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30 facts about the Renaissance that you won't find in a history book

4 months ago
30-facts-about-the-renaissance-that-you-wont-find-in-a-history-book

The Renaissance is called the period of European history, marking the transition from the Middle Ages to the New Age and covering the 15th and 16th centuries. Some researchers consider it the beginning of the era of humanism. Others believe it is a step backward because magic and witch-hunts flourished in parallel with the flourishing of art in the Renaissance.

 

Top facts about the Renaissance

 

We at Bemorepanda decided to find out more about the mysterious Renaissance. We dug up exciting facts that will allow you to draw your conclusions about whether that time is rightly called the Renaissance.

 

 

1. In Renaissance Florence, men married at 30, while girls became wives at 17–18. Such an age difference led to the fact that there were many young widows in the city.

 

2. The life of the ladies in Florence was not sweet. Having visited this city, a French traveler wrote: “Women are more reserved here than in any other part of Italy; they see the world only through small holes in their windows.”

 

3. According to other information, the ladies were forbidden even to look out the window to not tempt random passers-by on the street.

 

4. The main task of women was to be beautiful. Therefore, they were forbidden to play wind instruments: it distorted their facial features. The ladies were asked to master the strings, such as the lute.

 

5. The most beautiful room in the palace was the bedroom. They received guests there.

 

6. Hairstyles that covered the ears were in fashion. Women wore them for fear of pregnancy. According to legend, the Virgin Mary became pregnant through her ear after hearing the word of God.

 

 

7. One of the principal masterpieces of the Renaissance - "The Last Supper" by Leonardo da Vinci - is in poor condition because of the great painter's love of experimentation. Instead of applying paint to wet plaster, as was usually done when creating a fresco, the master decided to develop the "Last Supper" on drywall. As a result, the paint began to peel off, and Leonardo had to correct his work before it was finished. Perhaps in the Last Supper that we see today, almost nothing remains of the original.

 

8. The Renaissance style icon was Henry VIII, who introduced square-toed shoes into fashion. At the same time, he strictly regulated the trend, issuing an order that limited the width of the sock to 6 inches (15.24 cm).

 

9. During the Renaissance, a fashion trend arose to reveal what was hidden under clothing to the world. And all thanks to the English laws on luxury, which ordered commoners to have a single-color wardrobe. They came up with slits on them to diversify their monotonous costumes, thereby demonstrating the lower layer of clothing painted in bright colors.

 

10. The professions of a surgeon and a hairdresser were different facets of the same work. The same artisans could pull out a tooth and cut their hair.

 

11. At the same time, Renaissance doctors began to do plastic surgery. At that time, duels and diseases could significantly spoil a man's appearance, but surgeons were able to fix it. They performed rhinoplasty, transplanting a piece of skin from the forearm to the bridge of the nose. Thanks to the artisans of the Renaissance, many celebrities today can boast of chiseled noses.

 

 

12. Another Renaissance invention is ice cream. The Medici family announced a competition for the most unusual dish, the winner of which was a Florentine chicken seller, who presented a frozen dessert to the court of the famous family. Around the same time, another Florentine, the courtier Bernardo Buonaletti, was organizing a celebration in honor of the arrival of the Spanish guests. He put on theatrical performances and set off fireworks. Most importantly, he prepared a cream with the taste of bergamot, lemons, and oranges, chilled with a mixture of his invention.

 

13. The famous Uffizi Gallery was not conceived as a museum. It was the official center of Florence. Actually, "Uffizi" is translated as "offices".

 

14. The famous Roman Colosseum served as an industrial building during Renaissance. In the 16th century, it was planned to turn it into a wool factory, but this would have led to its destruction. In 1594, a glue factory was built in the building. By the end of the 17th century, the ancient stadium had turned into a dump.

 

15. During the Renaissance, the Latin language ceased to be alive. Back in the Middle Ages, it was spoken and evolved. Still, the enthusiasm of Renaissance scientists for Antiquity led to the fact that Latin returned to its classical form and its natural development stopped.

 

 

16. The Renaissance got its name because, in these few centuries, the flourishing of interest in ancient culture began, which had utterly faded away in the previous Middle Ages.

 

17. The second name of this era is the Renaissance. It comes from the French "Renaissance" and means, in fact, "Renaissance." Interestingly, this world-famous name came from the French language, although the Renaissance began in Italy.

 

18. To describe this era outside of Italy north of the Alps, "Northern Renaissance" is used. And some researchers even single out the French Renaissance, the Renaissance, Spanish, English, and others.

 

19. During the Renaissance, she was not called by this word. It was popularized and introduced by the French historian Jules Michelet only in the 19th century.

 

20. The Renaissance lasted a little less than three centuries, at least where it originated, that is, in Italy - from the beginning of the 14th century to the end of the 16th. But it came to some other countries later and ended there too later.

 

21. The names of the most famous Renaissance artists are familiar to the world. Leonardo da Vinci was generally a “universal man” who succeeded in everything, including Michelangelo, Titian, and Raphael Santi.

 

 

22. The Renaissance had a significant impact on the development of the sciences. In this era, medieval superstitions began to lose popularity, more attention was paid to scientific development, and the most important discoveries were made. In particular, the Great Geographical Discoveries and the findings of Nicolaus Copernicus.

 

23. Renaissance literature began, by all accounts, with the Divine Comedy by the famous Dante Alighieri. This work became so popular that it brought the Tuscan dialect of Italian to the forefront, effectively establishing it as the "official Italian."

 

24. With the beginning of the Renaissance, music ceased to be a purely ecclesiastical art. It began to spread around the world, imbued with a new worldview.

 

25. The ancestor of the Renaissance in Russia is considered the Grand Duke of Moscow, Ivan III. The latter invited Italian architects and other masters to Moscow. But in general, the influence of the 

Renaissance in Russia was relatively weak due to its remoteness and attachment to Byzantine traditions.

 

26. The Vatican stubbornly opposed many of the ideas of the Renaissance, and many scientists, poets, and writers were persecuted, but they had their patrons. In France, such as, for example, the wise King Francis I, a well-known philanthropist.

 

 

27. In the Renaissance, the old prejudices were supplanted, replaced by scientific views, but not entirely, as is commonly believed. For example, alchemy and astrology were considered essential sciences. The famous Galileo was engaged in the compilation of horoscopes, Isaac Newton wrote many works on alchemy, and the astronomer Johannes Kepler was also an astrologer.

 

It was the Renaissance that gave humanity oil painting. Jan van Eyck was a Dutch artist. Oil paints came to Europe early in the 12th century.

 

29. Of great importance to the Renaissance was the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1450. This machine made books dozens of times more accessible, contributing to enlightenment.

 

30. One of the strangest events popular during the Renaissance was anatomical theater. This is a public autopsy carried out by doctors who commented and explained their actions to all those present. In the Middle Ages, the “desecration” of the human body was strictly prohibited. Still, during the Renaissance, these prejudices gradually died out, thanks to which anatomy and medicine began to develop rapidly.

 

 

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funny-80-random-facts-that-are-too-interesting-to-ignore-bemorepanda

When you know the answer to something no one else in the room does, it makes you feel like a genius. So, if you're a fan of the little things, want your next night to be memorable, or just love learning new things that no one else knows about, you've come to the right place. You never know when you'll need to pull those facts, which is part of the fun. So, we invite you to play with us and check out our list of random facts.

 

Is there any useless information? Never. All those little random, interesting, funny, scary facts, or did you know that the facts you store in your brain exist for a reason and are sure to come in handy someday...even if it's just for you to could beat your best dude or surprise a bored toddler on a family field trip. Just in case you don't have enough information cluttering your brain, here are some more fun, interesting, or just plain fun tidbits to keep on hand.

 

Interesting and funny facts about animals

 

1. The fur of polar bears is actually clean, and their skin is black.

 

2. Baby flamingos are born grey, not pink.

 

3. A woodpecker's tongue actually wraps around its brain completely, protecting it from damage when it hits a tree.

 

4. The shrimp's heart is in its head.

 

5. Elephants suck their trunks for convenience.

 

6. Anteaters have no teeth.

 

7. Nine-banded armadillos always have quadrupeds, and they are always identical.

 

8. Wombat poop is cube shaped.

 

9. A flock of flamingos is called brightness.

 

 

10. Hippos and horses are actually distant relatives.

 

11. All clown fish are born male.

 

12. In the UK, the Queen legally owns all unmarked swans.

 

13. In order not to disperse, sea otters hold hands during sleep.

 

14. Goats have an accent.

 

15. Dolphins give each other names.

 

16. Gorillas can catch a cold, although you can probably still go to the zoo with a runny nose.

 

17. Forget bald eagles. The turkey was once almost called the national bird.

 

 

18. A group of owls is called a parliament.

 

19. There are 32 muscles in a cat's ear.

 

20. Snails can regenerate their eyes.

 

21. Want to know if your pet turtle is a boy or a girl? Listen carefully! Female turtles hiss and male turtles grunt.

 

22. A starfish can turn its stomach inside out.

 

23. French poodles are actually from Germany.

 

 

24. Seahorses mate for life and are often seen telling each other stories.

 

25. A group of porcupines is called a thorn.

 

26. Andrew Jackson's parrot had to be removed from his funeral because he wouldn't stop swearing. Polly wants to rinse her mouth.

 

27. Sloths can hold their breath for up to 40 minutes.

 

Interesting and funny historical facts

 

28. Henry VIII knighted all four of his Grooms of the Chair - the men in charge of wiping his ass for him.

 

29. Jeanette Rankin was elected to Congress four years before women could vote.

 

30. Women could not apply for a bank loan until 1974.

 

31. Before the invention of modern artificial teeth, dentures were usually made from the teeth of dead soldiers.

 

32. In ancient Egypt, servants were smeared with honey so that flies would fly to them instead of the pharaoh.

 

33. It was once considered blasphemous to use a fork.

 

34. Abe Lincoln was a champion wrestler. He was also a licensed bartender. Maybe they should call him Abe of all trades.

 

35. George Washington owned a whiskey distillery.

 

 

36. More than two percent of the American population died during the civil war.

 

37. Joseph Stalin removed people from photographs after their death or dismissal from office.

 

38. Since 1945, all British tanks have been equipped with everything necessary for making tea.

 

39. Pope Gregory IV once declared war on cats because he thought Satan was using black cats. His statement led to the mass extermination of cats.

 

40. The absence of cats led to an invasion of rats, which led to the spread of the plague.

 

50. John Adams was the first president to live in the White House.

 

51. Go to sleep! Chernobyl, the Exxon Valdez oil spill, and the Challenger explosion are all linked to lack of sleep.

 

Interesting and funny travel facts

 

52. The average person living in Sweden eats about 22 pounds of chocolate a year.

 

53. Although the Wright brothers are known as a couple, they actually flew together only once. They promised their father that they would always fly separately.

 

54. In Montana, there are three times more cows than people.

 

55. Parts of the Great Wall of China were made from sticky rice.

 

56. Ninety percent of the world's population lives above the equator.

 

57. There are more saunas in Finland than cars.

 

58. Sixty percent of the world's lakes (three million in total) are located in Canada.

 

59. Virginia is the only state that has the same staff flower and staff tree - Dogwood.

 

 

60. Think before the season. In Egypt, it is considered incredibly rude to salt the food you have been served.

 

61. Ninety percent of the territory of Libya is desert.

 

62. The height of the Eiffel Tower can vary up to six inches, depending on the temperature.

 

63. Do you spend too much on drinks when you eat out? A small town in Italy has a fountain that serves free wine.

 

64. Pilots and their co-pilots should eat differently before the flight so that both of them do not get sick with food poisoning.

 

65. About 600 Parisians work on the Eiffel Tower every day.

 

66. Do you want to go to Rome? Which one of? Six of the seven continents have a city called Rome. (You really fell, Antarctica.)

 

67. When you visit Key West, you are actually closer to Havana than Miami.

 

Interesting and fun facts about music

 

68. Mary, known as "Mary Had the Lamb", was a real person and the song is based on real events.

 

69. Happy Birthday was the first song ever played on Mars. Mars Rover Curiosity played this song to itself on its first anniversary on the planet.

 

70. When you listen to music, your heart is in sync with the beat.

 

71. President Nixon was an accomplished musician. He played five instruments, including the accordion.

 

72. Is the song stuck in your head? This is called an earworm.

 

73. None of The Beatles could read music.

 

74. However, George Harrison was reportedly able to play 26 instruments.

 

 

75. Barry Manilow didn't actually write I Write Songs.

 

76. Metallica is the only band to play on all seven continents.

 

77. Most department stores tend to play music slower to slow down shoppers and make them shop longer. The reverse is true for restaurants.

 

78. Monaco's orchestra is bigger than its army.

 

79. A concert promoter once sold a thousand tickets to a Spice Girls concert in Hawaii that were never booked. Maybe that's where the idea for Fyre Fest came from.

 

80. Leo Fender, inventor of the Stratocaster and Telecaster, couldn't play the guitar.

 

 

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20-photos-from-the-past-proving-that-history-can-still-surprise-with-interesting-moments

The past has the same meaning as the future, and not only for an individual person, but for all of humanity. How can we build our lives without looking back at the past? This is not possible for us. Therefore, in order to stir up memories and tell you something new, we have collected the most interesting historical photos that will prove that there was a lot of fascinating things in the past.

 

Yuri and Tatiana Nikulin, USSR, 1983

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Fashion guy with a Wispa motorcycle, 1990s

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First color photograph, 1861

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Opening ceremony of the 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow

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Johnny Depp, 1969

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Moscow, USSR, 1990

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Marilyn Monroe, 1962

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Marlene Dietrich detained at a train station in Paris for wearing men's trousers, 1933

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The law prohibiting women from wearing trousers was in force in France until 2013 (of course, no one followed it in recent decades)

 

Samuel L. Jackson, John Travolta, Harvey Keitel and Quentin Tarantino on the set of Pulp Fiction, 1994

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Construction of the London Underground, 1898

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A tomb carved from a single giant stone nearly 2,000 years ago in Arabia

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Single urinal. Paris, 1875

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First IKEA store, Sweden, 1958

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Tilda Swinton, 1988

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Pistol duel used to be an Olympic sport, 1909

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Jenny Joseph, 28, poses for the Columbia Pictures logo, 1992

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Winona Ryder, 1990

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A startled observer at the annual Sydney gay pride parade Mardi Gras, 1994

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The last queen of Mongolia, Navaanluvsangiin Genenpil, who was shot in 1938 during the Stalinist repression by the decision of the Communist Party

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Vladimir Putin during the celebration of the Tatar national holiday "Sabantuy" in Kazan, June 24, 2000

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20-awkward-photos-with-stars-that-people-shared-and-made-everyone-laugh

Only a few of us can have the opportunity to communicate with a star. Many regularly attend concerts of their favorite performers, someone even got an autograph from a celebrity, but not everyone can boast that, for example, Bill Murray nursed you as a child. These "pearls" were shared by people from our article, boasting on the Internet of their meeting with a star.

 

“Bill Murray looked after me and my brother. Here is a photo of us in the late 1980s "

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"My uncle tripped and fell in front of the Queen of England in 1987"

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“My father and Elvis. He always told us that they hung out together, but before this photo we didn't believe him. "

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"When I took a selfie, I told Samuel L. Jackson to show what he really thinks about these things."

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“Today at work my mom was told to drive this 'bum' off the golf course. It turned out to be Bill Murray "

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"My son looks more like Harry Potter than Harry Potter himself."

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"My dad played against Michael Jordan in high school."

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“My wife met Chris Pratt. Anna Faris did not approve of this "

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"My wife's face on our wedding day compared to when she met Rob Lowe."

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"My husband, when he was a little boy, with Alice Cooper in 1989"

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"I got a little nervous when I met Morgan Freeman."

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“Today my mom didn't answer my call. I sent her a message asking why she was so busy and she sent me this photo. "

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"Chuck Norris admires my friend's father's cock in the 80s."

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Hugh Jackman and Ryan Reynolds are known to troll each other in a friendly way, and a Jackman fan decided to take advantage of this.

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The girl put on a dress with the image of Reynolds in a wreath to meet the idol and he burst out laughing when he saw this. But for the sake of the photo, he showed anger on his face.

 

“I met Jim Carrey and he was really amazing! I never thought he would make faces with me, but he did a great job! "

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"A friend of mine met Beyoncé in New Orleans and she said," Whatever face you make, I'll repeat it. "

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“My brother and I met our favorite superhero (Hulk) when we were 4 years old. As you can see, we were a little disappointed because Lou Ferrigno was not green. "

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“A buddy of mine met this weird dude in a dinosaur shirt and zebra print pants. Come on, just kidding, I know it's Jeff Goldblum. "

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"My dad with Muhammad Ali, 1970s"

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“I met David Hasselhoff at our local radio station in the early 80's. However, in this photo I don't look too impressed. "

07-16-32-16255783481413427580



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50-interesting-facts-about-ukraine-that-you-probably-didnt-know

A border country located at the confluence of the EU and Russia, a former Soviet republic with a population of 46 million, independent since 1991, known abroad by stereotypes such as the "granary of the former USSR", the "Chernobyl catastrophe", "Gas crisis" or "orange revolution", Ukraine is trying to build an identity.


The difficulty in finding this identity stems from the fact that Ukraine has long been fragmented between the Russian and Austro-Hungarian empires, the current borders being drawn by Joseph Stalin. It is true that nationalist ideas took their place here in the nineteenth century, but it was only after the disintegration of the USSR that Ukraine became independent, except for a short period between 1917 and 1920.


You can read more interesting facts below.


Ukraine blames Russia for cyberattack against government agencies | TheHill


1. If Russia, which is not entirely in Europe, is not taken into account, Ukraine is the state with the largest area on the "Old Continent". Ukraine has an area of ​​603,628 square kilometers;


2. Ukrainians celebrate National Day on August 24;


3. Arsenal in Kyiv is the deepest subway station in the world. It is located at a depth of 105 meters and was built in 1960 for military purposes. The reason? Threatening powerful states with nuclear bombs


4. Traditional Ukrainian food includes chicken, pork, beef, eggs, fish and mushrooms. Ukrainians also tend to eat a lot of fresh, pickled potatoes, cereals and vegetables. 



5. The most famous Ukrainian dish is borscht. While many Russians claim to be from their homeland, many Ukrainians are passionate about believing that they are the founders of this dish.


6. Ukraine was at the center of one of the greatest catastrophes of the 20th century. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant exploded in April 1986. The blast was considered the worst accident in the history of nuclear power.


7. Unlike many civilized states in Ukraine, wedding rings are worn on the ring finger of the right hand.


8. The "Love Tunnel" also exists in Ukraine. Near the town of Klevan in Ukraine there is a railway line that is covered with vaults formed by the branches of the nearby trees. It has become a favorite destination for thousands of lovers.


9. The geographical center of Europe is located in Ukraine. In 1886, the geographers of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, using the technology of the time, established the geographical center of Europe in the village of Dilove.



10. The city of Druzhkivka in the Donetsk region is one of the few places in the world where fossilized trees are kept. The trees are almost 250 million years old and create an entire fossilized forest that covers an area of ​​1 hectare.


11. The first gas lamp in history was invented in the Ukrainian city of Lviv.


12. The Ukrainians, namely the Antonov Design Bureau, have developed an aircraft with the highest payload capacity in the world - the An-225 Mechta. At first it was designed to transport spacecraft. Now "Dream" carries out commercial cargo transportation.


13. The author of one of the first constitutions in the world is Ukrainian political and public figure Pylyp Orlyk. On April 5, 1710, he was elected hetman of the Zaporizhian army. On the same day, Pylyp Orlyk announced the "Constitution of the rights and freedoms of the Zaporizhian army." In the United States, the Constitution was adopted in 1787, in France and the Commonwealth - only in 1791. An interesting fact is that Pylyp Orlik was born on the territory of Belarus - in the village of Kosuta, Oshmyany Povet.



14. In recent years, Ukraine has confidently retained its place in the top three world leaders in honey production. Being several times ahead of European countries in terms of honey production, Ukraine is at the same time the first state in the world in honey production per capita (1.5 kg).


15. Ukraine has the world's largest reserves of manganese ore - 2.3 billion tons, or about 11% of the world's total reserves.


16. Only six monasteries in the world have the status of Lavra. Three of them are in Ukraine. These are the Holy Assumption Kiev-Pechersk Lavra in Kyiv, which received this status back in 1598, the Holy Assumption Lavra in the city of Pochaev and the Svyatogorsk Holy Assumption Lavra in the Donetsk region.


17. Ostroh Academy is the first higher educational institution in Eastern Europe, the oldest Ukrainian scientific and educational institution. In 1576, Prince Konstantin-Vasily of Ostrog founded the Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy in Ostrog.


18. The first kerosene lamp was invented in Lvov by Ignaty Lukasiewicz and Jan Zekh in 1853, under the Golden Star pharmacy workers.In the same year, the first surgical operation was performed in the Lviv hospital under the illumination of a kerosene lamp. Subsequently, the kerosene lamp was presented at the international exhibition in Munich, the invention was awarded a special diploma there.



19. Monuments to the famous Ukrainian poet Taras Shevchenko have been erected in 1200 cities around the world.


20. The Ukrainian wind instrument trembita is the longest wind musical instrument in the world.


21. The shortest main street of all the capitals of the world, but at the same time one of the widest and most beautiful - Khreshchatyk in Kyiv. Its length is only 1225 m.


22. The oldest map known to scientists, as well as the oldest settlement of Homo Sapiens, were found in Ukraine: in the village. Mesopotamia of the Rivne region. They are about 14.5-15 thousand years old. The map is engraved on a mammoth bone.


23. The longest cave in Ukraine is called "Optimistic" and is located in Podolia. This is a gypsum cave at a depth of 20 m with a length of 216 km. The longest gypsum cave in the world and the second longest in general, it is second only to Mammoth Cave in the United States.



24. The geographical center of Europe (well, yes, we also have it :)). In Ukraine, near the town of Rakhiv, surrounded by the picturesque Carpathians, is the geographical center of Europe.


25. The oldest tree in Ukraine is considered to be a 1300-year-old oak in the Yuzefin tract, Rivne region.


26. The third most visited McDonald's in the world is located in Kyiv near the railway station. This establishment consistently ranks among the top five busiest McDonald's in the world.


27. One of the largest historical transport routes ran through the territory of Ukraine (as well as through the territory of Belarus) - “the path from the Varangians to the Greeks” - a system of river routes and portages between them 3 thousand km long, connecting the northern lands of Ancient Russia with the southern Russian lands and the Baltic sea ​​with Black. Throughout ancient history, Ukraine has acted as a bridge between the worlds of Eastern Europe and the Ancient East, Antique, Byzantine and Latin Europe.


28. Ukraine ranks fourth in the world in terms of the number of citizens with higher education. The population of Ukraine is among the most educated, and the number of people with higher education per capita is higher than the average European level.


 

29. Ukraine, on its own initiative, abandoned the world's third largest arsenal of nuclear weapons. At the time of declaration of independence, more than a thousand nuclear warheads and missiles were located on the territory of Ukraine, the third largest nuclear potential after Russia and America. The warheads and missiles were handed over to Russia, the bunkers were destroyed. In response, Ukraine received money for disarmament, as well as security guarantees from nuclear powers (as we can see, these guarantees are not respected today).


30. The international Ukrainian anthem consists of only six lines (four in verse and two in the chorus). The remaining lines of the anthem are considered politically incorrect. (for example, "Stand, brother, in a crooked way from Xiang to Don" implies Ukraine's claims to the territory of Russia and Poland). The anthem was born in 1863, and adopted as a state anthem in 2003.


31.At the language beauty contest in Paris in 1934, the Ukrainian language took third place after French and Persian in terms of phonetics, vocabulary, phraseology, and sentence structure. And in terms of melodiousness, the Ukrainian language took second place after Italian.


32. Until the almost complete destruction in 1240 by the Mongol-Tatars, Kyiv was one of the largest cities in Europe, fifty times larger than London, ten times larger than Paris. It reached its peak under Yaroslav the Wise (1010 - 1054), who became related to the royal families of France, Norway, Romania and Poland. The population of today's capital of Ukraine was about 50,000 inhabitants. It took about 600 years to reach such demographic indicators again. Quite possibly, if it were not for the destruction of that time, Kyiv could have been the most developed largest city in Europe for many years.



33. Pablo Picasso was delighted with the works of the Ukrainian artist Kateryna Bilokur (1900-1961). When in 1954 he saw her works at an exhibition, he said that they were brilliant and compared Catherine with the world-famous artist Serafin Louis.


35. One of the most famous Christmas songs in the world is Shchedryk, a folk song recorded by Ukrainian composer Mykola Leontovych. The world knows her as Carol of the Bells or Ring Christmas Bells. On Youtube, various performances of "Shchedryk" are gaining millions of views.


36. During the Anglo-Boer War (South Africa) in 1899 - 1902. the commander of one of the detachments of the Boers, Ukrainian Yuriy Budyak, saved a young English journalist from execution. Subsequently, the latter helped Budyak enter Oxford University. In 1917, Yuriy worked in the government of the Ukrainian People's Republic. In 1943 Yuri Budyak died in a Soviet concentration camp. The English journalist's name was Winston Churchill…



37. At the time of independence, there were 19.4 million pigs in Ukraine. Today, there are half as many of them - 8.3 million. Despite the reputation of a salo-eater, the average Ukrainian eats only 18 kg of pork per year. This is three times less than an ordinary German.


38. In Ukraine, near Nikopol, on a spit near the river. Lapinki, on one of the branches of the Dnieper, you can see, or rather hear a phenomenon that is rare in the world - singing sands. The "singing" of these, perhaps, the strangest sands appears after rain, when the top layer sticks together and forms a fragile crust. Walking along it, you can hear sounds similar to the whistling of air released from a car chamber.


39. In the town of Berdychiv (Zhytomyr region) in the church of St. Barbara on March 14, 1850, the local beauty Evelina Ganskaya was married to Honore de Balzac. Frederic Chopin lived in the same town for a long time, who, in addition to writing music, also supervised the restoration of the local organ.


40. It would be possible to collect a dictionary of Ukrainian surnames, distorted in the course of Russification by Russian officials. So, the Ukrainian clan Chekhov in the 19th century became Chekhov for some reason. Chekhov's grandfather was still a Czech. Anton Pavlovich himself wrote that his grandfather was a Ukrainian. Quite funny, the Deineks turned into Denikins. Cossacks Rozuma became Razumovsky, Chaikas become Tchaikovsky. The grandfather of Pyotr Tchaikovsky, the great composer - Pyotr Chaika - graduated from the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, and as a physician, the Russian government sent him as a head physician to Vyatka. 



41. Probably, the Ukrainian atmosphere in the Tchaikovsky family was preserved much better than that of the Chekhovs, because from the age of 24, the future composer lived in Ukraine almost every year for several months, where he wrote more than 30 works, including the opera Blacksmith Vakula (Cherevichki ”), “Mazepa”, song-romance “Cherry Garden of Haiti”, duet “On the Novgorod near the Ford” to the words of T. Shevchenko. In the cruel times of the empire's offensive against the Ukrainian language, he sought the production of "Taras Bulba" by N. Lysenko (the famous Ukrainian composer), used many Ukrainian folk songs in his works.


42. The great writer Fyodor Dostoevsky was Ukrainian by origin, because the Dostoevsky family came from the village of Dostoev near Pinsk (Ukrainian-Belarusian border), so Belarusians can also consider him their fellow countryman. One of the Dostoevskys becomes a hieromonk of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra and in 1647 takes part in the election of the next metropolitan. It is interesting that among the Dostoevskys who lived in Podolia, most of all were representatives of the clergy. Andrei Dostoevsky was a priest of the Ukrainian Uniate Church. 


43. He was the grandfather of the writer F. Dostoevsky. Andrei's son quarreled with his father and brother and went to Moscow. His name was Mikhail, and as a memory of his family and Ukraine, he took with him, preserved and passed on to his sons his own Ukrainian poems. The daughter of Fyodor Mikhailovich recalls: "... poetic abilities were already in the Ukrainian family of my father, and were not given only through my Muscovite mother, as Dostoevsky's literary friends suggest." It is a pity that F. Dostoevsky did not join the defense of Ukraine.



44. This, in principle, cannot be said about V. Mayakovsky. The poet sharply criticized the “Muscovites”: “Comrade Muscovite, don’t joke about Ukraine.” He also reminded that Russians from the history of Ukraine know only Shevchenko, Taras Bulba, borscht and lard (“Russians have a shallow thickness of knowledge”). 


45. By the way, he wrote about himself: "I am a Cossack from my grandfather, on the other - a Sich." Researchers point out that the Ukrainian clans of Mayakovsky went, probably, from those Cossacks who stood guard over the barrows, at the lighthouses that were set on fire during the Tatar attacks.


46. Unfortunately, the Ukrainians of Ripa turned into Repins. Although Ilya Repin, who was born in the Kharkiv region, still retained his sense of belonging to the Ukrainians and painted himself as a Cossack leaning on a cannon. “It's time to think about the Ukrainian style in art,” the artist noted. But he not only spoke, but also created many works on Ukrainian themes, for example, “The Cossacks write a letter to the Turkish Sultan” - he wrote two versions of this picture.


47. In 1931, there were more Ukrainians in the USSR than Russians. In six years, 55 million disappeared ... This figure is indicated in the book "At the Great Construction Site", published in 1931 in Leningrad. The same data are presented in the first Soviet encyclopedia of 1926. Neither this encyclopedia nor the book is available in any library in Ukraine. We managed to find "At the Great Construction Site" in Moscow. 



48. The figures of 81 million are clearly visible in these copies. It should be noted that the population of Ukrainian Galicia, which was part of Poland, was not taken into account here. Already the next census of 1937 indicates that only 26 million Ukrainians remained in the USSR. Where did all the rest go? Knowing such figures, the repressions of the 1930s seem even more terrible.


49. Freedom Square in Kharkov is the largest square in Europe.


50. The longest embankment in Europe is located in Dnepropetrovsk. Its length is 30 km.




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famous-women-in-history-and-their-incredible-contribution

They have amazing fortitude, are not afraid to take risks, and are ahead of their time. They delight, fascinate, and turn consciousness and history as a whole. And if suddenly you lack inspiration right now, let their stories become a source of that same charge of energy with which you can achieve no less success.

 

Who are the most famous women in history?

 

In our world, men generally accept that men made all great discoveries. They also invented everything, created innovative technologies, and naturally drove progress. But it's not in our selection of only 30 women who have changed the world. There are, of course, many more of them.

 

Katharine Hepburn

 

American actress Katharine Hepburn (Katharine Houghton Hepburn) was born in Hartford, Connecticut, on May 12, 1907. The Hepburns were an unusual family for their time and surroundings. The father of the future Hollywood star, Thomas Norval, was a well-known urologist in the city, and his mother, Catherine Martha Haughton, whom everyone called 'Keith,' went down in history as a leader of the feminist and suffragist movement; she was orphaned early, managed to get a higher education against the will of her guardian, picketed the White House with calls to improve working conditions for women and allow birth control. 

 

Famous people of that time - the writer Sinclair Lewis, the leader of the suffragist movement Margaret Sanger and others - were frequent guests in the Hepburns' house. Topics that were not customary to talk about then were freely discussed in the living room. The famous actress had five brothers and sisters, who were raised in an atmosphere of free thinking and personal responsibility for their actions, taught to swim in icy water and not be afraid of any work. Katherine Haughton was named after her mother; she was the second child after her brother Tom, whom she loved so much that after his death, she began to consider the date of his birth (November 8) as her own.

 

Marie Curie

 

Maria Curie-Sklodowska was born on November 7, 1867, in Warsaw in the family of a physics teacher. Maria graduated from secondary school in Warsaw with a gold medal, after which she worked as a tutor and governess for eight years. In the laboratory at the Museum of Industry and Agriculture in Warsaw, she passed the preparatory stage in research in chemistry and physics. In 1891-95. studied at the Faculty of Natural Sciences of the Paris Sorbonne University and graduated with a bachelor's degree in physical and mathematical sciences. In the house of Professor Kowalski, she met Pierre Curie, whom she married in 1895 and took French citizenship. The first publication of Curie-Sklodowska was published in 1898 and drew the attention of scientists to Becquerel rays.

 

Edith Clarke

 

Edith Clarke was the first woman to earn an electrical engineering degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She became the first female electrical engineering professor at the University of Texas at Austin. Edith was born into a prosperous family in Maryland in the late 19th century and had no idea that she would become a woman who would build a career as a scientist. Like most girls, she dreamed of being a good wife, mother, and gracious hostess. Later, Edith Clark did not let public expectations hinder her professional aspirations and became one of the most famous engineers of her era.

 

After studying mathematics and astronomy at Vassar College, Clark began her career as a teacher. While working in this position, she realized her genuine interest in technology, even though women in the early 20th century rarely dared to think about something like that. Edith briefly studied civil engineering at the University of Wisconsin-Madison but did not graduate and went on to earn a degree in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, becoming the first woman to do so.

 

As a woman, she could not find a job as an engineer but worked hard at it and eventually became an electrical engineer at the Central Station of General Electric's technical department and achieved great success with this company. Later she entered the electrical engineering department of the University of Texas at Austin.

 

Elizabeth Warren

 

In mid-March 2019, US Senator and Democratic presidential candidate Elizabeth Warren proposed splitting technology companies such as Apple, Facebook, Amazon, and Google. The senator's campaign received support from social networks.

 

Warren proposes to introduce a new category of companies - "platforms." These are virtual store companies with more than $25 billion in sales. Warren believes that Apple, Facebook, Amazon, and Google need to be broken up by forcing them to split or sell parts of their businesses and forbidding them from using their platforms to promote their products.

 

According to the senator, Google should give up ranking priority when searching for its services. Amazon should stop selling products from the Amazon Basics line and spin off Whole Foods into a separate business, and Facebook should sell Instagram and WhatsApp.

 

Warren is concerned about the power over information and, ultimately, the power over the economy that the tech giants have acquired. In her opinion, such companies suppress the development of small IT businesses and innovative technologies. Without platform separation, a new generation of IT leaders in the United States may never appear.

 

Facebook has already shown a prime example of its power: the platform removed Warren's presidential campaign ads. After rising indignation, advertising was returned. Subsequently, a Facebook spokesperson said that the company removed only four of Warren's advertisements due to Facebook's logo rules violations.

 

Either way, with the 2020 presidential election approaching, the internet giants will likely come under increasing criticism from senators. Facebook, in particular, is facing growing scrutiny from lawmakers over a range of issues, including its market share, the spread of misinformation on the platform, and the resale of user data.

 

Hillary Clinton

 

Hillary has a law degree. From 1965-to 1969, she attended Wellesley Women's Private College in Massachusetts, where she majored in political science and received a bachelor's degree. In 1973 she graduated from Yale University with a doctorate in law - where she met her future husband. In 1973 she worked as a legal adviser for the Children's Defense Fund in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and in 1974 - in the office of the Judiciary Committee of the US House of Representatives in Washington.

 

As First Lady of Arkansas, Hillary was active in public life, focusing on children, health, and education.

 

In 1980, she gave birth to a daughter, Chelsea, but the birth of a child did not make her give up her career as a lawyer. By the 1980s, she had established herself as one of the best lawyers in the United States - in 1988 and 1991. The National Law Journal named Clinton among the 100 most influential lawyers in the country.

 

After becoming the first lady of the United States after the election of Bill Clinton as president in the 1992 elections, at her husband's request, she headed the operational committee for the development of health care reform. Hillary went on to turn her attention to protecting the interests of children and women. Her weekly comments entitled "Let's talk" on the White House website were devoted to this issue.

 

After leaving the administration, Clinton began writing her memoirs and giving paid lectures. According to the press, her average fee for one public performance is about $200,000. Forbes magazine estimates Hillary's fortune at $45 million.

 

She is also the author of several books, among them "The whole world and other lessons that children ask us" (1996), "Invitation to the White House" (1999), and memoirs "Living History" (2003). The last book - "A Hard Choice" - was published in 2014.

 

Eleanor Roosevelt

 

First Lady of the United States, public figure, wife of 32 US President Franklin Roosevelt, niece of Theodore Roosevelt. Eleanor Roosevelt is also known as a publicist, writer and human rights activist, took part in the creation of the UN and belonged to the first wave of feminists. She died November 7, 1962.

 

In 1928, Franklin was elected Governor of New York, and in 1933 he became President of the United States. Eleanor Roosevelt's worries increased: she visited schools, hospitals and prisons, traveled around the country, met with voters. She defended the rights of black citizens of the United States, advocated the preservation of prohibition. During her absence from the capital, the duties of the First Lady were performed by her daughter Anne.

 

After the death of Franklin Roosevelt in 1945, Eleanor did not leave public life. She published a lot, dealt with the problems of youth and ethnic minorities. Eleanor Roosevelt became chairman of the Human Rights Committee and traveled to many countries, was part of the US delegation to the UN. President Kennedy appointed her to the Peace Corps and chair of the Women's Rights Commission, and later to the POW Commission.

 

Emmeline Pankhurst

Suffragette Emmeline Pankhurst was ready to literally do anything to defend the rights of women: she collected thousands of protests, participated in pogroms, went on a hunger strike in prison. The suffragettes faced violence and were arrested en masse, but in the end, under the leadership of Pankhurst, they won the right for women to vote.

 

In August 1914, Great Britain entered the First World War. Pankhurst called on members of the Women's Social and Political Union to temporarily suspend actions and rallies in order to help the motherland in wartime. Emmeline asked women to go to work in factories instead of men who went to the front. Between 1914 and 1918, about 2 million women took on jobs that men who had gone to war were temporarily unable to do. If at the beginning of the war only 24% of British women were employed, by the end of hostilities their share had grown to 37%.

 

Pankhurst opened an orphanage during the war and, at age 57, took care of four orphans herself. At the same time, Emmeline had no property for a long time: she sold her house back in 1907, and all her things were placed in a small suitcase. All of Pankhurst's money went to helping others and activism. She herself lived with friends and supporters of the suffragist movement. When Pankhurst was asked how, in such a difficult financial situation, she decided to take care of the orphans, the activist replied: “You’d better ask why I didn’t take forty children.”

 

Women's contribution to the economy during the First World War, as well as their dedication, convinced the government that suffrage should not be exclusively a male privilege. In 1918, the Representation of the People Act was passed. Women were allowed to vote provided they were over 30 years of age, were not restricted in their rights and occupied "land or premises in the district for business purposes generating at least £5 of income". In 1928, these restrictions were also lifted. English women were equal in voting rights with men. It was an absolute victory for the suffragettes. Emmeline Pankhurst died shortly thereafter on June 14, 1928.

 

Today, several monuments have been erected in her honor, including in Manchester and London. Time magazine included her in the list of 100 most prominent figures of the 20th century, noting that Pankhurst "created the image of a woman of our time, transferring society to a new dimension from which it is no longer possible to return to the past."

 

Ada Lovelace

 

From the beginning of 1841, Lovelace began to study Babbage's machines in earnest. In one of the letters to Babbage, Ada writes: “You must tell me the basic information regarding your car. I have good reason for wanting it." In a letter dated January 12, 1841, she outlines her plans: "...Some time in the future (maybe within 3 or 4, and possibly even many years) my head can serve you for your goals and plans ... Precisely I want to have a serious talk with you on this matter." This proposal was gratefully accepted by Babbage. Since that time, their cooperation has not been interrupted and has given brilliant results.

 

Since 1844, Ada Lovelace has become more and more interested in playing at the races, especially since she herself rode beautifully and loved horses. Both Babbage and William Lovelace played at the races, and Babbage, who was interested in applied problems of probability theory, considered the game at the races from these positions and was looking for the optimal game system. However, both Babbage and Ada's husband withdrew from the game relatively soon. But Ada, reckless and stubborn, continued to play. Moreover, Lady Hell became close to a certain John Cross, who blackmailed her. She used up almost all of her funds and by 1848 had become heavily indebted.

 

Then her mother had to pay off these debts, and at the same time buy incriminating letters from John Cross. In the early 50s, the first signs of the disease that claimed the life of Ada Lovelace appeared. In November 1850, he writes to Babbage: "My health ... is so bad that I want to accept your offer and appear on arrival in London to your medical friends." Despite the measures taken, the disease progressed and was accompanied by severe suffering. On November 27, 1852, Ada Lovelace died at the age of 37. Together with her outstanding intellect, her father passed on to her this terrible heredity - an early death - the poet died at the same age ... She was buried next to her father in the Byron family crypt.

 

Successes were given to her with great effort and not without damage to health. Augusta Ada Lovelace accomplished little in her short life. But the little that came out of her pen inscribed her name in the history of computational mathematics and computer technology as the first programmer. In memory of Ada Lovelace, the ADA language, developed in 1980, is one of the universal programming languages. This language was widely used in the United States, and the US Department of Defense even approved the name "Ada" as the name of a single programming language for the American armed forces, and later for the entire NATO.

 

Also in honor of Ada Lovelace, two small cities are also named in America - in the states of Alabama and Oklahoma. There is also a college named after her in Oklahoma.

 

Jane Austen

 

English writer, satirist, forerunner of realism in British literature. Her books are recognized as masterpieces in all countries of the world and are required to be studied in schools and institutes. Jane Austen is known as the "First Lady" of English literature.

 

Jane Austen was born at the end of the 18th century in Steventon, Hampshire. Father George was a priest from an old family. The Austin family was large: six boys and two girls (Cassandra and Jane).

 

Little is known about the writer Jane Austen. Many of her contemporaries even disagree about her appearance. Someone calls her "prim, capricious and unnatural", someone - "attractive, thin, graceful." All that remained of Jane was a portrait painted by her sister Cassandra.

 

In 1783 Jane studied at Oxford, Southampton and Reading with her sister. They were not lucky with their education. Somewhere met the tyrannical nature of the headmistress, but somewhere too soft. Jane's father took the girls home and began to educate them himself. Jane Austen grew up on the works of Shakespeare, Fielding, Stern, Thompson.

 

At the age of 14, Jane Austen wrote her first parody of the boring 18th century odes Love and Friendship. The little girl had the courage to write a parody pamphlet on the work of the English historian Goldsmith "History of England".

 

Jane Austen spent her whole life in her native estate, but kept an active correspondence with her brothers and their wives, who saw the events of the French Revolution, the war with Napoleon, the Indian War of Independence.

 

According to some testimonies, Jane Austen suffered from cancer and metastasis all her life. She died in Winchester in 1817, where she went to treat Addison's disease. She never finished her last novel, Sanditon.

 

Mother Teresa

 

Mother Teresa (worldly name - Agnes Gonje Boyadzhiu) was born on August 26, 1910 in the city of Uskyub of the Ottoman Empire (now the city of Skopje - the capital of the Republic of Macedonia) in a family of Catholic Albanians. She later called her real birthday August 27, when she was baptized.

 

According to Mother Teresa, from early childhood she wanted to devote herself to serving the church. This desire was strengthened at the age of 12 when she met missionaries from India. From that time on, she dreamed of living in India and caring for the poor there. After graduating from high school, in 1928 she left to study English in Ireland and became a novice in the Irish Sisters of Loreto Catholic monastic order.

 

The girl's parents were wealthy people: her father Nikola, a native of Armenia, owned a large construction company and sold medicines, and her mother, an Albanian Dranafile, devoted herself to prayers and worship. The family strictly followed Catholic traditions. Dranafile often visited the sick and needy with her children and invited the poor to her home for dinners. “My child, never eat a single bite until you share it with others,” she said to Agnese. When she asked who the unknown guests were, the mother replied: "Some of them are our relatives, but they are all our people."

 

It was believed that Mother Teresa helped the sick and the poor, alleviated their suffering by providing them with shelter, treatment and food. However, the nun had a special view of death and torment: she said that they should be glorified, not healed. She compared suffering with the noble torments of Christ and was opposed to painkillers: “There is something beautiful in the way the poor take their share, how they suffer, like Jesus on the cross. The world gains a lot from suffering. Anguish means that Jesus is kissing you."

 

Mother Teresa's main departments were the homes for the dying, where doomed people were to spend their last days. Writer Mary Loudon, a former volunteer, recalled: “The first impression of the footage was ... as if I had a photo from Bergen-Belsen [Nazi concentration camp. — Approx. ed.], because all the patients were shaved bald. There were no chairs, only cots, similar to those from the First World War. There was no garden, no yard, nothing at all. And I thought, “What is this? These are two rooms. One has 50 to 60 men, the other has the same number of women. Everyone is dying. They received virtually no medical care. They did not receive any painkillers other than aspirin.”

 

 

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