25 Interesting Facts About Russia
Russia is the largest state globally, on the territory of which there is everything that may interest travelers of all age groups and individual preferences. Here are the most extensive forests, mountains, and the deepest lakes globally, and twelve seas wash the coastline. Russia is a mysterious country, a country with an “open soul,” and interesting facts about Russia are only a part of what awaits the guests of this vast state.
Russia - a short history
The history of Russia originates from the emergence of the Slavs, who appeared about 3-3.5 thousand years ago, standing out from the Indo-European ethnic group. From the middle of the 1st millennium BC., they began to move to Eastern Europe, settling by the VIII century. AD the basin of the rivers Dnieper, Dniester, Western Dvina, Oka, and the upper reaches of the Volga.
The first state of the Russian people, Kievan Rus, existed for about 300 years. It was a federation of principalities ruled jointly by the Rurik dynasty. The development of feudal relations and the strengthening of the independence of individual cities led to the political fragmentation of Kievan Rus. At the end of the thirties of the XIII century. Mongol Tatars attacked Russia, and for almost 250 years, it became dependent on the Golden Horde. The yoke accelerated the process of fragmentation of Russia. Still, at the same time, as the economy and culture revived, it turned into an incentive for unification. Due to several factors, the place of a political leader at the beginning of the XIV century. Moscow advanced, which is explained by its favorable geographical position, and the far-sighted policy of its princes.
The reign of Catherine II is called the "golden age of the nobility" and "enlightened absolutism" since the empress completed formalizing the nobility into a privileged class. The situation of the peasants deteriorated significantly: serfdom acquired the features of slavery. The growth of social contradictions resulted in the peasant war of E. I. Pugachev. Still, its defeat led to the expansion of feudal dependence. All this spoke of the brewing crisis of the feudal system, which was acutely manifested in the 19th century.
By the middle of the 19th century, serf relations worsened and escalated in the country: among the landowners, they aroused fears for the future, and among the serfs, an increase in dissatisfaction with their beggarly condition. In peasant unrest, which significantly intensified during the Crimean War, the government, led by Alexander II in 1862, carried out a reform that abolished serfdom.
In the years preceding the First World War of 1914-1917, Russia's foreign policy was determined by the line of rapprochement with Great Britain, fixed by the 1907 agreement on the division of spheres of influence in Iran and Central Asia. This agreement led to the finalization of the Entente - a "cordial agreement," the military-political alliance of England, France, and Russia, and Russia's participation in the First World War. The internal political crisis, which resulted in the February Revolution of 1917, led to Russia's withdrawal from the war. The revolution destroyed the old state system and created a new political situation. The Bolshevik Party seized power in Russia under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin, and the Soviets of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies were proclaimed the supreme authority.
On December 30, 1922, the Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) Union was formed. After the death of Lenin, the internal political struggle intensified, and Joseph Stalin came to power, establishing a dictatorship and destroying all his political rivals. In 1939, Russia concluded a non-aggression pact with Germany. Still, on June 22, 1941, Nazi Germany attacked the USSR, violating the agreement's provisions. The Great Patriotic War began. During the battles of Stalingrad and Kursk, Soviet troops went on the offensive. They defeated the German army, victoriously ending the war in May 1945 with the capture of Berlin.
Read here more interesting facts: 50 interesting and fun facts about Russia that you probably didn't know
In 1985, Gorbachev announced perestroika (a set of political and economic reforms). By the early 1990s, perestroika led to the collapse of the USSR. And on December 12, 1993, the Constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted at a referendum, declaring Russia a democratic federal state with a republican form of government headed by a president.
How did the Soviet Union's collapse influence today’s Russia?
The collapse of the Union was part of the process that began after the First World War - the operation of the failure of multinational states or, more simply, empires. Some of these empires did not survive the First World War - the Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary ... And the Bolsheviks managed to maintain control over most of the Russian Empire through violence and a more resourceful policy towards nationalities and national minorities. The Soviet Union was the first to adopt the nationalism and multinationality of the state. It seemed that the national question was resolved and that history was deceived. Still, until the end of the 20th century, the Soviet Union followed the path of the same Portuguese, British, French, and other empires. The 20th century turned out to be the century of the collapse of multinational states and the creation of national states on their ruins or conditions that would like to be national.
In a purely Soviet context, reform attempts took place, the primary ideological and moral source of which were the reforms of the Prague Spring, that is, the 1960s. The idea was that economic and political reforms should develop simultaneously: in China, they took a different path - economic reform without political reform. At the same time, in the Soviet Union, these things were interconnected. As soon as Gorbachev introduced the first elements of electoral democracy, the first forces that could mobilize were the national movements. Which, outwardly, were weak. There were few dissidents. Still, if you look at the composition of political prisoners in various forms of the Gulag, the percentage of national minorities - including the Baltic states, Jews, Ukrainians, and so on - went off the scale compared to the number of ethnic Russian dissidents.
Electoral democracy turned out to be incompatible with a multinational state. The main "glue" was a force - military, political repression, etc. International states built on such a basis proved unable to exist.
What was life like under communism in Russia?
75% of Russians believe that the Soviet era was the best time in the country's history; only 18% of respondents do not agree with this judgment. This follows from the study “The Structure and Reproduction of the Memory of the Soviet Union in Russian Public Opinion” prepared by the Levada Center, which Vedomosti has reviewed.
Hearing the expression "Soviet era," the respondents, first of all, think about stability and confidence in the future (16% of answers), good life in the country (15%), and personal life - childhood, youth, parents (11%). Negative assessments occur much less frequently: 4% of respondents recall shortages, queues, and coupons, and 1% about the Iron Curtain, stagnation, and repression. In general, 76% of respondents give positive characteristics of the Soviet era, 38% - neutral, and only 7% - negative. As some respondents gave different estimates, this sum is higher than 100%. 65% of Russians regret the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the same number believe that it could have been avoided; 26% of respondents have an opposite opinion on both issues. 52% of those who regret the collapse of the USSR say that they are upset by the loss of a sense of belonging to great power, 49% regret the destruction of the single economic system and 37% - about the increased mutual distrust and bitterness.
But at the same time, only 28% of respondents agree to “return to the path that the Soviet Union was following,” while the majority favor either Russia’s “own, special path” (58%) or the European version of development (10%).
Russians' ideas about the Soviet era are primarily favorable. Still, general statements about social stability replace personal memories, confidence in the future, and a good life in the USSR says Levada Center sociologist Karina Pipia. It is also noteworthy, according to her, that representatives of all age and generational groups agree with the installation of the socio-economic well-being of citizens in the USSR. Still, nostalgia for the Soviet Union is more typical for older people. However, young people join those who believe that the collapse of The USSR could have been avoided. However, the romanticization of the Soviet past does not lead to a desire to restore the Soviet system.
Neither those who lived in the USSR nor the post-Soviet youth want this.
How did Vladimir Putin become President, and what has been his impact on Russia?
In three years, Putin has risen from Deputy Director for Presidential Affairs to Secretary of the Security Council. In 1996, after the failure of Sobchak in the gubernatorial elections, Vladimir Vladimirovich was invited to Moscow for the post of Deputy Chief of the President of the Russian Federation. Putin oversaw the legal department and the management of Russia's foreign property.
In the spring of 1997, Vladimir Putin was appointed deputy head of the Presidential Administration of the Russian Federation, replacing Alexei Kudrin.
In the summer of 1998, he became the head of the FSB. In the fall, he reorganized the structure. Six months later, Vladimir Putin took the post of Secretary of Security Council of the Russian Federation while maintaining his position in the FSB. In 1999, President Boris Yeltsin appointed Vladimir Putin as Russia's prime minister.
In 1997, Vladimir Putin defended his Ph.D. thesis in economics at the Mining Institute of St. Petersburg. The title of the work is “Strategic planning for the reproduction of the mineral resource base of the region in the conditions of the formation of market relations (St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region).
On December 31, 1999, Yeltsin resigned. Putin became acting President of Russia. He was given symbols of power, including the "nuclear suitcase." According to him, it was not an easy decision for him.
25 Interesting Facts about Russia
1. Russia is the largest country in the world. However, this is no secret to anyone.
2. Russia is the only country washed by a whole dozen seas globally.
3. The deepest lake on earth, Baikal, is in Russia.
4. The most ancient mountains on the planet, the Urals, are of Russian heritage.
5. There are more than eight hundred glaciers in Altai.
6. The borders of Russia and the United States in the north are separated by 4 kilometers.
7. The deepest subway in the world is located in St. Petersburg. Its depth is more than a hundred meters.
8. The world's largest active volcano is Klyuchevskaya Sopka, almost five kilometers high. It has been erupting for over seven thousand years.
9. St. Petersburg has three times as many bridges as Venice.
10. The most significant medieval fortress in the world is the Moscow Kremlin.
11. St. Petersburg is the world's northernmost metropolis with over a million inhabitants.
12. The area of Siberia is about nine percent of the entire land area of the Earth.
13. Russia borders 16 countries.
14. In Russia, women won the right to vote in elections earlier than in the United States.
15. There are almost ten thousand trains in the Moscow metro.
16. The most extensive plain on the planet is the West Siberian.
17. There are about three million works of art in the Hermitage.
18. The most visited McDonald's globally is in Moscow on Pushkin Square.
19. Sushi is more prevalent in Russia than in Japan.
20. The highest university in the world is Moscow State University.
21. Before the revolution, firearms were sold freely in Russia.
22. The Ostankino TV Tower was the tallest building in Europe for a long time. But in recent years, skyscrapers have surpassed it in height.
23. The coat of arms of Chelyabinsk depicts a camel.
24. About four percent of the territory of Russia is occupied by protected reserves.
25. The world's largest tram network is located in St. Petersburg.
Read here more interesting facts: 50 interesting and fun facts about Russia that you probably didn't know
In 1945, nuclear weapons were created in the USA. The scientists who worked on it believed that they were creating a means of protection against Nazi Germany. However, the American imperialists saw in him, first of all, a means of intimidation and the conquest of world domination.
The United States not only immediately used the newly created atomic bombs to bombard Japanese cities, but also began to increase its reserves, counting with its help to defeat the USSR. Russia began to accumulate nuclear weapons in response.
Incidents when the nuclear war almost started
As a result, the world soon found itself in a dangerous situation in which the conflict between the Soviet Union and the United States could have turned into a nuclear war that would have killed millions of people in a matter of hours, and even countries that did not directly participate in the war would have suffered a global cooling and radioactive fallout.
There is an opinion that it was the presence of nuclear weapons that prevented the third world war. Indeed, it is foolish to start such a war, knowing that the enemy can inflict colossal, completely unacceptable damage on your country. But how real is the danger of nuclear war really, can we be sure that common sense will prevent politicians and the military from starting it? Alas, as history shows, the world has already been on the brink of nuclear war more than once, and we are very lucky that it has not yet happened.
Back in 1945, American militarists began to make plans for an attack on the USSR. They understood that they had no chance of defeating the Soviet army in a conventional war, so the main stake was placed on the use of nuclear weapons. The Americans, one by one, adopted plans for a war against the USSR, in each of which the number of atomic bombs that they were going to use was increasing. The first plan, developed at the end of 1945, envisaged 20 targets for atomic bombing on the territory of the USSR, but by the 50th their number had grown to several hundred.
Although in 1949 the USSR also created nuclear weapons, for a long time the United States significantly surpassed the country in the number of atomic bombs, as well as in their delivery capabilities. This gave rise to the confidence among the Americans that the USSR would in no way be able to harm them in return. Having accumulated a sufficient number of atomic bombs, the Americans developed the Dropshot plan, in which a specific date for the attack on the USSR was scheduled - January 1, 1957.
As part of this plan, it was supposed to use over 300 atomic bombs, as well as 250 thousand tons of conventional bombs. The bombings were supposed to destroy 85% of the industrial potential of the USSR and kill 45 million people. However, the Soviet leadership found out about the plan and took emergency measures to disrupt it. In the 1956 September, there was a system of systems to have a bomber in the worship, who was inhabited by the time of the time. Frightened by a retaliatory strike, the American leadership did not dare to put the Dropshot plan into action.
In 1962, relations between the USSR and the USA were still very tense. The Americans continued to surround the USSR with their bases with nuclear weapons, in particular, they deployed nuclear missiles in Turkey, not far from the borders of the USSR. In response, the USSR decided to deploy nuclear missiles in Cuba. But when the Americans found out about this, they raised an incredible hysteria. Part of the US military believed that the United States should immediately attack Cuba. Congress made the same recommendation to President Kennedy. The United States began preparations for the invasion of the island, and the American Navy announced a naval blockade of Cuba.
In response, the USSR stated that the blockade was illegal, and Soviet ships would not comply with it. The Soviet troops stationed in Cuba had not only medium-range missiles, but also tactical nuclear weapons, which would definitely be used in the event of a US invasion. The scenario of the beginning of the third world war became quite real, on both sides there were enough supporters of "decisive" actions.
On October 27, Soviet air defenses shot down an American aircraft over Cuba. Only at the very last moment Khrushchev and Kennedy were able to agree and prevent the war. The USSR removed the missiles from Cuba, and the USA from Turkey, while promising not to attack Cuba.
The risk management of the nuclear war is not a risk, and several incidents occurred during the Caribbean crisis on October 27-28, each of which led to a nuclear war.
Incident report B-59
At the time of the Caribbean crisis, several Soviet submarines were directed to Cuba. The American fleet, the full command of the sea blockade, the war against the country and the provocation. Just on October 27, the Kyby pod B-59 was shot down by American snipers and then dropped by a deep-seated bomb. However, the B-59 was equipped with nuclear torpedoes, and the American commander ordered them to be used. Nuclear power was only used in the first place, except for the captain of the pod, the senior commander of the group of the pod Arkhipov.
The incident U-2
And this day there was another incident. The American spy plane U-2 was supposed to intercept the test in the air near Novaya Zemlya and return to the territory of the United States. However, the pilot got lost and the plane crashed in the airspace of the USSR near Chykotkoy. It was not enough to direct two Soviet destroyers, and the Americans directed two U-2s of their own. Moreover, in connection with the crisis, the American anti-missile missile is not equipped with nuclear weapons. Only a few were destroyed, they crashed, and the U-2 pilot was able to turn around and return to the ground.
The incident in Okinawa
On October 28, a major war took place on the American base in Okinawa, and almost everything was destroyed. There have been calculations with nuclear missiles, and today the base has a multi-command command of nuclear missiles that are deployed in the USSR and China. The commander was Captain William Bassett, and the war ended only thanks to his good health. For this reason, Basset is not ready, because it is a pre-order, it is a pre-order, and it has to be prepared in the higher level.
In fact, the commanding officer expressed the view that this order could not be given directly or indirectly because of the opponents posted. I'm sorry, Bassett's request for a confirmation order is very expensive. Some of them have already fired or coded a nuclear missile. However, he ordered the captain to carry out the order, and he had to direct the automaton from the commander's calculation, to collect the nuclear missile.
The basset command just shoots it if it tries to do it. After this, the captain directly called the central administration and requested to transfer the order to bring it to a higher level of leadership, or to correct the order. In some time base, the encrypted code is sent to the command line. The United States claimed that the missile was ordered to be fired earlier this year, and information about the incident was withheld from the public until 2015.
The next incident occurred in 1967. On May 23, the U.S. base in Greenland was intercepted by the robotic radar system. The American military decided that the USSR had specially sent nuclear weapons to the United States. This was announced, strategic bombers were preparing to take off. However, someone is going to ask for a summary of solar activity. It turns out that at this time, the Sun produces a flash, cuts and destroys the radar.
At 3:00 a.m. on November 9, 1979, Zbigniew Brzezinski, who was the adviser to the president of the United States on national security, received a phone call. The representative of NORAD reported that the USSR fired 2,200 nuclear missiles at America. It was announced, how to prepare for the dry MBR, airborne missiles and a special plane for the president. No steel test satellites and systems for early warning, anti-missile, anti-missile, and police. The causes of anxiety can be eliminated and fixed.
It turned out that one of the computers connected to the NORAD network was successfully installed with a program that simulated a mass rocket launch. The incident was widely reported in the press, and Brezhnev even wrote a letter to the President of the United States, Carter, about it. Also, for the following two systems, NORAD removed several false predation or missile attacks on the side of the USSR.
Glare on the clouds
In 1983 the newest missile system of the USSR "Oko", designed for the fixation of missile missiles on the territory of the United States. At that time, the president of the USA, Reagan, who called the so-called USSR imperial evil, shut down the program "Star Wars" and broadcast it live, so that there was no direct order to bomb the USSR. Relations between the USSR and the USA were very tense. In these languages, September 26, 1983. and the Soviet command post system pre-emptive or anti-missile defense system siren.
The system consists of several MBRs with the territory of the United States. Colonel Petrov, who is in the command post, has to decide whether to pass on the information to the authorities or not. Thinking about it, he came to conclusion, that the United States has a de facto nuclear solution, it is massive, a dry rocket, it was a mistake. The exact result was that the MBR system received light from the Sun and the clouds. A in 2006 Petrov received a special award for the preparation of the nuclear war.
When you know the answer to something no one else in the room does, it makes you feel like a genius. So, if you're a fan of the little things, want your next night to be memorable, or just love learning new things that no one else knows about, you've come to the right place. You never know when you'll need to pull those facts, which is part of the fun. So, we invite you to play with us and check out our list of random facts.
Is there any useless information? Never. All those little random, interesting, funny, scary facts, or did you know that the facts you store in your brain exist for a reason and are sure to come in handy someday...even if it's just for you to could beat your best dude or surprise a bored toddler on a family field trip. Just in case you don't have enough information cluttering your brain, here are some more fun, interesting, or just plain fun tidbits to keep on hand.
Interesting and funny facts about animals
1. The fur of polar bears is actually clean, and their skin is black.
2. Baby flamingos are born grey, not pink.
3. A woodpecker's tongue actually wraps around its brain completely, protecting it from damage when it hits a tree.
4. The shrimp's heart is in its head.
5. Elephants suck their trunks for convenience.
6. Anteaters have no teeth.
7. Nine-banded armadillos always have quadrupeds, and they are always identical.
8. Wombat poop is cube shaped.
9. A flock of flamingos is called brightness.
10. Hippos and horses are actually distant relatives.
11. All clown fish are born male.
12. In the UK, the Queen legally owns all unmarked swans.
13. In order not to disperse, sea otters hold hands during sleep.
14. Goats have an accent.
15. Dolphins give each other names.
16. Gorillas can catch a cold, although you can probably still go to the zoo with a runny nose.
17. Forget bald eagles. The turkey was once almost called the national bird.
18. A group of owls is called a parliament.
19. There are 32 muscles in a cat's ear.
20. Snails can regenerate their eyes.
21. Want to know if your pet turtle is a boy or a girl? Listen carefully! Female turtles hiss and male turtles grunt.
22. A starfish can turn its stomach inside out.
23. French poodles are actually from Germany.
24. Seahorses mate for life and are often seen telling each other stories.
25. A group of porcupines is called a thorn.
26. Andrew Jackson's parrot had to be removed from his funeral because he wouldn't stop swearing. Polly wants to rinse her mouth.
27. Sloths can hold their breath for up to 40 minutes.
Interesting and funny historical facts
28. Henry VIII knighted all four of his Grooms of the Chair - the men in charge of wiping his ass for him.
29. Jeanette Rankin was elected to Congress four years before women could vote.
30. Women could not apply for a bank loan until 1974.
31. Before the invention of modern artificial teeth, dentures were usually made from the teeth of dead soldiers.
32. In ancient Egypt, servants were smeared with honey so that flies would fly to them instead of the pharaoh.
33. It was once considered blasphemous to use a fork.
34. Abe Lincoln was a champion wrestler. He was also a licensed bartender. Maybe they should call him Abe of all trades.
35. George Washington owned a whiskey distillery.
36. More than two percent of the American population died during the civil war.
37. Joseph Stalin removed people from photographs after their death or dismissal from office.
38. Since 1945, all British tanks have been equipped with everything necessary for making tea.
39. Pope Gregory IV once declared war on cats because he thought Satan was using black cats. His statement led to the mass extermination of cats.
40. The absence of cats led to an invasion of rats, which led to the spread of the plague.
50. John Adams was the first president to live in the White House.
51. Go to sleep! Chernobyl, the Exxon Valdez oil spill, and the Challenger explosion are all linked to lack of sleep.
Interesting and funny travel facts
52. The average person living in Sweden eats about 22 pounds of chocolate a year.
53. Although the Wright brothers are known as a couple, they actually flew together only once. They promised their father that they would always fly separately.
54. In Montana, there are three times more cows than people.
55. Parts of the Great Wall of China were made from sticky rice.
56. Ninety percent of the world's population lives above the equator.
57. There are more saunas in Finland than cars.
58. Sixty percent of the world's lakes (three million in total) are located in Canada.
59. Virginia is the only state that has the same staff flower and staff tree - Dogwood.
60. Think before the season. In Egypt, it is considered incredibly rude to salt the food you have been served.
61. Ninety percent of the territory of Libya is desert.
62. The height of the Eiffel Tower can vary up to six inches, depending on the temperature.
63. Do you spend too much on drinks when you eat out? A small town in Italy has a fountain that serves free wine.
64. Pilots and their co-pilots should eat differently before the flight so that both of them do not get sick with food poisoning.
65. About 600 Parisians work on the Eiffel Tower every day.
66. Do you want to go to Rome? Which one of? Six of the seven continents have a city called Rome. (You really fell, Antarctica.)
67. When you visit Key West, you are actually closer to Havana than Miami.
Interesting and fun facts about music
68. Mary, known as "Mary Had the Lamb", was a real person and the song is based on real events.
69. Happy Birthday was the first song ever played on Mars. Mars Rover Curiosity played this song to itself on its first anniversary on the planet.
70. When you listen to music, your heart is in sync with the beat.
71. President Nixon was an accomplished musician. He played five instruments, including the accordion.
72. Is the song stuck in your head? This is called an earworm.
73. None of The Beatles could read music.
74. However, George Harrison was reportedly able to play 26 instruments.
75. Barry Manilow didn't actually write I Write Songs.
76. Metallica is the only band to play on all seven continents.
77. Most department stores tend to play music slower to slow down shoppers and make them shop longer. The reverse is true for restaurants.
78. Monaco's orchestra is bigger than its army.
79. A concert promoter once sold a thousand tickets to a Spice Girls concert in Hawaii that were never booked. Maybe that's where the idea for Fyre Fest came from.
80. Leo Fender, inventor of the Stratocaster and Telecaster, couldn't play the guitar.
The paradise island of Mauritius is a beautiful place to spend a vacation. Here you can enjoy the fantastic local atmosphere, not yet soaked through with a commercial attitude. However, holidays in Mauritius are not very cheap, not least because of the flight cost.
Interesting facts about Mauritius
Mauritius is a popular resort, but there are almost no tourists here during the rainy season. It's all because of the weather; during the rainy season, powerful hurricanes and typhoons hit the island every year, carrying tons of water and causing powerful floods.
1. Mauritius is a small island nation located in the Indian Ocean. Mauritius is 900 kilometers from Madagascar.
2. The full name of the country is the Republic of Mauritius, because in addition to the island of the same name, Mauritius, it also includes islands such as Rodrigues, Cargados Carajos and a number of smaller islands and islets.
3. The total land area of the republic is only 2 thousand 40 square kilometers.
4. Mauritius has practically no water possessions - in total they make up only 0.05% of the country's territory.
5. Most of the country's population lives on the main island - Mauritius.
6. Mauritius had a rather difficult past. This country was colonized by the Dutch, French and British.
7. The colonialists brought slaves from India, China and Africa to the territory of the modern state, which further influenced the population and culture of Mauritius.
8. This country received independence from the British only in 1968. And this state became a Republic in 1992.
9. Mauritius is the richest African country. GDP per capita is $13,703 (ranked 53rd in the world). For comparison, in Russia about 16,000 dollars.
10. Also, despite its small size, the Republic of Mauritius is a very densely populated country. With a total population of about 1,267,000 people, the population density here is 610 people per square kilometer. This makes the state the first in Africa in this indicator. And in the world in terms of population density, the Republic of Mauritius ranks 19th.
11. Although the population growth rate here is very low - it grows by an average of 1% in three years.
12.The country's population is mainly composed of people of Indo-Pakistani origin. They account for about 2/3 of the population. About ¼ of the country's population are Creoles (mestizos of French and African origin).
13. Most of the population of the country professes Hinduism. They account for about 48.5% of the population. This makes Mauritius the only African country with a Hindu majority. In addition to Hindus, about 26.3% of Catholics and about 17.3% of Muslims live here.
14.Despite the fact that English is the most spoken language in the country, there is no official language in the country. The constitution of this country only mentions that English is the official language of the government, however, in addition to English, French is allowed in the government.
15. English is the most common language in government circles and in business. As for the most common language, it is Creole, which is spoken by 85.6% of the country's population.
16.The Republic of Mauritius hosts two UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The first object is the Aapravasi Ghat building, which became the first point of reception of labor migrants from India.
17. The second object is Mount Le Morne Brabant, in the caves of which the slaves who escaped from captivity found refuge.
18. The local currency is the Mauritian rupee, but most places will also accept US dollars.
19. There is one university in Mauritius. It is located in the capital city of Port Louis.
20. In the Republic of Mauritius, education is free, and higher education too. And the state sends especially gifted individuals to study abroad.
21. The national flag of this state consists of four equal colored stripes. Each lane has its own meaning. The red color, located at the very top, means a bloody past before the abolition of slavery and the acquisition of independence. The blue color immediately following the red is the boundless and mighty Indian Ocean that surrounds Mauritius. Yellow, the penultimate color, is the bright future of the country, and green, the last color, is the nature of the island.
22. Geographically belonging to Africa, Mauritius is the richest African country in terms of per capita income.
23. The first people to ever set foot on Mauritian soil were Europeans. The Portuguese captain who discovered Mauritius gave him the name "Sishna" in honor of one of his ships.
24. The original forests in Mauritius were cut down to the root. Almost all the plants that now grow on the island were once brought here by the colonists.
25. Mauritius does not have its own army. The people with weapons there are the police, the maritime patrol service and the police special forces. The crime rate is very low.
26. Mauritius is surrounded by the third largest coral reef in the world. It is called Saya de Malha. This is one of the best diving spots in the world. Here you can explore sunken ships, meet many species of exotic fish and admire colorful corals.
27. One of the local attractions is the Seven Colored Sands, dunes consisting of grains of sand of seven different colors. The spectacle is amazing.
28. Due to tropical downpours, floods are not uncommon here, and almost every year tropical hurricanes hit Mauritius, the speed of which exceeds 200 kilometers per hour.
29. All TV channels and radio stations here belong to the state.
30. The cuisine of Mauritius has been significantly influenced by Chinese, European and Indian cuisines. Also, French dishes are very popular on the island. Most of the traditional Mauritian dishes were created by former slaves, Indian workers and Chinese migrants in the 19th century.
31. The extinct Dodo bird was endemic to Mauritius, that is, this island was the only place where it lived. Even though the bird died out a long time ago, it is the national bird of the country and is even depicted on the national coat of arms.
32. Presumably, this bird became extinct due to the Dutch, who encountered it for the first time in 1598. After the Dutch settled in Mauritius, the last Dodo was seen in the 1960s.
33. One in five women and one in ten men in Mauritius are illiterate, unable to read and write.
34. About 8% of Mauritians are unemployed. An interesting fact is that the number of people below the poverty line is equal to the number of unemployed.
35. The climate here is very mild - there is neither suffocating heat nor severe cold. The climate on this island is maritime subtropical, with fairly uniform temperatures throughout the year. Average annual temperatures are in the region of 20 degrees Celsius in the coastal areas and in the range of 10 degrees Celsius on the high plateau. In total, the country has two seasons: hot (lasts from December to April) and cool (from June to September).
36. This island is home to the world's only underwater waterfall. You can watch it from a bird's eye view. The waterfall is located off the coast of Le Morne. Although in fact, this is not a waterfall, but an optical illusion that is visible only from above. Undercurrents and sand flowing from the edge of the ocean floor create the illusion of a waterfall.
37. Mauritius is a paradise, an island in the Indian Ocean, replete with clean beaches and green palm trees.
38. In addition to cleanliness and beautiful nature, Mauritius boasts a favorable and safe environment, as well as amazingly delicious local cuisine.
39. Unlike many other island nations, Mauritius is replete with rivers and streams.
40. Once Europeans tried to develop agriculture here, but it turned out that frequent hurricanes destroy any crops, and only sugar cane is able to withstand the onslaught of furious winds.
41. Sugar cane is the main crop grown on this island. Sugar cane fields occupy almost 80% of the island.
42. You can also find tea plantations in the highlands. Sugar and tea are the main exports of this state.
43. Tourism is the second largest source of income for the state. With scenic beauty and magnificent white-squeaky beaches and turquoise-clear ocean waters, Mauritius is a true tourist paradise.
44. Tourists from all over the world come to this island every year to sunbathe in the sun and swim in the crystal clear waters.
45. Despite its small size, you can admire a variety of flora and fauna on the island. There are a huge number of birds and more than 700 species of plants.
46.Here you can meet huge sea turtles, amazing pink pigeons (endemic to this island) and many other animals and birds.
47. Holidays in Mauritius cost a lot of money, not least because of the cost of the flight. Prices can be compared with the Seychelles or the Maldives.
48. Mauritius is famous for its incredibly beautiful beaches and the fact that every year more and more tourists come to the island. Every year it is visited by about a million lovers of beach holidays and water sports.
49. Many have heard about this wonderful island in the Indian Ocean. Mauritius is the dream of all those who love white sandy beaches and blue blue seas.
50. Due to its small size, tourists can completely drive around the entire country of Mauritius in just a few hours. If one island seems not enough, then you can go to other islands of this amazing state.
The island state of Kiribati is located immediately in Polynesia and Micronesia. At present, the small country is successfully developing despite scarce natural resources.
Amazing facts about Kiribati
Of all the countries in the world, only Kiribati is located in all hemispheres of the planet at once - Northern, Southern, Western, and Eastern. All 33 atolls belonging to the republic are scattered at a considerable distance from each other, while only 13 of them are permanently inhabited. At the same time, Christmas Island, the largest atoll in the world, accounts for about 48% of the state's total land mass.
1. Kiribati is a tiny island country located in the Western Pacific Ocean.
The name of the island nation of Kiribati comes from the distorted English "Gilbert Islands".
2. Kiribati is the only country on Earth located in all hemispheres at once - Northern and Southern, Western and Eastern.
3. The Republic of Kiribati in the northwest borders on the territorial waters of two states, namely the Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands. In the southwest and west, Kiribati has maritime boundaries with Tuvalu, the Solomon Islands and Nauru.
4. In the southeast and south - with the waters belonging to Tokelau, the Cook Islands, as well as French Polynesia. In the northeast and north, the republic borders on the Outer Small Islands, which are part of the United States, as well as on Pacific neutral waters.
5. The coastal strip of Kiribati has a length of 1143 kilometers.
6. Little is known about how the islands of Kiribati were settled. There is an assumption that the ancestors of modern local residents moved to the Gilbert atolls in the 1st millennium AD. from eastern Melanesia. But the Phoenix and Line archipelagos remained uninhabited by the time they were discovered by the Americans and Europeans.
7. Nevertheless, on these atolls one can find traces of the presence of a person who lived here in the distant past. A similar fact allowed scientists to assume that the local population for some reason left these archipelagos. One of the most popular versions explains this by small land areas, remoteness from other islands, an arid climate and a constant shortage of fresh water. Due to all these factors, it was difficult to live on these atolls. Most likely, the people who settled the islands soon left them.
8. The discoverers of the archipelagos located in the western part of the Pacific Ocean are American and British expeditions. Their ships visited these places in the period from the end of the 17th century to the beginning of the 19th century.
9. Initially, the atolls were called the Gilbert Islands. It happened in 1820. The name of the islands was given by the Russian traveler and Admiral Krusenstern in honor of the British captain T. Gilberg, who discovered these lands in 1788.
10. The first settlers from Britain arrived on the islands in 1837. In 1892, these territories became a protectorate of England. Christmas Island joined the colony in 1919 and Phoenix became part of it in 1937.
11. The land area of the Republic of Kiribati consists of 33 atolls. This is the name of the coral islands, which have a ring-shaped shape. This state also includes small coral islands.
12. The country of Kiribati is located on atolls, one of which, Banaba, is raised. According to the theory put forward by Charles Darwin, the formation of such formations was facilitated by the subsidence of volcanic islands and the gradual fouling of their surface with corals. This process led to the emergence of fringing reefs, and then barrier reefs. Thus, land appeared in this part of the Pacific Ocean.
13. The distance from the easternmost to the westernmost island of the state is 4 thousand kilometers.
14. In the waters of the Pacific Ocean, all these small areas of land are spread over an area exceeding 3.5 million square kilometers. According to this indicator, the country of Kiribati has the second largest exclusive economic zone in the Pacific Ocean. But the entire land area of the country does not exceed 811 square kilometers.
15. Although this Pacific nation has 33 atolls, only 13 of them have permanent population.
16. The island state of Kiribati is located immediately in Polynesia and Micronesia.
17. The country consists of island groups. These are the Gilbert, Phoenix, and Line Islands. The last of them, by their location, belong to the southern part of the Hawaiian Islands.
18. The Republic of Kiribati as a state appeared in 1979, having gained independence from Great Britain.
19. The total population of Kiribati is a little over 115 thousand people.
20. About 90% of the population of Kiribati are representatives of the people of the same name. Its other name is tungar.
21. The official language of the country is English, but few people speak it. The majority of the population speaks Kiribati.
22. Modern writing in Kiribati uses the letters of the Latin alphabet.
23. In 1983, a friendship agreement was signed between the United States and Kiribati, according to which the United States renounced claims to 14 islands, recognizing them as part of Kiribati.
24. Kiribati does not have its own army. The defense of the state is carried out by the armed forces of Australia and New Zealand.
25. The United States in the 20th century tested atomic bombs on two atolls belonging to Kiribati.
26. This island nation has a weak economy, because it is far from world markets for its products.
27. Agriculture dominates the country, which negatively affects the vegetation cover of the islands, which are gradually being deforested.
28.Overpopulation, soil erosion and lack of fresh water are considered to be the main problems of Kiribati.
29. The United Kingdom periodically allocates funds to the development of the education system in Kiribati, and France to the health sector.
30. In Kiribati there are only 2 fresh, but about 100 small salt lakes. Some of them reach a diameter of several kilometers.
31. Freshwater lakes can be found only on two islands of the state. This is the atoll of Christmas and Teraina (Washington).
32. There is not a single river in Kiribati either.
33. The highest point of Kiribati is 81 meters above sea level. It is located on the Banaba Atoll. This is quite a lot, especially when compared with the Maldives, also located on the atolls, where the highest point is at a height of less than 5 meters.
34. The soils on the islands of Kiribati, due to their coral origin, are very poor and highly alkaline. Most of them are porous and do not retain moisture well.
35. The soils of Kiribati are very low in mineral and organic matter. The only exceptions are magnesium, sodium and calcium. Phosphate soils are widespread throughout the republic.
36. There are also brown-red soils on the islands, formed from guano, which is the decomposed droppings of sea birds, as well as bats.
37. The lack of water bodies on the islands is due to their small area, low altitude, and also the porosity of the soil.
38. The only source of fresh water on the atolls are the so-called lenses, formed by rainwater that seeps through the soil. You can get to the moisture by digging a well.
39. Such lenses are the only source of fresh water in most of the atolls of Kiribati. After the rains, local residents extract moisture for themselves from the leaves of coconut palms.
40.Since 28 January 2008, the Phoenix Island Group has been the world's largest marine reserve. Its area is 410.5 thousand square kilometers.
41. The Kiritimati Atoll, which is part of this country, is the largest coral atoll on Earth. It accounts for about 80% of the entire landmass of this country.
42. Christmas Island, one of the atolls that make up Kiribati, is the largest atoll in the world. Christmas Island is home to more bird species than any other island in the world.
43. The relatively young geological age of the atolls, their remoteness from the continent, as well as unfavorable weather conditions, have contributed to the fact that only 83 species of native plants in Kiribati exist. And none of them is endemic.
44. In addition, it is believed that several species of plants were introduced to these areas by Aboriginal people. Among them are: taka pinnatifid; breadfruit of two kinds; yam; giant taro; tarot; swamp giant taro.
45. Plants such as the coconut palm and the roofing pandanus most likely have a dual origin. On some atolls, they were brought by man, while on others they are indigenous representatives of the flora.
46.Four plant species, namely pandanus, breadfruit, coconut and taro, played in the past and continue to play today a leading role in the nutrition of the inhabitants of this island country.
47. The main representatives of the marine fauna are pearl mussels, holothurians (sea cucumbers), cones, tridacna, palm thieves and lobsters. There are a lot of fish in the ocean near the islands, of which there are from 600 to 800 species.
48. As for fish, it has always been the main food for local residents. In coastal waters, reef perches, albuls, hanos, large-headed mullets, sultans and horse mackerels are caught. There are several varieties of sea turtles near the islands.
49. Rich coastal waters of Kiribati and corals.
50. The animal world of the atolls is rather poor. During an American scientific expedition at the beginning of the 19th century, researchers discovered here only the only representative of land mammals - the Polynesian rat. Today, the inhabitants of the islands breed pigs and poultry.
51. But the world of avifauna in Kiribati is very diverse. There are 75 species of birds in the country, one of which is endemic. This is a warbler bird. She lives on Christmas Island.
52. Most of the landmasses of the Phoenix and Line archipelagos host large-scale bird colonies. That is why the islands of Starbuck and Malden, as well as part of the Christmas Atoll, have been declared a zone of marine reserves.
53. An additional source of income for Kiribati in recent years has been the issuance of licenses to fish in the Special Economic Zone.
54. The bulk of the republic's population lives on the Gilbert Islands. And most of them are located on Tarawa Atoll. Here is the capital of Kiribati - the city of South Tarawa. About 50 thousand inhabitants are registered here.
55. In addition to the capital, the city of Kiribati, there are 9 more settlements, the number of which exceeds 1.5 thousand people. The residential areas of the capital of Kiribati are located on several small islands, interconnected by bridges and dams.
56. South Tarawa comprises four municipalities. Their names are Betio and Bairiki, Bikinibeu and Bonriki. All these municipalities are located on the islands of the same name, being part of the capital of the state of Kiribati. It is on their territories that all the main commercial, government and educational institutions of the country are located.
57. So, in Betio there is a power plant operating for the entire atoll, a Maritime Institute and a port. Interestingly, this island is almost flat and devoid of vegetation. Its entire central part is occupied by a wide strip of the Hawkins airfield. It is in this place that the sights of Kiribati are located, which are military relics of the period when the famous battle for Tarawa took place.
58. Among the monuments reminiscent of the fierce battle on Tarawa are the Memorial Chapel built in the village of Abaroko.
59. And also the Memorial to the Heroes of the Outpost, which commemorates the memory of 22 British servicemen killed by the Japanese in October 1942.
60.The most important feature of Betio are military cemeteries, which can impress anyone with their numerous rows of wooden tombstones, because on the island, which is only 3 kilometers long, more than 5.5 thousand war victims are buried.
61. Kiribati has two radio stations of its own, government and private.
62. Road signs here are often drawn by hand on suitable surfaces.
63. Athletes from Kiribati take part in the Olympic Games.
64. The average annual temperature in Kiribati ranges from +26, +32 ⁰C.
65. On the Caroline Atoll, located in the Line Archipelago, people are the first to celebrate the New Year (outside of Eurasia and Antarctica). This happens due to the fact that this island is the easternmost piece of land located in the 12th time zone.
66. Among the local villages there are London, Paris and others. Locals like to call their villages after European capitals.
67.The production of postage stamps generates significant revenue for the public treasury. Stamps are very popular among philatelists from various countries.
68.There are two official currencies in circulation in the country - the Australian dollar and the equivalent Kiribati dollar.
69. The Kiribati one dollar coin has a dodecagonal shape.
70.At present, the small country is developing successfully despite scarce natural resources.
71.Kiribati is a member of the UN.
72.The world's only diplomatic mission of the Republic of Kiribati is located in the Fiji Islands.
73. The British Consulate is usually in charge of the diplomatic affairs of Kiribati.
74. Kiribati is an amazing country. In addition to the natural beauty, it is also notable for the fact that 99.99% of the world's population has no idea about its existence.
75. Kiribati is the least visited country on the planet by tourists. Only the most desperate tourists reach the remote islands of the country of Kiribati.
The Sultanate of Oman is an Arab state located southeast of the Arabian Peninsula. It has a hot climate and wealth, like other oil countries. Officially, the Sultanate of Oman was founded relatively recently, only in 1970, but people have been living here for a long time, and once these lands were part of the Arab Caliphate. Today, Oman is a prosperous Arab country with a traditional Arab way of life.
The Sultanate of Oman- exciting facts
Oman is a typical Arab state, small but prosperous due to the deposits of natural resources found on these lands. True, oil is not endless, and today the government of Oman is already beginning to seek new sources of income so that the country does not go bankrupt when the oil runs out.
1. The Sultanate of Oman is an Arab state.
2. Oman is located in the southeast of the Arabian Peninsula.
3. Oman is a typical Arab state, small but prosperous.
4. The country of Oman became rich thanks to the deposits of natural resources found in these lands.
5. Of course, oil is not endless, and now the government of Oman is starting to look for new sources of income so that the country does not go bankrupt when the oil runs out.
6. Officially, the Sultanate of Oman was founded relatively recently, only in 1970, but people have been living here for a long time, and once these lands were part of the Arab Caliphate.
7. Scientists suggest that in ancient times, the main route for the settlement of people from Africa to different parts of Asia ran through the coast of Oman.
8. Oman is, in fact, the only country in the Middle East that has miraculously preserved its Arab identity and, at the same time, a high standard of living for the population.
9. Oman is an absolute monarchy, where the sultan is not a decorative figure but the natural leader of the country and head of government. He also heads the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the Ministry of Finance.
10. After the death of the Sultan, the ruling family of Oman must, within three days, decide on the candidacy of his successor. If this does not happen, the relatives open the letter of the late ruler with his recommendations regarding the heir to the throne.
11. In many ways, Oman resembles Bahrain.
12. The only major city in Oman is its capital, the city of Muscat. All other towns are pretty small.
13. Muscat is the capital of Oman, a small town it stretches for 30 kilometers along the coast. The building is mostly low-rise. Offices rarely exceed 9-10 floors. Muscat is the best place to live with your family in the Arabian Peninsula.
14. The country has a hot climate. Oman receives very little rainfall, and in some regions of the country, it rains only a few times a year.
15. There is not a single permanent river in Oman - they all dry up in the summer.
16. You can swim on the coast of Oman all year round. Here the water is always warm.
17. Oman has excellent diving. The water is warm and crystal clear. You can see sharks, barracudas, moray eels, rays, and turtles. I'm not talking about ordinary colored fish. During the season, you can see whales and whale sharks. Corals start right from the shore.
18. There is a theory that Oman was covered with forests several millennia ago, but all the forests were cut down due to active copper mining. Because of this, there was a rapid desertification of the area.
19. Oman is a highly law-abiding country. Even a domestic fight is impossible to see here. After all, such a violation of the order here is supposed to be a prison sentence.
20. Oman suffers from a lack of fresh water, so the country's authorities have to desalinate the salty sea water.
21. One of the most popular places in Oman are incense markets.
22. In the south of Oman, there is a population with Ethiopian roots, and even the local dialect is more like Ethiopian than Arabic.
23. In Oman, teaching the basics of Islam is a compulsory school subject.
24. An obligatory detail of the Omani man's costume is a short broad dagger.
25. Among Omani women, blue tattoos on the face and hands and earrings in the ears and nose are common.
26. In Oman, unlike other countries of the Persian Gulf, nature is very picturesque: tropics, savannahs, fjords, waterfalls, and mountains.
27. On the west coast of Oman, there is one of the few places in the world where green turtles come to lay their eggs.
28. Due to the heat and hot air, the sky over Oman almost always looks gray. Blue skies can only be seen during the cool season.
29. Because of the rain in Oman, for example, classes at school may well be canceled.
30. In Oman, alcoholic products are sold only in specialized stores. But to purchase alcohol, you must first obtain permission from the police, and Muslims do not receive such permission.
31. There is almost no public transport in Oman - only fixed-route taxis, but only Indians use them. For some reason, this is not an option for white people.
32. Taxis that travel around the city, as a rule, also carry Indians.
33. A more or less decent taxi can only be taken from the hotel and the shopping center. A brand new taxi is now running from the airport. All cars are new, business class.
34. The national currency of Oman is the Omani rial. It is heavily pegged to the dollar. One rial costs a little less than three dollars.
35. Crime, unemployment and poverty are virtually absent in Oman.
36. The door of the National Bank of Oman is cast from pure gold.
37. Residents of Oman are exempt from paying taxes.
38. One of the national musical instruments of the Omanis is the rabab violin with a single string.
39. Gasoline in Oman is very cheap, but of poor quality due to its high sulfur content.
40. The favorite delicacy of the inhabitants of Oman is hyena meat. Addiction to this food is not found in any other country in the Arab world.
41. The government of Oman has approved a list of 26 professions that are not available to foreigners. For example, taxi drivers can only be Omanis by nationality.
42. Tourists were allowed to enter Oman only in the late 1980s.
43. The fabulous merchant and traveler Sinbad the Sailor was from Oman.
44. Car tires on Omani cars crack from the heat in a few years. Tire fitting here, apparently, is a very profitable business.
45. A lot of roads are being built in Oman. Many highways are expanding. Due to mild climatic conditions, all roads are in excellent condition.
46. There are no traffic jams anywhere in Oman, even in the capital, Muscat. Any part of the city can be reached in 20-25 minutes.
47. In Oman, it is not customary to show bare heels in public, as the locals consider it disrespectful.
48. In Oman there is a sandy Wahiba desert with huge sand dunes tens of kilometers high in a multi-storey building.
49. There is a real cave with stalactites and stalagmites 200 kilometers from the city of Muscat.
50. Children studying in foreign / European schools receive a fairly decent education, they then easily enter European and American institutions. And local schools and universities are of a low level.
51. In Oman, it is impossible to buy such familiar food as sausage. Products that religion does not allow Muslims to consume, such as pork, are very expensive in Oman, because only visitors buy them.
52. Residents of Oman on average give birth to 5-6 children.
53. Entertainment in Oman is varied. You can find something for every taste: you can go to a bar, to the mall, to the cinema or to the beach. There is also something to do: golf, diving or karting.
54. In Oman, the days off are Thursday and Friday.
55. Residents of Oman are not very interested in work - about 70% of the labor force in the country are foreigners. The same situation is observed in Qatar.
56. Omanis have the right to free healthcare, education (including in foreign universities) and land to build a house.
57. Only 0.2% of Omani consider themselves atheists. Although Oman is a noticeably less religiously radical country than neighboring Arab states.
58. Oman is considered a young country.
59. Thanks to the discovery of rich oil reserves, in 30 years Oman has turned from a run-down state with medieval orders and infrastructure into one of the economic leaders of the modern world.
60. Now Oman is a prosperous Arab country with a traditional Arab way of life.