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25 compared outfits of the stars from their first and last appearance at the famous Met Gala

4 months ago

The first Monday in May is an important date for those interested in fashion. Since 1948, this day has hosted a luxurious ball dedicated to raising funds to benefit the Metropolitan Museum of Art Costume Institute, abbreviated as Met Gala. An invitation to this event is an important symbol of recognition for many stars because only A-list celebrities can receive it. From year to year, the theme of the ball changes, and, based on this, guests must follow a specific dress code. This year it was labeled "Gilded Glamor."


Met Gala 2022 stars


We at Bemorepanda decided to look at the outfits the stars chose for their first legendary ball and compare them with this year's companies.


Sophie Turner. 2015 vs. 2022


Kaya Gerber. 2021 vs. 2022


Emma Stone. 2009 vs. 2022


On May 3, the annual Met Gala Costume Institute ball was held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.


The event was dedicated to one of the brightest periods in American history - the Gilded Age. It lasted from the 1870s to the 1890s. It was characterized by the rapid growth of the US economy and population after the Civil War.


The chairman's board and the global editorial director of Vogue, Anna Wintour, also included designer Tom Ford and the head of Instagram (the company that owns Meta is recognized as an extremist organization), Adam Mosseri. The evening was hosted by actors Regina King, Blake Lively, and Ryan Reynolds.


Kim, Khloe and Kourtney Kardashian, Kris, Kylie, and Kendall Jenner, Gigi and Bella Hadid, Billy Eilish, Hailey Bieber, Brooklyn Beckham and Nicola Peltz, Elon, and May Musk, Naomi Campbell, Irina Shayk, Kaia Gerber took to the red carpet, Cara Delevingne, Emily Ratajkowski, Chloe Moretz, Joe Jonas and Sophie Turner, Emma Stone, Sarah Jessica Parker, Julianne Moore, Jessica Chastain, and many others.


Jessica Chastain. 2011 vs. 2022


Maisie Williams. 2021 vs. 2022


Lily James. 2017 vs. 2022


Lucy Boynton. 2019 vs. 2022


New York hosted the annual Met Gala Ball, the famous charity fundraising event for the Metropolitan Museum of Art Costume Institute, which invites the most famous stars. Especially for this event, fashion houses prepare for their clients - guests of the show - special outfits, sewn in a single copy for the ball. The ball is expensive even for celebrities: a ticket costs about 25 thousand dollars, and a table reservation costs 200-300 thousand dollars.


Part of the broadcast was devoted to Ukraine. Hamish Bowles spoke about Kyiv resident Valentina Sanina-Schlei, who founded the fashion house of the same name in the United States. Her clothes are considered classics of American design. Sabina graduated from the Kyiv gymnasium.


“The war in Ukraine forced many to leave their homes. We remember the contributions of millions of immigrants and refugees to American culture and American fashion history. In 1917, designer Valentina, born in Ukraine, came to New York. She established herself as an elite couturier, dressing the most fashionable and famous women of her time. One of her dresses is on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Costume Institute exhibition on American fashion. This night our hearts are with the people of Ukraine and the victims of the war worldwide. Conde Nast donated to the Red Cross Committee. We encourage you to do the same if possible,” he said.


Chris Jenner. 2015 vs. 2022


Cardi B. 2018 vs. 2022


Gwen Stefani. 2010 vs. 2022


Emily Ratajkowski. 2015 vs. 2022


Kim Kardashian 2013 vs. 2022


Kim Kardashian appeared at the party in the legendary "naked" Marilyn Monroe dress, exhibited at the Ripley Museum, and was sewn in 1962 by designer Jean Louis. In this outfit, the famous blonde sang “Happy Birthday, Mr. President" in honor of the 45th anniversary of John F. Kennedy. The dress was rented for only an hour to take a photo on the red carpet. During the holiday, the rest of the time, Kim showed off a copy of the outfit. The one-of-a-kind outfit, which Marilyn once paid $1,440 for, was last sold at auction for $4.81 million, making it the most expensive Met Gala red carpet dress. He is 60 years old.


Actor Jared Leto came to the Met Gala in a Gucci suit, with a stylish clutch and flowing hair. The artist was accompanied by Gucci's creative director, Alessandro Michele, in the same image.



Dakota Johnson. 2014 vs. 2022


Chloe Bailey. 2021 vs. 2022


Winnie Harlow. 2018 vs. 2022


The topic of defiant luxury caused controversy on social networks; many criticized the organizers of one of the most important events of the year in the fashion world for not taking into account the current situation in the United States, where many working-class families barely make ends meet due to high inflation and a shrinking economy. In the last quarter.


Riz Ahmed, a British actor and musician of Pakistani origin, known to the Russian audience for The Sound of Metal and Star Wars, came to the ball dressed as a "smart worker."


He stated that his costume is a tribute to the immigrant workers, thanks to whom, in his opinion, that golden era in the country's economy became possible.


This charity event is being held again in May - after being canceled in 2020 and postponed to autumn last year due to the coronavirus epidemic.


This time around 400 celebrities from the worlds of music, fashion, cinema, and sports came to the Metropolitan Museum, one of the largest art museums in the world.


Among the guests was former US presidential candidate Hillary Clinton. He admitted that for the first time in 20 years, this fashion holiday, which reflects the spirit of America, is celebrated in this way for the first time.


Tickets were, according to tradition, prohibitively expensive - from $35,000 for admission to $300,000 for a table. Every year this ball raises millions of dollars for the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Costume Institute.


Katy Perry. 2009 vs. 2022


Gigi Hadid. 2015 vs. 2022


Bella Hadid. 2015 vs. 2022


Chloe Grace Moretz. 2014 vs. 2022


Billy Eilish. 2021 vs. 2022


Kendall Jenner. 2014 vs. 2022


Nicki Minaj. 2013 vs. 2022


Blake Lively. 2008 vs. 2022


Sarah Jessica Parker. 2006 vs. 2022


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Ever wondered why girls are drawn to firefighters, rock climbers, or bandits?


The phenomenon of women's attraction to risky guys has long been known. Moreover, what is valuable is that they are considered primarily lovers, not husbands: shopkeepers, auditors, and programmers have always coped better with creating a stable base for raising offspring. But the instinctive desire to get the genes of a hero is another.


This is a topic related to natural selection. Roman women loved to make love to newly victorious gladiators; in the 20th century, the most beautiful girls went to racers (motorsport was much more dangerous than now). And even today, little has changed: climbers, stunt performers, and test pilots are much more likely to get fast and passionate female caresses. We’re not recommending you change your career, but you'll probably figure out how to use this information. After all, girls are not shy about using retouched photos beyond recognition in dating apps.


Most dangerous male jobs ever


Most of his points are unromantic. We used statistics, but we believe that, in general, the situations are similar. Now you know where it is hardly worth hiring.


So, the list of dangerous professions in reverse order makes it more interesting.


20. Policemen. 14 deaths per 100,000 people per year. Yes, the first from the end, surprisingly. Expected deaths due to acts of violence by humans and animals.


19. Mechanics for the repair of industrial equipment. 14 deaths per 100,000 people per year. Large equipment has a complex character: people die not when colliding with it but because of close contact with its details.


18. Cleaners of park areas. 14 deaths per 100,000 people per year. People of this profession, among other things, are responsible for the cleanliness of the roadsides and often fall under the wheels, just walking from the workplace along the road.


17. Inspectors of technical supervision service. 15 deaths per 100,000 people. It would seem that such a peaceful profession - people just check the compliance of structures and devices with regulations. Alas, the most common cause of death for technical supervision inspectors is people or animals.


16. Stonemasons. 17 deaths per 100,000 people. The usual cause of death is a fall. Please note: the list of dangerous construction professions is not limited to masons.


15. Road workers. 18 deaths per 100,000 people per year. Everything is sad and straightforward here: people get used to passing cars and sooner or later fall under the wheels.


14. Masters of landscape architecture. 18 deaths per 100,000 people per year. It would seem, then what? Roll out lawn rolls for yourself, plant flowers  But no, cutting tree crowns turned out to be a dangerous occupation, leading to a fall from a height.


13. Construction workers. 18 deaths per 100,000 people per year. Just like a brick: the cause of death is usually a fall from a height or a collision with heavy equipment.

12. Crane operators. 19 deaths per 100,000 people per year. Oddly enough, crane operators rarely make a forced flight from top to bottom on their own. The main reason for their death is a fall and a tower crane. Often this happens due to strong gusts of wind.


11. Regulators. 19 deaths per 100,000 people per year. Like road workers, police officers who work on the road cease to perceive cars as dangerous and lose their vigilance. There are also simply arrivals at the traffic controller standing at the crossroads.

10. Electricians. 20 deaths per 100,000 people per year. The leading cause of death seems banal: an electric shock. Many electricians say they have been hit many times and nothing. Vigilance is dulled, and then suitable physical parameters are superimposed on gouging.


9. Fire inspectors. 20 deaths per 100,000 people per year. Attention: not firefighters, but fire inspectors, that is, people who check the condition of fire safety systems. They often die in traffic accidents, which, ironically, accompany car fires and explosions.


8. Farmers. 26 deaths per 100,000 people per year. Here is an unexpected twist! Cows, lambs, swede-cucumbers - it would seem, what are the dangers? But field workers are waiting for incidents related to agricultural machinery. In particular, accidents on tractors. We had heard something like this before, although we were sure these were stereotypes from jokes.


7. Couriers on cars. 27 deaths per 100,000 people per year. In terms of mortality, road transport is generally far ahead of planes, trains, and ships. And couriers are always in a hurry.


6. High-altitude fitters. 29 deaths per 100,000 people per year. The reason is apparent: the neglect of insurance and, as a result, a high flight with a guaranteed unaesthetic landing.


5. Dustman. the average is 34 deaths per 100,000 people per year. Again, no exotics: no attacks by giant rats, no poisoning with mysterious chemicals. The most common cause of death is a collision with a garbage truck (on the issue of garbage: “Waste legalisation: a brief history of garbage from antiquity to the present day”).


4. Roofers. The average is 53 deaths per 100,000 people per year. Everything is transparent and predictable here, although never romantic: slipped, fell, buried. Of course, roofers must carry out high-altitude work with insurance, but the sense of danger is again over timed.


3. Drilling Engineer. The average is 46 deaths per 100,000 people per year. And this despite the severe penalties for violating safety regulations. It's just that the units and equipment are too heavy; the pipes fly overhead, plus the danger of gas release and all that.


2. Pilots. The average is 53 deaths per 100,000 people per year. It turns out that we are shamelessly lying about the safety of aviation? Fortunately, no. Most of the deaths occur in private aviation, where the pilot is responsible for the aircraft’s pre-flight inspection and overall condition.


1. And on the first place loggers. The average is 111 deaths per 100,000 people per year. The most common cause of death is accidental contact with heavy logging equipment or logs. Alas, here national specificity plays against you: you will be misunderstood if you tell a new pretty acquaintance that you worked at a logging site.



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Money is good, but what do we know about the lives of the richest people in the world? When you control the world's great wealth, then life and concerns are completely different.


The richest people in the world know how to impress. They think, behave and work differently from ordinary people. Today, it is customary to call those who own assets worth at least $ 30 million ultra-rich.


Top facts about billionaires 


The number of billionaires in the world is no more than 2 thousand. Very rich people also experience certain problems and difficulties. But these are completely different matters. What lies behind the lives of rich people?


Rich people in business have completely different habits, principles, traditions, and lifestyles. We have collected in one collection interesting facts about the rich people of the world. Read and compare with your life. There is something to think about here!


Facts about the life of billionaires 


1. Billionaires didn't get rich in stocks. Most rich people didn't play Wall Street to get rich. You're much more likely to get paid by working in Silicon Valley, manufacturing, technology, and other things. 


2. Billions go to Wall Street when they are already rich. They preserve and increase their assets there. Therefore, the desire of many people to get rich playing forex, options, and trading in 98% of cases will not bring them money. 


3. Billionaires are in danger. The more money, the more people are trying to heat you. Billionaires suffer from invasions of privacy, slander, deceit, blackmail. Even the environment of billionaires can use the rich man or secretly deceive him. You constantly have to spend a lot of money on security and constantly be vigilant.


4. Billionaires are well educated. Often in films, they show how people drop out of school and then get rich. But this is more the exception than the rule. 


5. Harvard University ranks first in the production of billionaires, like many other good universities. Most wealthy people have achieved a lot thanks to a good education and acquired knowledge. 


6. Billionaires don't respect millionaires. Billionaires can socialize and sit together at dinner with millionaires, but they don't consider them equals. 


7. A million dollars or ten is not much for a billionaire. The top billionaire elites look down on millionaires. 



8. Billionaires are afraid of divorce. Wealthy people choose not to divorce to avoid financial losses and the collapse of their corporations. 


9. The number of divorces is no more than 8% of couples among billionaires. This is a very low percentage. Usually, rich people make marriage contracts or go through life together for a very long time.


9. Club of billionaires for men. 90% of billionaires are men. Women too rarely make their way into this elite club. 


10. Most female billionaires are widows of wealthy people. 7. Billionaires often have family problems. 


11. The more money, the more difficult it is to manage children, family, and numerous relatives. Often the family of a billionaire hates him and waits for his death, but loves his money.


12. Billionaires are getting richer and richer, and the poor are getting poorer. Money goes to money. The average inhabitant of the planet over the past 10 years has become poorer. 


13. 1% of the world's population, despite crises, unemployment, and high taxes, is getting richer. 



14. Billionaires pay a lower tax rate than ordinary people. Rich people have long found ways to reduce the burden of the tax burden, withdraw money offshore, acquire citizenship from other countries and evade payments. 


15. Billionaires, friends, and personal life are incompatible. When you have a lot of money, it is very difficult to hope for true love and friendship. 


16. Friendship among billionaires is also rare. The love between rich people also has many pitfalls. Billionaires, true friends, and true love are always difficult.


17. The head of Tesla and Space X does not follow strict diets, although he limits sweets in his diet. He usually does not have breakfast in the morning.


What do the rich eat and drink: interesting facts about famous billionaires


18. Lunch is also not an important meal for Musk - no matter what one of the workers brings him, he eats everything in just 5 minutes, just so as not to feel hungry. The rich man enjoys food in the evenings.


19. Back in 2015, Musk stated that French cuisine and barbecue are his favorites.


20. Microsoft founder Bill Gates drinks about four bottles of Diet Coke daily. For breakfast, the rich man likes to eat puffs with cocoa, and during the day he often skips meals and fills up in the evening.


21. Not a single meeting of Gates with business partners takes place without cheeseburgers. He often sends his employees to buy fast food at McDonald's.


22. Facebook creator Mark Zuckerberg is not picky about food at all. The billionaire eats everything available, because, according to him, he "does not like to waste time on small decisions."


23. However, it was not without strange whims - back in 2011, Zuckerberg ate meat exclusively from those animals that he killed on his own. The principle of "eat what you kill" also applied to animals such as goats, pigs, chickens, or lobsters.


24. Virgin Group founder Richard Branson says he drinks 20 cups of tea a day. English breakfast for him is an indispensable component of every morning.


25. In addition, after sleep, Branson likes to eat muesli, fruit salads, herring, or other similar fish. The billionaire loves to have lunch and dinner in the company of friends or colleagues.


Facts in numbers about billionaires


26. The 226,450 richest people in the world have - no less than - $9.6 trillion in cash (a third of their total wealth). The rest of the assets are privately owned, such as private companies (33%), shares and other types of investments (25%), real estate and luxury goods, including yachts, aircraft, cars, art, and jewelry (6, 6%)


27. The average age of women with a net worth of over $30 million is 50 years old. Their net worth is about $110 million. 


28. It is also noted that women own only 12% of the total wealth of super-rich people (men own the rest of the wealth). 


29. More than 50% of women received all or part of their wealth in the form of an inheritance, while among men this share is only one-third.


30. Millennials are people born between 1980 and 1994. They make up 3.2% of the total number of the super-rich - in 2017 there are about 7,200 of them. 


31. Two-thirds of them have made it on their own, including Facebook founder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg. Dropping out of Harvard, at 23, Mark became the youngest self-made billionaire in history. To date, his fortune is estimated at 64.7 billion US dollars. 


32. Wealthy millennials control a total of $334 billion, with Zuckerberg alone owning almost a fifth of that wealth.


33. While an Ivy League degree certainly won't hurt millionaires, it's far from the only ticket to riches. 



34. Only 15% of the world's super-rich—nearly 35,000—graduated from an American Ivy League university. In addition, among the top 20 colleges from which the richest people in the world came out, five are public institutions.


35. The median net worth owned by Ivy League graduates is $200 million, 1.6 times the average of the super-wealthy. 


36. Harvard alone has produced 1,906 alumni with $30 million in assets, including 131 living billionaires. Wealth-X also noted one interesting fact: “Given the exclusivity and highly selective admission criteria of these eight institutions,” 


37. It can be estimated that as many as 75% of Ivy League graduates, whose net worth exceeds $ 30 million, have achieved everything themselves. Among them are Elon Musk, Warren Buffett, Jeff Bezos, and Jorge Paulo Lehmann.


38. More than a third of the richest people in the world are involved in charitable work. Many of them are involved in a campaign called the Giving Pledge, founded by Bill Gates and Warren Buffett. 


39. By joining it, millionaires undertake to transfer more than half of their fortune to charity during their lifetime. So far, the Giving Pledge has been signed by 168 people from 21 countries. 


40. The second most popular hobby of the super-rich is watching, participating in, and investing in sports. They are most interested in tennis, golf, skiing, American football and, above all, football.



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The natural world is divided into three major groups: the animal world, the plant world, and the mineral world.


The latter is not and has never been alive, it is an inorganic world. Diamond is part of the category of minerals. Each of the minerals is defined by the types, the relativity of the atoms it contains, and the way they are arranged.


Differences in structure and chemical composition give minerals unique properties. For example, spinel atoms are arranged in the same way as diamond atoms, the difference being that the spinel is made up of different chemical elements.


Diamonds are women’s best friends


A chemical element is a substance that contains only one kind of atom. Most minerals are made up of two or more such substances. Once used to imitate diamonds, Spinel is made up of three chemical elements: magnesium, aluminum, and oxygen.


Diamond is the only stone made up of a single element: carbon.



The diamond usually consists of 99.95% carbon, with the remaining 0.05% being other elements whose atoms are not part of the chemical structure of the diamond. Some of these elements are used to determine the color of the diamond.


The way it is formed gives the minerals a special identity. Diamonds are formed at extremely high temperatures and under conditions of special pressure, which exist only at certain distances below the earth's surface. Graphite, for example, is made in the same way as diamond, made of carbon, but in such different conditions that graphite is so soft that it can be used in writing, while a diamond can only be scratched by another diamond.


The composition, the structure, and the way of forming give the diamond the qualities that make it so extraordinary.




As with other stones, diamonds with special qualities are rarer and more valuable than lower-quality diamonds.


The 4Cs are universal and are an effective means of characterizing diamonds and are used both in trade and among members of the diamond processing community. These four factors professionally describe the quality of diamonds and refer to:


  • clarity
  • color
  • carat (weight)
  • cut 


One of the value factors of a diamond stands out precisely because this stone is rare. Most diamonds have shades of yellow or brown and this is why colorless diamonds have a better color rating than those that tend to yellow.


The value and rarity of a diamond are closely related, and the four C's describe the qualities of the diamond in very precise terms.




Like most elements of nature, Diamond is not perfect in all respects. Diamonds may have inclusions and surface irregularities; together they are characteristics of the clarity of a diamond.




  • a defining characteristic of the clarity of a diamond, practically enclosed in a stone or extending from the surface of the stone to its interior.




  • a defining characteristic of the clarity of a diamond that is found only on the outer surface of a polished stone.

As with the rest of the factors that give the value of a diamond, clarity is directly correlated with the rarity.


Flawless is the highest degree of clarity in the GIA (Gemological Institute of America) diamond clarity rating scale. Diamonds classified as flawless have no visible inclusions on examination at 10 times magnification by an experienced gemologist.


Cataloging Diamonds by Clarity:


F - Flawless

IF - Internally Flawless

VVS1 and VVS2 - Very Very Slightly Included

VS1 and VS2 - Very Slightly Included

SI1 and SI2 - Slightly Included

I1, I2, and I3 - Included




Most people think of a diamond as a colorless stone, but in fact, it is very rare. Most diamonds used in jewelry are almost colorless but have light yellow to brown shades.


There is a wide range of colors, the rarest diamonds are those colored in pink, dark red, and green, and a higher color intensity automatically means a higher value.


The larger the diamond, the more obvious the color. Color differences can be very subtle, but they can still cause dramatic price changes.


The color grading table for diamonds was compiled by the GIA in the 1950s.


It describes the normal color grading range from D (colorless) to Z (slightly yellow and brown). Today, the GIA's diamond color grading scale is the most widespread in the world, and it is often referred to as the "D-to-Z scale."


Each letter represents a range of colors based on a combination of tones - both light and dark - and saturation - intensity.


Diamonds can have noticeable differences in color depth but still belong to the same color group.




A well-cut diamond manages to best highlight the other three qualities, important features of the diamond: brilliance, stone fire, and sparkle.


Shine - is the white light reflected from the surface and inside of a polished diamond.


Fire - the brightness of color that we see when we look at a polished diamond.


Sparkle - the flashes of light that we see when a diamond or the light source we are looking at is moving.


The term “brilliant cut” is used as a general term for stones of any shape, which have most of the faces cut in a triangular shape and which start radiantly around a central point. By far the most popular diamond cut is the round brilliant. The diamond has 57 or 58 sides, depending on the presence or absence of the package (the bottom of a diamond).


But let's see what the names of a diamond's faces are:


  • Crown - is the top of the diamond and is located above the round
  • Ronda (or belt) - is the narrow section of a polished diamond that makes the connection between the crown and the diamond flag (bottom) being the point of attachment of the stone in the jewelry.
  • The pavilion - the bottom of a faceted diamond, the part that is under the roundabout.
  • Facet - a flat, polished surface of a stone.
  • The package - is the underside of a polished stone, from which the flag practically rises.
  • Cuts in shapes other than round are called fancy cuts.




Diamonds are weighed with great precision, and the unit of measurement is the metric carat which is abbreviated as "cts" or "ct".


The subdivision of the metric carat is the point (abbreviated "pt"), and 100 points are the equivalent of one carat.


Weights over one carat are usually expressed in carats and decimals. A 1.03 ct stone will be described as "one comma zero three-carat". The weight is expressed in dots for diamonds weighing less than one carat. For example, 0.83 ct will read "eighty-three points".


The price of diamonds is set according to all factors: color, cut, clarity. The weight is just another factor that has a say in the price of a diamond.


!!! Do not confuse the terms "carat" and "karat". Karat is the unit of measurement that defines the purity - or fineness - of gold.




There was a time when people believed that diamonds had magical qualities. It was believed that unpolished diamonds have the power to protect against evil spirits, that they have the power to cure various ailments, and to make the one who carries the stone on him indestructible, just like a diamond. It was also believed that if you tried to grind that gem, the miraculous powers of diamonds would disappear.


When they started giving up superstitions, diamonds began to lose their charm. This is because a diamond in a shape other than an octagon with clean facets, a rough diamond, was no longer of interest. In most diamonds, irregular surfaces hide their outstanding optical qualities.


Things began to change in the 14th and 15th centuries when diamond grinding techniques began to develop. Although they did not find a way to grind diamonds, the first diamond grinders discovered that they could use diamond powder to remove irregularities and make natural surfaces more transparent.


In the 16th century, grinders could process a diamond by grinding the point upwards, thus creating a flat-faced facet. The result was called a "flat cut." At the beginning of the 17th century, the grinding process (grinding, rolling) was already a little more advanced. The grinders used it to cut roses in the shape of roses (roses), with a flat base and with the top facets that joined at a certain point. Although this process gave rise to more carefully processed diamonds, much of the unpolished diamond was lost.


People began to split diamonds in the 17th century. At the very least, the shape of the future diamond could be traced from the unpolished stone. The number of losses decreased because they no longer had to practically grind the diamond in the grinding process.


The rotary cutter, introduced around 1900 and the lasers introduced in the 1970s, created the possibility of obtaining even more perfect cuts.


Diamond cutting today consists of 3 or 4 steps: splitting or cutting (sometimes even both processes), grinding, and finishing.



"Diamonds are forever" is one of the best slogans in the advertising industry in this field. This slogan has several meanings. It refers to the fact that for centuries, diamond has been the most coveted stone, it refers to the beauty of diamonds that remain unchanged forever and it refers to the durability of these stones.


Durability is the property of diamonds to withstand degrading factors caused by wear, heat, or chemicals. The hardness varies from one stone to another and depends on the chemical structure and their structure.


The way the diamonds were formed and the fact that they withstood the road to the surface of the earth is a miracle.


The arid desert of South Africa, the Siberian platforms, the tundra of northeastern Canada, or the oceanic coasts of southwestern Africa, are important areas in diamond mining.


The process of diamond extraction is very complex and time-consuming. Thus, in addition to digging mines, digging tens of thousands of tons of earth, mining companies have to build real cities around these mines. Given the large number of people involved in this process of diamond mining, mining companies are building real cities near the mines to house and feed hundreds of workers and even create leisure conditions for them.


Mining involves a lot of work and fabulous expenses, and yet the quantities of diamonds obtained are relatively small. Identifying a possible diamond deposit alone costs a few million dollars.



Miners have to process about a ton of rock to get half a carat of crude. Diamond deposits in any mine are limited. For example, the Ekati mine in Canada began operations in 1998. It is currently estimated that the entire mine will be exploited for about 20 years, and the number of diamonds mined will be about 3-4 million carats (raw material). ).


But not only the quantity plays an important role in the profitability of a mine, but also the quality of the extracted diamonds. For example, the Argyle mine in Australia has a huge diamond deposit and has one of the best ratios of rough diamonds per tonne of rock extracted (3 carats per tonne), but the amount of polished diamonds obtained is very small. . Thus, only 5% of the number of rough diamonds extracted is of gem quality and does not require additional processing operations to obtain diamonds for mounting in jewelry. 70% of the extracted rough diamonds require special and additional processing to be able to make polished diamonds for jewelry, and the remaining 30% is only of industrial quality and is used to make cutting and abrasive tools.


Continuing the discussion on the subject of hardness and strength, we must say that Jade, for example, is very hard, but not hard at all… it cannot be easily broken, but it is soft enough to be modeled with simple tools. A diamond, on the other hand, can only be broken if it is hit in the right place and is so strong that it can only be scratched by another diamond.


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If you think today's billionaires are refined socialites whose fingers shake from the weight of diamond rings, we hasten to disappoint you and show you what the richest women in the world look like.


According to Forbes, every year the number of women who get rich and multiply their fortunes is steadily growing. And probably this year, we could observe the same positive dynamics, if not for the economic crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic. Therefore, in 2021, 228 women were among the richest people on the planet - 13 less than last year. But paradoxically, their combined wealth has increased by $570 billion (as the stock markets slowly start to recover).


Many leaders of last year's rating managed to strengthen their positions (or even improve them). For example, L'Oreal heiress Françoise Bettencourt-Myers broke into the top spot of the Forbes 2021 Women's list, displacing Alice Walton. Her company's stock rose an incredible 40%, so Betancourt-Myers made $24.7 billion rich.


Top richest women in 2022


2020 has also been a successful year for the ex-wife of Amazon founder Jeff Bezos, Mackenzie Scott. She donated almost $6 billion to charity but still managed to increase her fortune. How did it happen? The fact is that after the divorce, Mackenzie became the owner of a 4% stake in Amazon. Their value increased by 66% last year, and thanks to this, Scott's fortune has grown by almost 50%.


The richest newcomer on the list, with $38.2 billion, was Miriam Adelson of Nevada, who inherited her husband's casino empire after his death.


Using the example of the 30 main billionaires in the world, we decided to figure out what and how to do to appear in the Forbes ranking (small spoiler: the shortest way is to be born into a rich family, but it is not the only one).


30. Zhao Yan

Net Worth: $7.7 Billion

Zhao Yan is the chairperson for Hong Kong-listed Bloomage BioTechnology. The company produces hyaluronic acid.


29. Christy Walton

Net Worth: $7.8 Billion


Christy Ruth Walton is the widow of John T. Walton, one of the sons of Sam Walton, founder of Walmart. In June 2005, her husband died in a plane crash, making her the main heir to his US$18.2 billion fortune. Forbes named Christy Walton the richest woman in the world for several years.


28. Diane Hendricks

Net Worth: $8 Billion

Diane Marie Hendrix is an American billionaire businesswoman and film producer from Wisconsin. She is the widow of the late businessman Ken Hendrix.


27. Blair Parry-Okeden

Net Worth: $8.2 Billion

Blair Parry-Okeden is an American-born Australian billionaire and philanthropist. In 2016, she was Australia's richest person by net worth, according to Forbes Asia. Parry-Okeden's wealth comes from Cox Enterprises.


26. Nancy Walton Laurie

Net Worth: $8.2 Billion

Nancy Walton Laurie is an American heiress to the Walmart fortune. She is also a businesswoman and philanthropist.


25. Zeng Fangquin

Net Worth: $8.3 Billion

Zeng Fangquin is the chairperson of Lingyi Technology, a part supplier for smartphones; including Apple and Huawei products. Lingyi Technology was listed on the Shenzhen stock 


24. Cheng Xue

Net Worth: $8.7 Billion

Cheng Xue is the vice-chairman of Chinese soy sauce maker Foshan Haitian Flavoring. Xue currently owns a 9% stake in the company.


23. Ann Walton Kroenke

Net Worth: $9.1 Billion

Ann Walton Kroenke is the heiress to the Walmart fortune. Ann and her sister Nancy Walton Laurie inherited the shares of their father, Bud Walton, who was the brother and one of the first business partners of Walmart founder Sam Walton. She owns the Denver Nuggets in the NBA and the Colorado Avalanche in the NHL.


22. Denise Coates

Net Worth: $9.6 Billion

Denise Coates is a British businesswoman, billionaire, founder, and CEO of the online gambling company Bet365. In October 2019, Forbes magazine estimated Coates' net worth at $12.2 billion.


21. Massimiliana Landini Alleotti

Net Worth: $10.4 Billion

Massimiliano Landini Aleotti is an Italian billionaire heiress, owner of the Menarini pharmaceutical company based in Florence, Tuscany, Italy, and one of the ten richest women in the world. As of February 2016, Forbes estimated her net worth at US$11.6 billion.


20. Kwong Siu-Hing

Net Worth: $12.2 Billion

Kwong Siu-hin, or sometimes Kwok Kwong Siu-Hing, is the matriarch of the Kwok family. She controls conglomerate Sun Hung Kai Properties, the largest real estate developer in Hong Kong in 2019.


19. Wang Laichun

Net Worth: $12.7 Billion

Wang Laichun is a Chinese billionaire chairman and co-founder of electronics manufacturer Luxshare Precision Industry Co., Ltd, better known as Luxshare-ICT. Founded in 2004 in Dongguan, China, the company designs and manufactures computer cables; it is also a key AirPods assembler for Apple.


18. Kirsten Rausing

Net Worth: $13.2 Billion

Kirsten Elisabeth Rausing is a Swedish entrepreneur. The eldest daughter of Swedish industrialist Gad Rausing and his wife Birgit.


17. Abigail Johnson

Net Worth: $15 Billion

Abigail "Abby" Johnson is the granddaughter of Edward Johnson II, a member of the richest family in the United States. American entrepreneur, dollar billionaire, president of the American firm Fidelity Investments and chairman of its subsidiary, one of the richest and most powerful women in the world according to Forbes.


16. Charlene de Carvalho-Heineken

Net Worth: $15.4 Billion

Charlene de Carvalho-Heineken is the heiress of Freddie Heineken, her fortune in 2016 is estimated at approximately $12 billion. Owns a controlling stake in Heineken.


15. Iris Fontbona & Family

Net Worth: $15.5 Billion

Iris Balbina Fontbona Gonzalez is a Chilean mining magnate, media owner, billionaire businesswoman, widow of Andronico Luxica Abaroa, from whom she inherited Antofagasta PLC.


14. Zhou Qunfei & Family

Net Worth: $16.1 Billion

Zhou Qunfei is a Chinese entrepreneur and founder of the major touchscreen maker Lens Technology. After the public listing of her company on the Shenzhen ChiNext market in March 2015, her net worth skyrocketed, making her one of the richest women in China.


13. Gina Rinehart

Net Worth: $16.3 Billion

Gina Rinehart is a large Australian businesswoman, billionaire. Owner of the Australian iron ore company Hancock Prospecting. The richest woman in the world and the richest person in Australia. The fortune for 2020 is estimated at 13.5 billion dollars. She inherited her father's Hancock Prospecting business.


12. Lu Zhongfang

Net Worth: $16.4 Billion

Lu Zhongfang invested in Offcn, a test preparation company, in 1999, after retiring from working in a pesticides factory in 1993. Lu’s son, Liu Yongxin, is the chairman for Offcn. In 2019, Offcn Education Technology was listed on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange.


11. Fan Hongwei & Family

Net Worth: $16.8 Billion

Fan Hongwei is a Chinese chairperson for Hengli Petrochemical, a chemical fiber supplier. 


10. Wu Yajun

Net Worth: $17.9 Billion

Wu Yajun is the co-founder and chairperson of Longfor Properties, a real estate developer based in Hong Kong. 


9. Zhong Huijuan

Net Worth: $18.9 Billion

Zhong Huijuan is a Chinese pharmacist, billionaire, and the world's richest self-made woman. She is the founder, CEO, and chairman of Hanson Pharmaceutical, headquartered in Lianyungang and listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.


8. Laurene Powell Jobs

Net Worth: $19.9 Billion

Lauren Powell Jobs is an American billionaire businesswoman, CEO, and founder of the Emerson Collective, a non-profit organization that, in addition to investing and charitable work, is politically active in the areas of education reform, social services, and redistribution of resources and protection.


7. Susanne Klatten

Net Worth: $24.2 Billion

Susanna Klatten is a German entrepreneur. Born in the family of industrialists Herbert and Johanna Quandt. Heiress and co-owner of the family business associated with BMW.


6. Jacqueline Mars

Net Worth: $28.9 Billion

Jacqueline Mars is an American businesswoman, daughter of Forrest Mars Sr., and granddaughter of Franklin Mars, founder of the American confectionery company Mars, Incorporated. The value of her stake in the company is $11 billion. According to Forbes magazine, Jacqueline is one of the richest women in the world.


5. Yang Huiyan & Family

Net Worth: $30.6 Billion

Yang Huiyan is the richest woman in China. According to Forbes magazine, her fortune is estimated at $16.2 billion as of October 2007. Since the beginning of 2018, in just four days of the exchanges, Yang Huiyan's fortune has grown from $23.6 billion to $25.6 billion. Today her net worth is 30.6 billion.


4. Julia Koch & Family

Net Worth: $44.9 Billion

Julia Margaret Flescher Koch is an American socialite, billionaire, philanthropist, and one of the richest women in the world. She inherited her fortune from her husband David Koch, who died in 2019.


3. MacKenzie Scott

Net Worth: $62.7 Billion

McKenzie Scott is an American writer, philanthropist, and ex-wife of Amazon founder Jeff Bezos. As of 2021, Forbes estimates Scott's net worth at $59.8 billion. As of 2022, MacKenzie Scott's net worth is estimated to be $62.7 Billion.




2. Alice Walton

Net Worth: $68.1 Billion

Alice Louise Walton is an American billionaire, daughter of Walmart founder Sam Walton and his wife Helen Walton. As of May 2018, her fortune was estimated at $41.8 billion. In the Forbes list, she became the second richest woman of 2018 same as in 2022. As of 2022, Alice Walton's net worth is estimated to be $68.1 billion.


1. Francoise Bettencourt Meyers & Family

Net Worth: $69.6 Billion

Francoise Bettencourt Meyers became the reigning L'Oreal heiress when her mother, Liliane Bettencourt, passed away in 2017. She now runs the holding company as chairwoman, with her family owning 33% of L'Oreal.


Françoise Bettencourt-Myers is a French entrepreneur, after the death of her mother Liliane Bettencourt in September 2017, she received an inheritance of $ 39.5 billion. As of March 2022, with a fortune of $ 69.6 billion, she is the richest woman on the planet and ranks 20th in the ranking richest people on earth.



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Scientific progress shows that the boundaries between imagination and reality are blurred. Robots have ceased to be science fiction. Today they are indispensable assistants in many areas of activity. This article will look at what the most advanced robots can look like and what they can do.


It is easy to see why the most urgent need for humanoid-looking robots is now in Asia, mainly Japan and South Korea. The fact remains: development in this direction is most active there, and the public perceives with an explosion all the new items there - Japanese Aibo dogs, of which over 200 thousand have been sold worldwide, established mainly in Japan. The whole point may be in the specific perception of the world around us.


Smartest robots today and how they impress


Some researchers associate the phenomenon with the fact that the Japanese are interested in robots just as partners assistants and see their roots almost in the Japanese tradition of creating mechanical Karakuri dolls for tea ceremonies in the Edo dynasty (1600-1868). Maybe that's why in most cases, as a result of Japanese developments, we don't get an abstract mechanism of screws and pieces of iron, but rather an alloy of new technologies and design discoveries, whether we're talking about creating a complex humanoid robot, a stylized toy dog ​​or even a simple vacuum cleaner.



Curiosity rover - the Gale crater researcher

It is the most advanced third-generation rover to date. NASA spent ten years and 2.5 billion dollars on its development to obtain a great researcher in the end. It is an independent chemical laboratory on wheels, the size of a small car that can research the crater. It was created specifically for the study of the Gale crater. Curiosity is stuffed with instruments and sensors that can do almost everything, from high-resolution photos to spectral analysis of solid ground rocks.


Geminoid DK - the humanoid robot

This is one of the most realistic humanoid robots. It was built by Hiroshi Ishiguro and his colleagues from Japan's Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International. The appearance of this robot is an exact copy of Professor Henrik Scharfe from Aalborg University. The Geminoid DK can be controlled remotely using advanced motion capture technology. It allows the machine to imitate facial expressions and accurately repeat movements.


Baxter - security robot

Baxter is no ordinary industrial robot, although it looks pretty standard. Such models can be found in almost all more or less modern machine-building enterprises. Its main feature is increased security and checking things to be ok. Ordinary industrial robots do not differ at all in this feature. If a person is unfortunate enough to fall under their mechanical pincer hands, everything can end sadly. But not with Baxter. In his "head," a camera makes sure that there are no foreign objects in the field of activity. If they come across, then the ultrasonic motors that control the grips of mechanical "hands" automatically release the "pliers".


Paul - the drawing master

Paul, perhaps, is the least like a robot in the usual sense. But what he does is fantastic. This is a real robot artist, consisting of only one mechanical hand holding a pencil or fountain pen. The drawing process is straightforward: a person sits down in front of a camera that scans his face, and then Paul's "hand" begins to draw a portrait. Moreover, the robot does not draw according to a template; each picture of even the same person turns unique. There is a specific style in his drawings.


Wild cat - the stable robot animal

The development of Boston Dynamics. This is a reconnaissance robot capable of moving over rough terrain and, in gallop mode, which can accelerate to 25.7 km / h. Yes, this robot can gallop. And stop abruptly and turn around. WildCat is incredibly stable.


S One - the best worker

Rescue robot from the Japanese company Schaft, which Google eventually bought (as well as Boston Dynamics). S-One is a small, stocky, highly stable, and robust robot. He can lift weights, wield a drill, easily cope with valves and doorknobs. Thanks to the particular latest developments, the robot's creators managed to achieve incredible speed and smoothness in completing the tasks.


Sub1 - Rubik's cube master

Two US software developers, Jay Flatland and Paul Rose created this robot. The robot consists of 6 stepper motors, four webcams, and a small number of publicly available parts. And his main task is to solve the Rubik's cube. And he does it, just think, in less than one second. Among people, the record for the fastest assembly of the Rubik's Cube now belongs to the American teenager Lucas Etter. In the fall of 2015, he solved the cube in 4.9 seconds. The Sub1 robot took only 0.887 seconds.


Row-bot - the best cleaner

This is the latest development of scientists from the University of Bristol. Row-bot is a prototype robot designed to move around the surface of polluted water bodies and eat microbes that make the water dirty. It is noteworthy that Row-bot uses the “eaten” microbes as biofuel to generate energy and continue to work.


M-2000iA/1700L - the strong buddy

The Japanese company FANUC has developed the most robust robot in the world. His name, of course, is not very harmonious, but the possibilities are awe-inspiring. A strongman robot with an arm span of 4.7 meters can lift objects weighing 1,700 kg. The previous most powerful robot on the planet, Titan, could manipulate objects weighing up to 1 ton, but its “arm” was also slightly longer - 6.5 meters.


Atlas - the snow runner

Boston Dynamics recently unveiled a new generation of its Atlas robot to the general public. B his abilities are simply unique. A bipedal humanoid robot quickly walks through a winter forest with challenging terrain. At the same time, he maintains balance even when his feet fall into the snow. But if it does fail, the robot can independently rise from almost any position.


Actroid DER2 (ho-ho, Dramatic Entertainment Robot) - the realistic girl

Developed by Kokoro Company (Sanrio Group), this actress (actress + android. Wow, a term from the newspeak of the future!) It has more refined hand movements and improved facial expressions than the 2005 model. Facial expressions are pneumatically controlled.


This model can already be programmed to choreograph the movements of the legs and arms to transmit gestures synchronized with the voice. Amazingly accurate transmission of facial expressions and natural skin tones, Actroid DER, is called silicone coating, corresponding to a soft and silky voice. Kokoro rents Actroid DER2 for events to various companies, with a base rate of approximately $ 3,500 for five days, plus some minor royalties and maintenance fees.


Geminoid - professor's best friend

Regarding the development of facial expressions, Hiroshi Ishiguro, a professor at Osaka University and a developer of ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories, is perhaps the most distant. Its double is called Geminoid (Gemini in Latin is just "double, twin", and "-old" is the well-known suffix of the reflection of "similarity"). The robotics made as an exact copy of the teacher - the body with 46 degrees of freedom was copied by at Ishiguro and created by the Kokoro company - the one that produces "stars", and the shape of the skull is made after a volumetric scan of his head. 


Moreover, the android Geminoid also inherited some of the ways of its "parent" twin. Leather material - soft silicone material. Geminoid is connected by a network of power cords and cannot get up from the chair alone. But given what has been achieved in a short time - it took only six months to develop the body and three months to build the software; we can say that the development prospects are very bright.


Robovie-R - moving friend

The third version of this robot costs about $ 41,000 or about 1.4 million rubles. It can communicate with other robots through a local network and is intended for use in museums and malls. Its height is 108 cm, and its weight is 35 kg.


All 17 degrees of freedom of the robot give it high mobility, interaction with users, and understanding of the environment. Due to the large flow of people that can move simultaneously in a small space, the Robovie-R mission becomes difficult but not impossible. A laser rangefinder has been integrated into the robot to determine the safest path to follow. The robot is sensitive to touch due to the 11 touch sensors integrated into its structure.



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