamond seen indicates a quick delivery without complications; most likely, the couple should expect an heir. But a scattering of diamonds can report twins or even triplets!
If a girl herself gives a ring in a dream, in reality, she can spend a lot or lose the amount she relied on.
Trying on a donated diamond ring is a dream come true and an increase in social or career status.
To see a diamond ring on one of the family members or relatives - to see them happy and successful in reality.
Negative Dream Meanings:
If you are trying on a worn diamond ring, the dream symbolizes vain hopes.
A giant diamond in the coil can signal an exacerbation of the disease.
Selling a diamond ring promises disappointment in some kind of deal, contract, or purchase.
Big Diamonds - a sign of Money?
The Appearance of the Precious Stone is Important:
- big diamond - great happiness;
- expensive - to financial receipts;
- unusually beautiful - for an impressive meeting and conversation;
- muddy - portends communication with a liar;
- shining - can talk about a trip to another country;
- raw - to the decision to quit a tedious job;
- a darkened stone - to tears;
- crystal clear says that a loved one can be trusted;
- a multi-colored diamond predicts a trip or a journey;
- split - working troubles;
- dropped out - useless spending or loss of money.
Diamond Color is another Key to Dreaming:
- green - a signal that it would be nice to check your health;
- red - a message that there is a traitor in your circle;
- blue - to changes in life, acquiring a new hobby or habits;
- yellow - the envy of a friend;
- blue - one of your superiors does not like you;
- black - triumph or joy within the family;
- pink - to a new job or tempting opportunities.
Dreaming of diamonds
Many diamonds dream of recognition of merit, a mark by the authorities, receiving regalia, awards, and a gift. For single women, such a dream portends interesting meetings; potential gentlemen surrounded. And for those who have already met a soul mate - pleasant events, like a successful vacation or sudden bonuses.
Collecting diamonds in the dream
Holding a diamond in your hand means recognition, fame, or even an avalanche of likes.
- Buy - for profit, a gift;
- Receive as a gift - success in personal life and improvement in financial status;
- Giving diamonds - to sudden expenses;
- Choose in the store - for a significant purchase;
- Just admiring a showcase with jewelry is a great joy;
- Making an offer by handing a ring is good news;
- Selling a diamond in a dream - participating in an exciting business in reality;
- To make jewelry with a precious stone yourself - to participate in a profitable business;
- Take diamonds for yourself - break off relations;
- Steal - to unrequited love;
- Look for diamonds in a dream - solve other people's problems;
- Putting on yourself - to a cash bonus;
- To clean, wash diamonds - to pleasant events;
- Wear on your finger - to the realization of the desired;
- Measure a large ring - your efforts will finally be noticed at work;
- Win a diamond in a dream - compete in something in reality;
- Find on the floor - for a romantic meeting;
- Losing a diamond - to problems with money;
- Hide - to the fear of being robbed;
- Scatter and collect diamonds - to solve troubling problems;
- Split a diamond - to a family quarrel;
- Swallowing a diamond that has fallen out of a piece of jewelry is an unprofitable business.
Did you dream that the Diamonds were stolen?
Stealing diamonds yourself - to an unrequited feeling; if you suffered from theft in a dream - in reality, an enemy has wound up in your environment, be more careful.
And if you dreamed that the diamond falls from the ring?
It is good if the diamond was quickly found - although this promises a problem, but with a subsequent solution. With the loss of a stone, you can expect monetary troubles - for example, receiving an amount less than what you expected or a waste.
Types of Stones: Earrings or other Jewelry
Earrings with diamonds dream of a promising acquaintance or mutual love; they can also mean quick profits if you are in a relationship. This is a favorable sign that can “whiten out” the black streak in life.
Found an earring in a dream? Even if there is only one earring, the goal promises good luck. If the earrings are paired, expect a big karma bonus like a promotion at work or additional funds for a dream vacation.
Putting on earrings in a dream is “beautifying”: expect a pleasant and promising rendezvous.
If the earring is lost, you can expect conflict and misunderstanding in your personal life. Sleep warns of a possible problem in a pair: work ahead of the curve. Anyone who cannot find an earring in a dream, tormented by conjectures and changing places, in reality, most likely, communicates with an unfaithful friend.
If you dream of a golden necklace with diamonds, such a dream portends happiness; if the stones turn out to be fake - betrayal by a loved one or divorce.
A torn necklace warns of a possible severe danger.
Are you trying on a necklace in a dream? Wait for a good offer or a chance to prove yourself in all its glory. But if there is not enough money for the desired neck decoration, in reality, it will be challenging to cope with the fulfillment of a dream.
A bracelet with a diamond can dream of gossip or intrigue with your participation in a scandalous affair.
A diamond brooch promises peace and joy in the family.
Silver ring - for a friendly meeting.
A crown with inlay will give the owner of the dream a holiday in reality.
Pendant with a diamond - to the alertness of the second half: do not deceive the trust placed.
An engagement ring - to success in your own business.
Gemstones without cut can mean home or country repairs.
Dream with diamonds for men
Such dreams often talk about how a man is doing in business and career: diamond, the king of gems, the most complex and most wear-resistant mineral, symbolizes power.
A simple men's ring with a diamond means rivalry among friends or colleagues, but a richly decorated ring, on the contrary, states recognized respect in the team.
Gold cufflinks with pebbles hint that you will soon be spinning in “important” circles; they can also talk about a landmark business meeting or event.
Interestingly, a man may dream of a scattering of diamonds on the floor as a warning about possible "pitfalls," through which, however, it is worth going through to receive his dividends.
The concept of constellations used in modern astronomy and adopted in 1922 in Rome by the decision of the First General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union, is based on the division of the celestial sphere into sections of arbitrary irregular shape. While the sign of the zodiac is equal sectors of the celestial sphere, with vertices at the poles of the ecliptic and based on segments of the ecliptic 1/12 of a full circle in size, and in the tropical zodiac - shifted by about 21 ° (overlapping the previous constellation). Therefore, the modern astronomical system of constellations has nothing to do with the astrological tradition of dividing the ecliptic into 12 parts.
Interesting facts about Zodiac Signs
The names of the signs come from the names of the twelve corresponding zodiac constellations in which the Sun alternately resides in its annual movement. The signs of the zodiac, which are the main element of astrology, have only historical significance for modern astronomy.
What is a Zodiac Sign, and How Does it Relate to Personality?
The zodiac signs are the designations of 12 constellations located along the ecliptic. The names of the animals call them. Astrologers use the Gregorian calendar (or tropical year) to determine the sign. Therefore, due to the precession of the earth's axis, the symptoms of the zodiac shift relative to the Sun in the zodiac constellations, thereby forming astrological eras. Capricorns belong to the water element, like fish to the earth.
At least the birth season shows business stars, which was statistically associated with several personality traits, making it possible to use zodiac signs for a rough assessment of personal qualities.
"Psychologists often want to dispel those patterns that astrologers often talk about, but seasonal effects do seem to exist, and we have yet to explain them. I'm not saying that they are associated with celestial bodies. I just think that the signs of the zodiac are convenient to remember these patterns for ordinary people,” said Mark Hamilton (Mark Hamilton) from the University of Connecticut (USA).
Hamilton came to this paradoxical conclusion by studying the personality and character traits of three hundred stars of show business, politics, science, and literature and comparing the data obtained with their birth.
As it turned out, the dates of birth of the luminaries of science, art, and politics were not randomly scattered around the calendar. Still, they were grouped around certain months of the year and signs of the zodiac.
In general, most celebrities were born in the so-called "wet" months of the astrological calendar - the period from December to March, as well as under those signs of the zodiac that are associated with perseverance and extroversion (the so-called "bright" and "fixed" signs).
The most prominent personality traits you can expect from each zodiac sign
People born under this constellation don't know what it's like to give up. They always know what they want and are ready to go to get what they want. Therefore, they are often chosen as leaders and dream of being just like them.
Representatives of this sign can always be trusted. They treat others with understanding, have angelic patience, and never betray. Smart, honest and robust, Taurus is ready to help loved ones in any situation.
Gemini: communication skills
They can find a common language with anyone, and when people are not around, they are happy to talk with cats. Geminis are incredibly flexible and adapt to any situation without much loss.
Cancers are the real altruists. They are simply unable to leave someone in trouble and strive to help others even in the most challenging situation. And these people also feel pleased when they manage to inspire someone to accomplish something.
They do their work with such enthusiasm, have fun and just live that they infect others with their thirst for life. It is people born under the sign of Leo. They often become real muses and inspirers for many talented people and are happy to be creative.
These people are always in control. And although at first glance they sometimes seem like big bores, in fact, next to such people it is very calm. After all, they are always ready to help you, suggest a non-standard solution to your problem, and support you.
These cheerful and attractive people live in the same breath. They do not think about what is good or bad but simply enjoy life. Even if you just met, Libra can become a great friend and companion to you.
If they start something, they will finish it. The hard work and perseverance of Scorpio can be envied. And they are also distinguished by an incredible passion, which is very attractive to everyone around them. They sincerely believe in their beliefs.
These people never stand still and are always ready to break into any adventure. They love to travel and always try to take as many people as possible.
Capricorn always knows what he is doing and feels comfortable in literally any company. These people are attracted to all who deal with them. You can rely on him in a problematic situation or take him with you to a party - in both cases. He will show his best side.
Aquarius: love of freedom
They are funny and do not limit themselves or others at all. Aquarians will gladly support an idea, no matter how crazy it may seem. Their main life rule is that one must live as long as one lives.
They will always listen to you, even if no one else wants to. Real altruists, Pisces are very humane and friendly. And representatives of this sign do not tolerate when someone is offended and always try to restore justice.
The best pieces of advice for each zodiac sign to improve your life
Live now - do not wait for the right moment to achieve your goals because they may never come. Better enjoy the moment. Do not be afraid of anything. Most of our fears do not come true or turn out to be not scary at all. Close ones are the most important thing. Appreciate them. Do not live in debt - it deprives you of freedom.
When taking care of your children, do not overdo it - they have to live their own lives: the fewer things, the more freedom. Buy only what you need. Do not be afraid to make mistakes - trial and error is the key to success. Learn to learn from your mistakes. Have fun more often - who knows if you will have such an opportunity later.
Live every day to the fullest - remember. There are a limited number of them in our life. Friendship also needs to be worked on. The main thing in life is experience and impressions. If you favor a new fur coat or a trip to another country, feel free to choose the latter. Anger is an emotion that oppresses us, so it is better to refuse it.
Vulnerability is not as bad as it seems. Thanks to this, people will trust you - answer them the same. Don't pretend to be someone else - always be yourself. Pretense is always repulsive. Go in for sports - it will make you stronger physically and spiritually. Let go of grievances - they hurt both you and the one who offended you.
Passion for something makes life so much more beautiful. Traveling is a great way to change yourself, get new emotions and become better. Remember that you are not always suitable - there will always be someone more intelligent than us. Any problem is not eternal - everything passes in life, and time knows how to heal spiritual wounds.
Set goals for yourself - life without them is very dull. Decide what is most important to you and focus on it. Sometimes the risk is the path to something more. Change often changes our lives for the better - don't resist it.
There is no need to try to control loved ones - let them do as they see fit. Treat your body with love and respect. Touch is a natural gift that can heal a person, improve their well-being and increase self-confidence. Use this more. Whatever situation happens in your life, remember that you can always deal with it.
Gratitude is capable of many things - it makes better both the one who thanks and the one to whom the appreciation applies. Listen to your intuition based on your experience and life position. Do not be narcissistic, but never forget about yourself. Remember, you are the most critical person in your life. Be honest with yourself - this is the path to freedom.
Perfection never leads to anything good but makes your life gray. All our imperfections are what create our uniqueness. To find your goal - act because water does not flow under a lying stone. Small things matter too, and all significant victories are made up of small ones. Constantly learn something new - this will keep you in good shape.
The best way to stop being afraid of old age is to enjoy life. People in marriage often change - remember this so that you can not be taken by surprise. It is pointless to worry about something - it is better to use these forces to solve the problem. Innuendo from the past can interfere with your real-life - solve them yourself.
Simplicity is the path to excellence. Don't make life difficult for yourself. Always do your job well if you want to achieve something. It's never too late - they're just excuses for not trying. To get rid of longing - act. This is the best cure for procrastination.
Always do what you like and strive for what you want to achieve. Throw aside prejudice - do not become attached to the opinion of society. Words matter, too - so think before you say anything. Love is the solution to any problem and the answer to any question, the main driving force of this world. Love, share your love, and receive it in return. Use your zodiac signs' personality traits as a guide for better life choices
Coca-Cola is a sweet, non-alcoholic carbonated drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company. In addition to Coca-Cola, it also makes other products, such as sweet syrups and numerous carbonated drinks, including Sprite, Fanta, Pulpy, and others. Coca-Cola first appeared on the American market and soon found its way worldwide.
Read the most interesting facts about Coca-Cola
"Coca-Cola" was invented by doctor-pharmacist John Pemberton in 1886. John considered the drink a medicinal tincture and thought it would help with stomach pains. This is logical, given that coca leaves, which were initially one of the ingredients of Coca-Cola, contain cocaine (from 0.1% to 0.9%). Today, however, Coca-Cola is produced without the use of cocaine.
Initially, Coca-Cola was sold in pharmacies as a medicine.
A pharmacist developed the recipe that later formed the basis of the famous soda recipe based on coca leaves, a renowned plant for its sedatives. The pharmacist promised that a drink made from these leaves would relieve headaches, cramps, and hangovers and be extremely useful for those who suffer from depression. It was because of the healing properties of the plant that is part of the drink that it was sold in pharmacies and was considered a medicine. To buy the first Coca-Cola, a prescription from a doctor was required because then, it was not a soft drink but a medicine.
When Coca-Cola was born, it was already known about the properties of the coca leaves that were part of it. Still, their use or possession was not considered criminal, so they were often added to food. However, after proving that these leaves are addictive and narcotic, the technology for making Coca-Cola had to be changed - now, the coca leaves were carefully squeezed, removing the narcotic substance before adding them to the drink.
H.G. Wells wrote a satirical novel that makes fun of Coca-Cola
There is a novel with elements of satire written by HG Wells. It's called "Tono-Bengue" and cruelly ridicules the advertising campaign that the producers of Coca-Cola carried out. The writer is sure that it is in the uncontrolled consumption, which such advertising campaigns contribute, that the reason for the possible end of the world lies.
Coca-Cola is the national symbol of America.
There is not a single American who has not tried this soda. Coca-Cola is America's national symbol because it is the most consumed soft drink in the United States and beyond. The money generated from global sales of sweet drinks has significantly boosted the American economy and contributed to the growth of the population's standard of living.
The first Coca-Cola was not carbonated.
The first Coca-Cola was not carbonated and was a thick sweet syrup, which included coca leaves and other medicinal components. It was sold in pharmacies and was something like a healing balm that relieves headaches, fatigue, and hangovers.
Coca-Cola draws attention with a bright label.
Coca-Cola attracts buyers with a bright label, and this is no coincidence. The red color in which it is painted irritates the visual receptors and makes the feeling of hunger wake up. People who will buy sugary soda are looking forward to drinking it. They will become cheerful and energetic.
Today, Coca-Cola is sold all over the world.
There is not a single country where Coca-Cola is not sold. Even African countries are buying Coca-Cola, which positively affects the American economy. Coca-Cola is trendy, and the brand that originated in the US has already spread worldwide.
To attract attention, Coca-Cola producers have organized and continue to contain numerous promotions. When Coca-Cola was still gaining popularity, manufacturers tried their best to tell people how tasty and unusual their product was. For this, free tastings were held, and coupons were distributed to people, presenting which they could receive their free portion of sweet soda.
Today's manufacturers are not inferior to their predecessors: before each new year, a promotion is held in which you can win teddy bears in clothes with the Coca-Cola brand logo, as well as glasses, mugs, T-shirts, and other goods. It is enough to collect a sufficient number of caps from Coca-Cola bottles to get them.
Coca-cola harms tooth enamel.
Sweet soda destroys tooth enamel, and this has been scientifically proven. Many experiments were conducted during which volunteers drank Coca-Cola daily. At the end of the study, it was found that 90% of the volunteers acquired dental problems. The teeth became more fragile and changed color - instead of white, the tooth enamel became dark.
Interesting facts about Coca-Cola: features, composition, and consumption statistics.
- The Coca-Cola logo was hand-drawn.
- Coca-Cola easily removes dirt from kitchen tiles and other surfaces.
- Coca-Cola can dissolve organic materials.
- Most people consume Coca-Cola in the United States, Mexico, and Iceland.
- The Coca-Cola company pioneered the patent for cold drink refrigerators, which can now be found in any store.
- Coke contains a lot of sugar.
Other interesting facts about Coca-Cola
1. The first Coca-Cola products contained real cocaine, although only about 9 milligrams per glass. The drink was advertised as a substitute for alcohol, which also helped to get rid of opium addiction. In 1903, they stopped adding cocaine.
2. Of the 57 billion servings of all types of liquids drunk on the planet every day (other than water), just over 3% (1.9 billion) are drinks branded or licensed by Coca-Cola. This is the most widely used product in the world.
3. There are only two countries where Coca-Cola is not sold: Cuba and North Korea.
4. The company produces so many different drinks that if you wanted to try them all, one variety every day, you would need more than nine years. The company's product portfolio consists of more than 3,500 types and 500 brands, including carbonated, energy, and soy-based drinks.
5. If the entire volume of drinks produced since the beginning of the Coca-Cola brand was filled into 8-ounce (227 ml) bottles, stacked one on top of the other, and formed a line from them, it could be drawn to the moon and back more than 2 000 times.
6. Coca-Cola owns 20 brands, each generating more than $1 billion in sales per year.
7. The Coca-Cola brand is worth approximately $83.8 billion. That's more than Budweiser, Metro, Pepsi, and KFC combined.
8. Coca-Cola claims its name is the second most understandable word after "OK."
9. Most people in the world drink Coca-Cola Mexicans. On average, they drink 745 company drinks a year. Americans consume an average of 401 of its products per year.
10. Coca-Cola believes that it was they who invented promotional coupons. The company began distributing them at the end of 1886 and is sure that this was the main reason for the rapid spread of the drink throughout all of America (by 1990). Between 1886 and 1914, each of the ten bottles of Coca-Cola was given away for free.
11. Coca-Cola can be thanked for the images of Santa Claus that have become familiar today. The brand began running Christmas advertising campaigns in 1920 to boost sales during the sluggish winter months. At first, there were several different images of Santa, but none of them could become famous. Sometimes he was too thin, sometimes too big, sometimes he wore clothes of different colors (including green and brown). Until 1931, illustrator Haddon Sundblom depicted a plump Jolly Santa Claus in a red coat. When creating the image, the artist read Clark Clement Moore's poem "The Visit of St. Nicholas" and recalled his Scandinavian roots.
12. In 1985, Coca-Cola became the first soft drink to go into space. Astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger tested whether Coca-Cola could be consumed in zero gravity. It turned out it could.
13. Coca-Cola believes that the "ideal" temperature for drinking drinks is between 34 and 38 degrees Fahrenheit (1.1 - 3.3 degrees Celsius).
The Cold War ended over two decades ago, and many people have never lived in fear of nuclear annihilation. However, a nuclear attack is a genuine threat. Global politics is far from stable and human nature has not changed in recent years nor the last two decades. "The most constant sound in the history of mankind is the sound of the drums of war." As long as nuclear weapons exist, there is always the danger of their use.
Is it possible to survive after a nuclear war? There are only predictions: some say yes, others say no. Remember that modern thermonuclear weapons are plentiful and several thousand times more powerful than the bombs dropped on Japan. We don't fully understand what will happen when thousands of these munitions explode simultaneously. For some, especially those living in densely populated areas, trying to survive may seem ultimately futile. However, if a person stays, it will be someone who is morally and logistically prepared for such an event and lives in a very remote area of no strategic importance.
Make a plan.
If a nuclear attack occurs, you will not be able to go outside, as it will be dangerous. You should stay protected for at least 48 hours, but preferably longer. With food and medicine on hand, you can temporarily not worry about them and focus on other survival aspects.
Stock up on foods that are not perishable.
Such products can be stored for several years, so they should be available to help you survive after an attack. Choose foods high in carbs, so you get more calories for less money. Store them in a cool, dry place:
- White rice
- Powdered milk
- Dried fruits and vegetables
Build up your stock gradually. Every time you go to the grocery store, buy one or two items for your dry rations. In the end, you will stock up for several months.
Make sure you have a can opener with you.
You must have a supply of water.
Water can be stored in food-grade plastic containers. Clean them with a bleach solution and fill them with filtered and distilled water.
Your goal is to have 4 liters per person per day.
Keep ordinary chlorine bleach and potassium iodide (Lugol's solution) on hand to purify water in an attack.
You must have means of communication.
Staying up to date and being able to alert others to your location can be vital. Here's what you might need:
Radio. Try to find an option that works with a crank or solar power. If you have a radio with batteries, don't forget spares. Connect to a radio station that broadcasts 24-hour weather forecasts and emergency information.
Whistle. You can use it to call for help.
Mobile phone. Whether mobile communication will work is unknown, but you should be prepared if it does. If possible, find a solar charger for your phone model.
Read more: As president Putin of Russia is putting the Nuclear arsenal on high alert, people are asking google this 20 questions
Stock up on medicines.
Having the necessary medicines and providing first aid is life and death if you are injured in an attack. You will need:
Basic first aid kit. You can buy it ready-made or make your own. You will need sterile gauze and bandages, antibiotic ointment, latex gloves, scissors, tweezers, a thermometer, and a blanket.
First Aid Booklet. Buy a booklet from the Red Cross or another medical organization, or compile your material by printing it off the Internet. You should be able to dress wounds, perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and treat shock and burns.
Medications you take regularly. If you take a particular drug every day, try to build up a small supply.
Prepare other items.
Add the following to your survival kit:
- Flashlight and batteries
- plastic film and adhesive tape
- Garbage bags, plastic ties, and wet wipes for personal hygiene
- Wrench and pliers to turn off gas and water.
Follow the news.
A nuclear attack is unlikely to happen out of the blue. It will undoubtedly be preceded by a sharp deterioration in the political situation. Suppose a conventional war breaks out between countries with nuclear weapons and does not end quickly. In that case, it could escalate into a nuclear war. Even individual nuclear strikes in one region can escalate into an all-out nuclear conflict. Many countries have a rating system to indicate the imminence of an attack. In the USA and Canada, for example, it is called DEFCON.
Assess the risk and consider evacuation if a nuclear exchange looks realistic.
If evacuation is not an option, you should at least build a shelter for yourself. Assess your proximity to the following destinations
Airfields and naval bases, especially those hosting nuclear bombers, submarine-launched ballistic missiles, or bunkers. These places will be attacked even with a limited exchange of nuclear strikes.
Commercial ports and airstrips over 3 km long. These places are likely to be attacked even in a limited nuclear exchange and are likely to be shot in an all-out nuclear war.
Government buildings. These places are likely to be attacked even in a limited nuclear exchange and are likely to be shot in an all-out nuclear war.
Large industrial cities and most populated regions. These places are likely to be attacked in an all-out nuclear war.
Learn about the different types of nuclear weapons:
Atomic bombs are the main types of nuclear weapons and are included in other firearms classes. The power of an atomic bomb is due to the fission of heavy nuclei (plutonium and uranium) when they are irradiated with neutrons. When each atom splits, many energy and even more neutrons are released. This results in a swift nuclear chain reaction. Atomic bombs are the only type of nuclear bomb still used in warfare. If terrorists can capture and use a nuclear weapon, it will likely be an atomic bomb.
Hydrogen bombs use the ultra-high temperature of an atomic charge as a "spark plug." Under the influence of temperature and intense pressure, deuterium and tritium are formed. Their nuclei interact, and as a result, a massive release of energy occurs - a thermonuclear explosion. Hydrogen bombs are also known as thermonuclear weapons because deuterium and tritium nuclei require high temperatures to interact. Such weapons are usually hundreds of times more powerful than the bombs that destroyed Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Most of the US and Russian strategic arsenal is just such bombs.
Survival in the face of an imminent attack
Seek shelter immediately.
Aside from geopolitical warning signs, the first warning of an imminent nuclear attack is likely to be an alarm. If not, it will be the explosion itself. The bright light from the detonation of a nuclear weapon can be seen tens of kilometers from the epicenter. Suppose you find yourself close to the explosion (at the center). In that case, chances of surviving are practically zero unless you hide in a shelter that provides very (VERY!) good protection from the explosion. If you are several kilometers away, you will have about 10-15 seconds until the heat kills you and maybe 20-30 seconds until the shock wave hits. Under no circumstances should you look directly at the fireball. This can cause temporary blindness over very long distances on a clear day. However, the actual damage radius varies greatly depending on the size of the bomb, the height of the explosion, and even the weather conditions at the time of the blast.
If you can't find cover in a disaster area, find a low ravine or hole and lie face down, covering as many exposed areas of your body as possible. If there is no such cover, dig as quickly as possible. Even at a distance of 8 km, you will get third-degree thermal burns, and even at 32 km from the place of impact, the heat can burn the skin. The wave will reach 960 km / h and will not leave anything and no one alive in open space.
If this fails, hide in the building, but only if you are sure it will not suffer much from the explosion and thermal radiation. This will at least provide some protection from radiation. Whether this will help to survive depends on the design of the building and the proximity to the epicenter of the explosion. Stay away from any windows; it is preferable to find a room without them. Even if the building is not significantly damaged, a nuclear blast will blow out windows at a great distance.
If you live in Switzerland or Finland, check if your home has an atomic shelter. If not, determine where the nuclear cover is in your village/town/district and how to get there. Remember: anywhere in Switzerland, you can find an atomic shelter. When sirens sound in Switzerland, those who cannot hear them (e.g., the deaf) must be informed and then listen to the national radio company (RSR, DRS, and RTSI).
There should be nothing flammable or combustible near you. Nylon or any petroleum-based material will catch fire in the heat.
Remember that radiation exposure causes a large number of deaths.
Initial (fast) radiation. The radiation released at the moment of the explosion will be short-lived and most active at short distances. It is believed that this will kill the few who do not die in a blast of heat at the same length.
Residual radiation (radiation contamination). If the explosion was on the surface or the fireball hit the ground, a lot of dust and dirt would enter the atmosphere and then settle down, carrying dangerous radiation. The consequences could come in a deadly "black rain" that can reach extreme temperatures. Everything around will be infected.
Suppose you survived the explosion and the initial radiation (at least for now - the symptoms have an incubation period). In that case, you must find protection from the "black rain."
Understand the types of radioactive particles.
Before we continue, three different types of particles (and therefore radiation) should be mentioned:
Alpha particles. They are the weakest, and their threat practically does not emanate during the strike. Alpha particles do not live long in the air and, having traveled only a few centimeters, are absorbed by the atmosphere. Although the danger from external exposure to them is minimal, these particles will be fatal if swallowed or inhaled. Regular clothing will help you protect yourself from them.
They are faster than alpha particles and can penetrate further. Before being absorbed by the atmosphere, they have time to travel up to 10 meters. Exposure to beta particles is not fatal unless exposed for long periods. In this case, beta burns can occur, similar to painful sunburns. However, the danger to the eyes during prolonged exposure is excellent. In addition, they are dangerous if swallowed or inhaled. Regular clothing helps prevent beta burns.
Gamma rays. Gamma rays are the most dangerous. They can spread almost one and a half kilometers in the air and penetrate nearly any material. Therefore, gamma radiation causes severe damage to internal organs, even when affecting the body from the outside. Adequate protection is required.
The shelter protection index indicates how less radiation a person will receive inside the shelter than open space. For example, a score of 300 means that you will receive 300 times less radioactive radiation in a cover than in the open air.
Avoid exposure to gamma radiation. Try not to be exposed to radiation for more than 5 minutes. If you're in the countryside, try to find a cave or a fallen tree that's rotten inside that you can crawl into. Otherwise, just dig a trench lying down, leaving the excavated earth around as a fence.
Start fortifying your shelter with earth or whatever you can find.
If you're hiding in a trench, think of some sort of roof, but only if the materials are nearby: don't come out of hiding unnecessarily. Parachute silk or a tent will help protect you from radioactive fallout and debris but will not stop gamma rays. Completely protected from any radiation is impossible purely physically. You can only reduce its impact to an acceptable level. Use the following information to determine the amount of material that will allow you to minimize radiation penetration to 1/1000:
- Steel: 21 cm
- Stones: 70-100 cm
- Concrete: 66 cm
- Tree: 2.6 m
- Ground: 1 m
- Ice: 2 m
- Snow: 6 m
Plan to spend at least 200 hours (8-9 days) in your hideout.
Under no circumstances should you leave the shelter during the first forty-eight hours!
The reason is that you need to avoid the decay products produced by a nuclear explosion. The deadliest of these is radioactive iodine. Fortunately, radioactive iodine has a relatively short half-life of eight days (the time it takes for half of its natural decay into safer isotopes). Keep in mind that even after 8-9 days, there will still be a lot of radioactive iodine around, so you need to limit your exposure. It can take up to 90 days for radioactive iodine to break down to 0.1% of its original volume.
Other significant decay products are cesium and strontium. They have a long half-life: 30 and 28 years, respectively. These elements are very well absorbed by wildlife and can make food dangerous for decades. In addition, they are carried by the wind for thousands of kilometers, so if you think that you are not in danger in a remote area, you are wrong.
Handle food and water wisely.
You'll need to eat to survive, exposing yourself to radiation (unless the shelter doesn't have ample food and water supplies).
Processed foods can be eaten as long as the packaging is puncture-free and relatively intact.
Animals may be eaten, but the skin must be carefully skinned and the heart, liver, and kidneys discarded. Try not to eat meat close to the bone, as the bone marrow stores radiation.
- Eat the pigeons
- Eat wild rabbits
Plants in the affected area are edible; those that have edible root vegetables or tubers (such as carrots and potatoes) are best eaten. Check if the plant is edible.
Radioactive particles can get into open water, so it is not suitable for drinking. It is safer to take water from undergrounds, such as a spring or a well-sealed well. Think of building a solar distiller like you would when extracting drinking water in the desert. Only use water from streams and lakes as a last resort. Make a filter: Dig a hole about 30 cm from the water's edge and draw water from it as it fills up. Water can be cloudy or dirty, so it needs to be boiled to get rid of the bacteria. If you are in a building, then the water is generally safe. If the water supply is turned off (most likely), use the water left in the pipes. To do this, open the faucet at the house's highest point to let in air, and then drain the water at the lowest point of the house.
- Check out How to Get Drinkable Water from Your Water Heater in an Emergency.
- You must know how to purify water.
Dress to cover your skin as much as possible (wear a hat, gloves, goggles, a long-sleeved shirt, etc.).
This is especially important when you go outside as it helps prevent beta burns. To disinfect, constantly shake clothing and rinse exposed skin with water. Otherwise, the accumulated particles will cause burns over time.
Treat radiation and thermal burns.
Minor burns are also known as beta burns (although other particles can also cause them). Soak the burned area in cold water until the pain subsides (usually 5 minutes).
If the skin begins to blister, char, or tear, rinse with cold water to remove debris, then cover with a sterile compress to prevent infection. Don't pop bubbles!
If the skin doesn't blister, char, or tear, don't cover it, even if the burn covers most of the body (much like a sunburn). Instead, wash the burnt area and cover it with petroleum jelly or a solution of baking soda and water, if available. Moist (uncontaminated) soil will also work.
Severe burns, known as thermal burns, are caused more often by intense heat radiation than by ionizing particles (although they are also). They can be life-threatening and come with many risk factors: dehydration, shock, lung damage, infections, etc. Follow these steps to treat a severe burn.
Protect burns from further contamination.
If clothing covers the area of the burn, gently cut and remove the fabric from the burn. DO NOT attempt to remove tissue stuck or adhered to the burn. DO NOT attempt to pull clothing over the burn. DO NOT apply ointment to the burn! It is best, if possible, to seek qualified medical help.
Gently rinse the burnt area with water ONLY. DO NOT apply creams or ointments.
DO NOT use an everyday sterile medical dressing not explicitly designed for burns. Since non-adhesive burn dressings (and all other medical supplies) are likely to be in short supply, food-grade plastic wrap, which is sterile, will not stick to the burn, and is readily available, can be an alternative.
Shock must be prevented. Shock means insufficient blood flow to vital tissues and organs. If left unattended, it can be fatal. Shock can result from severe blood loss, deep burns, or even a reaction to the appearance of a wound or blood. Signs of shock are restlessness, thirst, pale skin, and a fast heartbeat. Sweating may occur even if the skin feels cool and clammy. When the condition worsens, breathing becomes frequent and intermittent, and an absent look appears. To help maintain a regular heartbeat and breathing by massaging the chest and helping the person regain calm breathing. Loosen any tight clothing and reassure the person. Be gentle but firm and confident.
Don't be afraid to help people with radiation sickness.
It is not contagious, and it all depends on the amount of radiation the person has received. The next step is an abbreviated version of the table.
Familiarize yourself with radiation units.
Gray (Gy) is an SI unit that measures the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation. 1 Gy = 100 rad. Sievert (Sv) is an SI unit that measures the effective and equivalent dose of ionizing radiation. 1 Sv = 100 rem (X-ray biological equivalent). For simplicity, it is generally assumed that 1 Gy is equivalent to 1 Sv.
Less than 0.05 Gy: no visible symptoms.
0.05-0.5 Gy: temporarily decreases the number of red blood cells.
0.5-1 Gy: reduced production of immune cells; susceptibility to infections; nausea, headache, and vomiting are common. After such exposure, you can survive without treatment.
1.5-3 Gy: 35% of those affected die within 30 days. Nausea, vomiting, and loss of hair all over the body.
3-4 Gy: severe radiation poisoning, 50% of those affected die within 30 days. Other symptoms are similar to that of a radiation dose of 2-3 Sv; after the latent phase, uncontrolled bleeding in the mouth, under the skin, and in the kidneys is observed (at a dose of 4 Sv, the probability is 50%).
4-6 Gy: acute radiation poisoning, 60% of those affected die within 30 days. Mortality increases from 60% at 4.5 Sv to 90% at 6 Sv (unless intensive medical measures are taken). Symptoms appear within half an hour to 2 hours after exposure and last up to 2 days. This is followed by 7 to 14 days of a latent phase, after which the same symptoms appear as at a dose of 3-4 Sv, but more intensely. At this dose of radiation, female infertility often occurs. Recovery takes from several months to a year.
The leading causes of death (within 2-12 weeks after exposure) are infections and internal bleeding.
6-10 Gy: In Acute radiation poisoning, mortality is almost 100% within 14 days. Survival depends on medical care. The bone marrow is virtually destroyed, so a transplant is required. The tissues of the stomach and intestines are severely damaged. Symptoms appear 15-30 minutes after exposure and last up to 2 days. This is followed by a 5 to 10-day latent phase, after which the person dies from infection or internal bleeding. Recovery will take several years and will probably never be complete. Devar Alves Ferreira received a dose of approximately 7.0 Sv during an accident in Goiania and survived due to the fractional nature of the exposure.
12-20 rem: mortality is 100%, and symptoms appear immediately. The gastrointestinal tract is destroyed. There is uncontrolled bleeding from the mouth, under the skin, and from the kidneys—fatigue and feeling unwell in general. The symptoms are similar but more pronounced. Recovery is impossible.
More than 20 rem. The same symptoms appear instantly and intensely, then stop for a few days. The gastrointestinal tract cells are rapidly destroyed with water loss and profuse bleeding. Before death, a person is delighted and falls into madness. When the brain cannot control bodily functions such as breathing or circulation, the person dies. There is no cure; medical assistance is only aimed at alleviating suffering.
Unfortunately, you have to admit that the person may soon die. Although it is hard, do not waste food and medicine on those dying from radiation sickness. Save everything you need for your health and ability to survive. Radiation sickness often affects children, the elderly, and the sick.
Try to save electrical equipment.
A nuclear explosion at a very high altitude will trigger a powerful electromagnetic pulse so strong that it can destroy electronic and electrical devices. The least you should do is unplug all appliances from electrical outlets and antennas. Place the radio and flashlights in the SEALED metal container ("Faraday Shield"). This can protect against electromagnetic pulse, provided that the devices inside do NOT come into contact with the case. The metal shield must surround the objects and must be grounded.
The devices you want to protect must be isolated from the conductive case. The electromagnetic field can induce a voltage in the boards. If you are far from the explosion, a metal rescue (thermal, space) blanket that wraps all devices, pre-wrapped in newspapers or cotton wool, can act as a Faraday shield.
Another way is to wrap the cardboard box in copper or aluminum foil. Place the appliances inside and ground the device.
Be prepared for subsequent attacks.
Most likely, a nuclear strike will not be a single one. Be ready for new strikes or the invasion of the enemy army.
Keep the shelter intact unless the materials used are necessary for survival. Gather as much clean water and food as possible.
However, if the attacking side attacks again, then most likely, this strike will fall on another part of the country. If all else fails, live in a cave.
Be sure to wash everything, especially food, even inside your shelter.
- Do not tell anyone precisely what and how much you have with you.
- Watch out for the military! Indeed the military will appear soon, people in biological protection suits, etc. Learn to distinguish tanks, planes, and other equipment of your country's armed forces from the enemy.
- Stay tuned for government information and announcements.
- Only leave the hideout if you have a hazmat suit and should be on the lookout for a new threat.
- Build a nuclear shelter in advance. A home nuclear shelter can be set up in a basement or cellar. However, new homes often do not have basements; if so, consider building a public retreat or a private one in your garden.
Russia is the largest state globally, on the territory of which there is everything that may interest travelers of all age groups and individual preferences. Here are the most extensive forests, mountains, and the deepest lakes globally, and twelve seas wash the coastline. Russia is a mysterious country, a country with an “open soul,” and interesting facts about Russia are only a part of what awaits the guests of this vast state.
Russia - a short history
The history of Russia originates from the emergence of the Slavs, who appeared about 3-3.5 thousand years ago, standing out from the Indo-European ethnic group. From the middle of the 1st millennium BC., they began to move to Eastern Europe, settling by the VIII century. AD the basin of the rivers Dnieper, Dniester, Western Dvina, Oka, and the upper reaches of the Volga.
The first state of the Russian people, Kievan Rus, existed for about 300 years. It was a federation of principalities ruled jointly by the Rurik dynasty. The development of feudal relations and the strengthening of the independence of individual cities led to the political fragmentation of Kievan Rus. At the end of the thirties of the XIII century. Mongol Tatars attacked Russia, and for almost 250 years, it became dependent on the Golden Horde. The yoke accelerated the process of fragmentation of Russia. Still, at the same time, as the economy and culture revived, it turned into an incentive for unification. Due to several factors, the place of a political leader at the beginning of the XIV century. Moscow advanced, which is explained by its favorable geographical position, and the far-sighted policy of its princes.
The reign of Catherine II is called the "golden age of the nobility" and "enlightened absolutism" since the empress completed formalizing the nobility into a privileged class. The situation of the peasants deteriorated significantly: serfdom acquired the features of slavery. The growth of social contradictions resulted in the peasant war of E. I. Pugachev. Still, its defeat led to the expansion of feudal dependence. All this spoke of the brewing crisis of the feudal system, which was acutely manifested in the 19th century.
By the middle of the 19th century, serf relations worsened and escalated in the country: among the landowners, they aroused fears for the future, and among the serfs, an increase in dissatisfaction with their beggarly condition. In peasant unrest, which significantly intensified during the Crimean War, the government, led by Alexander II in 1862, carried out a reform that abolished serfdom.
In the years preceding the First World War of 1914-1917, Russia's foreign policy was determined by the line of rapprochement with Great Britain, fixed by the 1907 agreement on the division of spheres of influence in Iran and Central Asia. This agreement led to the finalization of the Entente - a "cordial agreement," the military-political alliance of England, France, and Russia, and Russia's participation in the First World War. The internal political crisis, which resulted in the February Revolution of 1917, led to Russia's withdrawal from the war. The revolution destroyed the old state system and created a new political situation. The Bolshevik Party seized power in Russia under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin, and the Soviets of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies were proclaimed the supreme authority.
On December 30, 1922, the Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) Union was formed. After the death of Lenin, the internal political struggle intensified, and Joseph Stalin came to power, establishing a dictatorship and destroying all his political rivals. In 1939, Russia concluded a non-aggression pact with Germany. Still, on June 22, 1941, Nazi Germany attacked the USSR, violating the agreement's provisions. The Great Patriotic War began. During the battles of Stalingrad and Kursk, Soviet troops went on the offensive. They defeated the German army, victoriously ending the war in May 1945 with the capture of Berlin.
Read here more interesting facts: 50 interesting and fun facts about Russia that you probably didn't know
In 1985, Gorbachev announced perestroika (a set of political and economic reforms). By the early 1990s, perestroika led to the collapse of the USSR. And on December 12, 1993, the Constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted at a referendum, declaring Russia a democratic federal state with a republican form of government headed by a president.
How did the Soviet Union's collapse influence today’s Russia?
The collapse of the Union was part of the process that began after the First World War - the operation of the failure of multinational states or, more simply, empires. Some of these empires did not survive the First World War - the Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary ... And the Bolsheviks managed to maintain control over most of the Russian Empire through violence and a more resourceful policy towards nationalities and national minorities. The Soviet Union was the first to adopt the nationalism and multinationality of the state. It seemed that the national question was resolved and that history was deceived. Still, until the end of the 20th century, the Soviet Union followed the path of the same Portuguese, British, French, and other empires. The 20th century turned out to be the century of the collapse of multinational states and the creation of national states on their ruins or conditions that would like to be national.
In a purely Soviet context, reform attempts took place, the primary ideological and moral source of which were the reforms of the Prague Spring, that is, the 1960s. The idea was that economic and political reforms should develop simultaneously: in China, they took a different path - economic reform without political reform. At the same time, in the Soviet Union, these things were interconnected. As soon as Gorbachev introduced the first elements of electoral democracy, the first forces that could mobilize were the national movements. Which, outwardly, were weak. There were few dissidents. Still, if you look at the composition of political prisoners in various forms of the Gulag, the percentage of national minorities - including the Baltic states, Jews, Ukrainians, and so on - went off the scale compared to the number of ethnic Russian dissidents.
Electoral democracy turned out to be incompatible with a multinational state. The main "glue" was a force - military, political repression, etc. International states built on such a basis proved unable to exist.
What was life like under communism in Russia?
75% of Russians believe that the Soviet era was the best time in the country's history; only 18% of respondents do not agree with this judgment. This follows from the study “The Structure and Reproduction of the Memory of the Soviet Union in Russian Public Opinion” prepared by the Levada Center, which Vedomosti has reviewed.
Hearing the expression "Soviet era," the respondents, first of all, think about stability and confidence in the future (16% of answers), good life in the country (15%), and personal life - childhood, youth, parents (11%). Negative assessments occur much less frequently: 4% of respondents recall shortages, queues, and coupons, and 1% about the Iron Curtain, stagnation, and repression. In general, 76% of respondents give positive characteristics of the Soviet era, 38% - neutral, and only 7% - negative. As some respondents gave different estimates, this sum is higher than 100%. 65% of Russians regret the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the same number believe that it could have been avoided; 26% of respondents have an opposite opinion on both issues. 52% of those who regret the collapse of the USSR say that they are upset by the loss of a sense of belonging to great power, 49% regret the destruction of the single economic system and 37% - about the increased mutual distrust and bitterness.
But at the same time, only 28% of respondents agree to “return to the path that the Soviet Union was following,” while the majority favor either Russia’s “own, special path” (58%) or the European version of development (10%).
Russians' ideas about the Soviet era are primarily favorable. Still, general statements about social stability replace personal memories, confidence in the future, and a good life in the USSR says Levada Center sociologist Karina Pipia. It is also noteworthy, according to her, that representatives of all age and generational groups agree with the installation of the socio-economic well-being of citizens in the USSR. Still, nostalgia for the Soviet Union is more typical for older people. However, young people join those who believe that the collapse of The USSR could have been avoided. However, the romanticization of the Soviet past does not lead to a desire to restore the Soviet system.
Neither those who lived in the USSR nor the post-Soviet youth want this.
How did Vladimir Putin become President, and what has been his impact on Russia?
In three years, Putin has risen from Deputy Director for Presidential Affairs to Secretary of the Security Council. In 1996, after the failure of Sobchak in the gubernatorial elections, Vladimir Vladimirovich was invited to Moscow for the post of Deputy Chief of the President of the Russian Federation. Putin oversaw the legal department and the management of Russia's foreign property.
In the spring of 1997, Vladimir Putin was appointed deputy head of the Presidential Administration of the Russian Federation, replacing Alexei Kudrin.
In the summer of 1998, he became the head of the FSB. In the fall, he reorganized the structure. Six months later, Vladimir Putin took the post of Secretary of Security Council of the Russian Federation while maintaining his position in the FSB. In 1999, President Boris Yeltsin appointed Vladimir Putin as Russia's prime minister.
In 1997, Vladimir Putin defended his Ph.D. thesis in economics at the Mining Institute of St. Petersburg. The title of the work is “Strategic planning for the reproduction of the mineral resource base of the region in the conditions of the formation of market relations (St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region).
On December 31, 1999, Yeltsin resigned. Putin became acting President of Russia. He was given symbols of power, including the "nuclear suitcase." According to him, it was not an easy decision for him.
25 Interesting Facts about Russia
1. Russia is the largest country in the world. However, this is no secret to anyone.
2. Russia is the only country washed by a whole dozen seas globally.
3. The deepest lake on earth, Baikal, is in Russia.
4. The most ancient mountains on the planet, the Urals, are of Russian heritage.
5. There are more than eight hundred glaciers in Altai.
6. The borders of Russia and the United States in the north are separated by 4 kilometers.
7. The deepest subway in the world is located in St. Petersburg. Its depth is more than a hundred meters.
8. The world's largest active volcano is Klyuchevskaya Sopka, almost five kilometers high. It has been erupting for over seven thousand years.
9. St. Petersburg has three times as many bridges as Venice.
10. The most significant medieval fortress in the world is the Moscow Kremlin.
11. St. Petersburg is the world's northernmost metropolis with over a million inhabitants.
12. The area of Siberia is about nine percent of the entire land area of the Earth.
13. Russia borders 16 countries.
14. In Russia, women won the right to vote in elections earlier than in the United States.
15. There are almost ten thousand trains in the Moscow metro.
16. The most extensive plain on the planet is the West Siberian.
17. There are about three million works of art in the Hermitage.
18. The most visited McDonald's globally is in Moscow on Pushkin Square.
19. Sushi is more prevalent in Russia than in Japan.
20. The highest university in the world is Moscow State University.
21. Before the revolution, firearms were sold freely in Russia.
22. The Ostankino TV Tower was the tallest building in Europe for a long time. But in recent years, skyscrapers have surpassed it in height.
23. The coat of arms of Chelyabinsk depicts a camel.
24. About four percent of the territory of Russia is occupied by protected reserves.
25. The world's largest tram network is located in St. Petersburg.