30 facts about the Renaissance that you won't find in a history book
The Renaissance is called the period of European history, marking the transition from the Middle Ages to the New Age and covering the 15th and 16th centuries. Some researchers consider it the beginning of the era of humanism. Others believe it is a step backward because magic and witch-hunts flourished in parallel with the flourishing of art in the Renaissance.
Top facts about the Renaissance
We at Bemorepanda decided to find out more about the mysterious Renaissance. We dug up exciting facts that will allow you to draw your conclusions about whether that time is rightly called the Renaissance.
1. In Renaissance Florence, men married at 30, while girls became wives at 17–18. Such an age difference led to the fact that there were many young widows in the city.
2. The life of the ladies in Florence was not sweet. Having visited this city, a French traveler wrote: “Women are more reserved here than in any other part of Italy; they see the world only through small holes in their windows.”
3. According to other information, the ladies were forbidden even to look out the window to not tempt random passers-by on the street.
4. The main task of women was to be beautiful. Therefore, they were forbidden to play wind instruments: it distorted their facial features. The ladies were asked to master the strings, such as the lute.
5. The most beautiful room in the palace was the bedroom. They received guests there.
6. Hairstyles that covered the ears were in fashion. Women wore them for fear of pregnancy. According to legend, the Virgin Mary became pregnant through her ear after hearing the word of God.
7. One of the principal masterpieces of the Renaissance - "The Last Supper" by Leonardo da Vinci - is in poor condition because of the great painter's love of experimentation. Instead of applying paint to wet plaster, as was usually done when creating a fresco, the master decided to develop the "Last Supper" on drywall. As a result, the paint began to peel off, and Leonardo had to correct his work before it was finished. Perhaps in the Last Supper that we see today, almost nothing remains of the original.
8. The Renaissance style icon was Henry VIII, who introduced square-toed shoes into fashion. At the same time, he strictly regulated the trend, issuing an order that limited the width of the sock to 6 inches (15.24 cm).
9. During the Renaissance, a fashion trend arose to reveal what was hidden under clothing to the world. And all thanks to the English laws on luxury, which ordered commoners to have a single-color wardrobe. They came up with slits on them to diversify their monotonous costumes, thereby demonstrating the lower layer of clothing painted in bright colors.
10. The professions of a surgeon and a hairdresser were different facets of the same work. The same artisans could pull out a tooth and cut their hair.
11. At the same time, Renaissance doctors began to do plastic surgery. At that time, duels and diseases could significantly spoil a man's appearance, but surgeons were able to fix it. They performed rhinoplasty, transplanting a piece of skin from the forearm to the bridge of the nose. Thanks to the artisans of the Renaissance, many celebrities today can boast of chiseled noses.
12. Another Renaissance invention is ice cream. The Medici family announced a competition for the most unusual dish, the winner of which was a Florentine chicken seller, who presented a frozen dessert to the court of the famous family. Around the same time, another Florentine, the courtier Bernardo Buonaletti, was organizing a celebration in honor of the arrival of the Spanish guests. He put on theatrical performances and set off fireworks. Most importantly, he prepared a cream with the taste of bergamot, lemons, and oranges, chilled with a mixture of his invention.
13. The famous Uffizi Gallery was not conceived as a museum. It was the official center of Florence. Actually, "Uffizi" is translated as "offices".
14. The famous Roman Colosseum served as an industrial building during Renaissance. In the 16th century, it was planned to turn it into a wool factory, but this would have led to its destruction. In 1594, a glue factory was built in the building. By the end of the 17th century, the ancient stadium had turned into a dump.
15. During the Renaissance, the Latin language ceased to be alive. Back in the Middle Ages, it was spoken and evolved. Still, the enthusiasm of Renaissance scientists for Antiquity led to the fact that Latin returned to its classical form and its natural development stopped.
16. The Renaissance got its name because, in these few centuries, the flourishing of interest in ancient culture began, which had utterly faded away in the previous Middle Ages.
17. The second name of this era is the Renaissance. It comes from the French "Renaissance" and means, in fact, "Renaissance." Interestingly, this world-famous name came from the French language, although the Renaissance began in Italy.
18. To describe this era outside of Italy north of the Alps, "Northern Renaissance" is used. And some researchers even single out the French Renaissance, the Renaissance, Spanish, English, and others.
19. During the Renaissance, she was not called by this word. It was popularized and introduced by the French historian Jules Michelet only in the 19th century.
20. The Renaissance lasted a little less than three centuries, at least where it originated, that is, in Italy - from the beginning of the 14th century to the end of the 16th. But it came to some other countries later and ended there too later.
21. The names of the most famous Renaissance artists are familiar to the world. Leonardo da Vinci was generally a “universal man” who succeeded in everything, including Michelangelo, Titian, and Raphael Santi.
22. The Renaissance had a significant impact on the development of the sciences. In this era, medieval superstitions began to lose popularity, more attention was paid to scientific development, and the most important discoveries were made. In particular, the Great Geographical Discoveries and the findings of Nicolaus Copernicus.
23. Renaissance literature began, by all accounts, with the Divine Comedy by the famous Dante Alighieri. This work became so popular that it brought the Tuscan dialect of Italian to the forefront, effectively establishing it as the "official Italian."
24. With the beginning of the Renaissance, music ceased to be a purely ecclesiastical art. It began to spread around the world, imbued with a new worldview.
25. The ancestor of the Renaissance in Russia is considered the Grand Duke of Moscow, Ivan III. The latter invited Italian architects and other masters to Moscow. But in general, the influence of the
Renaissance in Russia was relatively weak due to its remoteness and attachment to Byzantine traditions.
26. The Vatican stubbornly opposed many of the ideas of the Renaissance, and many scientists, poets, and writers were persecuted, but they had their patrons. In France, such as, for example, the wise King Francis I, a well-known philanthropist.
27. In the Renaissance, the old prejudices were supplanted, replaced by scientific views, but not entirely, as is commonly believed. For example, alchemy and astrology were considered essential sciences. The famous Galileo was engaged in the compilation of horoscopes, Isaac Newton wrote many works on alchemy, and the astronomer Johannes Kepler was also an astrologer.
It was the Renaissance that gave humanity oil painting. Jan van Eyck was a Dutch artist. Oil paints came to Europe early in the 12th century.
29. Of great importance to the Renaissance was the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1450. This machine made books dozens of times more accessible, contributing to enlightenment.
30. One of the strangest events popular during the Renaissance was anatomical theater. This is a public autopsy carried out by doctors who commented and explained their actions to all those present. In the Middle Ages, the “desecration” of the human body was strictly prohibited. Still, during the Renaissance, these prejudices gradually died out, thanks to which anatomy and medicine began to develop rapidly.
25 Interesting Facts About Russia
Russia is the largest state globally, on the territory of which there is everything that may interest travelers of all age groups and individual preferences. Here are the most extensive forests, mountains, and the deepest lakes globally, and twelve seas wash the coastline. Russia is a mysterious country, a country with an “open soul,” and interesting facts about Russia are only a part of what awaits the guests of this vast state.
Russia - a short history
The history of Russia originates from the emergence of the Slavs, who appeared about 3-3.5 thousand years ago, standing out from the Indo-European ethnic group. From the middle of the 1st millennium BC., they began to move to Eastern Europe, settling by the VIII century. AD the basin of the rivers Dnieper, Dniester, Western Dvina, Oka, and the upper reaches of the Volga.
The first state of the Russian people, Kievan Rus, existed for about 300 years. It was a federation of principalities ruled jointly by the Rurik dynasty. The development of feudal relations and the strengthening of the independence of individual cities led to the political fragmentation of Kievan Rus. At the end of the thirties of the XIII century. Mongol Tatars attacked Russia, and for almost 250 years, it became dependent on the Golden Horde. The yoke accelerated the process of fragmentation of Russia. Still, at the same time, as the economy and culture revived, it turned into an incentive for unification. Due to several factors, the place of a political leader at the beginning of the XIV century. Moscow advanced, which is explained by its favorable geographical position, and the far-sighted policy of its princes.
The reign of Catherine II is called the "golden age of the nobility" and "enlightened absolutism" since the empress completed formalizing the nobility into a privileged class. The situation of the peasants deteriorated significantly: serfdom acquired the features of slavery. The growth of social contradictions resulted in the peasant war of E. I. Pugachev. Still, its defeat led to the expansion of feudal dependence. All this spoke of the brewing crisis of the feudal system, which was acutely manifested in the 19th century.
By the middle of the 19th century, serf relations worsened and escalated in the country: among the landowners, they aroused fears for the future, and among the serfs, an increase in dissatisfaction with their beggarly condition. In peasant unrest, which significantly intensified during the Crimean War, the government, led by Alexander II in 1862, carried out a reform that abolished serfdom.
In the years preceding the First World War of 1914-1917, Russia's foreign policy was determined by the line of rapprochement with Great Britain, fixed by the 1907 agreement on the division of spheres of influence in Iran and Central Asia. This agreement led to the finalization of the Entente - a "cordial agreement," the military-political alliance of England, France, and Russia, and Russia's participation in the First World War. The internal political crisis, which resulted in the February Revolution of 1917, led to Russia's withdrawal from the war. The revolution destroyed the old state system and created a new political situation. The Bolshevik Party seized power in Russia under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin, and the Soviets of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies were proclaimed the supreme authority.
On December 30, 1922, the Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) Union was formed. After the death of Lenin, the internal political struggle intensified, and Joseph Stalin came to power, establishing a dictatorship and destroying all his political rivals. In 1939, Russia concluded a non-aggression pact with Germany. Still, on June 22, 1941, Nazi Germany attacked the USSR, violating the agreement's provisions. The Great Patriotic War began. During the battles of Stalingrad and Kursk, Soviet troops went on the offensive. They defeated the German army, victoriously ending the war in May 1945 with the capture of Berlin.
Read here more interesting facts: 50 interesting and fun facts about Russia that you probably didn't know
In 1985, Gorbachev announced perestroika (a set of political and economic reforms). By the early 1990s, perestroika led to the collapse of the USSR. And on December 12, 1993, the Constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted at a referendum, declaring Russia a democratic federal state with a republican form of government headed by a president.
How did the Soviet Union's collapse influence today’s Russia?
The collapse of the Union was part of the process that began after the First World War - the operation of the failure of multinational states or, more simply, empires. Some of these empires did not survive the First World War - the Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary ... And the Bolsheviks managed to maintain control over most of the Russian Empire through violence and a more resourceful policy towards nationalities and national minorities. The Soviet Union was the first to adopt the nationalism and multinationality of the state. It seemed that the national question was resolved and that history was deceived. Still, until the end of the 20th century, the Soviet Union followed the path of the same Portuguese, British, French, and other empires. The 20th century turned out to be the century of the collapse of multinational states and the creation of national states on their ruins or conditions that would like to be national.
In a purely Soviet context, reform attempts took place, the primary ideological and moral source of which were the reforms of the Prague Spring, that is, the 1960s. The idea was that economic and political reforms should develop simultaneously: in China, they took a different path - economic reform without political reform. At the same time, in the Soviet Union, these things were interconnected. As soon as Gorbachev introduced the first elements of electoral democracy, the first forces that could mobilize were the national movements. Which, outwardly, were weak. There were few dissidents. Still, if you look at the composition of political prisoners in various forms of the Gulag, the percentage of national minorities - including the Baltic states, Jews, Ukrainians, and so on - went off the scale compared to the number of ethnic Russian dissidents.
Electoral democracy turned out to be incompatible with a multinational state. The main "glue" was a force - military, political repression, etc. International states built on such a basis proved unable to exist.
What was life like under communism in Russia?
75% of Russians believe that the Soviet era was the best time in the country's history; only 18% of respondents do not agree with this judgment. This follows from the study “The Structure and Reproduction of the Memory of the Soviet Union in Russian Public Opinion” prepared by the Levada Center, which Vedomosti has reviewed.
Hearing the expression "Soviet era," the respondents, first of all, think about stability and confidence in the future (16% of answers), good life in the country (15%), and personal life - childhood, youth, parents (11%). Negative assessments occur much less frequently: 4% of respondents recall shortages, queues, and coupons, and 1% about the Iron Curtain, stagnation, and repression. In general, 76% of respondents give positive characteristics of the Soviet era, 38% - neutral, and only 7% - negative. As some respondents gave different estimates, this sum is higher than 100%. 65% of Russians regret the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the same number believe that it could have been avoided; 26% of respondents have an opposite opinion on both issues. 52% of those who regret the collapse of the USSR say that they are upset by the loss of a sense of belonging to great power, 49% regret the destruction of the single economic system and 37% - about the increased mutual distrust and bitterness.
But at the same time, only 28% of respondents agree to “return to the path that the Soviet Union was following,” while the majority favor either Russia’s “own, special path” (58%) or the European version of development (10%).
Russians' ideas about the Soviet era are primarily favorable. Still, general statements about social stability replace personal memories, confidence in the future, and a good life in the USSR says Levada Center sociologist Karina Pipia. It is also noteworthy, according to her, that representatives of all age and generational groups agree with the installation of the socio-economic well-being of citizens in the USSR. Still, nostalgia for the Soviet Union is more typical for older people. However, young people join those who believe that the collapse of The USSR could have been avoided. However, the romanticization of the Soviet past does not lead to a desire to restore the Soviet system.
Neither those who lived in the USSR nor the post-Soviet youth want this.
How did Vladimir Putin become President, and what has been his impact on Russia?
In three years, Putin has risen from Deputy Director for Presidential Affairs to Secretary of the Security Council. In 1996, after the failure of Sobchak in the gubernatorial elections, Vladimir Vladimirovich was invited to Moscow for the post of Deputy Chief of the President of the Russian Federation. Putin oversaw the legal department and the management of Russia's foreign property.
In the spring of 1997, Vladimir Putin was appointed deputy head of the Presidential Administration of the Russian Federation, replacing Alexei Kudrin.
In the summer of 1998, he became the head of the FSB. In the fall, he reorganized the structure. Six months later, Vladimir Putin took the post of Secretary of Security Council of the Russian Federation while maintaining his position in the FSB. In 1999, President Boris Yeltsin appointed Vladimir Putin as Russia's prime minister.
In 1997, Vladimir Putin defended his Ph.D. thesis in economics at the Mining Institute of St. Petersburg. The title of the work is “Strategic planning for the reproduction of the mineral resource base of the region in the conditions of the formation of market relations (St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region).
On December 31, 1999, Yeltsin resigned. Putin became acting President of Russia. He was given symbols of power, including the "nuclear suitcase." According to him, it was not an easy decision for him.
25 Interesting Facts about Russia
1. Russia is the largest country in the world. However, this is no secret to anyone.
2. Russia is the only country washed by a whole dozen seas globally.
3. The deepest lake on earth, Baikal, is in Russia.
4. The most ancient mountains on the planet, the Urals, are of Russian heritage.
5. There are more than eight hundred glaciers in Altai.
6. The borders of Russia and the United States in the north are separated by 4 kilometers.
7. The deepest subway in the world is located in St. Petersburg. Its depth is more than a hundred meters.
8. The world's largest active volcano is Klyuchevskaya Sopka, almost five kilometers high. It has been erupting for over seven thousand years.
9. St. Petersburg has three times as many bridges as Venice.
10. The most significant medieval fortress in the world is the Moscow Kremlin.
11. St. Petersburg is the world's northernmost metropolis with over a million inhabitants.
12. The area of Siberia is about nine percent of the entire land area of the Earth.
13. Russia borders 16 countries.
14. In Russia, women won the right to vote in elections earlier than in the United States.
15. There are almost ten thousand trains in the Moscow metro.
16. The most extensive plain on the planet is the West Siberian.
17. There are about three million works of art in the Hermitage.
18. The most visited McDonald's globally is in Moscow on Pushkin Square.
19. Sushi is more prevalent in Russia than in Japan.
20. The highest university in the world is Moscow State University.
21. Before the revolution, firearms were sold freely in Russia.
22. The Ostankino TV Tower was the tallest building in Europe for a long time. But in recent years, skyscrapers have surpassed it in height.
23. The coat of arms of Chelyabinsk depicts a camel.
24. About four percent of the territory of Russia is occupied by protected reserves.
25. The world's largest tram network is located in St. Petersburg.
Read here more interesting facts: 50 interesting and fun facts about Russia that you probably didn't know
20 photos from the past, proving that history can still surprise with interesting moments
The past has the same meaning as the future, and not only for an individual person, but for all of humanity. How can we build our lives without looking back at the past? This is not possible for us. Therefore, in order to stir up memories and tell you something new, we have collected the most interesting historical photos that will prove that there was a lot of fascinating things in the past.
Yuri and Tatiana Nikulin, USSR, 1983
Fashion guy with a Wispa motorcycle, 1990s
First color photograph, 1861
Opening ceremony of the 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow
Johnny Depp, 1969
Moscow, USSR, 1990
Marilyn Monroe, 1962
Marlene Dietrich detained at a train station in Paris for wearing men's trousers, 1933
The law prohibiting women from wearing trousers was in force in France until 2013 (of course, no one followed it in recent decades)
Samuel L. Jackson, John Travolta, Harvey Keitel and Quentin Tarantino on the set of Pulp Fiction, 1994
Construction of the London Underground, 1898
A tomb carved from a single giant stone nearly 2,000 years ago in Arabia
Single urinal. Paris, 1875
First IKEA store, Sweden, 1958
Tilda Swinton, 1988
Pistol duel used to be an Olympic sport, 1909
Jenny Joseph, 28, poses for the Columbia Pictures logo, 1992
Winona Ryder, 1990
A startled observer at the annual Sydney gay pride parade Mardi Gras, 1994
The last queen of Mongolia, Navaanluvsangiin Genenpil, who was shot in 1938 during the Stalinist repression by the decision of the Communist Party
Vladimir Putin during the celebration of the Tatar national holiday "Sabantuy" in Kazan, June 24, 2000
St. Patrick's Day: Everyone wears green and drinks a lot of beer, the history and traditions of the holiday
March 17 has a special significance for the Irish. It is one of the most important days of the year, because they celebrate St. Patrick. Originally a Catholic holiday, today this festival is rather dedicated to the entire Irish culture and is celebrated with pomp in both Ireland and the United Kingdom, as well as in the United States. Bemorepanda collected some interesting facts and history details for you.
Saint Patrick was born in the 4th century in Roman Britain, but was captured by the Irish and held captive on the island for 6 years. At that time he dedicated himself to religion, and tradition says that he had a divine revelation by which God asked him to Christianize the Irish. After escaping from captivity, he returned to Ireland in 432 and began the Christianization process of the Irish, hitherto followers of polytheism. According to Irish folklore, he used the clover leaf to explain the Christian doctrine of the Holy Trinity.
Although St. Patrick was followed by many other missionaries, he remained the leading champion of Irish Christianity. Initially, the associated color of St. Patrick was blue, but later green, the symbol color of Ireland, began to be used. The custom of wearing green bows and clovers to celebrate March 17 (the day of his death) dates back to the seventeenth century.
National holiday from the 9th-10th centuries
The feast of St. Patrick was celebrated by the Irish as a kind of national day since the ninth and tenth centuries, but the official day was included in the Catholic calendar only in the early seventeenth century. In 1903, St. Patrick's Day became a national holiday in Ireland, and the St. Patrick's Festival appeared in the 1990s.
All the customs related to this holiday revolve around the color green. Everyone wears green clothes, clovers and, because it's Ireland, they drink beer. Guinness has even launched a special edition of their beer, the Green Edition. And the Irish diaspora around the world is celebrating today, with the most important activities taking place in America. For 40 years, the city of Chicago - with a significant segment of the population of Irish origin - has been manifesting its spirit of celebration by turning the Chicago River green (with the help of a vegetable paint).
In Ireland, although this holiday usually falls on Lent, the Catholic Church accepts meat on March 17 because, according to tradition, on St. Patrick's Day the Irish go to church in the morning, then organize a big feast in honor of their patron. spiritual.
SAINT PATRICK'S DAY: the two visions
St. Patrick's is Ireland's most beloved and well-known saint. Saint Patrick, the luminary of Ireland, was born around 381 AD in a village called Bannaven Taberniae. St. Patrick comes from a family of altar servants - his grandfather Potitus was a priest and his father Calpurnius a deacon.
The name Patrick or Patrichie means a great man in Latin. From the account of his life, we learn that at the age of 16 he ends up forgetting about God. When he reached this age, his village was looted by pirates, and he was sold into slavery in Ireland. He becomes a shepherd on Mount Slemish in Antrim County. Going into captivity completely changed his life. From the rich and carefree young man, comes the person who said at least a hundred prayers at night and as many during the day.
St. Patrick had two visions: in the first he was shown that he would return home, and in the second he was told that his ship was ready. The revelation made by God is fulfilled, so that after six years spent in captivity, he manages to return to his parents.
The Saint Patrick’s Day parade is a tradition both in Ireland and abroad. After the great famine of the 19th century, caused by the lack of potatoes, a wave of migrants left Ireland, and the parade of Saint Patrick’s Day became their way of manifesting their identity. Starting from the tradition, parades began to be organized all over the world, which came to include all those who share the same values.
Ireland celebrates March 17 every year on St. Patrick's Day, the spiritual patron saint of the Irish. This day is marked with great pomp not only in Ireland, but throughout the world, in Irish communities. Each family prepares a traditional dinner with beef and cabbage dishes.
The legend of the saint who patronizes Ireland
As for the biography of St. Patrick, the true story intertwines harmoniously with the legend. It is known that St. Patrick was born in Scotland and was abducted and sold to Ireland as a slave. He became a deacon, then a priest and ended up as a bishop. Arriving on the mainland, he was sent back by the Pope to preach the gospel. He traveled mainly to the Celtic settlements, as evidenced by the fact that today many places in Wales, Cornwall, Scotland and Ireland bear his name.
Legend and history become even more difficult to separate when various sources speak of St. Patrick standing on top of a hill and - with the help of a stick - throwing snakes into the sea, forbidding them forever to return to the shores of Ireland. Patrick became known in the world as the one who saved Ireland from snakes. It is true that there are no snakes in Ireland today, but it seems that there has never been one, at least since the island is separated from the mainland. It is probably a symbol of the end of pagan practices in those places.
Regardless of the weather, March 17 was considered spring day, as St. Patrick promised to tame the weather from that date. For this reason, during this period, Irish farmers began to grow potatoes.
Later, he meets Saint German, the bishop of the city, in Auxerre. He has another dream, in which he is asked to go to Ireland. He asked St. German for advice on the dream, and because he had prayed to God to give him a person to replace St. Palladium, he saw in this dream a response from God. We point out that the Holy Palladium had left Ireland less than a year after his ordination, because of the cruelty of the Irish.
He was ordained a bishop and in 432 left the monastery of Auxerre with some companions for Ireland. Surrounded by pagans, St. Patrick had many trials.
The Druids will be dissatisfied with the presence of St. Patrick and will send Dichu to kill him. He stiffens as he raises his sword to kill him. St. Patrick unleashes him from the unseen power that held him in place. In response to the miracle performed, Dichiu will offer the saint a shelter in which he will celebrate the Holy Mass. After this miracle, many Irish people received faith in Christ. Later, he and his disciples baptized the entire country.
St. Patrick passed away on March 17, around 480. He is depicted in iconography holding a clover (a three-leafed plant), a symbol of the Holy Trinity, one God in being, but three in person. It is celebrated every year, on March 17.
St. Patrick's Day is celebrated not only in Ireland, but in many countries around the world. The most important festival is considered to be the one in Dublin, in Leinster.
A border country located at the confluence of the EU and Russia, a former Soviet republic with a population of 46 million, independent since 1991, known abroad by stereotypes such as the "granary of the former USSR", the "Chernobyl catastrophe", "Gas crisis" or "orange revolution", Ukraine is trying to build an identity.
The difficulty in finding this identity stems from the fact that Ukraine has long been fragmented between the Russian and Austro-Hungarian empires, the current borders being drawn by Joseph Stalin. It is true that nationalist ideas took their place here in the nineteenth century, but it was only after the disintegration of the USSR that Ukraine became independent, except for a short period between 1917 and 1920.
You can read more interesting facts below.
1. If Russia, which is not entirely in Europe, is not taken into account, Ukraine is the state with the largest area on the "Old Continent". Ukraine has an area of 603,628 square kilometers;
2. Ukrainians celebrate National Day on August 24;
3. Arsenal in Kyiv is the deepest subway station in the world. It is located at a depth of 105 meters and was built in 1960 for military purposes. The reason? Threatening powerful states with nuclear bombs
4. Traditional Ukrainian food includes chicken, pork, beef, eggs, fish and mushrooms. Ukrainians also tend to eat a lot of fresh, pickled potatoes, cereals and vegetables.
5. The most famous Ukrainian dish is borscht. While many Russians claim to be from their homeland, many Ukrainians are passionate about believing that they are the founders of this dish.
6. Ukraine was at the center of one of the greatest catastrophes of the 20th century. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant exploded in April 1986. The blast was considered the worst accident in the history of nuclear power.
7. Unlike many civilized states in Ukraine, wedding rings are worn on the ring finger of the right hand.
8. The "Love Tunnel" also exists in Ukraine. Near the town of Klevan in Ukraine there is a railway line that is covered with vaults formed by the branches of the nearby trees. It has become a favorite destination for thousands of lovers.
9. The geographical center of Europe is located in Ukraine. In 1886, the geographers of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, using the technology of the time, established the geographical center of Europe in the village of Dilove.
10. The city of Druzhkivka in the Donetsk region is one of the few places in the world where fossilized trees are kept. The trees are almost 250 million years old and create an entire fossilized forest that covers an area of 1 hectare.
11. The first gas lamp in history was invented in the Ukrainian city of Lviv.
12. The Ukrainians, namely the Antonov Design Bureau, have developed an aircraft with the highest payload capacity in the world - the An-225 Mechta. At first it was designed to transport spacecraft. Now "Dream" carries out commercial cargo transportation.
13. The author of one of the first constitutions in the world is Ukrainian political and public figure Pylyp Orlyk. On April 5, 1710, he was elected hetman of the Zaporizhian army. On the same day, Pylyp Orlyk announced the "Constitution of the rights and freedoms of the Zaporizhian army." In the United States, the Constitution was adopted in 1787, in France and the Commonwealth - only in 1791. An interesting fact is that Pylyp Orlik was born on the territory of Belarus - in the village of Kosuta, Oshmyany Povet.
14. In recent years, Ukraine has confidently retained its place in the top three world leaders in honey production. Being several times ahead of European countries in terms of honey production, Ukraine is at the same time the first state in the world in honey production per capita (1.5 kg).
15. Ukraine has the world's largest reserves of manganese ore - 2.3 billion tons, or about 11% of the world's total reserves.
16. Only six monasteries in the world have the status of Lavra. Three of them are in Ukraine. These are the Holy Assumption Kiev-Pechersk Lavra in Kyiv, which received this status back in 1598, the Holy Assumption Lavra in the city of Pochaev and the Svyatogorsk Holy Assumption Lavra in the Donetsk region.
17. Ostroh Academy is the first higher educational institution in Eastern Europe, the oldest Ukrainian scientific and educational institution. In 1576, Prince Konstantin-Vasily of Ostrog founded the Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy in Ostrog.
18. The first kerosene lamp was invented in Lvov by Ignaty Lukasiewicz and Jan Zekh in 1853, under the Golden Star pharmacy workers.In the same year, the first surgical operation was performed in the Lviv hospital under the illumination of a kerosene lamp. Subsequently, the kerosene lamp was presented at the international exhibition in Munich, the invention was awarded a special diploma there.
19. Monuments to the famous Ukrainian poet Taras Shevchenko have been erected in 1200 cities around the world.
20. The Ukrainian wind instrument trembita is the longest wind musical instrument in the world.
21. The shortest main street of all the capitals of the world, but at the same time one of the widest and most beautiful - Khreshchatyk in Kyiv. Its length is only 1225 m.
22. The oldest map known to scientists, as well as the oldest settlement of Homo Sapiens, were found in Ukraine: in the village. Mesopotamia of the Rivne region. They are about 14.5-15 thousand years old. The map is engraved on a mammoth bone.
23. The longest cave in Ukraine is called "Optimistic" and is located in Podolia. This is a gypsum cave at a depth of 20 m with a length of 216 km. The longest gypsum cave in the world and the second longest in general, it is second only to Mammoth Cave in the United States.
24. The geographical center of Europe (well, yes, we also have it :)). In Ukraine, near the town of Rakhiv, surrounded by the picturesque Carpathians, is the geographical center of Europe.
25. The oldest tree in Ukraine is considered to be a 1300-year-old oak in the Yuzefin tract, Rivne region.
26. The third most visited McDonald's in the world is located in Kyiv near the railway station. This establishment consistently ranks among the top five busiest McDonald's in the world.
27. One of the largest historical transport routes ran through the territory of Ukraine (as well as through the territory of Belarus) - “the path from the Varangians to the Greeks” - a system of river routes and portages between them 3 thousand km long, connecting the northern lands of Ancient Russia with the southern Russian lands and the Baltic sea with Black. Throughout ancient history, Ukraine has acted as a bridge between the worlds of Eastern Europe and the Ancient East, Antique, Byzantine and Latin Europe.
28. Ukraine ranks fourth in the world in terms of the number of citizens with higher education. The population of Ukraine is among the most educated, and the number of people with higher education per capita is higher than the average European level.
29. Ukraine, on its own initiative, abandoned the world's third largest arsenal of nuclear weapons. At the time of declaration of independence, more than a thousand nuclear warheads and missiles were located on the territory of Ukraine, the third largest nuclear potential after Russia and America. The warheads and missiles were handed over to Russia, the bunkers were destroyed. In response, Ukraine received money for disarmament, as well as security guarantees from nuclear powers (as we can see, these guarantees are not respected today).
30. The international Ukrainian anthem consists of only six lines (four in verse and two in the chorus). The remaining lines of the anthem are considered politically incorrect. (for example, "Stand, brother, in a crooked way from Xiang to Don" implies Ukraine's claims to the territory of Russia and Poland). The anthem was born in 1863, and adopted as a state anthem in 2003.
31.At the language beauty contest in Paris in 1934, the Ukrainian language took third place after French and Persian in terms of phonetics, vocabulary, phraseology, and sentence structure. And in terms of melodiousness, the Ukrainian language took second place after Italian.
32. Until the almost complete destruction in 1240 by the Mongol-Tatars, Kyiv was one of the largest cities in Europe, fifty times larger than London, ten times larger than Paris. It reached its peak under Yaroslav the Wise (1010 - 1054), who became related to the royal families of France, Norway, Romania and Poland. The population of today's capital of Ukraine was about 50,000 inhabitants. It took about 600 years to reach such demographic indicators again. Quite possibly, if it were not for the destruction of that time, Kyiv could have been the most developed largest city in Europe for many years.
33. Pablo Picasso was delighted with the works of the Ukrainian artist Kateryna Bilokur (1900-1961). When in 1954 he saw her works at an exhibition, he said that they were brilliant and compared Catherine with the world-famous artist Serafin Louis.
35. One of the most famous Christmas songs in the world is Shchedryk, a folk song recorded by Ukrainian composer Mykola Leontovych. The world knows her as Carol of the Bells or Ring Christmas Bells. On Youtube, various performances of "Shchedryk" are gaining millions of views.
36. During the Anglo-Boer War (South Africa) in 1899 - 1902. the commander of one of the detachments of the Boers, Ukrainian Yuriy Budyak, saved a young English journalist from execution. Subsequently, the latter helped Budyak enter Oxford University. In 1917, Yuriy worked in the government of the Ukrainian People's Republic. In 1943 Yuri Budyak died in a Soviet concentration camp. The English journalist's name was Winston Churchill…
37. At the time of independence, there were 19.4 million pigs in Ukraine. Today, there are half as many of them - 8.3 million. Despite the reputation of a salo-eater, the average Ukrainian eats only 18 kg of pork per year. This is three times less than an ordinary German.
38. In Ukraine, near Nikopol, on a spit near the river. Lapinki, on one of the branches of the Dnieper, you can see, or rather hear a phenomenon that is rare in the world - singing sands. The "singing" of these, perhaps, the strangest sands appears after rain, when the top layer sticks together and forms a fragile crust. Walking along it, you can hear sounds similar to the whistling of air released from a car chamber.
39. In the town of Berdychiv (Zhytomyr region) in the church of St. Barbara on March 14, 1850, the local beauty Evelina Ganskaya was married to Honore de Balzac. Frederic Chopin lived in the same town for a long time, who, in addition to writing music, also supervised the restoration of the local organ.
40. It would be possible to collect a dictionary of Ukrainian surnames, distorted in the course of Russification by Russian officials. So, the Ukrainian clan Chekhov in the 19th century became Chekhov for some reason. Chekhov's grandfather was still a Czech. Anton Pavlovich himself wrote that his grandfather was a Ukrainian. Quite funny, the Deineks turned into Denikins. Cossacks Rozuma became Razumovsky, Chaikas become Tchaikovsky. The grandfather of Pyotr Tchaikovsky, the great composer - Pyotr Chaika - graduated from the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, and as a physician, the Russian government sent him as a head physician to Vyatka.
41. Probably, the Ukrainian atmosphere in the Tchaikovsky family was preserved much better than that of the Chekhovs, because from the age of 24, the future composer lived in Ukraine almost every year for several months, where he wrote more than 30 works, including the opera Blacksmith Vakula (Cherevichki ”), “Mazepa”, song-romance “Cherry Garden of Haiti”, duet “On the Novgorod near the Ford” to the words of T. Shevchenko. In the cruel times of the empire's offensive against the Ukrainian language, he sought the production of "Taras Bulba" by N. Lysenko (the famous Ukrainian composer), used many Ukrainian folk songs in his works.
42. The great writer Fyodor Dostoevsky was Ukrainian by origin, because the Dostoevsky family came from the village of Dostoev near Pinsk (Ukrainian-Belarusian border), so Belarusians can also consider him their fellow countryman. One of the Dostoevskys becomes a hieromonk of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra and in 1647 takes part in the election of the next metropolitan. It is interesting that among the Dostoevskys who lived in Podolia, most of all were representatives of the clergy. Andrei Dostoevsky was a priest of the Ukrainian Uniate Church.
43. He was the grandfather of the writer F. Dostoevsky. Andrei's son quarreled with his father and brother and went to Moscow. His name was Mikhail, and as a memory of his family and Ukraine, he took with him, preserved and passed on to his sons his own Ukrainian poems. The daughter of Fyodor Mikhailovich recalls: "... poetic abilities were already in the Ukrainian family of my father, and were not given only through my Muscovite mother, as Dostoevsky's literary friends suggest." It is a pity that F. Dostoevsky did not join the defense of Ukraine.
44. This, in principle, cannot be said about V. Mayakovsky. The poet sharply criticized the “Muscovites”: “Comrade Muscovite, don’t joke about Ukraine.” He also reminded that Russians from the history of Ukraine know only Shevchenko, Taras Bulba, borscht and lard (“Russians have a shallow thickness of knowledge”).
45. By the way, he wrote about himself: "I am a Cossack from my grandfather, on the other - a Sich." Researchers point out that the Ukrainian clans of Mayakovsky went, probably, from those Cossacks who stood guard over the barrows, at the lighthouses that were set on fire during the Tatar attacks.
46. Unfortunately, the Ukrainians of Ripa turned into Repins. Although Ilya Repin, who was born in the Kharkiv region, still retained his sense of belonging to the Ukrainians and painted himself as a Cossack leaning on a cannon. “It's time to think about the Ukrainian style in art,” the artist noted. But he not only spoke, but also created many works on Ukrainian themes, for example, “The Cossacks write a letter to the Turkish Sultan” - he wrote two versions of this picture.
47. In 1931, there were more Ukrainians in the USSR than Russians. In six years, 55 million disappeared ... This figure is indicated in the book "At the Great Construction Site", published in 1931 in Leningrad. The same data are presented in the first Soviet encyclopedia of 1926. Neither this encyclopedia nor the book is available in any library in Ukraine. We managed to find "At the Great Construction Site" in Moscow.
48. The figures of 81 million are clearly visible in these copies. It should be noted that the population of Ukrainian Galicia, which was part of Poland, was not taken into account here. Already the next census of 1937 indicates that only 26 million Ukrainians remained in the USSR. Where did all the rest go? Knowing such figures, the repressions of the 1930s seem even more terrible.
49. Freedom Square in Kharkov is the largest square in Europe.
50. The longest embankment in Europe is located in Dnepropetrovsk. Its length is 30 km.
Only a few of us can have the opportunity to communicate with a star. Many regularly attend concerts of their favorite performers, someone even got an autograph from a celebrity, but not everyone can boast that, for example, Bill Murray nursed you as a child. These "pearls" were shared by people from our article, boasting on the Internet of their meeting with a star.
“Bill Murray looked after me and my brother. Here is a photo of us in the late 1980s "
"My uncle tripped and fell in front of the Queen of England in 1987"
“My father and Elvis. He always told us that they hung out together, but before this photo we didn't believe him. "
"When I took a selfie, I told Samuel L. Jackson to show what he really thinks about these things."
“Today at work my mom was told to drive this 'bum' off the golf course. It turned out to be Bill Murray "
"My son looks more like Harry Potter than Harry Potter himself."
"My dad played against Michael Jordan in high school."
“My wife met Chris Pratt. Anna Faris did not approve of this "
"My wife's face on our wedding day compared to when she met Rob Lowe."
"My husband, when he was a little boy, with Alice Cooper in 1989"
"I got a little nervous when I met Morgan Freeman."
“Today my mom didn't answer my call. I sent her a message asking why she was so busy and she sent me this photo. "
"Chuck Norris admires my friend's father's cock in the 80s."
Hugh Jackman and Ryan Reynolds are known to troll each other in a friendly way, and a Jackman fan decided to take advantage of this.
The girl put on a dress with the image of Reynolds in a wreath to meet the idol and he burst out laughing when he saw this. But for the sake of the photo, he showed anger on his face.
“I met Jim Carrey and he was really amazing! I never thought he would make faces with me, but he did a great job! "
"A friend of mine met Beyoncé in New Orleans and she said," Whatever face you make, I'll repeat it. "
“My brother and I met our favorite superhero (Hulk) when we were 4 years old. As you can see, we were a little disappointed because Lou Ferrigno was not green. "
“A buddy of mine met this weird dude in a dinosaur shirt and zebra print pants. Come on, just kidding, I know it's Jeff Goldblum. "
"My dad with Muhammad Ali, 1970s"