12 interesting facts about Transnistria that you didn't know
Transnistria is an unrecognized microstate in the center of Europe, located between Ukraine and Moldova. The country is stretched from northwest to southeast along the Dniester valley for 200 kilometers. The distance between the village of Mikhailovka, Rybnitsa district, and the eastern borders of the republic are a little more than 2 kilometers.
What are other exciting details about Transnistria?
The Transnistrian Moldavian Republic is among the seven countries with a developed referendum democracy.
The most crucial state decisions in the country are made through direct democracy: the opinion of citizens determines state policy (including foreign policy). The inhabitants of Transnistria themselves proclaimed the republic at referendums in its cities and villages. The issue of independence was also resolved with the broad participation of the people. The citizens insist on deploying soldiers of the Russian army here, who Transnistriansperceive as guarantors of peace. The people also solve geopolitical issues: in 2006, 97.1% of Transnistriansvoted for independence and integration with Russia. Distinctive features of the Transnistrian referendums are high turnout and unanimity of citizens.
The constitutions of several states provide for the referendum. Still, only seven countries actively use this instrument of direct democracy: Ireland, Liechtenstein, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Switzerland, and Transnistria.
The first referendum on the territory of the USSR was held in Transnistria. In total, since 1990, 7 republican referenda have been held here. In neighboring Moldova, during independence, there were two republican referendums (in 1994 and 2010), one of which was declared invalid. One referendum was held in Gagauzia, which is reduced to a superficial region of Moldova (in 2014).
Transnistria is one of two states globally that do not have broad international recognition and has its full-fledged currency.
According to some data, there are about 120 unrecognized or partially recognized states today. The Geopolitics website lists the 35 most famous (without dependent territories). However, according to other sources, there are a little more than 20 such countries. All of them have the state's main features, but not every country from this group was able to create its full-fledged monetary system. For example, only the Republic of China (Taiwan, Taiwanese dollar) has its currency among the partially recognized states. At the same time, Kosovo uses the euro, Western Sahara uses the Moroccan charm, Northern Cyprus uses the Turkish lira, and South Ossetia and Abkhazia use the Russian ruble.
Among the states not recognized by any UN member country, only Transnistria and Somaliland have a full-fledged currency. Nagorno-Karabakh also has its own money, but they are not used in actual circulation and are the subject of interest of numismatist collectors (limited circulation and insignificant denomination).
The payment instrument on the territory of the PMR is the Transnistrian ruble, introduced in 1994.
On the front side of its denominations are depicted historical figures who influenced the historical fate of Transnistria: generals of the Russian Empire Alexander Suvorov and Pyotr Rumyantsev (who, according to sources, was born in Transnistria), Empress Catherine II, Ukrainian poet, prose writer, and ethnographer Taras Shevchenko, Moldovan-Russian politician and encyclopedist Dmitry Kantemir.
The world's first experience of introducing coins made of composite materials into circulation
In 2014, the Central Bank of Transnistria put coins made of composite materials into circulation. They are made using Planet technology, innovative development of Goznak of Russia. Mixed coins combine the characteristics of banknotes (security against forgery; easy recognition by color, design, shape, and size; lightweight; low cost of production) and metal coins (high abrasion resistance; resistance to water and various chemical liquids).
And although plastic money appeared back in 1983 (today, such banknotes are found in 53 states), Transnistria became the first country to put composite coins into circulation.
For innovation in applying the best characteristics of banknotes and coins in coins made of composite materials, the Transnistrian Republican Bank became the winner of the "Watermark banknotes Awards" in the nomination. "Substrates for the modification of banknotes."
In Transnistria, the Moldovan language was preserved in the Cyrillic script.
After the Supreme Council of the MSSR adopted 1989 the law “On the Functioning of Languages on the Territory of the Republic of Moldova,” the Moldovan language in the Cyrillic script was preserved only on the territory of Transnistria. Article 1 of this law announced the transition of the Moldavian language to the Latin alphabet, adopted in the United Principalities of Wallachia and Moldova (future Romania) back in 1862. Meanwhile, Moldavian writing is historically Cyrillic: narrative monuments in the Moldavian and Wallachian languages in Cyrillic have been known since the 16th century (Athanasius Kochaga's dedicatory note, a letter from the boyar Nyakshu), but before that, the language of administration, church, and literature in the Moldavian principality and Wallachia was Church Slavonic ( Urik of Roman I from 1392).
Urik of Roman I - the first known document of the Moldavian Principality, written in Church Slavonic in Cyrillic script, 1392:
The Latin alphabet began to be used in the Danubian principalities only in the 19th century. Switching to the Latin alphabet was explained because these languages are part of the Romance group. Therefore, phonetically they are more consistent with the Latin alphabet. Adherents of this idea, however, do not like to recall the words of Mihai Eminescu:
“Our phonetic laws are Old Slavic, which, however, are unusual and even surprisingly close to Romance, so much so that their merging in the Romanian language is completely natural.” (Letter to Titus Maiorescu, Iasi, October 15, 1877)
The PMR is the only state on the territory of the former USSR where the hammer and sickle remained on the coat of arms and flag.
For the first time, the flag of Transnistria was raised at 15:00 on September 2, 1991. It repeats the colors and symbols of the flag of the Moldavian SSR of 1952 (the creation of the Moldavian SSR was declared illegal by the Moldavian Parliament in June 1990). A golden sickle and hammer with a five-pointed star are in the upper left corner of the red canvas with a green line in the middle. This symbol disappeared from all the flags of the former Soviet republics in the early 90s of the last century. Today it can only be seen on the flags of some cities and regions of Russia: the Vladimir and Bryansk regions, the cities of Orel and Dzerzhinsk.
The hammer and sickle are the main elements of the emblem of the PMR, which, with some differences, repeats the symbol of the MSSR: the stylized horizon, from which the sun rises, is indicated by a blue ribbon with a white wavy line (it symbolizes the Dniester River). The color of the central bunch of grapes also differs: blue - on the Transnistrian and yellow - on the coat of arms of the MSSR.
The hammer and sickle, representing the unity of workers and peasants, are usually associated with the communist movement and the Soviet Union. However, Transnistria is not a communist state - the flag and coat of arms symbolize the historical continuity between the MASSR, established in 1924, and the PMR, proclaimed by the people in 1990.
"Younger brother" of Berlin Lenin
According to the observations of travel agents, 50% of foreign guests of Transnistria come to the capital of the PMR, Tiraspol, for Lenin. Transnistria is one of the few countries of the former USSR and the socialist camp where monuments to the leader of the world proletariat are not being dismantled. In the city center, one can often see how groups of foreigners are actively photographing the granite Vladimir Ilyich in front of the Government and Supreme Council buildings. A lot of assumptions have been made about the secret of his popularity. Meanwhile, the monument to Lenin in Tiraspol is the "little brother" of another monument - a 19-meter pink granite statue from Berlin on Leninplatz (now the United Nations Square).
In 1991, the Berlin Lenin was dismantled, and the Tiraspol one became an object of nostalgic tourism.
It was erected in 1987 and, according to experts, is one of the twenty highest monuments to Lenin. However, this moment is debatable: the height of the Transnistrian Ilyich is 16 meters, while the list of leaders begins with a 19-meter mark. By the way, in the first place is the monument to Lenin in Volgograd. It is not just tall. It is genuinely gigantic: together with the pedestal, it is 57 meters high.
According to experts, by 1991, 14,290 monuments to Lenin were erected in the USSR. Today there are about 8,000 left. At least nothing less.
Many Transnistrians have passports of several countries at once, citizens of four or more states.
This is explained by deep family ties between representatives of various ethnic groups and compatriots of the inhabitants of Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, etc.
All Transnistriansare also citizens of the PMR, but the UN member states do not recognize the republic's passport. Citizenship of different forms in a peculiar political situation allows residents of Transnistria to travel outside the republic and visit other countries.
PMR is one of the twenty countries with three or more official languages
Representatives of more than 30 nationalities live in Transnistria. There is no titular nation. According to the latest census in 2015, more than a thousand people designated their ethnicity as “Prinestrovian.” 93% of the republic inhabitants consider themselves Russians (34%), Moldovans, and Ukrainians (26.7%).
This parity of peoples underlies the Russian, Moldovan, and Ukrainian official state languages.
Multilingualism is typical for many countries of the world, but not every language has the status of a state language. There are more than 200 recognized, partially recognized, and unrecognized states on the planet. Of these, you can find two dozen countries with three or more official languages. Ahead of the rest - Bolivia with 37 official languages (according to the 2009 constitution). In New Zealand, even sign language is one of the state languages.
One of the largest settlements of Bulgarians outside the ethnic homeland is located in Transnistria.
Between the cities of Tiraspol and Bender is the village of Parkany. According to official figures, more than 10 thousand people live here, of which 80% are Bulgarians. The Parklane is the largest enclave outside Bulgaria, Taraclia in Moldova and Bolgrad in Ukraine.
The village has preserved the charm of the original Bulgarian culture. You can not only see and hear it but also taste it. Parkins retain elements of past years in architecture, in language, in holidays that are brightly celebrated, in customs and rituals, and even in the character traits of residents.
One of the three regions of Eastern Europe with a large concentration of ancient monuments
In Transnistria, in a relatively small area (4163 km²), more than two thousand historical and cultural monuments have been officially identified. 95% of them are archeological monuments. Meanwhile, according to experts of the Transnistrian State University, there are many more ancient objects: about 10-12 thousand. These are numerous settlements of different cultures, sanctuaries, sites from the Stone Age, and burial mounds - cult steppe pyramids.
"Royal mound" near the village of Bury, Grigoriopol region:
In the scientific centers of the CIS and Europe, Transnistria is called the "archaeological Klondike," the contact zone where the ancient cultures of the West and East intersected.
Golden hryvnia from the Dubossary region:
Transnistria is one of the three unique historical and cultural regions of Eastern Europe (along with the Caucasus and Crimea), where monuments of ancient history with a diverse chronological and cultural coverage are found almost at every turn.
Unique geological monuments are located on the territory of the republic.
For paleontologists from all over the world, Tiraspol is known not as a city but as a paleontological symbol. In the northwest of the capital of Transnistria, there is a geological reference section up to 30 meters, which journalists called the "stone book" with the chronicle of the Pleistocene era. We talk about the unique geological and paleontological monument "Kolkotova Balka."
This is a complete stratigraphic section of the Quaternary period in Eurasia, where a stratification of sediments containing traces of ancient animals and plants has been preserved in a strict geological sequence. Sediments accumulated here from 1 million to 300 thousand years ago. Scientists have discovered the remains of various microorganisms, plants, and animals (cave lions, mammoth ancestors - trogontherian elephants, and many others).
Mammoth tusk, found in the Kolkotovaya Balka deposits, is stored in the Geological Museum of PSU:
The data of the sections allow us to conclude the ancient landscape and climate. The latter changed from arid to cold several times, judging by various finds.
An ancestral tooth of a mammoth trogontherian elephant, found in the Sukleysky quarry, is stored in the Geological Museum of PSU:
However, Kolkotova Balka is not the only geological landmark of Transnistria. In Kamensky, Rybnitsky and Griogriopolsky districts there are outcrops of an older Neogene system. The deposits date back to 13-9 million years ago - just when the waters of the Sarmatian Sea were here instead of land (the name is conditional and has nothing to do with the historical Sarmatians).
According to paleontologists, the geological Sarmatian sections are unique. It is no coincidence that in the scientific centers of Russia, Transnistria is called a paleontological paradise.
In Transnistria, rare plants of several geographical zones have been preserved at once
As a result of intensive economic activity, many plant species that previously grew in the steppe have disappeared. However, in reserve near the village of Novaya Andriyashevka, relics, endemics, and rare plants grow, which you can no longer find in other steppe places. Due to a peculiar hilly landscape. They have been preserved as inconvenient for agriculture.
The reserve is spread on the picturesque hills in the vicinity of the village of Novaya Andriyashevka:
The flora of the reserve is diverse. It combines elements from different geographical areas, yet it is closely linked to the ancient Mediterranean. About 50 plant species are subject to protection. Six species were included in the Red Book of the USSR (for example, Sarmatian bellevalia, Odesa gymnosperm, which had previously disappeared, but were reintroduced by Transnistrian biologists).
In general, Transnistria is characterized by a mixture of different geographical areas. Crossing the republic along the Dniester valley, for 202 kilometers, one can see a sudden change of landscapes: steppes, hills, and forests.
If you think today's billionaires are refined socialites whose fingers shake from the weight of diamond rings, we hasten to disappoint you and show you what the richest women in the world look like.
According to Forbes, every year the number of women who get rich and multiply their fortunes is steadily growing. And probably this year, we could observe the same positive dynamics, if not for the economic crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic. Therefore, in 2021, 228 women were among the richest people on the planet - 13 less than last year. But paradoxically, their combined wealth has increased by $570 billion (as the stock markets slowly start to recover).
Many leaders of last year's rating managed to strengthen their positions (or even improve them). For example, L'Oreal heiress Françoise Bettencourt-Myers broke into the top spot of the Forbes 2021 Women's list, displacing Alice Walton. Her company's stock rose an incredible 40%, so Betancourt-Myers made $24.7 billion rich.
Top richest women in 2022
2020 has also been a successful year for the ex-wife of Amazon founder Jeff Bezos, Mackenzie Scott. She donated almost $6 billion to charity but still managed to increase her fortune. How did it happen? The fact is that after the divorce, Mackenzie became the owner of a 4% stake in Amazon. Their value increased by 66% last year, and thanks to this, Scott's fortune has grown by almost 50%.
The richest newcomer on the list, with $38.2 billion, was Miriam Adelson of Nevada, who inherited her husband's casino empire after his death.
Using the example of the 30 main billionaires in the world, we decided to figure out what and how to do to appear in the Forbes ranking (small spoiler: the shortest way is to be born into a rich family, but it is not the only one).
30. Zhao Yan
Net Worth: $7.7 Billion
Zhao Yan is the chairperson for Hong Kong-listed Bloomage BioTechnology. The company produces hyaluronic acid.
29. Christy Walton
Net Worth: $7.8 Billion
Christy Ruth Walton is the widow of John T. Walton, one of the sons of Sam Walton, founder of Walmart. In June 2005, her husband died in a plane crash, making her the main heir to his US$18.2 billion fortune. Forbes named Christy Walton the richest woman in the world for several years.
28. Diane Hendricks
Net Worth: $8 Billion
Diane Marie Hendrix is an American billionaire businesswoman and film producer from Wisconsin. She is the widow of the late businessman Ken Hendrix.
27. Blair Parry-Okeden
Net Worth: $8.2 Billion
Blair Parry-Okeden is an American-born Australian billionaire and philanthropist. In 2016, she was Australia's richest person by net worth, according to Forbes Asia. Parry-Okeden's wealth comes from Cox Enterprises.
26. Nancy Walton Laurie
Net Worth: $8.2 Billion
Nancy Walton Laurie is an American heiress to the Walmart fortune. She is also a businesswoman and philanthropist.
25. Zeng Fangquin
Net Worth: $8.3 Billion
Zeng Fangquin is the chairperson of Lingyi Technology, a part supplier for smartphones; including Apple and Huawei products. Lingyi Technology was listed on the Shenzhen stock
24. Cheng Xue
Net Worth: $8.7 Billion
Cheng Xue is the vice-chairman of Chinese soy sauce maker Foshan Haitian Flavoring. Xue currently owns a 9% stake in the company.
23. Ann Walton Kroenke
Net Worth: $9.1 Billion
Ann Walton Kroenke is the heiress to the Walmart fortune. Ann and her sister Nancy Walton Laurie inherited the shares of their father, Bud Walton, who was the brother and one of the first business partners of Walmart founder Sam Walton. She owns the Denver Nuggets in the NBA and the Colorado Avalanche in the NHL.
22. Denise Coates
Net Worth: $9.6 Billion
Denise Coates is a British businesswoman, billionaire, founder, and CEO of the online gambling company Bet365. In October 2019, Forbes magazine estimated Coates' net worth at $12.2 billion.
21. Massimiliana Landini Alleotti
Net Worth: $10.4 Billion
Massimiliano Landini Aleotti is an Italian billionaire heiress, owner of the Menarini pharmaceutical company based in Florence, Tuscany, Italy, and one of the ten richest women in the world. As of February 2016, Forbes estimated her net worth at US$11.6 billion.
20. Kwong Siu-Hing
Net Worth: $12.2 Billion
Kwong Siu-hin, or sometimes Kwok Kwong Siu-Hing, is the matriarch of the Kwok family. She controls conglomerate Sun Hung Kai Properties, the largest real estate developer in Hong Kong in 2019.
19. Wang Laichun
Net Worth: $12.7 Billion
Wang Laichun is a Chinese billionaire chairman and co-founder of electronics manufacturer Luxshare Precision Industry Co., Ltd, better known as Luxshare-ICT. Founded in 2004 in Dongguan, China, the company designs and manufactures computer cables; it is also a key AirPods assembler for Apple.
18. Kirsten Rausing
Net Worth: $13.2 Billion
Kirsten Elisabeth Rausing is a Swedish entrepreneur. The eldest daughter of Swedish industrialist Gad Rausing and his wife Birgit.
17. Abigail Johnson
Net Worth: $15 Billion
Abigail "Abby" Johnson is the granddaughter of Edward Johnson II, a member of the richest family in the United States. American entrepreneur, dollar billionaire, president of the American firm Fidelity Investments and chairman of its subsidiary, one of the richest and most powerful women in the world according to Forbes.
16. Charlene de Carvalho-Heineken
Net Worth: $15.4 Billion
Charlene de Carvalho-Heineken is the heiress of Freddie Heineken, her fortune in 2016 is estimated at approximately $12 billion. Owns a controlling stake in Heineken.
15. Iris Fontbona & Family
Net Worth: $15.5 Billion
Iris Balbina Fontbona Gonzalez is a Chilean mining magnate, media owner, billionaire businesswoman, widow of Andronico Luxica Abaroa, from whom she inherited Antofagasta PLC.
14. Zhou Qunfei & Family
Net Worth: $16.1 Billion
Zhou Qunfei is a Chinese entrepreneur and founder of the major touchscreen maker Lens Technology. After the public listing of her company on the Shenzhen ChiNext market in March 2015, her net worth skyrocketed, making her one of the richest women in China.
13. Gina Rinehart
Net Worth: $16.3 Billion
Gina Rinehart is a large Australian businesswoman, billionaire. Owner of the Australian iron ore company Hancock Prospecting. The richest woman in the world and the richest person in Australia. The fortune for 2020 is estimated at 13.5 billion dollars. She inherited her father's Hancock Prospecting business.
12. Lu Zhongfang
Net Worth: $16.4 Billion
Lu Zhongfang invested in Offcn, a test preparation company, in 1999, after retiring from working in a pesticides factory in 1993. Lu’s son, Liu Yongxin, is the chairman for Offcn. In 2019, Offcn Education Technology was listed on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange.
11. Fan Hongwei & Family
Net Worth: $16.8 Billion
Fan Hongwei is a Chinese chairperson for Hengli Petrochemical, a chemical fiber supplier.
10. Wu Yajun
Net Worth: $17.9 Billion
Wu Yajun is the co-founder and chairperson of Longfor Properties, a real estate developer based in Hong Kong.
9. Zhong Huijuan
Net Worth: $18.9 Billion
Zhong Huijuan is a Chinese pharmacist, billionaire, and the world's richest self-made woman. She is the founder, CEO, and chairman of Hanson Pharmaceutical, headquartered in Lianyungang and listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.
8. Laurene Powell Jobs
Net Worth: $19.9 Billion
Lauren Powell Jobs is an American billionaire businesswoman, CEO, and founder of the Emerson Collective, a non-profit organization that, in addition to investing and charitable work, is politically active in the areas of education reform, social services, and redistribution of resources and protection.
7. Susanne Klatten
Net Worth: $24.2 Billion
Susanna Klatten is a German entrepreneur. Born in the family of industrialists Herbert and Johanna Quandt. Heiress and co-owner of the family business associated with BMW.
6. Jacqueline Mars
Net Worth: $28.9 Billion
Jacqueline Mars is an American businesswoman, daughter of Forrest Mars Sr., and granddaughter of Franklin Mars, founder of the American confectionery company Mars, Incorporated. The value of her stake in the company is $11 billion. According to Forbes magazine, Jacqueline is one of the richest women in the world.
5. Yang Huiyan & Family
Net Worth: $30.6 Billion
Yang Huiyan is the richest woman in China. According to Forbes magazine, her fortune is estimated at $16.2 billion as of October 2007. Since the beginning of 2018, in just four days of the exchanges, Yang Huiyan's fortune has grown from $23.6 billion to $25.6 billion. Today her net worth is 30.6 billion.
4. Julia Koch & Family
Net Worth: $44.9 Billion
Julia Margaret Flescher Koch is an American socialite, billionaire, philanthropist, and one of the richest women in the world. She inherited her fortune from her husband David Koch, who died in 2019.
3. MacKenzie Scott
Net Worth: $62.7 Billion
McKenzie Scott is an American writer, philanthropist, and ex-wife of Amazon founder Jeff Bezos. As of 2021, Forbes estimates Scott's net worth at $59.8 billion. As of 2022, MacKenzie Scott's net worth is estimated to be $62.7 Billion.
2. Alice Walton
Net Worth: $68.1 Billion
Alice Louise Walton is an American billionaire, daughter of Walmart founder Sam Walton and his wife Helen Walton. As of May 2018, her fortune was estimated at $41.8 billion. In the Forbes list, she became the second richest woman of 2018 same as in 2022. As of 2022, Alice Walton's net worth is estimated to be $68.1 billion.
1. Francoise Bettencourt Meyers & Family
Net Worth: $69.6 Billion
Francoise Bettencourt Meyers became the reigning L'Oreal heiress when her mother, Liliane Bettencourt, passed away in 2017. She now runs the holding company as chairwoman, with her family owning 33% of L'Oreal.
Françoise Bettencourt-Myers is a French entrepreneur, after the death of her mother Liliane Bettencourt in September 2017, she received an inheritance of $ 39.5 billion. As of March 2022, with a fortune of $ 69.6 billion, she is the richest woman on the planet and ranks 20th in the ranking richest people on earth.
The natural world is divided into three major groups: the animal world, the plant world, and the mineral world.
The latter is not and has never been alive, it is an inorganic world. Diamond is part of the category of minerals. Each of the minerals is defined by the types, the relativity of the atoms it contains, and the way they are arranged.
Differences in structure and chemical composition give minerals unique properties. For example, spinel atoms are arranged in the same way as diamond atoms, the difference being that the spinel is made up of different chemical elements.
Diamonds are women’s best friends
A chemical element is a substance that contains only one kind of atom. Most minerals are made up of two or more such substances. Once used to imitate diamonds, Spinel is made up of three chemical elements: magnesium, aluminum, and oxygen.
Diamond is the only stone made up of a single element: carbon.
The diamond usually consists of 99.95% carbon, with the remaining 0.05% being other elements whose atoms are not part of the chemical structure of the diamond. Some of these elements are used to determine the color of the diamond.
The way it is formed gives the minerals a special identity. Diamonds are formed at extremely high temperatures and under conditions of special pressure, which exist only at certain distances below the earth's surface. Graphite, for example, is made in the same way as diamond, made of carbon, but in such different conditions that graphite is so soft that it can be used in writing, while a diamond can only be scratched by another diamond.
The composition, the structure, and the way of forming give the diamond the qualities that make it so extraordinary.
GET TO KNOW THE FOUR “Cs”
As with other stones, diamonds with special qualities are rarer and more valuable than lower-quality diamonds.
The 4Cs are universal and are an effective means of characterizing diamonds and are used both in trade and among members of the diamond processing community. These four factors professionally describe the quality of diamonds and refer to:
- carat (weight)
One of the value factors of a diamond stands out precisely because this stone is rare. Most diamonds have shades of yellow or brown and this is why colorless diamonds have a better color rating than those that tend to yellow.
The value and rarity of a diamond are closely related, and the four C's describe the qualities of the diamond in very precise terms.
Like most elements of nature, Diamond is not perfect in all respects. Diamonds may have inclusions and surface irregularities; together they are characteristics of the clarity of a diamond.
- a defining characteristic of the clarity of a diamond, practically enclosed in a stone or extending from the surface of the stone to its interior.
- a defining characteristic of the clarity of a diamond that is found only on the outer surface of a polished stone.
As with the rest of the factors that give the value of a diamond, clarity is directly correlated with the rarity.
Flawless is the highest degree of clarity in the GIA (Gemological Institute of America) diamond clarity rating scale. Diamonds classified as flawless have no visible inclusions on examination at 10 times magnification by an experienced gemologist.
Cataloging Diamonds by Clarity:
F - Flawless
IF - Internally Flawless
VVS1 and VVS2 - Very Very Slightly Included
VS1 and VS2 - Very Slightly Included
SI1 and SI2 - Slightly Included
I1, I2, and I3 - Included
Most people think of a diamond as a colorless stone, but in fact, it is very rare. Most diamonds used in jewelry are almost colorless but have light yellow to brown shades.
There is a wide range of colors, the rarest diamonds are those colored in pink, dark red, and green, and a higher color intensity automatically means a higher value.
The larger the diamond, the more obvious the color. Color differences can be very subtle, but they can still cause dramatic price changes.
The color grading table for diamonds was compiled by the GIA in the 1950s.
It describes the normal color grading range from D (colorless) to Z (slightly yellow and brown). Today, the GIA's diamond color grading scale is the most widespread in the world, and it is often referred to as the "D-to-Z scale."
Each letter represents a range of colors based on a combination of tones - both light and dark - and saturation - intensity.
Diamonds can have noticeable differences in color depth but still belong to the same color group.
A well-cut diamond manages to best highlight the other three qualities, important features of the diamond: brilliance, stone fire, and sparkle.
Shine - is the white light reflected from the surface and inside of a polished diamond.
Fire - the brightness of color that we see when we look at a polished diamond.
Sparkle - the flashes of light that we see when a diamond or the light source we are looking at is moving.
The term “brilliant cut” is used as a general term for stones of any shape, which have most of the faces cut in a triangular shape and which start radiantly around a central point. By far the most popular diamond cut is the round brilliant. The diamond has 57 or 58 sides, depending on the presence or absence of the package (the bottom of a diamond).
But let's see what the names of a diamond's faces are:
- Crown - is the top of the diamond and is located above the round
- Ronda (or belt) - is the narrow section of a polished diamond that makes the connection between the crown and the diamond flag (bottom) being the point of attachment of the stone in the jewelry.
- The pavilion - the bottom of a faceted diamond, the part that is under the roundabout.
- Facet - a flat, polished surface of a stone.
- The package - is the underside of a polished stone, from which the flag practically rises.
- Cuts in shapes other than round are called fancy cuts.
Diamonds are weighed with great precision, and the unit of measurement is the metric carat which is abbreviated as "cts" or "ct".
The subdivision of the metric carat is the point (abbreviated "pt"), and 100 points are the equivalent of one carat.
Weights over one carat are usually expressed in carats and decimals. A 1.03 ct stone will be described as "one comma zero three-carat". The weight is expressed in dots for diamonds weighing less than one carat. For example, 0.83 ct will read "eighty-three points".
The price of diamonds is set according to all factors: color, cut, clarity. The weight is just another factor that has a say in the price of a diamond.
!!! Do not confuse the terms "carat" and "karat". Karat is the unit of measurement that defines the purity - or fineness - of gold.
SUMMARY OF THE HISTORY OF DIAMOND CUTTING
There was a time when people believed that diamonds had magical qualities. It was believed that unpolished diamonds have the power to protect against evil spirits, that they have the power to cure various ailments, and to make the one who carries the stone on him indestructible, just like a diamond. It was also believed that if you tried to grind that gem, the miraculous powers of diamonds would disappear.
When they started giving up superstitions, diamonds began to lose their charm. This is because a diamond in a shape other than an octagon with clean facets, a rough diamond, was no longer of interest. In most diamonds, irregular surfaces hide their outstanding optical qualities.
Things began to change in the 14th and 15th centuries when diamond grinding techniques began to develop. Although they did not find a way to grind diamonds, the first diamond grinders discovered that they could use diamond powder to remove irregularities and make natural surfaces more transparent.
In the 16th century, grinders could process a diamond by grinding the point upwards, thus creating a flat-faced facet. The result was called a "flat cut." At the beginning of the 17th century, the grinding process (grinding, rolling) was already a little more advanced. The grinders used it to cut roses in the shape of roses (roses), with a flat base and with the top facets that joined at a certain point. Although this process gave rise to more carefully processed diamonds, much of the unpolished diamond was lost.
People began to split diamonds in the 17th century. At the very least, the shape of the future diamond could be traced from the unpolished stone. The number of losses decreased because they no longer had to practically grind the diamond in the grinding process.
The rotary cutter, introduced around 1900 and the lasers introduced in the 1970s, created the possibility of obtaining even more perfect cuts.
Diamond cutting today consists of 3 or 4 steps: splitting or cutting (sometimes even both processes), grinding, and finishing.
WHY ARE ETERNAL DIAMONDS?
"Diamonds are forever" is one of the best slogans in the advertising industry in this field. This slogan has several meanings. It refers to the fact that for centuries, diamond has been the most coveted stone, it refers to the beauty of diamonds that remain unchanged forever and it refers to the durability of these stones.
Durability is the property of diamonds to withstand degrading factors caused by wear, heat, or chemicals. The hardness varies from one stone to another and depends on the chemical structure and their structure.
The way the diamonds were formed and the fact that they withstood the road to the surface of the earth is a miracle.
The arid desert of South Africa, the Siberian platforms, the tundra of northeastern Canada, or the oceanic coasts of southwestern Africa, are important areas in diamond mining.
The process of diamond extraction is very complex and time-consuming. Thus, in addition to digging mines, digging tens of thousands of tons of earth, mining companies have to build real cities around these mines. Given the large number of people involved in this process of diamond mining, mining companies are building real cities near the mines to house and feed hundreds of workers and even create leisure conditions for them.
Mining involves a lot of work and fabulous expenses, and yet the quantities of diamonds obtained are relatively small. Identifying a possible diamond deposit alone costs a few million dollars.
Miners have to process about a ton of rock to get half a carat of crude. Diamond deposits in any mine are limited. For example, the Ekati mine in Canada began operations in 1998. It is currently estimated that the entire mine will be exploited for about 20 years, and the number of diamonds mined will be about 3-4 million carats (raw material). ).
But not only the quantity plays an important role in the profitability of a mine, but also the quality of the extracted diamonds. For example, the Argyle mine in Australia has a huge diamond deposit and has one of the best ratios of rough diamonds per tonne of rock extracted (3 carats per tonne), but the amount of polished diamonds obtained is very small. . Thus, only 5% of the number of rough diamonds extracted is of gem quality and does not require additional processing operations to obtain diamonds for mounting in jewelry. 70% of the extracted rough diamonds require special and additional processing to be able to make polished diamonds for jewelry, and the remaining 30% is only of industrial quality and is used to make cutting and abrasive tools.
Continuing the discussion on the subject of hardness and strength, we must say that Jade, for example, is very hard, but not hard at all… it cannot be easily broken, but it is soft enough to be modeled with simple tools. A diamond, on the other hand, can only be broken if it is hit in the right place and is so strong that it can only be scratched by another diamond.
Money is good, but what do we know about the lives of the richest people in the world? When you control the world's great wealth, then life and concerns are completely different.
The richest people in the world know how to impress. They think, behave and work differently from ordinary people. Today, it is customary to call those who own assets worth at least $ 30 million ultra-rich.
Top facts about billionaires
The number of billionaires in the world is no more than 2 thousand. Very rich people also experience certain problems and difficulties. But these are completely different matters. What lies behind the lives of rich people?
Rich people in business have completely different habits, principles, traditions, and lifestyles. We have collected in one collection interesting facts about the rich people of the world. Read and compare with your life. There is something to think about here!
Facts about the life of billionaires
1. Billionaires didn't get rich in stocks. Most rich people didn't play Wall Street to get rich. You're much more likely to get paid by working in Silicon Valley, manufacturing, technology, and other things.
2. Billions go to Wall Street when they are already rich. They preserve and increase their assets there. Therefore, the desire of many people to get rich playing forex, options, and trading in 98% of cases will not bring them money.
3. Billionaires are in danger. The more money, the more people are trying to heat you. Billionaires suffer from invasions of privacy, slander, deceit, blackmail. Even the environment of billionaires can use the rich man or secretly deceive him. You constantly have to spend a lot of money on security and constantly be vigilant.
4. Billionaires are well educated. Often in films, they show how people drop out of school and then get rich. But this is more the exception than the rule.
5. Harvard University ranks first in the production of billionaires, like many other good universities. Most wealthy people have achieved a lot thanks to a good education and acquired knowledge.
6. Billionaires don't respect millionaires. Billionaires can socialize and sit together at dinner with millionaires, but they don't consider them equals.
7. A million dollars or ten is not much for a billionaire. The top billionaire elites look down on millionaires.
8. Billionaires are afraid of divorce. Wealthy people choose not to divorce to avoid financial losses and the collapse of their corporations.
9. The number of divorces is no more than 8% of couples among billionaires. This is a very low percentage. Usually, rich people make marriage contracts or go through life together for a very long time.
9. Club of billionaires for men. 90% of billionaires are men. Women too rarely make their way into this elite club.
10. Most female billionaires are widows of wealthy people. 7. Billionaires often have family problems.
11. The more money, the more difficult it is to manage children, family, and numerous relatives. Often the family of a billionaire hates him and waits for his death, but loves his money.
12. Billionaires are getting richer and richer, and the poor are getting poorer. Money goes to money. The average inhabitant of the planet over the past 10 years has become poorer.
13. 1% of the world's population, despite crises, unemployment, and high taxes, is getting richer.
14. Billionaires pay a lower tax rate than ordinary people. Rich people have long found ways to reduce the burden of the tax burden, withdraw money offshore, acquire citizenship from other countries and evade payments.
15. Billionaires, friends, and personal life are incompatible. When you have a lot of money, it is very difficult to hope for true love and friendship.
16. Friendship among billionaires is also rare. The love between rich people also has many pitfalls. Billionaires, true friends, and true love are always difficult.
17. The head of Tesla and Space X does not follow strict diets, although he limits sweets in his diet. He usually does not have breakfast in the morning.
What do the rich eat and drink: interesting facts about famous billionaires
18. Lunch is also not an important meal for Musk - no matter what one of the workers brings him, he eats everything in just 5 minutes, just so as not to feel hungry. The rich man enjoys food in the evenings.
19. Back in 2015, Musk stated that French cuisine and barbecue are his favorites.
20. Microsoft founder Bill Gates drinks about four bottles of Diet Coke daily. For breakfast, the rich man likes to eat puffs with cocoa, and during the day he often skips meals and fills up in the evening.
21. Not a single meeting of Gates with business partners takes place without cheeseburgers. He often sends his employees to buy fast food at McDonald's.
22. Facebook creator Mark Zuckerberg is not picky about food at all. The billionaire eats everything available, because, according to him, he "does not like to waste time on small decisions."
23. However, it was not without strange whims - back in 2011, Zuckerberg ate meat exclusively from those animals that he killed on his own. The principle of "eat what you kill" also applied to animals such as goats, pigs, chickens, or lobsters.
24. Virgin Group founder Richard Branson says he drinks 20 cups of tea a day. English breakfast for him is an indispensable component of every morning.
25. In addition, after sleep, Branson likes to eat muesli, fruit salads, herring, or other similar fish. The billionaire loves to have lunch and dinner in the company of friends or colleagues.
Facts in numbers about billionaires
26. The 226,450 richest people in the world have - no less than - $9.6 trillion in cash (a third of their total wealth). The rest of the assets are privately owned, such as private companies (33%), shares and other types of investments (25%), real estate and luxury goods, including yachts, aircraft, cars, art, and jewelry (6, 6%)
27. The average age of women with a net worth of over $30 million is 50 years old. Their net worth is about $110 million.
28. It is also noted that women own only 12% of the total wealth of super-rich people (men own the rest of the wealth).
29. More than 50% of women received all or part of their wealth in the form of an inheritance, while among men this share is only one-third.
30. Millennials are people born between 1980 and 1994. They make up 3.2% of the total number of the super-rich - in 2017 there are about 7,200 of them.
31. Two-thirds of them have made it on their own, including Facebook founder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg. Dropping out of Harvard, at 23, Mark became the youngest self-made billionaire in history. To date, his fortune is estimated at 64.7 billion US dollars.
32. Wealthy millennials control a total of $334 billion, with Zuckerberg alone owning almost a fifth of that wealth.
33. While an Ivy League degree certainly won't hurt millionaires, it's far from the only ticket to riches.
34. Only 15% of the world's super-rich—nearly 35,000—graduated from an American Ivy League university. In addition, among the top 20 colleges from which the richest people in the world came out, five are public institutions.
35. The median net worth owned by Ivy League graduates is $200 million, 1.6 times the average of the super-wealthy.
36. Harvard alone has produced 1,906 alumni with $30 million in assets, including 131 living billionaires. Wealth-X also noted one interesting fact: “Given the exclusivity and highly selective admission criteria of these eight institutions,”
37. It can be estimated that as many as 75% of Ivy League graduates, whose net worth exceeds $ 30 million, have achieved everything themselves. Among them are Elon Musk, Warren Buffett, Jeff Bezos, and Jorge Paulo Lehmann.
38. More than a third of the richest people in the world are involved in charitable work. Many of them are involved in a campaign called the Giving Pledge, founded by Bill Gates and Warren Buffett.
39. By joining it, millionaires undertake to transfer more than half of their fortune to charity during their lifetime. So far, the Giving Pledge has been signed by 168 people from 21 countries.
40. The second most popular hobby of the super-rich is watching, participating in, and investing in sports. They are most interested in tennis, golf, skiing, American football and, above all, football.
Ever wondered why girls are drawn to firefighters, rock climbers, or bandits?
The phenomenon of women's attraction to risky guys has long been known. Moreover, what is valuable is that they are considered primarily lovers, not husbands: shopkeepers, auditors, and programmers have always coped better with creating a stable base for raising offspring. But the instinctive desire to get the genes of a hero is another.
This is a topic related to natural selection. Roman women loved to make love to newly victorious gladiators; in the 20th century, the most beautiful girls went to racers (motorsport was much more dangerous than now). And even today, little has changed: climbers, stunt performers, and test pilots are much more likely to get fast and passionate female caresses. We’re not recommending you change your career, but you'll probably figure out how to use this information. After all, girls are not shy about using retouched photos beyond recognition in dating apps.
Most dangerous male jobs ever
Most of his points are unromantic. We used statistics, but we believe that, in general, the situations are similar. Now you know where it is hardly worth hiring.
20. Policemen. 14 deaths per 100,000 people per year. Yes, the first from the end, surprisingly. Expected deaths due to acts of violence by humans and animals.
19. Mechanics for the repair of industrial equipment. 14 deaths per 100,000 people per year. Large equipment has a complex character: people die not when colliding with it but because of close contact with its details.
18. Cleaners of park areas. 14 deaths per 100,000 people per year. People of this profession, among other things, are responsible for the cleanliness of the roadsides and often fall under the wheels, just walking from the workplace along the road.
17. Inspectors of technical supervision service. 15 deaths per 100,000 people. It would seem that such a peaceful profession - people just check the compliance of structures and devices with regulations. Alas, the most common cause of death for technical supervision inspectors is people or animals.
16. Stonemasons. 17 deaths per 100,000 people. The usual cause of death is a fall. Please note: the list of dangerous construction professions is not limited to masons.
15. Road workers. 18 deaths per 100,000 people per year. Everything is sad and straightforward here: people get used to passing cars and sooner or later fall under the wheels.
14. Masters of landscape architecture. 18 deaths per 100,000 people per year. It would seem, then what? Roll out lawn rolls for yourself, plant flowers But no, cutting tree crowns turned out to be a dangerous occupation, leading to a fall from a height.
13. Construction workers. 18 deaths per 100,000 people per year. Just like a brick: the cause of death is usually a fall from a height or a collision with heavy equipment.
12. Crane operators. 19 deaths per 100,000 people per year. Oddly enough, crane operators rarely make a forced flight from top to bottom on their own. The main reason for their death is a fall and a tower crane. Often this happens due to strong gusts of wind.
11. Regulators. 19 deaths per 100,000 people per year. Like road workers, police officers who work on the road cease to perceive cars as dangerous and lose their vigilance. There are also simply arrivals at the traffic controller standing at the crossroads.
10. Electricians. 20 deaths per 100,000 people per year. The leading cause of death seems banal: an electric shock. Many electricians say they have been hit many times and nothing. Vigilance is dulled, and then suitable physical parameters are superimposed on gouging.
9. Fire inspectors. 20 deaths per 100,000 people per year. Attention: not firefighters, but fire inspectors, that is, people who check the condition of fire safety systems. They often die in traffic accidents, which, ironically, accompany car fires and explosions.
8. Farmers. 26 deaths per 100,000 people per year. Here is an unexpected twist! Cows, lambs, swede-cucumbers - it would seem, what are the dangers? But field workers are waiting for incidents related to agricultural machinery. In particular, accidents on tractors. We had heard something like this before, although we were sure these were stereotypes from jokes.
7. Couriers on cars. 27 deaths per 100,000 people per year. In terms of mortality, road transport is generally far ahead of planes, trains, and ships. And couriers are always in a hurry.
6. High-altitude fitters. 29 deaths per 100,000 people per year. The reason is apparent: the neglect of insurance and, as a result, a high flight with a guaranteed unaesthetic landing.
5. Dustman. the average is 34 deaths per 100,000 people per year. Again, no exotics: no attacks by giant rats, no poisoning with mysterious chemicals. The most common cause of death is a collision with a garbage truck (on the issue of garbage: “Waste legalisation: a brief history of garbage from antiquity to the present day”).
4. Roofers. The average is 53 deaths per 100,000 people per year. Everything is transparent and predictable here, although never romantic: slipped, fell, buried. Of course, roofers must carry out high-altitude work with insurance, but the sense of danger is again over timed.
3. Drilling Engineer. The average is 46 deaths per 100,000 people per year. And this despite the severe penalties for violating safety regulations. It's just that the units and equipment are too heavy; the pipes fly overhead, plus the danger of gas release and all that.
2. Pilots. The average is 53 deaths per 100,000 people per year. It turns out that we are shamelessly lying about the safety of aviation? Fortunately, no. Most of the deaths occur in private aviation, where the pilot is responsible for the aircraft’s pre-flight inspection and overall condition.
1. And on the first place loggers. The average is 111 deaths per 100,000 people per year. The most common cause of death is accidental contact with heavy logging equipment or logs. Alas, here national specificity plays against you: you will be misunderstood if you tell a new pretty acquaintance that you worked at a logging site.
According to estimates by the authoritative financial and economic magazine Forbes, in 2022 2,755 billionaires in the world own a total capital of $13.1 trillion. At the same time, the richest people live in the USA - 724 and China - 698.
The ten richest people in the world have more than doubled their wealth during the COVID-19 pandemic. This is reported by the international association Oxfam.
Elon Musk, Tesla and SpaceX CEO, Amazon's Jeff Bezos, Google founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin, Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg, former Microsoft CEOs Bill Gates, and Steve Ballmer, former Microsoft CEO Oracle Larry Ellison, US investor Warren Buffett, and French luxury head Bernard Arnault. The fortune of the richest of them, Elon Musk, increased by 1016%.
The list of world richest men in 2022
The report indicates that these people collectively own more wealth than the 3.1 billion poorest people on Earth, and if they spent a million dollars every day, then their entire fortune would be spent only after 414 years. “Explosive growth in billionaire fortunes at a time when poverty is rising exposes the fundamental flaws in our economy,” Oxfam chief executive Danny Shrishkandaraja said.
50. Alain Wertheimer $28.2 billion
Alain Wertheimer is a French businessman who, along with his brother Gérard, owns a majority stake in the house of Chanel, and is an investor in Bell & Ross.
49. Leonid Mikhelson $28.5 billion
Leonid Viktorovich Mikhelson is a Russian businessman and manager, billionaire. Chairman of the Board of the Russian gas company PAO Novatek, Chairman of the Board of Directors, and the largest shareholder of the leading Russian petrochemical holding Sibur.
48. Alexey Mordashov $28.5 billion
Leonid Viktorovich Mikhelson is a Russian businessman and manager, billionaire. Chairman of the Board of the Russian gas company PAO Novatek, Chairman of the Board of Directors, and the largest shareholder of the leading Russian petrochemical holding Sibur.
47. Shiv Nadar $29.1 billion
Shiv Nadar is an Indian billionaire industrialist and philanthropist. He is the Founder and Honorary Chairman of HCL Technologies Limited and the Shiv Nadar Foundation.
46. Tadashi Yanai $29.2 billion
Tadashi Yanai is a Japanese billionaire businessman and founder and president of Fast Retailing, the parent company of Uniqlo.
45. Dieter Schwarz $29.6 billion
Dieter Schwarz is a German billionaire businessman and owner of the Schwarz-Gruppe. He is the former chairman and chief executive officer of the Lidl supermarket chain and the Kaufland hypermarket chain.
44. Vladimir Potanin $30.2 billion
Vladimir Olegovich Potanin is a Russian businessman, statesman, and politician.
43. Ken Griffin $30.4 billion
Kenneth "Ken" Griffin is an American billionaire investor and financier. Founder and CEO of investment fund Citadel LLC, founded in 1990 and now managing $28 billion in assets. Also owns Citadel Securities.
42. Miriam Adelson $30.4 billion
Miriam Adelson is an Israeli American doctor and billionaire. After her marriage to American business tycoon Sheldon Adelson in 1991, she became a contributor to conservative political causes in the United States and Israel.
41. Li Ka-Shing $31.1 billion
Li Ka-Shing is a Hong Kong entrepreneur and philanthropist, one of the most influential businessmen in Asia. As of 2012, he was the richest person in Hong Kong and Asia, and also ranked ninth among the richest people in the world.
40. Leonard Lauder $31.2 billion
Leonard Alan Lauder is an American billionaire, philanthropist, and art collector. He and his brother, Ronald Lauder, are the sole heirs of the Estée Lauder Companies cosmetic fortune, founded by their parents, Estée Lauder and Joseph Lauder in 1946.
39. Leonardo Del Vecchio $31.2 billion
Leonardo Del Vecchio is an Italian billionaire businessman, founder, and chairman of Luxottica, the world's largest manufacturer and retailer of eyewear and frames, with 77,734 employees and more than 8,000 stores.
38. He Xiangjian $31.3 billion
He Xiangjian is the co-founder of Midea, one of the largest home appliance manufacturers in China. As of September 2021, his net worth was estimated by the Bloomberg Billionaires Index at $28.8 billion, placing him at #51 in the rankings.
37. William Ding $31.7 billion
He Xiangjian is the co-founder of Midea, one of the largest home appliance manufacturers in China. As of September 2021, his net worth was estimated by the Bloomberg Billionaires Index at $28.8 billion, placing him at #51 in the rankings.
36. Azim Premji $33.8 billion
Azim Hashim Premji is an Indian businessman, philanthropist, and Chairman of the Board of Directors of Wipro Limited, which owns Wipro Technologies, one of India's largest software companies.
35. Pallonji Mistry $34.3 billion
Pallonji Shapurji Mistry is an Indian-born Irish billionaire, construction mogul, and chairman of the Shapoorji Pallonji Group, Ireland's richest man. According to the Bloomberg Billionaires Index, he is worth $28.0 billion as of April 9, 2021.
34. Giovanni Ferrero $35.1 billion
Giovanni Ferrero is an Italian writer, entrepreneur, and billionaire. After the death of his father and brother, he headed the company for the production of chocolate and various sweets Ferrero SpA.
33. Stephen Schwarzman $36.5 billion
Steven Schwartzman is an American businessman and investor. Head of investment company Blackstone Group. Schwartzman's fortune, according to Forbes magazine, is 40.9 billion USD.
32. Klaus-Michael Kuehne $37.3 billion
Klaus-Michael Kuehne is a German billionaire businessman. He is the honorary chairman and principal owner of the international transport company Kühne + Nagel, co-founded by his grandfather August Kühne.
31. Len Blavatnik $38.3 billion
Sir Leonid Valentinovich Blavatnik was an American and British businessman and industrialist of Jewish origin. In 2015, he topped the list of the richest people in the UK according to the Sunday Times.
30. Jack Ma $38.4 billion
Ma Yun, better known as Jack Ma, is a Chinese entrepreneur and founder of Alibaba Group. The first businessman from mainland China to be featured on the cover of Forbes magazine. As of mid-April 2021, Bloomberg estimated the entrepreneur's fortune at $51.5 billion.
29. Zhang Yiming $44.5 billion
Zhang Yiming is a Chinese internet entrepreneur. He founded ByteDance in 2012 and developed the Toutiao news aggregator and TikTok video-sharing platform, formerly known as Musical.ly.
28. Zeng Yuqun $48.0 billion
Zeng Yun, also known as Robin Zeng, is a Chinese billionaire entrepreneur. He is the founder and chairman of battery manufacturer Contemporary Amperex Technology.
27. Ma Huateng $48.1 billion
Ma Huateng is a Chinese entrepreneur, founder, and chairman of the board of directors of the Tencent telecommunications company, a billionaire. On May 5, 2018, Forbes magazine ranked 4th among billionaires with a fortune of $ 42.6 billion.
26. John Mars $48.7 billion
John Franklin Mars is an American entrepreneur and business magnate. Son of Forrest Mars Sr. and grandson of Frank Mars, founder of the American confectionery company Mars, Incorporated. As a member of the Mars family, he owns $48.7 billion in Mars Incorporated and other assets.
25. Francois Pinault $49.4 billion
François Pinault is a French businessman, collector and philanthropist. In 2010, Pino's fortune is estimated at $49.4 billion, which puts him on the 25th line in the list of the richest people in the world according to Forbes.
24. MacKenzie Scott $51.4 billion
McKenzie Scott is an American writer, philanthropist, and ex-wife of Amazon founder Jeff Bezos. As of 2021, Forbes estimates Scott's net worth at $59.8 billion.
23. Phil Knight & family $54.9 billion
Phil Knight is an American businessman and co-founder of Nike. Graduate of the University of Oregon and Stanford Business School. In 2006, he made the largest private donation in the history of the Stanford Business School.
22. Michael Dell $56.8 billion
Michael Saul Dell is an American entrepreneur, founder, and CEO of Dell. He started his company in artisanal conditions, providing home-made modifications of the IBM PC.
21. Charles Koch $58.4 billion
Charles Koch - American billionaire entrepreneur and philanthropist; co-owner, chairman, and director of Koch Industries. His brother David Koch was his co-owner and executive vice president of the company.
20. Amancio Ortega $60.6 billion
Amancio Ortéga Gaóna - Spanish entrepreneur, billionaire, founder, and former president of Inditex; the company owns 6,750 stores in 88 countries. In addition, Ortega has invested in real estate in Florida, Madrid, London, and Lisbon, the gas industry, tourism, and banks.
19. Rob Walton $62.1 billion
Samuel Robson "Rob" Walton is an American billionaire heir to the Walmart fortune, the world's largest retailer. He is the eldest son of Helen Walton and Sam Walton and was chairman of Walmart from 1992 to 2015.
18. Jim Walton $62.5 billion
Translated from English.-James Carr Walton is an American businessman, currently the heir to the fortune of Walmart, the world's largest retailer. As of March 2022, Walton was the seventeenth richest person in the world with a net worth of US$62.5 billion according to the Bloomberg Billionaires Index. He is the youngest son of Sam Walton.
17. Carlos Slim $68.6 billion
Carlos Slim Elu is a Mexican businessman of Lebanese origin, the son of Maronite immigrants from Lebanon. Billionaire, one of the richest people on the planet. According to Forbes, from 2010 to 2013 he was the richest man in the world.
16. Michael Bloomberg $70 billion
Michael Rubens Bloomberg is an American businessman, politician, and philanthropist.
15. Changpeng Zhao $72.2 billion
Changpeng Zhao is the founder and CEO of Binance, one of the largest cryptocurrency exchanges. Known in the crypto community as CZ. In an interview with Bloomberg in April 2021, Changpeng said that “Binance probably has the most exchange licenses worldwide.”
14. Zhong Shanshan $77.5 billion
Zhong Shanshan is a Chinese entrepreneur, founder and chairman of the Nongfu Spring beverage company, and the main owner of Beijing Wantai Biological Pharmacy Enterprise, a billionaire.
13. Mark Zuckerberg $78.2 billion
Mark Elliot Zuckerberg is an American media mogul, Internet entrepreneur, and philanthropist. Known as the co-founder of Meta and is its chairman, chief executive officer, and shareholder.
12. Francoise Bettencourt Meyers $81.3 billion
Françoise Bettencourt-Myers is a French entrepreneur, after the death of her mother Liliane Bettencourt in September 2017, she received an inheritance of $ 39.5 billion. As of March 2019, with a fortune of $ 49.3 billion, she is the richest woman on the planet and ranks 20th in the ranking richest people on earth.
11. Gautam Adani $87.8 billion
Gautam Shantilal Adani is an Indian billionaire industrialist and philanthropist. He is the chairman and founder of the Adani Group, an Ahmedabad-based multinational conglomerate with port development and operations in India.
10. Mukesh Ambani $91.9 billion
Mukesh Dhirubhai Ambani is an Indian businessman and the richest person in India according to Forbes magazine in 2008, given that the billionaire Lakshmi Mittal lives permanently in the UK.
9. Larry Ellison $93.3 billion
Lawrence Joseph Ellison is an American entrepreneur, co-founder, chairman of the board of directors and chief technology officer of Oracle Corporation, former CEO of Oracle, the largest shareholder of NetSuite, and an initial investor in Salesforce.com.
8. Steve Ballmer $104 billion
Stephen Anthony Ballmer is a billionaire CEO of Microsoft Corporation from January 2000 to February 2014. Owner of the NBA's Los Angeles Clippers.
7. Sergey Brin $112 billion
Sergey Brin is an American programmer and internet entrepreneur. He co-founded Google with Larry Page. Brin was the president of Alphabet Inc., the parent company of Google until he stepped down from that position on December 3, 2019.
6. Warren Buffett $114 billion
Warren Edward Buffett is an American entrepreneur, one of the largest and most famous investors in the world, whose fortune was estimated at $108.4 billion as of September 2018, $84.9 billion as of February 12, 2019, and in 2022 - $114 billion, which made his sixth richest man in the world.
5. Larry Page $117 billion
Lawrence Edward "Larry" Page is an American programmer, developer, and co-founder of the Google search engine.
4. Bill Gates $125 billion
William Henry Gates III, better known as Bill Gates, is an American businessman and public figure, philanthropist, one of the founders and former largest shareholder of Microsoft.
3. Bernard Arnault $160 billion
Bernard Arnault is a French billionaire businessman, president, and CEO of the Louis Vuitton Moët Hennessy group of companies. In April 2018, he was recognized as the richest man in Europe. On January 18, 2020, Arno became the richest man in the world, Forbes estimated his fortune at $117 billion. In 2022 he is the third richest man in the world with $160 billion.
2. Jeff Bezos $177 billion
Jeffrey Preston "Jeff" Bezos is an American entrepreneur, founder of the Internet company Amazon.com, founder and owner of the aerospace company Blue Origin, owner of the publishing house The Washington Post.
1. Elon Musk $220 billion
Elon Reeve Musk is an American entrepreneur, engineer, and billionaire.
Founder, co-owner, CEO, and chief engineer of SpaceX; CEO and chief ideological inspirer (Chief Product Architect) of Tesla; also served on the board of directors of SolarCity, founded by his cousins, before its merger with Tesla.
For outstanding services to science on May 9, 2018, he was awarded membership of the Royal Society of London.
On January 7, 2021, with an estimated fortune of $185 billion, he became the world's richest man for the first time, displacing Amazon founder Jeff Bezos to second place. On November 1, 2021, he became the first person in history to reach the $300 billion mark. In 2022 he is the richest man in the world and his estate is $220 billion.