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History of fireworks: 30 interesting facts that you probably didn't know

1 month ago
history-of-fireworks-30-interesting-facts-that-you-probably-didnt-know

By experimentally mixing sulfur, coal, and saltpeter (potassium nitrate), so began the history of fireworks, and people started to use the powder thus obtained for entertainment purposes.

 

You can get the most straightforward "Bengal lights" if you fill them with bamboo stems. Such bamboo pipes subsequently became an integral cultural component of the entire Chinese people. Later, the technology for producing primitive fireworks, turntables, all kinds of firecrackers, and rockets was developed relatively quickly. Moreover, until now, all national holidays in the Celestial Empire have been held using many pyrotechnics and fireworks. And many of the pyrotechnic shows that occur in China are the envy of the most developed cities in the world.

 

Everything you need to know about fireworks

 

We move on. And here, it is worth noting that the properties of the composition of gunpowder could not help but be of interest to the military. Nevertheless, historical references to gunpowder for military purposes date back to the 11th century. That is, as much as 400 years after the invention of fireworks. So, for example, facts began to appear when archers, instead of ordinary arrowheads, began to use bamboo stems stuffed with gunpowder. Subsequently, military engineers invented many weapon designs using a burning composition. There are also documented cases in medieval warfare when live rats with fireworks tied to them were launched into enemy territory.

 

What are fireworks?

 

We observe beautiful chemical reactions on the ground or sky when displaying fireworks. The main components are fuel, oxidizer, and a different chemical mixture. The third component gives the desired color or effect to the mix. The oxidizing agent acts as a chemical bond destroyer in the charge. It promotes the release of maximum energy stored in these chemical bonds. In this case, the entire reaction is started with a tiny spark from the fuse or directly with a direct flame.

 

The device and principle of operation of a high-altitude firework

 

First of all, it should be noted that the design of the greeting has not changed for hundreds of years.

 

The fireworks launch tube (mortar or barrel of household pyrotechnics) works like the muzzle of a pistol. When triggered, the fuse ignites ūüĒ• an expelling charge consisting of black powder. Ultimately, the head flies out in the chosen direction at high speed. It can reach 160 m/s. Meanwhile, the expelling charge and pushing the fireworks out also set fire on the moderator. The retarder indicators are calculated so that it burns out to the end at the top point of the lustkugel lift and ignites the bursting charge of the ball.

On the other hand, the explosive charge, consisting of black powder, ignites small balls. They are known among pyrotechnicians as stars. They are located around the head. Ultimately, these balls burn and create the effect of fireworks in the sky. Their quantity, chemical composition, size, and properties can vary greatly. This allows you to create various products and light up the night sky.

 

Variety of firework colors

 

Until 1830, fireworks exploded in only two colors: white and orange. And after that, scientific discoveries made it possible to diversify this type of special effects.

 

The inclusion of various metals and their compounds in pyrotechnic mixtures made it possible to obtain the entire palette of primary colors in the sky. For example, different chemical elements emit different wavelengths of light when they burn. In pyrotechnics, copper, iron, titanium, barium, magnesium, lithium, strontium, etc., have received the most excellent use.

 

For example, with the help of titanium and magnesium, you can get a bright silver or white color. Lithium and strontium give different shades of red. Barium is a rich green, while sodium burns with a yellow flame. On the other hand, when burned, in addition to light waves, some elements also produce sound effects: crackling, whistling, and hissing. Thus, the burning of titanium powder can be accompanied by white sparks and loud explosions.

 

Pyrotechnics manufacturers are constantly researching new pyrotechnic compositions. Scientists and technologists are looking for a replacement for expensive chemical elements. They are developing more environmentally friendly formulations and experimenting with different color shades and visual effects.

 

Best facts about fireworks

 

1. Pyrotechnics

 

The craft of making, setting, and launching fireworks is called pyrotechnics, from the Greek pyro (fire) and techne (art).

The profession of a pyrotechnician is the ability to apply the laws of physics, chemistry, have design abilities when creating a light or sound show, more about this profession and how to learn it at the link above.

 

2. The Chinese Invented Gunpowder

 

The earliest recorded use of fireworks dates back to 200 BC China, during the Han Dynasty. People roasted bamboo stalks until the air inside them hissed and exploded. The resulting loud bang is believed to frighten evil spirits and herald happiness and good fortune. However, when the Chinese invented gunpowder some time between 600-900 AD, fireworks became even louder and brighter.

 

3. Hanabi Taikai

 

In Japan, there is a tradition of many pyrotechnic festivals (Hanabi Taikai) in the summer, which occur almost every weekend. For example, in August, there were more than 800 shows. Traditionally, these pyrotechnic shows were used to ward off evil spirits.

 

4. First fireworks, then gunpowder weapons

 

The invention of fireworks led to gunpowder weapons, not the other way around. During medieval wars in China, sometimes fireworks were tied to rats thrown into enemy territory. The Chinese also strapped fireworks to arrows to intimidate their enemies.

 

 

5. Fireworks - metal burning

 

The colors of the fireworks result from the burning of various metallic elements. When burning multiple elements, they paint the flame in different colors. For example, barium burns green, sodium burns yellow, and lithium and strontium burn red.

 

6. Gunpowder was brought to Europe by the Arabs

 

Contrary to popular belief, Marco Polo was not the first to bring gunpowder from China to Europe when he returned from China in 1295. Gunpowder was probably brought earlier by the Arabs via the Silk Road, despite the best efforts of the Chinese to keep its recipe secret.

 

7. Titanium Powder Creates Loud Explosions

 

Pyrotechnicians can create certain firework sounds. For example, aluminum or iron flakes can create hissing sounds, and titanium powder can create loud explosions.

 

8. Blue color fireworks

 

Blue is by far the most difficult firework color for pyrotechnicians to achieve. Even after thousands of years of fireworks, no one has found the perfect composition to make a vibrant blue. In contrast, red, green, orange, and white are easy to make.

 

 

9. Henry VII, Henry VIII, Elizabeth I

 

The earliest known fireworks display in England was set off in 1486 at the wedding of Henry VII. His son Henry VIII also celebrated his marriage to Anne Boleyn with fireworks. The daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, Queen Elizabeth I was so fond of fireworks that she created a unique position at court for the person who made the most beautiful fireworks show.

 

10 Native American Intimidation

 

According to legend, Captain John Smith set off the first fireworks in America in Jamestown, Virginia, in 1608. He wanted to impress or frighten the Native Americans.

 

11. Italian fireworks

 

The Italians are famous for turning fireworks into a work of art. In fact, many of the leading American fireworks companies or fireworks shows are owned by families of Italian origin, such as Grucci, Rozzi, and Zambelli.

 

12. Fireworks are part of European holidays

 

Although fireworks were invented in China around 200 BC, it took about 17 centuries for them to become part of European celebrations. In England, "firemasters" lit fireworks at parties with the help of their assistants or "little green men." The "Green People" wore green leaf headdresses to put out any sparks to avoid a fire.

 

13. Pyrotechnics Olympics in the Philippines

 

The Philippines hosts the annual World Pyrotechnics Olympiad. Participants from all over the world come together to determine who can create the best fireworks.

 

 

14. Fireworks in Oslo

 

The largest fireworks show was held in Norway on November 29, 2014, when 540,383 fireworks were launched. The spectacle continued for 1.5 hours in honor of the Norwegian constitution.

 

15. Only 100% cotton

 

People who make fireworks must wear 100% cotton clothes and even underwear. Synthetic clothing can create sparks from static electricity that can set off fireworks.

 

Short facts about fireworks

 

17. China is the largest importer of fireworks - more than 90% of all fireworks are produced in China;

 

18. The first fireworks display in Europe was at the wedding of King Henry VII of England in 1486;

 

19. For quite a long time, people believed that fireworks scare away evil spirits;

 

20. Three sparklers burning together can generate as much heat as a blowtorch;

 

21. The first fireworks in America were brought by an Englishman, Captain John Smith, whom we know from the history of Pocahontas;

 

22. Exploding a firework on a street or public place in the UK is a criminal offense with a maximum fine of up to £5,000.

 

23. In 1240, Arab scientists mastered the knowledge of gunpowder. A Syrian named Hassan al-Rammah designed the first medieval Arabic fireworks (rocket) borrowed from Chinese sources.

 

24. Dreams about fireworks mean that you enjoy being the center of attention and showing off to others. It also symbolizes enthusiasm and fun.

 

 

25. the giant chocolate firework was 3 m high and 1.5 m in diameter and contained 60 kg Swiss chocolates. Fireworks were launched in Zurich on New Year's Eve 2002.

 

26. the giant firework rocket weighed 13 kg and was launched in Portugal in 2010.

 

27. In Japanese, the word fireworks will sound like "Hanabi," which means "fire flower."

 

28. The fireworks rocket can reach a speed of 240 km/h, but the body can only maintain integrity at 200 meters.

 

29. Bengal fire burns at a temperature 15 times greater than the boiling point of water. Three sparklers together can generate the same heat as a blowtorch.

 

30. The record for the number of fireworks launched was 450 thousand pieces, achieved in Dubai in 2014.

 

 

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25-interesting-facts-about-russia

Russia is the largest state globally, on the territory of which there is everything that may interest travelers of all age groups and individual preferences. Here are the most extensive forests, mountains, and the deepest lakes globally, and twelve seas wash the coastline. Russia is a mysterious country, a country with an “open soul,” and interesting facts about Russia are only a part of what awaits the guests of this vast state.

 

Russia - a short history

 

The history of Russia originates from the emergence of the Slavs, who appeared about 3-3.5 thousand years ago, standing out from the Indo-European ethnic group. From the middle of the 1st millennium BC., they began to move to Eastern Europe, settling by the VIII century. AD the basin of the rivers Dnieper, Dniester, Western Dvina, Oka, and the upper reaches of the Volga.

 

 

The first state of the Russian people, Kievan Rus, existed for about 300 years. It was a federation of principalities ruled jointly by the Rurik dynasty. The development of feudal relations and the strengthening of the independence of individual cities led to the political fragmentation of Kievan Rus. At the end of the thirties of the XIII century. Mongol Tatars attacked Russia, and for almost 250 years, it became dependent on the Golden Horde. The yoke accelerated the process of fragmentation of Russia. Still, at the same time, as the economy and culture revived, it turned into an incentive for unification. Due to several factors, the place of a political leader at the beginning of the XIV century. Moscow advanced, which is explained by its favorable geographical position, and the far-sighted policy of its princes.

 

The reign of Catherine II is called the "golden age of the nobility" and "enlightened absolutism" since the empress completed formalizing the nobility into a privileged class. The situation of the peasants deteriorated significantly: serfdom acquired the features of slavery. The growth of social contradictions resulted in the peasant war of E. I. Pugachev. Still, its defeat led to the expansion of feudal dependence. All this spoke of the brewing crisis of the feudal system, which was acutely manifested in the 19th century.

 

By the middle of the 19th century, serf relations worsened and escalated in the country: among the landowners, they aroused fears for the future, and among the serfs, an increase in dissatisfaction with their beggarly condition. In peasant unrest, which significantly intensified during the Crimean War, the government, led by Alexander II in 1862, carried out a reform that abolished serfdom.

 

 

In the years preceding the First World War of 1914-1917, Russia's foreign policy was determined by the line of rapprochement with Great Britain, fixed by the 1907 agreement on the division of spheres of influence in Iran and Central Asia. This agreement led to the finalization of the Entente - a "cordial agreement," the military-political alliance of England, France, and Russia, and Russia's participation in the First World War. The internal political crisis, which resulted in the February Revolution of 1917, led to Russia's withdrawal from the war. The revolution destroyed the old state system and created a new political situation. The Bolshevik Party seized power in Russia under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin, and the Soviets of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies were proclaimed the supreme authority.

 

On December 30, 1922, the Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) Union was formed. After the death of Lenin, the internal political struggle intensified, and Joseph Stalin came to power, establishing a dictatorship and destroying all his political rivals. In 1939, Russia concluded a non-aggression pact with Germany. Still, on June 22, 1941, Nazi Germany attacked the USSR, violating the agreement's provisions. The Great Patriotic War began. During the battles of Stalingrad and Kursk, Soviet troops went on the offensive. They defeated the German army, victoriously ending the war in May 1945 with the capture of Berlin.

 

Read here more interesting facts: 50 interesting and fun facts about Russia that you probably didn't know

 

 

In 1985, Gorbachev announced perestroika (a set of political and economic reforms). By the early 1990s, perestroika led to the collapse of the USSR. And on December 12, 1993, the Constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted at a referendum, declaring Russia a democratic federal state with a republican form of government headed by a president.

 

How did the Soviet Union's collapse influence today’s Russia?

 

The collapse of the Union was part of the process that began after the First World War - the operation of the failure of multinational states or, more simply, empires. Some of these empires did not survive the First World War - the Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary ... And the Bolsheviks managed to maintain control over most of the Russian Empire through violence and a more resourceful policy towards nationalities and national minorities. The Soviet Union was the first to adopt the nationalism and multinationality of the state. It seemed that the national question was resolved and that history was deceived. Still, until the end of the 20th century, the Soviet Union followed the path of the same Portuguese, British, French, and other empires. The 20th century turned out to be the century of the collapse of multinational states and the creation of national states on their ruins or conditions that would like to be national.‚Äč

 

 

In a purely Soviet context, reform attempts took place, the primary ideological and moral source of which were the reforms of the Prague Spring, that is, the 1960s. The idea was that economic and political reforms should develop simultaneously: in China, they took a different path - economic reform without political reform. At the same time, in the Soviet Union, these things were interconnected. As soon as Gorbachev introduced the first elements of electoral democracy, the first forces that could mobilize were the national movements. Which, outwardly, were weak. There were few dissidents. Still, if you look at the composition of political prisoners in various forms of the Gulag, the percentage of national minorities - including the Baltic states, Jews, Ukrainians, and so on - went off the scale compared to the number of ethnic Russian dissidents.

 

Electoral democracy turned out to be incompatible with a multinational state. The main "glue" was a force - military, political repression, etc. International states built on such a basis proved unable to exist.

 

What was life like under communism in Russia?

 

75% of Russians believe that the Soviet era was the best time in the country's history; only 18% of respondents do not agree with this judgment. This follows from the study “The Structure and Reproduction of the Memory of the Soviet Union in Russian Public Opinion” prepared by the Levada Center, which Vedomosti has reviewed.

 

Hearing the expression "Soviet era," the respondents, first of all, think about stability and confidence in the future (16% of answers), good life in the country (15%), and personal life - childhood, youth, parents (11%). Negative assessments occur much less frequently: 4% of respondents recall shortages, queues, and coupons, and 1% about the Iron Curtain, stagnation, and repression. In general, 76% of respondents give positive characteristics of the Soviet era, 38% - neutral, and only 7% - negative. As some respondents gave different estimates, this sum is higher than 100%. 65% of Russians regret the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the same number believe that it could have been avoided; 26% of respondents have an opposite opinion on both issues. 52% of those who regret the collapse of the USSR say that they are upset by the loss of a sense of belonging to great power, 49% regret the destruction of the single economic system and 37% - about the increased mutual distrust and bitterness.

 

But at the same time, only 28% of respondents agree to “return to the path that the Soviet Union was following,” while the majority favor either Russia’s “own, special path” (58%) or the European version of development (10%).

 

Russians' ideas about the Soviet era are primarily favorable. Still, general statements about social stability replace personal memories, confidence in the future, and a good life in the USSR says Levada Center sociologist Karina Pipia. It is also noteworthy, according to her, that representatives of all age and generational groups agree with the installation of the socio-economic well-being of citizens in the USSR. Still, nostalgia for the Soviet Union is more typical for older people. However, young people join those who believe that the collapse of The USSR could have been avoided. However, the romanticization of the Soviet past does not lead to a desire to restore the Soviet system.

 

Neither those who lived in the USSR nor the post-Soviet youth want this.

 

 

How did Vladimir Putin become President, and what has been his impact on Russia?

 

In three years, Putin has risen from Deputy Director for Presidential Affairs to Secretary of the Security Council. In 1996, after the failure of Sobchak in the gubernatorial elections, Vladimir Vladimirovich was invited to Moscow for the post of Deputy Chief of the President of the Russian Federation. Putin oversaw the legal department and the management of Russia's foreign property.

 

In the spring of 1997, Vladimir Putin was appointed deputy head of the Presidential Administration of the Russian Federation, replacing Alexei Kudrin.

 

In the summer of 1998, he became the head of the FSB. In the fall, he reorganized the structure. Six months later, Vladimir Putin took the post of Secretary of Security Council of the Russian Federation while maintaining his position in the FSB. In 1999, President Boris Yeltsin appointed Vladimir Putin as Russia's prime minister.

 

In 1997, Vladimir Putin defended his Ph.D. thesis in economics at the Mining Institute of St. Petersburg. The title of the work is “Strategic planning for the reproduction of the mineral resource base of the region in the conditions of the formation of market relations (St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region).

 

On December 31, 1999, Yeltsin resigned. Putin became acting President of Russia. He was given symbols of power, including the "nuclear suitcase." According to him, it was not an easy decision for him.

 

25  Interesting Facts about Russia

 

1. Russia is the largest country in the world. However, this is no secret to anyone.

2. Russia is the only country washed by a whole dozen seas globally.

3. The deepest lake on earth, Baikal, is in Russia.

4. The most ancient mountains on the planet, the Urals, are of Russian heritage.

5. There are more than eight hundred glaciers in Altai.

6. The borders of Russia and the United States in the north are separated by 4 kilometers.

7. The deepest subway in the world is located in St. Petersburg. Its depth is more than a hundred meters.

8. The world's largest active volcano is Klyuchevskaya Sopka, almost five kilometers high. It has been erupting for over seven thousand years.

9. St. Petersburg has three times as many bridges as Venice.

10. The most significant medieval fortress in the world is the Moscow Kremlin.

11. St. Petersburg is the world's northernmost metropolis with over a million inhabitants.

 

 

12. The area of ‚Äč‚ÄčSiberia is about nine percent of the entire land area of ‚Äč‚Äčthe Earth.

13. Russia borders 16 countries.

14. In Russia, women won the right to vote in elections earlier than in the United States.

15. There are almost ten thousand trains in the Moscow metro.

16. The most extensive plain on the planet is the West Siberian.

17. There are about three million works of art in the Hermitage.

18. The most visited McDonald's globally is in Moscow on Pushkin Square.

19. Sushi is more prevalent in Russia than in Japan.

20. The highest university in the world is Moscow State University.

21. Before the revolution, firearms were sold freely in Russia.

22. The Ostankino TV Tower was the tallest building in Europe for a long time. But in recent years, skyscrapers have surpassed it in height.

23. The coat of arms of Chelyabinsk depicts a camel.

24. About four percent of the territory of Russia is occupied by protected reserves.

25. The world's largest tram network is located in St. Petersburg.

 

Read here more interesting facts: 50 interesting and fun facts about Russia that you probably didn't know

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an-artist-paints-old-black-and-white-photos-to-show-how-the-distant-past-looked-in-color

There are many ways to preserve memories, but photography is probably one of the most common and accessible of all. With the help of photography, you can stop time and capture a moment that, after years and centuries, descendants will be able to admire. However, very old photographs are only black and white and do not fully convey the beauty of the moment. But in this case, a digital artist comes to the rescue, Sebastian de Oliveira, who uses Photoshop to color old photographs and bring them back to life. 

 

Happy couple, 1948

08-16-28-16279109231530061555

 

Circus Girls in Sarasota, Florida, 1949

08-16-28-16279109231541316280

 

Wartime beach on the English coast, 1941

08-16-39-16279115661404524877

 

Audrey Hepburn, 1956

08-16-28-16279109231146031021

 

French women at the fair, Paris, 1935

08-16-28-16279109231269402209

 

 

A car and a girl, 1942

08-16-28-16279109241469725648

 

People resting on the beach, France, 1967

08-16-28-1627910925616524032

 

Actress Rita Hayworth, 1947

08-16-39-1627911540586993248

 

Marilyn Monroe resting on the set of the movie "The Misfits", 1960

08-16-28-1627910933103199856

 

 

Family Picnic by the River, Louisiana, July 4, 1940

08-16-28-16279109371673774011

 

Spectators at the horse races in Worthington, Maryland, 1941

08-16-33-16279112151973779794

 

On the set of the film "Casablanca" 1939

08-16-28-16279109371894760544

 

Waiting for the bus, 1943

08-16-28-1627910939278444255

 

 Father and son, 1946

08-16-28-16279109391798327612

 

Ava Gardner, 1944

08-16-29-1627910940852894018

 

Photo taken by photographer Georges Dambier, 1948

08-16-29-16279109422117776162

 

French soldier in a trench, 1916

08-16-29-16279109431435360014

 


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st-patricks-day-everyone-wears-green-and-drinks-a-lot-of-beer-the-history-and-traditions-of-the-holiday

March 17 has a special significance for the Irish. It is one of the most important days of the year, because they celebrate St. Patrick. Originally a Catholic holiday, today this festival is rather dedicated to the entire Irish culture and is celebrated with pomp in both Ireland and the United Kingdom, as well as in the United States. Bemorepanda collected some interesting facts and history details for you.


Saint Patrick was born in the 4th century in Roman Britain, but was captured by the Irish and held captive on the island for 6 years. At that time he dedicated himself to religion, and tradition says that he had a divine revelation by which God asked him to Christianize the Irish. After escaping from captivity, he returned to Ireland in 432 and began the Christianization process of the Irish, hitherto followers of polytheism. According to Irish folklore, he used the clover leaf to explain the Christian doctrine of the Holy Trinity.


Best St Patrick's Day Amsterdam Activities 2021 - Tiqets Blog


Although St. Patrick was followed by many other missionaries, he remained the leading champion of Irish Christianity. Initially, the associated color of St. Patrick was blue, but later green, the symbol color of Ireland, began to be used. The custom of wearing green bows and clovers to celebrate March 17 (the day of his death) dates back to the seventeenth century.


National holiday from the 9th-10th centuries

Surprising St Patrick's Day Facts You Never Knew


The feast of St. Patrick was celebrated by the Irish as a kind of national day since the ninth and tenth centuries, but the official day was included in the Catholic calendar only in the early seventeenth century. In 1903, St. Patrick's Day became a national holiday in Ireland, and the St. Patrick's Festival appeared in the 1990s.


All the customs related to this holiday revolve around the color green. Everyone wears green clothes, clovers and, because it's Ireland, they drink beer. Guinness has even launched a special edition of their beer, the Green Edition. And the Irish diaspora around the world is celebrating today, with the most important activities taking place in America. For 40 years, the city of Chicago - with a significant segment of the population of Irish origin - has been manifesting its spirit of celebration by turning the Chicago River green (with the help of a vegetable paint).


In Ireland, although this holiday usually falls on Lent, the Catholic Church accepts meat on March 17 because, according to tradition, on St. Patrick's Day the Irish go to church in the morning, then organize a big feast in honor of their patron. spiritual.


SAINT PATRICK'S DAY: the two visions

Where to go for St Patrick's Day (Top 9 Europe) | DoTravel


St. Patrick's is Ireland's most beloved and well-known saint. Saint Patrick, the luminary of Ireland, was born around 381 AD in a village called Bannaven Taberniae. St. Patrick comes from a family of altar servants - his grandfather Potitus was a priest and his father Calpurnius a deacon.


The name Patrick or Patrichie means a great man in Latin. From the account of his life, we learn that at the age of 16 he ends up forgetting about God. When he reached this age, his village was looted by pirates, and he was sold into slavery in Ireland. He becomes a shepherd on Mount Slemish in Antrim County. Going into captivity completely changed his life. From the rich and carefree young man, comes the person who said at least a hundred prayers at night and as many during the day.


St. Patrick had two visions: in the first he was shown that he would return home, and in the second he was told that his ship was ready. The revelation made by God is fulfilled, so that after six years spent in captivity, he manages to return to his parents.


Facts about St. Patrick's Day celebrations you probably don't know


The Saint Patrick’s Day parade is a tradition both in Ireland and abroad. After the great famine of the 19th century, caused by the lack of potatoes, a wave of migrants left Ireland, and the parade of Saint Patrick’s Day became their way of manifesting their identity. Starting from the tradition, parades began to be organized all over the world, which came to include all those who share the same values.


Ireland celebrates March 17 every year on St. Patrick's Day, the spiritual patron saint of the Irish. This day is marked with great pomp not only in Ireland, but throughout the world, in Irish communities. Each family prepares a traditional dinner with beef and cabbage dishes.


The legend of the saint who patronizes Ireland

Collectible St. Patrick's Day memorabilia hard to find before 1900 |  HeraldNet.com


As for the biography of St. Patrick, the true story intertwines harmoniously with the legend. It is known that St. Patrick was born in Scotland and was abducted and sold to Ireland as a slave. He became a deacon, then a priest and ended up as a bishop. Arriving on the mainland, he was sent back by the Pope to preach the gospel. He traveled mainly to the Celtic settlements, as evidenced by the fact that today many places in Wales, Cornwall, Scotland and Ireland bear his name.


Legend and history become even more difficult to separate when various sources speak of St. Patrick standing on top of a hill and - with the help of a stick - throwing snakes into the sea, forbidding them forever to return to the shores of Ireland. Patrick became known in the world as the one who saved Ireland from snakes. It is true that there are no snakes in Ireland today, but it seems that there has never been one, at least since the island is separated from the mainland. It is probably a symbol of the end of pagan practices in those places.


Regardless of the weather, March 17 was considered spring day, as St. Patrick promised to tame the weather from that date. For this reason, during this period, Irish farmers began to grow potatoes.


St Patrick's Day playlist: 23 classic Irish anthems to get you dancing |  The Independent | The Independent


Later, he meets Saint German, the bishop of the city, in Auxerre. He has another dream, in which he is asked to go to Ireland. He asked St. German for advice on the dream, and because he had prayed to God to give him a person to replace St. Palladium, he saw in this dream a response from God. We point out that the Holy Palladium had left Ireland less than a year after his ordination, because of the cruelty of the Irish.


He was ordained a bishop and in 432 left the monastery of Auxerre with some companions for Ireland. Surrounded by pagans, St. Patrick had many trials.


The Druids will be dissatisfied with the presence of St. Patrick and will send Dichu to kill him. He stiffens as he raises his sword to kill him. St. Patrick unleashes him from the unseen power that held him in place. In response to the miracle performed, Dichiu will offer the saint a shelter in which he will celebrate the Holy Mass. After this miracle, many Irish people received faith in Christ. Later, he and his disciples baptized the entire country.


St. Patrick passed away on March 17, around 480. He is depicted in iconography holding a clover (a three-leafed plant), a symbol of the Holy Trinity, one God in being, but three in person. It is celebrated every year, on March 17.


St. Patrick's Day is celebrated not only in Ireland, but in many countries around the world. The most important festival is considered to be the one in Dublin, in Leinster.

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20-mind-blowing-facts-about-the-fourth-of-july-indepence-day

On July 4, US citizens celebrate Independence Day. With a backyard barbecue and fireworks and salutes. Indeed, it was on this day in 1776 that the Declaration of Independence of this country was proclaimed. At least most Americans are convinced of this. However, in reality, everything was a little different. Bemorepanda has compiled a list of little-known and interesting facts about Independence Day.

 

1. The date of celebration of July 4 is conditional

2019 4th of July Fireworks Displays and Events San Antonio TX

In fact, the declaration of independence lasted more than a month. The documents show that the independence of the United States was proclaimed on July 2, but most of the delegates put their signatures only on August 2, and some delayed this until the end of August.

 

2. Thomas Jefferson was not the only author of the Declaration of Independence

Thomas Jefferson | Biography, Political Career, & Facts | Britannica

Thomas Jefferson is widely believed to have authored the text of the Declaration. However, he was only one of the co-authors. Other contributors include John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston.

 

3. Some of the signatories to the Declaration were executed as traitors

What does the Declaration of Independence mean to you? - The Boston Globe

Of the 56 people who signed the Declaration of Independence, five were captured by British soldiers. They were brought before a military tribunal and were executed as traitors. Nine people died from wounds received during the War of Independence. Many have lost their wives, children and property. Ironically, two authors of the historical document - Thomas Jefferson and John Adams - died on the same day on July 4, 1826, exactly 50 years after the Declaration was signed.

 

4. At the time of proclamation of independence, the US population was only 2.5 million people

How the Declaration of Independence Came to Be - HISTORY

In July 1776, the population of the 13 colonies was approximately 2.5 million. The current population of the United States is estimated at more than 310 million people.

 

5. Not all colonies supported independence

They had printing presses in 1776. So why was the Declaration of  Independence handwritten? - Vox

Among the 13 colonies, not everyone liked the idea of ‚Äč‚Äčdeclaring independence. Pennsylvania and South Carolina voted against, Delaware failed to make a definite decision, and New York abstained.

 

6.United Kingdom learned about the proclamation of US independence almost two months later

The Declaration of Independence

Since there was still no technical means of communication at that time, the news of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence reached London only on August 30, 1776.

 

7. The tradition of celebrating Independence Day became popular only in 1812

Declaration of Independence | Summary, Definition, Date, & Text | Britannica

It was then that the Anglo-American War ended. In 1870, July 4 became an unpaid holiday. And only in 1941 this day became a paid day off.

 

8. Fireworks are one of the main symbols of the Independence Day celebrations.

Watch the 4th of July Fireworks in NYC for 2020 From These Areas

Today in thousands of cities and towns, fireworks are held in honor of Independence Day. The capital of the country, Washington, is famous for its fireworks.

 

This tradition has a long history. Congress authorized the use of pyrotechnics in the 1777 Independence Day celebrations in Philadelphia. Since then, it has been an integral part of the holiday.

 

More than three million people are expected to watch the nation's largest fireworks show on Tuesday in New York.

 

9. Independence Day is a family holiday

Fun Fourth of July Activities for the Whole Family - FamilyEducation

Independence Day is considered a family holiday. Many families have all kinds of out-of-town picnics or backyard barbecues. A large number of people dressed in the colors of the national flag gather in city squares and parks. Holiday fairs host competitions in hot dog eating, tug of war, swimming, baseball, and more.

 

10. Modern Americans often call the holiday simply "Fourth of July"

4th July 2021 | What day is the Federal Holiday for 4th July in 2021?

On this day, educational institutions, government and financial institutions do not work, and city transport works according to a special schedule. At the same time, international transfers do not work all over the world on this day.

 

11. The US Declaration of Independence was signed on a different day

Happy 4th of July Weekend! Enjoy your Celebration! ‚ÄĒ McLadden's | A Craft  Beer Experience | Gastropub & Whiskey Bar

It is well known that this document is officially dated on July 4th. In fact, the first founding fathers signed the Declaration 2 days earlier. But most of them signed off on the final version of the document a month later, on 2 August. As for the current date, on that day the declaration was not signed, but adopted.

 

 

12. The first celebrations were very different from the present

Festivals, fireworks and fun highlight Treasure Coast July 4 celebrations

When news of US independence reached Manhattan, military and civilians knocked down the statue of King George III of England. And later they melted it into bullets. In other states, effigies of the hated overseas ruler were burned.

 

More like today's celebrations was the celebration of Independence Day a year later. The Virginia Gazette reported that the July 4th holiday in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ended with bells ringing. In the evening, the city was lit up with a large fireworks display: "Everyone behaved decently and with dignity, the feeling of joy was universal."

 

13. Where did the tradition of cooking salmon for July 4th come from?

40 Healthy Christmas Recipes - Healthy Holiday Recipe Ideas

The tradition of eating salmon on Independence Day was born in New England (a region in the northeastern United States that includes six states: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont) as a result of coincidence.

 

In the middle of summer, this fish was abundant in local rivers. And salmon dishes hit many festive tables. And to get as close as possible to the traditions of more than two centuries ago, salmon should be served with green peas.

 

14. Which state was the first to legalize the celebration of Independence Day.

4th of July Celebrations In and Around Richmond - Richmond Mom

The Massachusetts government established July 3, 1781, as a public holiday. At the federal level, Congress did this only in 1870. So in the United States there were national holidays: New Year, Independence Day, Thanksgiving and Christmas.

 

15. Where did the oldest 4th of July celebrations begin?

How Real Was Taylor Swift's Fourth of July Party? An Investigation

85 years before July 4 was recognized as a federal holiday, a tradition emerged that still lives on today. Dubbed "America's Oldest July 4th Celebration," it originated in Bristol, Rhode Island, just two years after the end of the Civil War in 1785. The 23-thousandth city begins to "warm up" from June 14, on the Day of the US Flag. And the holidays end on July 4 with a four-kilometer carnival procession.

 

16. Where is the shortest parade on the US Independence Day

Things to Do for July 4th in Seattle

In the city of Aptos (California) on July 4, the shortest festive procession takes place - about 800 m. Antique cars and decorated trucks, as well as many pedestrians, complete the short parade in the park. With live music, games, drinks and food.

 

17. How many fireworks are held annually on US Independence Day

Fourth of July 2018: What is 4th of July celebration for? What is  Independence Day? | World | News | Express.co.uk

According to the American Pyrotechnic Association, about 15,000 fireworks are launched into the sky each year on July 4. The cost of such pleasures varies greatly from city to city. On average, in small towns, this entertainment costs $ 8-15 thousand, while in large cities the price of fireworks - for example, Boston Pops Fireworks Spectacular - can reach $ 2 million.

 

18. How many hot dogs are eaten on US Independence Day

How many hot dogs do Americans eat on the 4th of July?' and other  Independence Day numbers

Americans eat about 150 million hot dogs annually on July 4. But this estimate can grow significantly. Not least thanks to enthusiasts like Joey Chestnut. In 2018, he won the Nathan's Hot Dog Eating Competition for the 11th time in a row after eating 74 hot dogs.

 

19. How many billions of dollars do Americans spend on food and drink on July 4th?

Americans broaden their July 4 appetites beyond beer and burgers |  Financial Times

According to the estimates of the US National Retail Federation, Americans spend about $ 6.7 billion on a hearty celebration of Independence Day. The average cost is $ 73 per person taking part in a barbecue or outdoor picnic. According to the Beer Institute, Americans spend more on beer on July 4 than on any other day of the year - about $ 1 billion. More than $ 560 million goes to wine.

 

20. How many US presidents were born and died on Independence Day

The 3 Presidents Who Died on the Fourth of July (And Other Strange  Fatalities) | KQED

John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, respectively the second and third presidents of the United States of America, died on the same day, July 4, 1826. James Monroe, the fifth head of this state, died a few years later on July 4, 1831.

 

On Independence Day, but in 1872, the 30th President of the United States, Calvin Coolidge, was born.

 


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is-2022-a-leap-year-what-is-a-leap-year-history-calculations-and-superstitions

For centuries, mankind has created a history that has been passed down from generation to generation. The myths or the reality about the leap years that have survived so far make everyone think about this inexplicable fact.

 

What is a leap year?

 

 

The term "jump" in Latin has a numerical meaning - 2/6. It is scientifically the fourth year above the standard number of days (366).

 

The historical period of a leap year

 

 

During the reign of Y. Caesar, there was an additional day repeated in the Roman calendar, with a number (February 24).

 

The Romans counted the days, the years, according to the Julian calendar.

 

In the Julian calendar, every fourth year was considered a leap year, and the last two days of February were below the same number.

 

After the death of the Roman ruler, the priests deliberately began to appoint the third year - a leap year. There was a change in the annual time and people, for this reason, lived up to twelve leap years.

 

Due to the decree of the new emperor of Rome - Augustus Octavian, everything fell into place. It took sixteen years to get the "jump time" right.

 

Sixteen centuries later, the Orthodox Church introduced new changes to the calendar.

 

The head of the Catholic Church, Pope Gregory XIII, proposed to calculate the calendar according to the new rules. He proposed introducing an additional day in February with a different date (February 29). At the general assembly, before the coming Easter, the idea of ‚Äč‚Äčthe head of the Catholic Church was successfully accepted. The Roman calendar had a new chronology. In honor of the leader of the Catholic Church, she began to be called a "Gregorian."

 

The modern concept of a leap year

 

It is known that a year consists of 365 days. The next fourth year is considered a leap year. It's a longer day.

 

In a leap year, February is not twenty-eight days, but twenty-nine, but this phenomenon happens every four years.

 

Assumptions and superstitions for the leap year

 

 

Our Slavic ancestors believed that the leap year was a mystical, superstitious year. Probably the reason lies in the distant history of Saint Kasyan.

 

Saint Kasian served in the Galilean monastery and was its founder. He became famous for his writing career after writing twenty-four essays on "Interview," based on a moral, Christian attitude toward the faith.

 

The main flaw in Saint Kasyan's life was that his date of birth fell on the last day of February and even at the end of the year.

 

According to the Slavic faith, the last day of the year was considered the end of a severe winter. For this reason, the holy monk gained a bad reputation.

 

The superstitious Slavs considered the last day of a leap year to be the most difficult. They believed in evil spirits. Hence the fear of people before a leap year.

 

The signs of a leap year have been associated with Saint Kasyan:

 

  • If Kasyan approached people, the disease would attack them.
  • Kasyan was next to the animals - their deaths were inevitable.
  • Where Kasyan's gaze falls, there will be trouble and devastation.
  • The unsuccessful year is approaching Kasyanov - unsuccessful.

 

According to legend, in a leap year, there are many things you should not do, for example:

 

  • Play weddings
  • Plan a pregnancy, have children
  • Create new projects
  • Go into the woods for mushrooms
  • Haircut
  • Divorce file
  • Borrow money
  • Plant new seeds
  • Make interior renovations
  • Buying real estate

 

The approach of a leap year in modern society is controversial. One part of society believes in its negative actions, the other does not.

 

Negative side of a leap year:

 

  • Natural disasters
  • Military conflicts
  • Frequent accident

 

 

The positive side of a leap year

 

People born in a leap year are creative and talented people. Endowed with a brilliant charisma, strong character, love of life (Julius Caesar, Leonardo da Vinci, Elizabeth Taylor, Paul Gauguin).

 

Today, a leap year is perceived as a year of disasters, wars, catastrophes. After all, the worst events took place during this period.

 

People are prone to believe something and most often evil. A leap year is perceived as a time of loss, disappointment, sadness. Is that right? Just ask yourself.

 

Leap year: where did the extra day come from?

 

 

Do you think that the Earth will make a complete revolution in exactly 365 days? No, it's not like that - the Earth makes a complete circle around the Sun a little longer, that is, 365 days and 6 hours.

 

In other words, an extra quarter is added each year. For 4 years, such quarters come out 24 hours. So, it turned out that a year that is a multiple of 4 (2008, 2012, 2016, the calendar of leap years is based on this principle) is different from the rest.

 

The leap year is intended to eliminate this surplus and to bring the balance into chronology. If it weren't for the leap year, then in a few centuries the new year would have been postponed to the beginning of March, and that's pretty serious!

 

Differences from leap year

 

The differences between a leap year and other years, from a material point of view, are limited only by the number of days. In addition, people need to work harder for a day. Sometimes, however, it turns out and rests once again, but this happens quite rarely.

 

Astrologically, there are a lot of problems around the Earth around the Sun in a leap year:

 

  • everyday problems;
  • man-made disasters;
  • natural cataclysms;
  • relatively high mortality.

 

However, one can argue with the latter - there are no comments from ritual service workers about the increase in mortality. Only a few older people die.

 

Year leap: Greetings from Antiquity

 

 

For the first time, the ancient Romans were concerned about the inconsistency of the calendar with the actual course of time. In this country, it was forbidden to transfer significant data in another season. People were guided by the movement of the Sun in the sky.

 

Gaius Julius Caesar solved the problem quickly and radically - from the time of his reign, people began to live according to the Julian calendar, which just added a day in February every 4 years. They gradually started moving to the new calendar, not everyone accepted it, but time took its toll.

 

Over time, the pagan calendar migrated to Christian culture. But in some regions this year he is associated with Kasyan Visokos, one of the saints, the patron saint of monasticism.

 

He is believed to have been drinking without restraint for three years, and at the age of four he gets angry and takes revenge in public for the fact that his birthday is celebrated only once every 4 years.

 

However, there is a discrepancy here - a Christian saint, by definition, cannot be a drunk, plus there is no record in the church that Visokos would like.

 

Signs and beliefs associated with a leap year

 

 

Now the leap year is relatively simple, and earlier some people were afraid to leave home on February 29 in a leap year. For example, there was a sign that if you get a good frost on that day, and the frosts can be severe at the end of February, then a person will certainly catch a cold and die.

 

The same goes for animals. Popular belief says that any mistake in caring for pets on this day can cost animals their lives. For example, malnutrition or overeating.

 

Starting a new business in a leap year, according to popular belief, cannot be very successful.

 

Surely everything will be ruined: even if a man builds a house, he even opens a business. In addition, all major cases should be postponed until at least February 29 - this time is considered the most unfortunate since the beginning of the year.

 

To calm Visokos a little, you need to do the following:

 

  • under the bells, throw a glass of vodka from the window (another alcohol is suitable, but it must be strong);
  • drink without glasses that shake when it is exactly midnight;
  • If you still have glasses, then you should put the glasses on the table before taking a sip.

 

According to popular belief, Visokos' anger will diminish slightly before the completion of the next journey around the Sun.

 

Another interesting sign is associated with the collection of gifts from nature. Picking mushrooms and berries is usually difficult on February 29, but things found on the street, such as money, can cause problems if they enter the house.

 

And if the dog barks at the same time (a dog day on February 29 itself is a bad sign), then trouble is guaranteed. You have to ignore it while saying, "Hold me out."

 

Prohibitions of the leap year

 

 

Because this year is so unlucky, people have come with a lot of bans, noticing that you can remove the troubles from home. By the way, nature "participates" in these prohibitions as well.

 

For example, according to ancient memories, in leap years, usually a poor apple crop.

 

So what not to do in a leap year:

 

  • You can't sing carols for baptism. This ritual in itself is relatively associated with evil spirits and once every four years it is especially "attentive" to humans. You better not litter. So, no matter how many sweets people offer, it is better to avoid carols.
  • It is not recommended to sell homemade products. It is believed that happiness and wealth leave home with them.
  • You can't show the first erupted tooth to a baby to anyone, except maybe your closest relatives. If the ban is violated, the child will have crooked teeth.
  • You can't start a big business, including getting married. Everything will break down, as I mentioned above.
  • You can't buy "coffin stuff". It sounds weird, but for some people in their old age it is the norm to buy things for their own funeral. Doing so in a leap year will hasten death.
  • Women are strictly forbidden to dye their hair. This can lead to the lady becoming bald.
  • It is forbidden to change jobs or places of residence. In a new place, a person will simply not take root, you will have to start from scratch (this point is sometimes impractical because there are different circumstances in life).
  • Having children joins this forbidden group, but not everyone takes this restriction seriously.

 

Everything may sound archaic, but the fact remains - people often complain to astrologers and psychics about the misfortunes that began even after violating such prohibitions.

 

Conclusion - until the Earth makes a complete revolution around the Sun in a leap year, some activities should be abandoned.

 

The reason for the bad reputation of a leap year

 

 

We must recognize that if we did not have leap years, there would be a regular change of seasons. Therefore, they help to synchronize the Gregorian and astrological calendars and do not allow the seasons to change in other months.

 

But why a leap year is considered bad, you have to figure it out. In Slavic culture, there has long been a negative attitude towards such years. An additional day in February was considered the cause of disasters and landslides.

 

Perhaps the reason for such antipathy was that this time, on February 29, according to Slavic beliefs, Kashchey-Chernobog was subdued, commanding dark forces, sowing evil, death, disease, and madness.

 

Old Russians often associated a day of jumping with Cassian, who was born on February 29th. Based on the legends, where he was assigned the role of guardian of the gates of Hell, the traitorous cherub, the adoptive one of the demons, etc., one can understand why this character was very feared and strongly cursed. The Russians were convinced that Cassian had a negative impact throughout the year. There was a pestilence of cattle and poultry, crops were destroyed in the fields, and famine began.

 

On February 29, people once again tried not to go out into the yard, to keep cattle and birds closed.

 

It is difficult to answer unequivocally why a leap year is considered bad. Some scientists claim that natural and man-made disasters are becoming more common during this period. Many personalities are also in a hurry to cancel their individual problems for more than a year.

 

The following tragic events are historical facts:

 

  • the collapse of the Byzantine Empire and the city of Constantinople falls in the leap year 1204;
  • the bloody Spanish Inquisition began in 1232;
  • the plague of the inhabitants of medieval Europe from the plague, in which 1/3 of the population died in 1400;
  • the terrible events of the Night of St. Bartholomew in 1572;
  • the terrible tsunami in Japan in 1896 and the earthquake in China in 1556;
  • In 1908, everyone became aware of the fall of the Tunguska meteorite, etc.

 

 

List of leap years in the 21st century

 

 

To plan important events in your life, such as marriage, birth, change of profession, place of residence, etc., information about leap years in this century will be helpful.

 

Leap years, list of the twentieth century: 1904, 1908, 1912, 1916, 1920, 1924, 1928, 1932, 1936, 1940, 1944, 1948, 1952, 1956, 1960, 1964, 1968, 1972, 1976, 1980, 1984, 1988 , 1992, 1996.

 

Leap years in our century: 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012, 2016, 2020, 2024, 2028, 2032, 2036, 2040, 2044, 2048, 2052, 2056, 2060, 2064, 2068, 2072, 2076, 2080, 2084, 2088, 2092, 2096, 2100.

 

 

Let's summarize

 

A positive attitude and self-confidence form a strong basis for important achievements in a person's life, and small superstitions should not become an obstacle to achieving goals.

 

Is it the leap year or 2022? 2022 will be an ordinary year. From year to year, the approach of the new year arouses enthusiasm among superstitious people.

 

Interest is based on the popular signs and superstitions associated with the addition to the additional February 29th. One day, February 29, is added to the calendar every four years.

 

If you believe in your own strengths you will be able to do whatever you want in any year! We at Bemorepanda advise you not to be guided by superstitions!

 

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