50 facts about England that will surprise you
If you have been learning English since childhood, firmly remember that London is the capital of Great Britain. You have watched many British TV shows, but this does not mean that you know everything about England. This country still has something to surprise you with!
Best facts about England
1) Until 1832, only two universities in England were Oxford and Cambridge.
2) England is one of the most student countries in the world. With 106 universities and five university colleges, England is among the world's top countries in terms of educational institutions. It is one of the leaders in the number of universities annually included in international rankings.
3) About 500,000 foreigners come to study in England every year. According to this indicator, the country is second only to America.
4) According to statistics, international students often come to England to study business, engineering, computer science, biomedicine, and law.
5) From year to year, London is recognized as the best student city globally according to the authoritative QS Best Student Cities ranking.
6) School uniforms still exist in England. It is believed that she disciplines students and maintains a sense of equality in them.
7) The English language that we learn from school is nothing more than a mixture of German, Dutch, Danish, French, Latin, and Celtic. And this quite capaciously reflects the influence of all these peoples on the history of the British Isles.
8) In total, the inhabitants of England speak 300+ languages.
9) And that's not all! Get ready for the fact that you will encounter a variety of English accents in England - Cockney, Liverpool, Scottish, American, Welsh, and even aristocratic English.
10) No matter where you go in England, you will never be more than 115 km from the ocean.
Facts about London
11) Traveling from England to the continent and back is more accessible. An underwater tunnel connects England and France for cars and trains.
12) London is a very international city. 25% of its residents are ex-pats born outside the UK.
13) The London Underground is known as the oldest in the world. And yet, it is the most expensive to maintain and, at the same time, one of the most unreliable.
14) By the way, the London Underground has unique venues for musicians to perform.
15) About 80,000 umbrellas are lost on the London Underground every year. Given the changeable weather, this is the most characteristic English accessory!
16) By the way, the raincoat was invented by an Englishman, and it was the British were the first to use an umbrella to protect themselves from the rain. Before that, it served mainly for protection from the sun.
17) But heavy London rains are more of a myth. The weather here is changeable, but, statistically, more precipitation falls, for example, in Rome and Sydney.
18) The City of London is nothing more than a ceremonial county in the center of the British capital. It has its mayor, coat of arms and anthem, and fire and police departments.
19) In England, the monarchy is respected. Even a stamp with a portrait of the queen cannot be pasted upside down, which would never occur to anyone!
More facts about Queen Elizabeth
20) Also, the Queen of England cannot be sued, and she never had her passport.
21) Queen Elizabeth II personally sends every Englishman who turns 100 a greeting card.
22) All swans living on the River Thames belong to Queen Elizabeth. The royal family established ownership of all the swans on the river back in the 19th century when they were served at the royal table. Although swans are not eaten in England today, the law has remained unchanged.
23) In addition, Queen Elizabeth is the owner of whales, dolphins, and all sturgeon, located in the country's territorial waters.
24) Windsor Palace is a special pride of the British crown and nation. It is the oldest and largest castle where people still live.
25) By the way, Queen Elizabeth can rightfully be considered the most advanced grandmother globally. The Queen of England sent her first email back in 1976!
Facts you didn’t know about England
26) Have you heard the English like to line up everywhere? So there is a profession of "standing in line in England." A person will defend any queue for you. His services cost, on average, £20 per hour.
27) The British value privacy highly. It is not customary to come to visit without an invitation or ask too personal questions.
28) A melody from an advertisement or a movie that gets stuck in the head for a long time is called “earworm” in England.
29) The British take 1st place in the world regarding the amount of tea they drink. More than 165 million cups of tea are drunk every day across the UK.
30) Great Britain is the only country on the stamps in which the state's name is not indicated. This happened because Great Britain was the first to start using postage stamps.
31) In England, they don't believe in omens. More precisely, they believe, but vice versa. For example, a black cat running across the road is considered a good omen here.
Facts about animals in England
32) The British love the theater, and in particular - musicals. The Theater Royal, Bristol, has been playing Cats since 1766!
33) In England, they give birth to pets in agreement with exceptional services, and homeless animals in the country are a rarity.
34) The first zoo in the world was opened in England.
35) And the fabulous bear cub Winnie the Pooh got his name thanks to a real bear from the London Zoo.
36) England is a country with a rich sports history. Here, football, the equestrian field, and rugby got their start.
37) The British have a peculiar idea of hygiene. Here they can wash all the dirty dishes in one basin (all because of saving water!), And not take off their street shoes in the house or put things on the floor in a public place - in the order of things.
Food in England
38) Traditional English cuisine is quite rough and straightforward. It has been repeatedly recognized as one of the most tasteless globally.
39) For breakfast, many English people eat eggs with sausages, beans, mushrooms, bacon, and not oatmeal.
40) There are a lot of Indian restaurants and fast foods in England, and the British already call the Indian "chicken tikka masala" their national dish.
41) The British assure that only they can fully understand English humor. It is so subtle, ironic, and specific. Indeed, many foreigners have a problem due to insufficient language knowledge.
42) The British love pubs. Most of the country's inhabitants visit the pub several times a week, and some - every day after work.
43) A British pub is a place where everyone knows each other. People come here not only to drink but also to chat and learn the latest news. The establishment's owner often stands behind the bar himself, and the regulars treat him with drinks instead of tips at their own expense.
Rules in England
44) But you can’t get drunk in English pubs. The laws of the country officially prohibit it. We do not advise you to check whether these laws work in practice!
45) In England, it is customary to be polite. In a conversation with an Englishman, a lot of "thank you," "please," and "excuse me" do not happen.
46) Be prepared because almost nowhere in England there are electrical outlets in the bathrooms. The reason for this is the security measures taken in the country.
47) Farming is developed in England, and there are more chickens in the country than inhabitants.
48) There are many fantastic festivals and events in England every year - from the Coopershill Cheese Race and the Weird Arts Festival to The Good Life Experience, a return to simple pleasures, and the nostalgic Goodwood Festival for lovers of the 60s.
49) All English TV channels have ads, except for the BBC. This is because the viewers themselves pay for the work of this channel. If a family in England decides to get a TV broadcast, they must pay around £145 a year for a license.
50) William Shakespeare is known not only for his literary works but also for adding more than 1,700 words to his English dictionary. Among the words that first appear in English in the works of Shakespeare are "gossip," "bedroom," "fashionable," and "alligator." And you thought they were always in English?
London is the capital of Great Britain and one of the largest cities in Europe, which is the world center of culture, music, education, fashion, politics, finance and trade. It is a vibrant and bustling metropolis with a dynamic life and a wonderful cosmopolitan atmosphere. London is one of the oldest cities in Europe, which has an amazing concentration of a variety of sights, historical and cultural monuments: luxurious palaces, historical buildings, towers, bridges, ancient churches, attractions and world-class museums.
London was founded during the Roman Empire and throughout its rich history has been one of the most important cities in Europe. All the wealth of the United Kingdom flocked here, so its capital has magnificent sights from various historical eras. London is one of the most multifaceted cities in the world, which has absorbed not only the traditions of Britain, but also the cultures of many nationalities and peoples. It is a place of amazing diversity to be discovered and explored endlessly.
London can be visited all year round, so the best time to visit it depends entirely on your preferences. There are fewer tourists in the capital of the United Kingdom during the off-season, so it's easier to book a good hotel and you can comfortably explore the city. There are many festivals and cultural events in London in the summer, but there are also many more tourists.
London is one of the world's shopping capitals. Here is the largest department store in Europe - Harrods, where you can find almost everything. Also in the capital of Great Britain is a huge shopping center - Westfield, which includes 300 stores. The main shopping area is the West End (Oxford Street, Regent Street, Bond Street, Piccadilly and Covent Garden). Near London Bridge is the Borough food market, although it is relatively expensive. Brushfield is home to an old fruit market that now sells up-and-coming designers, housewares and food.
Food in London caters to all tastes. Here you can find everything from fast food and inexpensive pubs to exclusive restaurants. In London, a standard tourist rule applies - food near popular attractions and in the central part of the city is more expensive. Many locals go to restaurants in residential and working areas, where the quality of food and service is higher and prices are lower.
Below you can read more interesting facts.
1. The English capital is about two thousand years old. No one knows the exact date of foundation.
2. In the past, London was known as Londinium, Augusta, Lundenwick and Lundenburch.
3. Native Englishmen make up about 50% of the population of the capital of Great Britain. The rest are mostly from Africa and Asia.
4. The first Londinium was burned by the Britons during their revolt against the Romans.
5. In the 9th century, a huge army of pagan Vikings captured half of England, avenging the death of their king Ragnar. It controlled the territories of London and its environs for 15 years.
6. Judging by archaeological finds, primitive people lived on the site of modern London long before the foundation of the city.
7. Indigenous people in different parts of London have different accents. Foreigners do not notice this, but the locals determine it accurately.
8. Because of the monstrous prices for real estate, most citizens in London rent a house all their lives, and do not buy it.
9. Every Friday every London pub is packed to capacity. Most locals book tables well in advance.
It is impossible to see a stray cat or dog on the streets of London.
10. Residents of London can easily walk around in a T-shirt and jeans, for example, in November. Like their Irish neighbors, they are not afraid of the cold.
11. The apartments here, with rare exceptions, are very cramped. Many also live in old houses with communication problems.
12. London is in the top 10 most expensive cities in the world every year.
13. Drivers of traditional cabs in London know the whole city from memory down to the small lanes.
14. Navigators are not allowed to use them. This rule does not apply to ordinary yellow taxis.
15. You can find at least one bike rental on any major London street.
16. The most popular fast food in London is Indian cuisine.
17. London police officers do not carry firearms.
18. There are usually no washing machines for London apartments, so there is a laundry service on every corner.
19. Every year, people forget about 80,000 umbrellas on the London Underground.
20. Contrary to popular myth, it doesn't rain as often in London as you might think. For example, even in Rome or Milan there is more rainfall than here.
21. According to ancient law, London has the right to refuse the reigning English monarch entry into the capital.
22. Londoners never go out without taking an umbrella with them. Yes, just in case.
23. On one of the branches of the London Underground, trains are fully automated, and they travel without the help of drivers.
24. And here it is customary to leave to read newspapers right in the subway so that someone else can read them. By the way, they are still very popular in London, despite the development of modern technology.
25. The most popular pet in London is a dog, despite the fact that many landlords forbid tenants from keeping pets.
26. Every year, a Christmas tree sent from Norway is set up in London's Trafalgar Square. This is a token of appreciation from the people of Oslo for helping Britain during World War II.
27. Driving into central London costs money.
28. Big Ben is not called the famous London clock tower, but the bell installed in it.
29. Some retail outlets in London only accept credit cards.
30. Most of London's cinemas are specialized - one shows comedies, another shows Hollywood blockbusters, and a third shows retro movies.
31. There are about 5,000 pubs in London. This is more than even in Dublin.
32. Most of London's museums are free to enter, but donations are welcome.
33. About 20 underground rivers flow under London.
34. The multinationality of London society is evidenced by the fact that the locals speak about 300 different languages.
35. Among all the cities in the world, London occupies one of the first places in terms of the number of billionaires living in it.
36. The famous movable Tower Bridge in London weighs 2000 tons, while it takes just one minute to open.
37. It was here that the world's first subway was built.
38. The foggy London stereotype arose from the fact that during the era of the development of local industry, the city was constantly wrapped in thick smog. In fact, fogs are rare here, and mostly in the cold season.
39. In summer it is rarely warmer than +20, but in winter the temperature rarely drops below 0 degrees.
40. In terms of population, London ranks second in Europe, second only to Moscow.
41. Many streets, especially in older areas, are confusing and very winding, so many Londoners carry a map of the city with them.
42. Lines are everywhere here - in museums, pubs and restaurants. Even in the USSR there were not so many queues.
43. London is the only city in the world to have hosted the Olympic Games three times.
44. Less than 50% of Londoners are Christians.
45. The famous Westminster Abbey in London was built over almost 700 years.
46. One of the ancient laws obliges London hotels to accept not only guests, but also their horses.
Buckingham Palace in London consists of 600 rooms.
47. In the USA, as many as 8 cities are called London (interesting facts about the USA).
48. From the center of London to the center of Paris can be reached by high-speed train in just 2 hours.
49. The exact age of London is unknown, but, judging by the chronicles found, it is about two thousand years old.
50. In the Tower of London, the ravens that live there are looked after by a special caretaker. There is a legend that Great Britain will fall when these birds leave the Tower (see interesting facts about birds).
51. There are two types of taxis in London - ordinary and traditional London cabs. To get a cab driver's license, you have to pass the most difficult test on the knowledge of absolutely all London streets, because traditionally cab drivers do not use maps or navigators.
52. London is the largest city in the European Union, and concurrently the second largest in Europe as a whole.
53. Founded by the Romans, London was originally called in the Roman manner - Londinium.
54. For a hundred years, from 1985 to 1925, London was the largest city in the world.
55. Every year at Christmas in Trafalgar Square in London, a Christmas tree is sent from Oslo. This is a token of gratitude for the help provided to Norway during the Second World War (see interesting facts about Oslo).
56. Driving into the center of London during the daytime is paid, and, by the way, costs a lot - ten pounds sterling.
57. There is a statue of George Washington in London, but it was installed on land brought from the United States, because Washington declared during his lifetime that "do not set foot on English soil again."
58. London's famous Big Ben is not a tower, contrary to popular myth. "Big Ben" is the name of the bell tower installed there, and the tower itself is called "Elizabeth"
59. Twenty hidden rivers flow under London (see interesting facts about rivers).
60. The code of rules for ships entering London harbor still allows the constable of the Tower to demand a barrel of rum from each ship as a duty.
61. The inhabitants of London speak more than three hundred languages, which makes London the most multilingual city in the world. However, in English here anyway, of course, everyone speaks.
62. Local law forbids you from hailing a taxi on the streets of London if you are infected with the plague.
63. All London buses became red in 1907. Before that, they were painted in different colors.
64. London is the largest city in the UK. About a third less people live here than in Moscow, and almost fifty times more than in Paris.
65. One of London's museums houses a collection of items left behind by passengers on the London Underground. It includes such extravagant items as a human skull, a samurai sword, a coffin and a puffer fish.
66. London Heathrow Airport receives and sends more international flights than any other airport in the world.
67. During the fire of 1666 in London, about 70 thousand people were left without a roof over their heads, despite the fact that then the population of this city was only 80 thousand.
68. The world's first zoo opened in London. This significant event took place back in 1828.
69. There are over a thousand streets in London.
70. Contrary to popular belief, London is not a rainy city at all. On the contrary, it is one of the driest in Europe. But there are really many cloudy days here.
71. Buses in London run around the clock.
72. The cheapest transport in London is a bicycle. You can rent it on almost every street, and a daily rental will cost half the price of the shortest metro ride.
73. In 2012, the city hosted the Olympics for the third time, no other city has received such an honor.
74. Many museums in London are free to visit, although you can make a voluntary donation if you wish.
75. Eternal rain in London is a common myth. In fact, there is no more precipitation here than, for example, in Rome, but it can start to rain suddenly and end just as suddenly, so it is customary for locals to always carry an umbrella with them.
76. The London Eye Ferris wheel is one of the largest in the world. There are 32 booths fixed on the circle (according to the number of districts of the city), each of which can accommodate 25 people. A full turn of the wheel takes half an hour. The "Eye" is an important element of the pyrotechnic shows that are held on New Year's Eve and other holidays; fireworks are also launched from it.
77. If Japanese restaurants and pizzerias are widespread in Russia, then in London the championship belongs to Indian cuisine.
78. There are as many as 6 airports in London and its environs. Heathrow is the most famous of them, and also the busiest in Europe.
79. There are almost no traffic jams in the central part of the city. The secret is simple - since 2003, on weekdays, entry here is paid and is more than 12 pounds. Moreover, entry in an old car that does not meet environmental standards will cost twice as much.
80. The London Underground is one of the largest in the world with 270 stations. It is also the oldest in the world, its first branch was opened in 1863. The people call the subway Underground (“subway”) or Tube (“pipe”). The fare varies depending on the metro area. The stations have special places for musicians to perform, and it is customary to leave the newspapers in the car, where someone else can read them.
81. London has a Tramlink tram system, but it operates only in south London in the Croydon area and has only 4 routes. The fact is that there is no subway in this part of the city.
82. London is the only place where you need to study to become a taxi driver, and the training takes several years and involves passing the most difficult exams. The fact is that it is not customary for local taxi drivers to use maps, and even more so navigators, they must remember all the streets and even houses by heart! Not surprisingly, about 70% of applicants do not stand up to training. Naturally, we are talking about black taxi cabs that have become the hallmark of the city. It is they who have the right to play the streets and put passengers anywhere, but the prices in them bite. There are also simpler taxis in the city, but they only work on specific calls. If you need to use a transfer to the airport, we recommend that you order a Russian taxi in London. Reasonable price and quality service guaranteed.
83. Famous red double decker buses are called double deckers. The first buses of this type appeared on the streets in 1956.
84. In many places of the city there are parking lots with bicycles that can be rented with a bank card.
85. The Greenwich meridian passes through London, which in 1884 was decided to be considered zero (until that moment, different countries counted longitude from their national meridians). It used to pass through the observatory in the town of Greenwich, but now the town has become one of the districts of the sprawling capital.
86. Under London there are many underground rivers and streams. In the Victorian era, they were hidden underground - in the sewer system. At that time, it was the right decision, because Londoners threw garbage at them and poured sewage.
87. The Tower of London on the banks of the Thames is considered one of the oldest buildings in the UK. Its construction is attributed to William I, the legendary Norman conqueror who radically changed the whole way of Great Britain. Construction began in 1066 and ended in 1078. Later, Richard the Lionheart ordered to build several more towers and dig a moat around the fortress, and from 1190 the fortress gradually began to turn into a prison and a place of executions, and representatives of the nobility and even unsuccessful monarchs often became prisoners. King Henry VIII and his descendants were especially zealous in this matter in the 16th-17th centuries. It was only after World War II that they stopped keeping prisoners. Part of the fortress was occupied for a long time by the mint and the menagerie, later transferred to the London Zoo. Today, the Tower has become a museum and repository of the treasures of the British crown. Among the staff of the modern Tower there is a ravenmaster - an employee who monitors the well-being of the local flock of crows. There is a belief that when they leave the fortress, many misfortunes await the country. To prevent this from happening, crows have their wings clipped.
88. Big Ben is another well-known landmark that is actually not called that. The clock tower of the Palace of Westminster bears the name of Elizabeth, and "Big Ben" is not even the name of the clock, but the largest of the six bells inside the tower.
89. The London Zoo has been operating since 1828 and is the oldest in the world. Interestingly, it does not receive government funding and exists on proceeds from ticket sales, charitable fees and donations.
90. Like other major cities, London has not been spared by great tragedies. In 1952, the Great Smog hung over the city for several days - a toxic fog that led to the death of several thousand people. Immediately after this environmental disaster, the Clean Air Act was passed, but London is still considered one of the most polluted European cities today.
91. In 1666, during the Great Fire of London, most of the city burned out in just three days. The exact number of victims is unknown, the fact remains that more than 80% of the population was left homeless, and the restoration of the city took more than a dozen years. Although everything can be found pluses. For example, the fire helped to cope with the Great Plague Epidemic, which at that time had been raging in the capital for a year.
92. The Great Stench is another environmental disaster in London's history. In 1858, there was no sewerage in the largest city in Europe. And during the hot summer, the Thames overflowed with sewage and poisoned the surrounding areas. Cholera began to spread (they did not yet know that it was transmitted through water), there was a disgusting stench, residents fled to the suburbs, and the British Parliament resigned. The disaster ended by itself with the advent of rainy weather, but the government realized that the problem had to be dealt with somehow, and a year later a sewer system appeared in London.
93. The city is the main political, cultural and economic center of Britain.
94. In the Tower, a local fortress, a special person watches over the ravens living in its territories. According to one legend, Great Britain will fall immediately after the birds leave the fortress.
95. An interesting fact is that in London, anyone can, instead of a traditional taxi, call a cab - a horse-drawn carriage.
96. There are 20 piped rivers flowing under the surface of London.
97. Did you know that over 300 languages are spoken in this capital, making London the most multilingual city on earth. But there is no doubt that everyone here knows English.
98. The British take their culture and traditions very seriously. As a result, the tower constable has the right to demand from the ships entering the harbor - a barrel of rum.
99. By law, a person suffering from the plague is not allowed to call a taxi.
100. Since 1907, all London buses have been painted red, although before that they were of a wide variety of colors and shades.
Now it is difficult to imagine the football life of Europe without such a tournament as the Champions League. However, the history of this tournament is not much more than 50 years old.
Preparations for the first draw of the most prestigious European club trophy started a month after the first UEFA Congress, held on March 2, 1955 in Vienna. Interestingly, the idea of organizing the "European Cup" did not belong to the football union.
At that time, members of the football union were concerned about the organization of tournaments with national teams, and the editor of the French sports newspaper L'Equipe ("Equipe") Gabriel Hanot suggested the creation of a club tournament on a European scale. !December 6, 1954, the next issue of the newspaper came out with a catchy "hat" - "We offer the football European Cup." Ano and his colleague Jacques Ferrand proposed to play the matches of the new tournament on Wednesday evening.
Ano's proposal received a favorable response from most of Europe's top teams. Already in January 1955, the editors of "Ekip" sent out to all European clubs and football associations the regulation on the draw, which, with minor changes, was valid until the beginning of the 90s. On April 2, sixteen representatives of European club football gathered in Paris and signed a document on the birth of a new competition - the European Champions Cup.
Bemorepanda collected some interesting facts about the UEFA Champions League.
1. France is the country with the most players (471)
2. Players from 124 nationalities participated in matches
3. Daniel Amokachi - scorer of the first goal (11/25/1992 Brugge-CSKA 1:0)
4. Lionel Messi and Luis Adriano have scored the most goals in one match (5)
5. Francesco Totti is the oldest goalscorer (38 years and 59 days)
6. Celestine Babayaro - the youngest debutant (16 years and 87 days)
7. Raul is the youngest hat-tricker at the age of 18 years 114 days (10/18/1995 Real Madrid 6-1 Ferencváros (24, 25, 84 minutes)
8. 13 Spanish teams have participated in at least one Champions League (Atletico, Atlético, Barcelona, Betis, Valencia, Villarreal, Deportivo, Málaga, Mallorca, Real Madrid, Real Sociedad, Sevilla, Celta)
9. Luis Figo and Ruud Van Nistelrooy have scored the most penalties (10)
10. Manchester United - team with the most draws (52 times)
11. Most own goals scored by Barcelona (9)
According to the rules agreed by the organizers, participation in the drawing of the champions of individual countries was not mandatory at first. The L'Equipe team considered that it would be more profitable to invite the most popular clubs to participate in the tournament.
June 21, 1955 The UEFA Emergency Committee decides to organize a tournament called the European Cup. It is noteworthy that by this moment even the pairs of teams of the 1/8 finals had already been named - the only case when the composition of the pairs was determined not by a draw, but by the organizers. Despite the name, not all participants represented the champions of their countries, and many national federations refused to delegate their representatives to the European Cup. Among those who refused were the founders of football, the British, as well as the USSR.
So, 16 teams participated in the first draw, divided at the discretion of the organizers into eight pairs (drawing lots were already held at the subsequent stages). The first match of the European Cup took place on September 4, 1955 in Lisbon. The honor to open a new competition fell to the local "Sporting" and the Belgrade "Partizan". In the debut match of the new tournament, "Sporting" and "Partizan" scored each other three goals. In the second leg in Belgrade, the Yugoslavs celebrated the victory with a score of 5: 2, and they advanced to the next round.). The Portuguese striker Martins became the author of the first goal scored in the 14th minute after the start of the match.
The first Champions Cup final was played in Paris on June 13, 1956 between the teams Stade de Reims and Real Madrid (Madrid) and ended with a score of 3:4, in favor of Madrid.
During the first five draws, the best club team was the Spanish "Real" (Madrid), which was a kind of team made up of the "stars" of South American and European football. He had the longest winning streak, subsequently winning the trophy after another 5 years, however, he had to wait 32 years for the next win, when in 1998 he finally won the Champions League Cup.
In addition to Real Madrid, Ajax and Bayern had a series of victories, and Liverpool won four victories between 1977 and 1984 with four almost different compositions.
12. Marco Van Basten - the author of the first hat-trick in the Champions League (11/25/1992 Milan-Gothenburg)
13. Glasgow Rangers - the team that won the first away victory (09.12.1992 CSKA-Glasgow Rangers 0:1). Although formally the meeting was held in Bochum (Germany)
14. Donetsk Shakhtar - the author of the biggest away victory 7:0
15. Real Madrid have not scored the most penalties (11)
16. Most referees sent off players against Barcelona (29 times)
17. Real Madrid is the team with the most wins in a single competition (12 - 2001/2002)
18. Maccabi Haifa (2009/2010) and Deportivo (2005/2005) didn't score a single goal
19. Iker Casillas is the player with the most starts (149 times) and the most finisher (145 times)
20. Alessandro Nesta - player who has not scored in 99 matches
The turning point in the development of the tournament is the 1992/93 season, when the Champions League came to replace the Champions Cup. The group stage tested a year before was added to the playoff stages. The growth in popularity has led to the fact that the number of participants in the main draw of the tournament has grown over time from 16 to 32. Champions League matches are played on Tuesdays and Wednesdays.
The popularity of the European Cup and the number of its participants grew every year, and soon two more tournaments appeared in Europe - the Cup Winners' Cup (now merged with the UEFA Cup) and the Fairs Cup (now the UEFA Cup).
There are three qualifying rounds. They involve the champions of those countries that have a "low" football level, as well as teams from countries of a "high" football level that have not taken the necessary places to get into the main draw automatically. The participating teams are divided into pairs and play two matches according to UEFA rules (home and away matches). Teams that are defeated in the 1st and 2nd qualifying rounds on aggregate leave the tournament. If a football club loses in the 3rd quarter. round, he advances to the 1st round of the UEFA Cup. Teams that successfully pass the qualifying rounds enter the main draw of the Champions League.
The group stage is the first stage of the Champions League main draw. 32 European teams play here. Participants are divided into 8 groups of 4 teams each (groups A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H). Each football club must play with opponents in the group twice (home and away matches). Teams that take first and second place in their group go to the 1/8 finals of the Champions League. The third-placed football club continues to play in Europe, namely, in 1/16 of the UEFA Cup.
16 teams participate in the 1/8 finals. Participants are divided into pairs, two matches are played according to the rules of UEFA (home and away matches). The winner of the pair advances to the quarter-finals, and the winners of the quarter-finals to the semi-finals. Matches 1/4 and 1/2 finals of the Champions League are held by analogy with the 1/8 finals. Only in 1/4 there are already 8 teams (4 pairs), and in 1/2 - 4 teams (two pairs). The winners of the two semi-final pairs meet in the final, where they will compete for the most important and prestigious football trophy in Europe.
The final consists of one match. The venue for the final is determined long before the start of the Champions League tournament. In case of a draw after the end of normal time, two more halves of 15 minutes are added before the Silver goal. If the score remains tied after two added halves, the match is decided in a penalty shoot-out. The winner of the Champions League receives a cup, which you can find out about on this website in the section "About the main trophy"
21. Vanden Borre - 23 consecutive unbeaten player
22. Xavi is the player with the most wins (91)
23. Raul was the first to play 100 Champions League matches
24. Cristiano Ronaldo opened the scoring most times in matches (29 times)
25. Biggest win in tournament history - Liverpool-Besiktas 8-0 (06.11.2007)
26. Carles Puyol as captain has won the most trophy - 3 times
27. Roy Makaay - the author of the fastest goal 10.12 seconds (03/07/2007 Bayern-Real Madrid)
28. Milan most played in finals (6 times), Bayern, Barcelona and Juventus (5 times), Real Madrid and Manchester United 4 times each
29. Juventus lost the most finals (4 times), Milan and Bayern 3 times each
30. Real Madrid (4) and Porto (1) have never lost a final
31. Cristiano Ronaldo has scored the most in one competition - 17 goals (2013/2014)
32. The biggest difference in the final - Milan-Barcelona (4:0) 05/18/1994
33. Liverpool-Milan (3:3) - the most productive final (05/25/2005)
34. 5 players scored doubles in finals - Daniele Massaro (1993/1994), Karl Heinz Riedle (1996/1997), Hernan Crespo (2004/2005), Filippo Inzaghi (2006/2007), Diego Milito (2009/2010)
35. 4 players scored in two finals - Raul (1999/2000 and 2001/2002), Cristiano Ronaldo (2007/2008 and 2013/2014), Lionel Messi (2008/2009 and 2010/2011), Samuel Eto'o (2005 /2006 and 2008/2009)
36. Carlo Ancelotti has won the trophy three times (2002/2003, 2006/2007 with Milan and 2013/2014 with Real Madrid)
37. Coaches who won the trophy with different teams - Otmar Hitzfeld (Borussia Dortmund 1996/1997 and Bayern Munich 2000/2001), Jupp Heynckess (Real Madrid 1997/1998 and Bayern Munich 2012/2013), José Mourinho (Porto 2003/2004 and Inter 2009 /2010), Carlo Ancelotti (Milan 2002/2003, 2006/2007 and Real Madrid 2013/2014)
38. The oldest winning coach - Raymond Gutals (71 years and 232 days)
39. 6 times the winner was determined in a penalty shootout - Juventus-Ajax (1995/1996), Bayern-Valencia (2000/2001), Milan-Juventus (2002/2003), Liverpool-Milan (2004/2005), Manchester United-Chelsea (2007/2008), Chelsea-Bayern (2011/2012)
40. 1 time winner determined in extra time - Real Madrid-Atletico 2013/2014 (4:1)
41. The oldest field player - Alessandro Costacurta 40 years and 213 days (21.11.2006 AEK - Milan 1:0)
42. Clarence Seedorf is the only one to win the Champions League with 3 different clubs (Ajax 1994/1995, Real Madrid 1997/1998, Milan 2002/2003, 2006/2007)
43. Frank Rijkaard is the only one to have won the Champions League as a player (Ajax 1994/1995) and coach (Barcelona 2005/2006)
44. Final Milan-Liverpool (2004/2005, 2006/2007) and Barcelona-Manchester United (2008/2009, 2010/2011) played twice
45. Real Madrid and Bayern are the teams with the most consecutive victories (10)
46. 130 teams have participated in the tournament at least once
47. Barcelona have won the most away games - 45 matches
48. 20 different stadiums hosted the Champions League final
49. 13 of them had a different winner
50. 14 teams lost every match in the Champions League group stage - Kosice (1997/1998), Fenerbahce (2001/2002), Spartak Moscow (2002/2003), Anderlecht (2004/2005), Rapid (2005/2006), Levski (2006/2007), Dynamo Kyiv (2007/2008), Debrecen (2009/2010), Zilina (2010/2011), Partizan (2010/2011), Maccabi Haifa (2009/2010), Villarreal (2011/2012), Ocelul (2011/2012), Olympique Marseille (2103/2014)
The French Open tennis championship is held every year in Paris, organized by the country's tennis association. Roland Garros (this is the more well-known name of the event) is one of the Grand Slam tournaments, it is on the list of the most prestigious and grandiose international competitions.
Matches can be watched both from the stands of the courts and live on a huge screen installed in Paris on the square in front of the City Hall. The screening is free, and there are not many seats in front of the screen, so the audience lands anywhere: on benches, fences, platforms and on the ground. Dates: 05/30/2021 - 06/13/2021
In total, five titles will be played on the courts of the Roland Garros tennis center:
- men's singles;
- women's singles;
- men's doubles;
- women's doubles;
- mixed doubles.
Singles are the most popular among fans. In the men's part of the tournament, the most titled participant in the tournament is Rafael Nadal, who already has 11 titles in the French Grand Slam. In women's tennis, everything is less predictable: over the past five years, not a single tennis player has managed to become the champion of the French Open twice. Who will win Roland Garros 2022? Should we expect sensations? Will any of the favorites disappoint? Let's try to figure it out!
2022 French Open schedule
Roland Garros 2022 qualification matches will begin on May 10 and will be held in three rounds. The main tournament starts on May 16 and will last for two weeks. The women's final will take place on June 4, while the men will face each other in the main match on June 5. On the way to the title, the future champion will have to overcome seven rounds.
2022 French Open favorites for men
The most titled tennis player in Roland Garros is Rafael Nadal, who has already won 13 titles in France. In Nadal's 16-year history at the French Open, he has suffered only three defeats: in 2009, a surprise victory was won by Swede Robin Soderling, and in 2015 and 2021, Nadal was knocked out by Novak Djokovic. Since 2005, there has only been another champion four times: in 2009, in the final, Roger Federer beat the same Robin Soderling, in 2015, Stanislas Wawrinka defeated Novak Djokovic, and a year later, Djokovic himself turned out to be stronger than Andy Murray. And in 2021, Djokovic was able to put the squeeze on Stefanos Tsitsipas, losing the first two sets.
Of course, the main favorite after Rafael Nadal is the only person among the current athletes who managed to beat the Spaniard twice on the courts of Roland Garros. Novak Djokovic was able to overcome the most difficult segment of his career, during which he was worried about an elbow injury. Starting in 2018, the Serb did not just begin to resemble his former self and even established himself as the best tennis player in the world, taking eight Grand Slams in less than four years.
Other contenders for high places include primarily Stefanos Tsitsipas, who last season made very serious progress in the game on clay and even reached the final of last year's Slam in Paris. A month before Roland Garros, the Greek almost stopped Nadal in Barcelona, losing in a dramatic game in three games.
In addition to the Greek, it is worth noting Dominic Thiem, the winner of the US Open-2020 and the finalist of Roland Garros-2019, who fell under the hand of Rafa. Although last year the Austrian performed more successfully on hard. In the last two draws of this tournament, Diego Schwartzman announced himself, having lost twice to Nadal in the later stages. The last time the Argentine was able to take the game from the titled Spaniard.
Alexander Zverev is increasingly reaching the later stages of big tournaments, including Roland Garros. So last year he almost reached the final, losing to his direct competitor Stefanos Tsitsipas in five games. It seems that NextGen is on the heels of the Djokovic-Nadal-Federer trio.
Tennis, unlike all team sports, is very subject to unpredictability. The result of the meeting does not depend on the whole team of players, where the result is the sum of the actions of all the elements of the team, but on one athlete, who at any moment can get injured or an ordinary illness, which will lead to his defeat.
French Open 2022 Women's Favorites
The women's part of the Roland Garros tournament is famous for its unpredictability. So last year, the unseeded Czech tennis player Barbora Kreychikova became the winner of the French Open, defeating Anastasia Pavlyuchenkova in the final - 6:1, 2:6, 6:4.
As for the world elite, even the legendary Serena Williams won only three titles in France, while she has seven trophies in Australia and the UK, and six in the USA. The main favorites for the 2022 French Open are the winners of 2018 and 2019, Romanian tennis player Simona Halep and Australian Ashleigh Barty, who won Wimbledon last season.
Serena Williams cannot be discounted, who in the very first season after returning to big-time sports was able to reach the final of the US Open. There is every reason to believe that in the upcoming season she will be able to return to her former unstoppable level and compete with her young rivals.
Novak Djokovic to miss French Open 2022? ATP sets a marker and informs players about mandatory vaccinations for Roland Garros
Novak Djokovic was unable to defend his title at the Australian Open in Melbourne as he was sent home. The Serb's visa was canceled twice and his second appeal was rejected. The 34-year-old athlete is not vaccinated, so he even risks competing at the 2022 French Open.
Now the ATP, the leading organization in men's tennis, has set a marker and informed players that they need to be vaccinated to participate in Roland Garros, which will take place in May-June. An email sent to ATP players reported that the subject of the email read: "IMPORTANT: Vaccination requirements in France."
The statement adds that in order to compete in the 2022 French Open, players must be vaccinated and only a medical exception due to an adverse reaction to the vaccine can be considered. However, the final requirements will soon be available to all players.
French Open 2022 requires vaccination against COVID-19
It was thought that the French Open could be the only Grand Slam where Novak Djokovic could compete without being vaccinated. However, according to the latest letter from the ATP, the Serb must get the jab if he is going to compete in Paris.
“The French Tennis Federation has informed us that the French government will soon pass a law banning unvaccinated athletes from participating in any sporting events. The law is awaiting final adoption, but is likely to come into force in the coming days." read the letter.
The letter also added that the rules are expected to be in place indefinitely and further clarification is pending. French tennis hopes to avoid the confusion created by Tennis Australia, the Australian government and the Victorian government's bad communication that led to the Novak Djokovic visa fiasco.
The 2022 UEFA Champions League Final will take place on 28 May 2022. This will be the 67th season of UEFA's premier European football club competition and the 30th season since the European Cup was renamed the UEFA Champions League. The winner of the final will qualify to play the 2021/2022 UEFA Europa League winner for the 2022 UEFA Super Cup title and qualify for the 2022/2023 UEFA Champions League group stage
The 2021/22 UEFA Champions League is in the play-off stage.
When will the final take place?
The decisive match will take place on Saturday 28 May and will start at 21:00 CET.
If there is a draw in regular time, extra time will follow: two extra-times of 15 minutes each. If after their expiration the score is equal again, the winner will be determined in the 11-meter series.
Where will the final take place?
The final will take place at the Gazprom Arena in St. Petersburg, which was built before the 2018 World Cup. It is located a few hundred meters from the Gulf of Finland on the site of the former Kirov Stadium, where the matches of the football tournament of the 1980 Olympic Games were held.
The author of the project is Japanese architect Kise Kurokawa. The stadium is equipped with a retractable roof and can accommodate more than 60,000 spectators. In 2018, an ice hockey match between the national teams of Russia and Finland was held here in the presence of more than 80,000 fans.
This will be the third European Cup final in Russia. In 1999, Parma defeated Olimpik at the Luzhniki stadium in the UEFA Cup final, and in 2008, Manchester United defeated Chelsea in the Champions League final at the same arena.
What will the winner receive?
The Champions Cup weighs 7.5 kilograms and rises 73.5 centimeters. "It may not be a masterpiece, but everyone in football wants to touch it," said trophy creator Jürg Stadelmann.
Also prepared are 40 gold medals for the winners and 40 silver medals for the losers. Additional medals are not allowed.
The winner of the Champions League will also receive a place in the group stage of the next edition. Unless, of course, it does not guarantee it through the national championship.
Which team will be the host?
The nominal host of the final will be determined by a draw, which will be held on March 18 for administrative purposes. The finalists may enter the field in their primary colors, but if they overlap, the guest nominees must use a spare kit.
The 2022 UEFA Champions League Final will take place on 28 May 2022. This will be the 67th season of UEFA's premier European football club competition and the 30th season since the European Cup was renamed the UEFA Champions League. The winner of the final will qualify to play the 2021/2022 UEFA Europa League winner for the 2022 UEFA Super Cup title and qualify for the 2022/2023 UEFA Champions League group stage
The 2021/22 UEFA Champions League is in the play-off stage. UEFA.com tells how it will end.
1. For the third year in a row, a team has played in a Cup/Champions League final for the first time (Tottenham in 2019, PSG in 2020, Manchester City in 2021). The last time this happened was between 1986 and 1988 (Steaua, Porto, PSV).
2. The Champions League final will be the eighth in a row in which two clubs from the same country will play. This will be the third time this will be a match between English clubs (after the Champions League finals Chelsea - Manchester United in 2008 and Liverpool - Tottenham in 2019).
3. This season's final will take place at the Dragau Stadium in Portugal. This is the first time that a Cup/Champions League decisive match has been played in the same country for several years (Da Luz Stadium hosted the final in 2020). For the first time, the Cup/Champions League final in Portugal will be played outside the capital - the previous three matches were played in Lisbon.
4. Chelsea under Tuchel won both matches with Manchester City - in the semi-finals of the FA Cup (1-0) and in the championship (2-1).
5. Chelsea will play their second final in two weeks and their 22nd final in 18 years under Roman Abramovich.
6. Chelsea reached the final of the European Cup for the seventh time. The Blues suffered their only defeat in 2008 against Manchester United on penalties.
7. This is Chelsea's third Champions League final since the 2007/2008 season. Only Real Madrid (4) and Bayern Munich (4) have played in more Champions League finals during this period.
8. Chelsea reach the final of a major tournament for the first time in history for five consecutive seasons (2017 and 2018 FA Cup, 2019 League Cup and Europa League, 2020 FA Cup, 2021 FA Cup and League champions).
9. Manchester City are the ninth English side to reach the Cup/Champions League final. This is three more than the closest pursuers - Germany and Italy (six each). But only one of the last 10 teams to compete in their first final ever won it. It was Borussia Dortmund that beat Juventus 3-1 in 1997. Aston Villa were the last English team to win their first final in 1982 when they beat Bayern.
10. Chelsea and Manchester City met in the Premier League in early May (the Blues won 2-1). For the first time since 2013, the two teams will face off in a European Cup final in the same month they played in a league game. The last time it was Bayern and Borussia Dortmund. They then drew 1-1 in the Bundesliga and then won 2-1 at Wembley in the Champions League final.
11. Chelsea have won their last two matches against Manchester City in all competitions. The last time the Blues defeated the Citizens in three or more games in a row was between 2005 and 2009. Then the Londoners beat Manchester City eight times in a row.
12. In European competition, Chelsea and Manchester City have met only once before - in the semi-finals of the 1970/1971 Cup Winners' Cup. Chelsea won both matches 1-0 and reached the final, where they beat Real Madrid after a replay.
13. Both Chelsea and Manchester City have conceded just four goals in the Champions League this season. For the first time since the 2005/2006 season, both teams participating in the final have four or fewer goals conceded in the entire tournament. Then Arsenal conceded two goals to the final, and Barcelona four.
14. Manchester City have won 11 Champions League matches this season. In the event of a victory over Chelsea, the "citizens" will equal the record of "Real" - 12 matches in the 2001/2002 season.
15. It has been 51 years since Manchester City last played in a European Cup final. In the final of the Cup Winners' Cup in 1970, the "citizens" defeated "Gornik" from Zabrze with a score of 2: 1. Manchester City broke the record for the longest gap between finals for one team. Prior to this, Sporting owned the record: the Portuguese had a pause of 41 years between the Cup Winners' Cup final (1964) and the UEFA Cup final (2005).
16. Manchester City manager Josep Guardiola could win his third Champions League trophy. He previously won in 2009 and 2011 with Barcelona. Pep will become only the third manager to win the Champions League three times, after Carlo Ancelotti (2003, 2007, 2014) and Zinedine Zidane (2016, 2017, 2018).
17. During his coaching career, Guardiola suffered the most defeats in all competitions against Chelsea (7).
18. Tuchel became the first manager to reach the Cup/Champions League final in two consecutive seasons with different clubs. A year ago, the German specialist headed PSG and lost to Bayern.
19. Tuchel became the third manager to lose the final in two consecutive seasons, after Marcello Lippi (1997 and 1998, Juventus) and Hector Cooper (2000 and 2001, Valencia).
20. Phil Foden of Manchester City will be 21 years and one day old at the time of the final. He could become the third youngest Englishman to reach a Champions League final after Bayern's Owen Hargreaves (20 years, 123 days) in 2001 and Liverpool's Trent Alexander-Arnold who played in 2018 and 2019.
21. Chelsea goalkeeper Edouard Mendy has kept eight clean sheets out of 11 Champions League matches this season. Only two goalkeepers could not miss in nine meetings of one season - Santiago Canizares (Valencia, in the 2000/2001 season) and Keylor Navas (Real Madrid, in the 2015/2016 season).
22. Manchester City's Kevin De Bruyne and Riyad Mahrez scored in the quarter-finals and semi-finals of this season's Champions League. The last time two players scored for the same team was in the quarter-final, semi-final and final of a single Cup/Champions League competition in the 1959/1960 season - Alfredo Di Stefano and Ferenc Puskas of Real Madrid.
23. In September 2018, Bernardo Silva from Manchester City lost to Lyon - 1:2. After that, the Portuguese was unbeaten with his team in 26 Champions League matches (23 wins, three draws). This is the longest unbeaten streak in tournament history. Foden is second in the longest streak, having gone unbeaten in 21 consecutive matches (18 wins, three draws) since losing to Basel in March 2018.
24. Chelsea defender Thiago Silva was in the Champions League final last season with PSG. The Brazilian could become the fifth player to play in the final twice in a row with different teams after Marcel Desailly (1993 Marseille, 1994 AC Milan), Paulo Souza (1996 Juventus, 1997 Borussia Dortmund), Samuel Eto'o ( 2009 Barcelona, 2010 Inter) and Alvaro Morata (2014 Real Madrid, 2015 Juventus).
25. If Sergio Aguero plays in the final, it will be his last match for Manchester City. The Argentine has scored 13 goals against Chelsea for the Citizens. But he has not scored in any of his last four matches against the Blues since a hat-trick in February 2019.
26. Ilkay Gundogan is the only current Manchester City player who has already participated in the Champions League final (his Borussia Dortmund lost to Bayern in 2013).
27. Madrid is the venue for the second English UEFA Champions League final. Tottenham Hotspur will take part in the final for the first time in their history at this stage, while Liverpool will try to forget the pain of losing to Real Madrid in the 2018 season.
28. Both teams were able to make impressive semi-final comebacks to reach the Estadio Metropolitano, home of Atlético Madrid. Each of the finalists managed to go further and rehabilitate after three missed goals. While Liverpool won 4-0 in their second match against Barcelona at Anfield to go 4-3 on aggregate, Lucas Moura's hat-trick at the Johan Cruyff Arena gave Spurs the opportunity to beat Ajax from score 3:2 in Amsterdam.
29. Liverpool are aiming to claim their sixth European title - and celebrate their second UEFA Champions League triumph since their memorable comeback in Istanbul against AC Milan in 2005, while Tottenham have never made it to the final before. In fact, Spurs' only semi-final before this season came in 1961/62, and their best previous UEFA Champions League campaign, in 2010/11, ended in the round of 16.
30. There have been six UEFA Champions League finals between clubs from the same country, all since 2000. Real Madrid have won all Spanish finals: in 2000 (Valencia), 2014 and 2016 (both Atlético), while Milan beat the Italian opponent Juventus on penalties. Also in 2003, Bayern Munich defeated Borussia Dortmund in the 2013 all-German final.
31. The only previous English final was at Moscow's Luzhniki Stadium in 2008, when Manchester United beat Chelsea 6-5 on penalties after regular and extra time ended 1-1.
32. Tottenham will be the eighth English club to appear in a European Cup final, more than any other country; Italy and Germany are next on the list with six finalists.
33. Real Madrid have scored the most goals - 439
34. And conceded the most with 231 goals
35. Porto has suffered the most defeats - 51
36. Zlatan Ibrahimovic, Nicolas Anelka, Javier Saviola each played for 6 different teams
37. Ryan Giggs is the player with the most Champions League appearances (19 draws)
38. Iker Casillas played the most minutes (13,450)
39. Raul is the fielder with the most game minutes (11,999)
40. Thierry Henry misses most penalties (5)
41. Zlatan Ibrahimovic and David Luiz retired the most - 4 times
42. Marco Balotta - the oldest goalkeeper (43 years and 253 days)
43. Cristiano Ronaldo is the player with the most wins in a row (14)
44. Peter Ofori-Kvaie is the youngest scorer (17 years and 195 days)
45. Arsene Wenger is the coach with the most appearances (19 draws)
46. Carlo Ancelotti has coached the most teams (6)
47. Alex Ferguson is the manager with the most Champions League appearances (190)
48. Arsene Wenger is the manager with the most defeats (49 matches)
49. Real Madrid (winner of the 2013/2014 season) with the most goals per match (3.15)
50. Total played 2533 matches in the Champions League
2022 Major League Baseball season schedule, top picks and other interesting facts that you need to know
Major League Baseball (MLB) is an American professional baseball organization and the oldest professional sports league in the United States and Canada. There are 30 teams in Major League Baseball: 15 in the National League (NL) and 15 in the American League (AL). NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1876 and 1901 respectively. Beginning in 1903, the two leagues cooperated but remained legally separate entities. Both leagues operated as separate legal entities until they merged into a single organization under the leadership of the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000.
This season is the last season in which the Cleveland Indians compete under the moniker after decades of controversy. On 14 December 2020, the team announced that they would be introducing their new nickname and associated kit and stadium changes prior to the 2022 season to replace the 106-year-old nickname.
As for games between leagues, matches will be between teams from the following divisions:
LA vs. Central LN
L.A. Central vs. West of LN
West of Los Angeles vs. L.N.
Meanwhile, it is the calendar of the regular MLB 2022 season. It will end on October 2, 2022.
Between the special dates, the calendar from the 2022 regular season of MLB is like this:
April 15, 2022 (Jackie Robinson Day)
July 19, 2022 (All-Star Game - All-Star Game at Dodger Stadium in Los Angeles ).
Already MLB teams publish their calendar for the 2022 Major season.
1. MLB oversees Minor League Baseball, which includes 256 teams affiliated with major league clubs. MLB and the World Confederation of Baseball Softball co-administer the World Baseball Classic international tournament.
2. The first fully professional baseball team was the Cincinnati Red Stockings, founded in 1869. Prior to this, some teams secretly paid some players. The first few professional baseball games were characterized by league-to-league rivalries and players who often moved from one team or league to another.
3. The period before 1920 is known as the dead-ball era, during which players rarely hit home runs. Professional baseball in the States survived a plot to fix the 1919 World Series that became known as the Black Sox Scandal.
4. The sport's popularity in the 1920s and experienced periods of decline during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier.
5. The 1950s and 1960s were a time of club expansion and relocation for the AL and NL. New stadiums and artificial turf started the rules of the game in the 1970s and 1980s.
6. The home run dominated the game during the 1990s, and the use of anabolic steroids among MLB players in the mid-2000s was discussed in the media. In 2006, an investigation resulted in the Mitchell Report, implicating many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team.
7. Today MLB is made up of 30 teams: 29 in the US and 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season, and five (5) teams per league advance to a four-round post-season tournament that culminates in the Best of the Best World Series. seven championship series between two league champions that date back to 1903.
8. Baseball games are broadcast on television, radio on the Internet in North America and in some other countries. MLB has the largest total season attendance of any sports league in the world with over 69.6 million viewers in 2018.
9. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution. This document has gone through several incarnations since its inception in 1876. Under the direction of the commissioner of baseball, MLB hires and maintains officiating teams and negotiates marketing, labor, and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique relationship of control over the sport, including the majority of Minor League Baseball.
10. This has much to do with the US 1922 Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, which held that baseball was not an interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law. In subsequent years, this rule was slightly relaxed.
11. The easing provided owners with more stability and led to double-digit price increases. There were several challenges to MLB championship in sports between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916; the last attempt at a new major league was the aborted Continental League in 1960.
12. The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner, currently Rob Manfred. COO is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president (business and media), chief public relations officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, and chief baseball officer.
13. Based in New York City, the multimedia division of MLB is MLB Advanced Media. This chapter oversees MLB.com and the websites of each of the 30 teams. Its bylaws state that MLB Advanced Media has an independent newsroom from the league, but is under the same ownership group and revenue sharing plan.
14. MLB Productions is a similarly structured wing of the league focusing on video and broadcast media. MLB also owns 67 percent of the MLB network, with the remaining 33 percent split between cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV.
15. In 1920, the weak National Commission that had been set up to manage relations between the two leagues was replaced by the much more powerful Baseball Commissioner, who had the power to decide all of professional baseball unilaterally. From 1901 to 1960, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams each.
16. In the 1960s, the MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first American team (Montreal Expos).
17. Two teams (Seattle Mariners and Toronto Blue Jays) were also added in the 1970s. From 1969 to 1993, each league consisted of an East and West division. In 1993, the National League expanded with two teams, the Florida Marlins and the Colorado Rockies, to equalize the number of teams in both leagues.
18. A third division, the Central Division, was formed in each league in 1994. Until 1996, the two leagues only met on the field during the World Series and the All-Star Game. The regular season of Interleague Play was introduced in 1997.
19. In March 1995, two new franchises, the Arizona Diamondbacks and the Tampa Bay Devil Rays (now known as the Tampa Bay Rays), were awarded by MLB to start play in 1998. This addition brought the franchise total to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to have one new team per league: Tampa Bay joined A.L. and Arizona joined the NL.
20. The original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league (15 in each league, five in each division), but in order for each team to play daily, this would require interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire period. the whole season.
21. However, it was not clear at the time if interleague play would continue beyond the 1998 season, as this would have to be approved by the players' union. For this and other reasons, it was decided. one existing club would have to change leagues.
22. The Milwaukee Brewers agreed in November 1997 to move from the AL to the NL, thus making the NL a 16-team league. At the same time, the Detroit Tigers agreed to move from East Albert to Al Central (to replace Milwaukee), with the Tampa Bay expansion Devil Rays joining East Albert.
23. Later, when the Houston Astros changed ownership prior to the 2013 season, the team moved from the Central Northern League to Alberta Western, resulting in both leagues having three divisions of five teams each and giving all teams a more balanced schedule. The Interleague is now played throughout the season.
24. In 2000, the AL and NL became a single general league similar to the National Football League (NFL), the National Basketball Association (NBA), and the National Hockey League (NHL), albeit with two components called "leagues" rather than "conferences" .
25. Both leagues use the same rules and regulations, with one exception: AL operates under designated hitter rules, while NL does not. This difference in rules between leagues is unique to MLB; other sports leagues in the United States and Canada have a single set of rules for all teams.
26. In the 1860s, with the help of soldiers playing in the camp during the Civil War, "New York" style baseball developed into a nationwide game and spawned baseball's first governing body, the National Baseball Players Association.
27. NABBP existed as an amateur league for 12 years. By 1867 over 400 clubs were members. Most of the top clubs remained clubs based in the Northeast United States. MLB uses 1869 as the founding year of Professional Baseball, when the first professional team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings, was formed.
28. Between professional and amateur ball players after the founding of the Cincinnati club. NABBP was divided into amateur and professional. The National Association of Professional Baseball Players, often known as the National Association (NA), was formed in 1871.
29. Her amateur counterpart disappeared after just a few years. The history of the modern Chicago Cubs and Atlanta Braves franchises dates back to the National Association of Professional Baseball Players in the 1870s.
30. In 1876, the National League Professional Baseball Clubs (later known as the National League or NL) were formed after the NA went underperforming.
31. The league has focused on the clubs, not the players. Clubs can now fulfill player contracts, preventing players from moving to higher paying clubs.
32. Clubs were required to play full game schedules instead of forgoing scheduled games when the club was no longer in contention for the league championship, which was often the case within North America. A concerted effort was made to limit gambling in games, which cast doubt on the validity of the results. The first game in the NL - Saturday, April 22, 1876 (at the Jefferson Street Grounds, Philadelphia) - is often cited as the start of MLB.
33. The early NLs were turbulent, with threats from rival leagues and players revolting against the hated "reserve clause" that restricts the free movement of players between clubs.
34. Teams have come and gone; 1882 was the first season in which the league line-up was the same as the previous season, with only four franchises surviving until 1900. Competitor leagues formed regularly and also broke up regularly.
35. The most successful was the American Association (1882–1891), sometimes called the "beer and whiskey league" for its tolerance of selling alcoholic beverages to spectators. For several years, the National League and American Association champions met in a postseason championship series - the first World Series attempt. The two leagues merged in 1892 into a single 12-team no-limit game, but no-limit football lost four teams after the 1899 season. This led to the formation of the American League in 1901 under AL President Ban Johnson, and the resulting betting war for players led to widespread contract breaches and litigation.
36. The war between the AL and the NL caused shock throughout the baseball world. At a meeting at the Leland Hotel in Chicago in 1901, the other baseball leagues agreed on a plan for their independence. A new National Association was formed to oversee these minor leagues. Although the NA still exists today (known as the Little League), at the time, Ban Johnson saw it as a tool to put an end to smaller rivals' threats that could spread to other territories and threaten his league's dominance.
37. After 1902, the NL, AL, and NA signed a new National Agreement that linked independent contracts to contracts with a reserve clause. The agreement also established a formal classification system for the minor leagues, which was refined by Branch Rickey.
38. Several other formerly non-existent baseball leagues are officially considered major leagues, and their statistics and records are included in those of the current two major leagues. . These included the AA, the Trade Union Association (1884), the Players' League (1890), and the Federal League (1914–1915). Both UA and AA are being researched by baseball researchers as major leagues due to the high level of play and number of star players.
39. Some researchers, including Nate Silver, have disputed UA's major league status, that franchises have come and gone, and that the St. Louis club was intentionally "linked"; the St. Louis club was owned by the league president and was the only club that came close to major league level.
40. The period from 1900 to 1919 is commonly referred to as the "dead ball era". Games of the era were generally low scoring and were often dominated by pitchers such as Walter Johnson, Cy Young, Christy Mathewson, Mordecai Brown. and Grover Cleveland Alexander. The term is also known as the condition of baseball itself.
41. Baseball used American wool yarn, not modern Australian wool yarn, and was not wound as tightly, which affected the distance he could walk. More importantly, they stayed in the game until they became crippled, soft and sometimes twisted. At the time, a baseball cost three dollars, equal to $44.24 today (adjusted for US dollar inflation), and the owners were reluctant to buy new balls. Fans were expected to throw away fouls and (rare) home runs. Baseballs have also been stained with tobacco juice, grass, and mud, and sometimes juice, which some players have chewed to discolour the ball.
42. In addition, pitchers could manipulate the ball using a spittoon. (In 1921, the use of this field was restricted to meals with a grandfather clause). In addition, many stadiums were large, such as the Chicago Cubs' West Side Grounds, which was 560 feet (170 m) from the field's center fence, and the Boston Red Sox's Huntington Avenue Grounds, which was 635 feet (194 m) away. m) from the center field fence, thus home runs were rare and "small ball" tactics such as singles, bunts, stolen bases, and run and run dominated the strategies of the time. Techniques such as the Baltimore Chop have been used to increase singles in the infield.
43. Baseball's popularity increased in the 1920s and 1930s. The 1920 season was marked by the death of Ray Chapman of the Cleveland Indians. Chapman, who was hit in the head by the field and died hours later, became the only MLB player to die from an injury on the field, a tragedy that led both leagues to require new white baseballs to be brought into play whenever a ball became scratched. or dirty, which helped end the dead-ball era.
44. The following year, the New York Yankees made their first World Series appearance. By the end of the 1930s, the team had competed in 11 World Series, winning eight of them. Slugger Yankee Babe Ruth set a single-season home run record in 1927 with 60 home runs; A few years earlier, Ruth had set the same record with 29 home runs.
45. Popular hardships of the Great Depression Baseball's popularity began to decline in the early 1930s. By 1932, only two MLB teams had made a profit. Attendance dropped at least in part due to a 10% federal entertainment tax added to baseball ticket prices. Baseball owners have reduced their rosters from 25 to 23, and even the best players have had to take pay cuts.
46. The onset of World War II created a significant shortage of professional baseball players, as over 500 men left MLB teams to serve in the military. Many of them play on service baseball teams that have entertained military personnel in the US or the Pacific.
47. MLB teams of the time were primarily made up of youths, older players, and those with a military 4F classification, indicating mental, physical, or moral unfitness for service. People like Pete Gray, the one-armed outfielder, were given a shot at promotion to the big leagues. However, there was not a single black player on the MLB roster until the end of the war. Black players, many of whom had served in the war, were still restricted from playing Negro League baseball.
48. Wartime restrictions designed to keep outdoor lighting levels low caused another problem for baseball. These rules restricted travel and night games to the point where the 1942 season almost had to be canceled.
49. On January 14, 1942, MLB Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis wrote a letter to U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt pleading for baseball to continue during the war in hopes of starting a new major league season. President Roosevelt replied, “I sincerely believe that it would be better for the country if baseball continued to develop. There will be fewer unemployed people and everyone will work longer and harder. And that means they should have a chance to relax and take their minds off work even more than before.”
50. With the approval of President Roosevelt, spring training began in 1942 and had little impact. The war interrupted the careers of stars such as Stan Musial, Bob Feller, Ted Williams, and Joe DiMaggio, but the baseball clubs carried on.