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40 facts about cats that will blow your mind

4 months ago

Do you know everything about cats? Think again. Cats are naturally mysterious, they are like an onion: endless layers! Dogs will tell you all the facts about themselves. Get cozy with your best furry buddy and learn some lesser-known facts about cats.


Interesting facts about cats


We use the term "big cats" to refer to animals such as lions, tigers, and leopards for a good reason. Cats and tigers shared a common ancestor over ten million years ago. However, today's domestic cats still share 95% of their genetic code with tigers. It's no wonder why the two exhibit many of the same behaviors, including scent marking, prey stalking and attacking.


1. The cat's domestication took place approximately 9500 years ago in the Middle East in the Fertile Crescent region (the conditional name for the region with increased rainfall during the winter months), where the oldest human civilizations originated developed. 


2. A cat's tongue is pulled out at a speed of 1 meter per second when licking liquid. Unlike dogs, a cat's tongue only touches the surface of the liquid and does not penetrate it. Then the tongue rushes up and drags a column of liquid with it. 


3. Currently, there are about 600 million domestic cats in the world. 



4. A distinctive feature of the structure of the cat's eye, which is characteristic of many mammals, is the presence of a nictitating membrane (third eyelid). It can be seen when the cat sleeps with its eyes open or feels tired. If the third eyelid is constantly visible, including when the cat is awake, this in most cases can be a sign of illness. 


5. Most cats are able to give birth to one to nine kittens in one litter. The largest known litter consisted of 19 kittens, 15 of which survived. 


6. The longest-lived cat ever recorded is Cream Puff, who lived 38 years and 3 days (1967-2005). 


7. Cats see excellently in low light conditions, however, contrary to common misconception, they cannot see in absolute darkness. 


8. Vibrissae (colloquially whiskers) in cats are specialized sense organs that perform a tactile function. In no case should a cat's vibrissae be removed, since by doing so it will actually be deprived of its "orientation and navigation system" in space. 


9. While in most countries the black cat is considered a symbol of bad luck, in the UK and Australia they are, on the contrary, regarded as animals that bring good luck. 



10. Cats have a sense of smell that is about 14 times stronger than a human's, which allows them to smell odors that humans are not even aware of. 


11. Mathematician Richard Montgomery once developed a special theory called the falling cat theorem. According to her, a cat falling backwards always flips upside down to land on its feet. 


12. A cat almost never meows to other cats, mostly this sound is intended for people. They tend to purr or hiss at other felines. 


13. The Burmese cat breed has a very calm, obedient and gentle character. They are very smart and sociable. As a rule, they greet guests with great curiosity and completely without fear. Unlike some other more active breeds, cats of this breed often like to sit on their laps and hands. 


14. Cats should not be deprived of meat food, since it is impossible to synthesize all the amino acids they need from plant foods. 


15. Cats eat grass, leaves and young shoots of plants to improve the functioning of the digestive system, as well as to induce vomiting to cleanse the stomach of hair. 


16. Cleanliness is an instinct in all felines: cleanliness of the body is necessary when hunting, so that the victim could not smell the lurking predator. They wash themselves by licking their fur at least ten times a day. 



17. Maine Coon cats are highly intelligent. This is one of the few breeds that can be trained. 


18. In the claws of cats there is a pulp - a blood vessel that reaches almost to the tip of the claw. In cases where the nails need to be trimmed, this must be done with extreme caution. 


19. Cat nail amputation is prohibited by law in Germany and Switzerland, and in many other European countries it is also prohibited under the European Companion Animal Convention. 


20. Valerian root extract contains actinidin, which is the culprit in the unusual behavior of domestic cats and other felines (tigers, lions, cougars, etc.). Its smell is similar to the smell of one of the components contained in cat urine. 


21. Cats are able to give their voice about a hundred different intonations, while dogs - only about ten. 


22. The Abyssinian cat is one of the oldest cat breeds. They are named after the African country of Abyssinia, now Ethiopia. 


23. The "purr apparatus" in cats is the thinly connected hyoid bones that lie between the base of the skull and the base of the tongue. Muscle contraction near the vocal cords causes them to vibrate. The cat makes a purring sound with its mouth and nose, and the vibration spreads throughout its body. 



24. When a cat is pleased, it extends and retracts its claws on its front paws. This movement is called the "milk step" - with this movement, the kittens stimulate the release of milk from the mother's nipples during feeding. 


25. Yuri Dmitrievich Kuklachev gained fame by being the first in the USSR to engage in circus work with cats. In addition to performances with cats, Yuri Kuklachev regularly conducts "Lessons of Kindness" in schools, child care facilities and even in children's colonies in different cities of Russia. 


26. In the UK, two cats - Humphrey (1988-2006) and Larry (2007-) were awarded the official title. Cats living in the residence of the Prime Minister of Great Britain received the title of "Chief mouser of the government residence". 


27. Cats are very sensitive to vibrations. They can feel an earthquake 10 or 15 minutes before a human. 


28. In the 1930s, two Russian biologists discovered that the color change in Siamese kittens depended on their body temperature. Siamese cats carry albino genes that are triggered at body temperatures above 36℃. In warm parts of the body, less pigment is produced than in cold parts, so the ears, paws, tail and muzzle are painted in a darker color compared to the rest of the body. 



29. Even a cat entering the water for the first time will swim well, because the position and movements of its body when swimming will be the same as when walking. 


30. In ancient Egypt, cats were considered the embodiment of the goddess of fertility Bast and were revered as sacred animals. The punishment for their murder was the death penalty. 


31. In the Catholic countries of medieval Europe, the cat was considered a companion of witches and the personification of evil spirits. Because of this, they were burned alive at the stake or thrown from the bell towers. The destruction of cats is indirectly attributed to the cause of outbreaks of plague epidemics, since there was almost no one to exterminate rats and other rodents that carry the disease. 


32. In Russia, a domestic cat was expensive and could serve as a valuable gift, since it guaranteed the protection of the crop from rodents. She was also a symbol of peace and prosperity in the house, protecting the house from evil spirits. 


33. Cats are the only animals allowed to enter the mosque. 


34. The most fluffy and thick fur among cats has a manul. While other cats have an average of 2,500 hairs per square centimeter, Pallas' cats have 9,000.



35. Unlike dogs, cats have not undergone significant changes during their domestication process. 


36. In cats, sweat glands are located only on the paw pads. 


37. A cat's heart beats almost twice as fast as a human's, between 110 and 140 beats per minute.


38. Like humans, cats have a dominant hand. 


39. The most popular breeds are Persian, Maine Coon and Siamese cats. 


40. On short distances, the speed of cats can reach 49 kilometers per hour.



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Cats need a lot of attention and that's why they sometimes push away the laptop out of our arms or the phone from our hand to be petted. In this compilation Bemorepanda decided to amaze you with some curiosities about cats. Cats have always been mysterious, sacred creators in many cultures. Most of their habits are beginning to be elucidated by science. Here are some examples:

  • The fact that cats were worshiped in Egypt is universally known, but they were also declared sacred in Japan during the year 1000, according to Cats International.
  • Cats can see 5 times better at night - especially if the target is moving - clearly if they can not distinguish as many things as the human eye.


  • A healthy domestic cat can reach a speed of 31 km / h, but it cannot maintain a rhythm of more than 1 minute.
  • Cats can jump 5 times their body length.


  • A healthy adult cat spends about 15% of its time in a deep sleep, 50% in a light sleep and 35% awake.
  • Sections of a cat's brain responsible for understanding, filtering and managing emotions correctly are quite the same as in a human brain.


  • A cat has 244 bones in its body (unlike humans, which have 206). They have 60 vertebrae, and between 20 are in the tail, for flexibility.
  • Cats are most active in the morning and evening (sunrise and sunset) because it is the best times to hunt.


  • Cats are born with 26 baby teeth, replacing 30 permanent teeth as they grow.
  • Most adult cats do not have the enzyme needed to digest milk.


6.Someone is really missing a hug.

7.This cat reached his attention saturation.

8.Leave your homework, play with me!

9.Please, adopt me!

10.Pleasing for some more attention.

11.Phone lover.

12.Pet me, I'm right here, you see me?

13.Such a sweetheart.

14.Look how I'm playing!

15.Missing owners when they work!
















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Cats are one of the best pets. They are the most affectionate, playful animals, giving their owners many positive emotions. But there are some not-so-pleasant things that we humans have to put up with - shedding, the smell of cat litter, the desire to scratch everything. This is something that cats cannot avoid, such of their nature.


Things to know for those with a cat or a cat in the house


But we can minimize these "side effects" by learning to understand our pets' needs, properly care for them, and control their behavior. To do this, Bemorepanda has prepared a list of tips that can be useful for both those who already have cats and those who are just planning to get them. After all, the weather in your home will depend on how satisfied the cat's needs are. Reddit users shared some cool stuff.



1. Talk to your cat. This helps establish rapport, and your pet will respond to more tones of your voice.


2. Hang an inexpensive bird feeder outside the window and ensure you have a chair or table near the window so the cats can sit and watch the birds. It will entertain them every day! — soaringrooster


3. Every pet owner should consider pet insurance. Even if you think you have enough money to cover the cost of a veterinarian, pet insurance can save you a lot of money if your pet gets sick or injured. — ItsJess


4. If you find that your cat tends to sit on your book or keyboard or in front of your monitor when you try to use it, place an open box large enough for your cat on the table. If there's one thing cats love more than sitting on a keyboard, it's sitting in boxes.


You can also put a spare keyboard next to the one you use. — Valerie G


5. You can build your cat tent with some essential items you already have at home. Using wire hangers, make a tent-like frame with two hangers crisscrossing each other at the top, and place an old t-shirt on top of the frame. —


An old T-shirt or towel is a good idea, especially if they smell like you. If it has been washed, rub it on your head and face. My husband and I scratch our heads and look at the old towels we put on our pets' new beds to get them to sleep. Trust me; they love anything that smells like mom and dad. — Kathryn Baylis


6. Cats love houseplants but hate citrus fruits. Put a few orange peels in or around the pot to scare away a mischievous cat. This will help prevent your cat from eating your plants and digging in the ground.



7. Use a rubber glove to remove cat hair from the sofa.


8. If the kitten hates being placed in the carrier and breaks out, turn the carrier so that the door faces the ceiling. Roll the kitten into a ball and put it in the carrier first. — thatbtchshay


One guy came to me, and his hands were mutilated. I told him in the future to throw a beach towel over the cat, roll it up into a ball, quickly stuff it into the carrier and slam the door. You'll be on your way to the door when she gets out from under the towel. — Valerie G.


9. Stop cat food spills with rubber shoe mats.


10. ice cubes with a few treats are a great toy that will keep your cat feeling nice and cool on hot summer days. —


11. Sterilize them. To ensure that all cats have a safe and happy home, one of the critical goals of cat welfare is to promote spaying to keep the cat population under control.


12. If your cat lets you touch her paws, it means she loves and trusts you.


13. Do not feed cats milk or tuna. Oil (or water) from a can of tuna, sprinkled with dry food, is very beneficial for cats in moderation. – keeps


14. To end the laser chase game, give your cat a treat to give her a sense of accomplishment and show her that she did a good job. —


15. When you move to a new location, unpack the tray first. Then "unpack" the kitten and put it next to the litter box, so it knows where it is... Cats use the litter box as a "home base" and start exploring from there. — ruforealz


And don't forget to lock them in the bathroom before all the boxes get into the house, so they don't jump out the door. — Valerie G.


16. It is recommended to play with your cat for 15-20 minutes before going to bed so that she can release all her excess energy. This bedtime game will calm your cat and help her sleep better through the night.


And if they only get wet food once a day, give it to them at dinner time, so they don't wake you up at 4 am to eat. — Valerie G



17. Teach your cat to come when called; it's convenient and can save her life. If she runs outside, you can call her back home.


18. Touch his ears, paws, and stomach often, so the animal gets used to the areas you touch with your hands. — MemerDreamerMan


19. From an early age, touch your cat's paws and toes frequently. If they get used to having their toes trimmed, it will be much easier for them to clip their nails later. —


20. A great way to keep your house cat active, especially in a small house, is to install shelves or towers so they can climb.


21. Store-bought toys are fun for us humans, but most cats are happy to scatter things like bottle caps, pipe cleaners, and old playing cards.


22. Store dry cat food in a plastic flake container. If you leave cat food in an open bag, you risk spoiling it.


23. Give your cat running water. Some cats love running water, and a filter helps keep the water fresh. —


24. Take care of your sofa. By installing bait scratching posts, you can give cats a place to stick their claws without damaging your belongings. —


25. If your cat is crazy about catnip, consider growing your own. Catnip is relatively easy to grow in pots and will give you endless fun. Keep the banks out of the kitten's reach until you're ready.


26. If you're short on space, make a tiny hammock for your cat.


27. Clean their collars thoroughly. They are full of dirt and bacteria, so make sure they are fresh and clean. —



28. Don't let your cat play with your hands. By allowing your cat to play wrestling with your hands, you teach her that biting and scratching are acceptable behavior.


29. Build a patio so your kitties can taste outdoor life.


30. Get a cat tracker. Look for one that's lightweight, small enough to attach, and either makes noise or has an app that does so when you're near it.


31. Place blankets and pillows near windows. If your cat likes to watch the world from the window, let her do it in comfort. You can also make it easier for yourself to get a perfect sleep by placing blankets and pillows on tall stands, such as tall bookshelves.


32. When the cat is sick and needs medicine, crush the tablets into a powder, mix them with a bit of water into a paste and apply them to the cat's mouth with a brush. -Current-Try-3301


It is better to ask if medicines are available in liquid form. I have had cats all my life as pets. It's much easier to squeeze a dropper of tincture - usually meat-flavored to make it taste better - into their mouth than to get them to swallow a hard pill that tastes like a pill. Also, cats are not like dogs. You can't hide a drug in their food. They will leave you a licked bowl with a new tablet at the bottom. — Kathryn Baylis


33. Add green tea to the tray to reduce odor.


34. Make your cats less aggressive towards each other. Share their resources. Reduce competition between cats by placing several of the same bowls, beds, and litter boxes in different parts of the house.


35. Never give a cat a treat unless she works hard for it. Training your cat has essential benefits. You stimulate her body and mind, which helps her stay healthy.



36. Place pine cones in plant pots because your cat is uncomfortable with stepping on them and won't climb inside.


37. Make a window sill so the cat can see what's going on outside. —


38. Harsh cleaning chemicals can harm cats, so try using homemade solutions when you need to clean up cat urine. Vinegar is excellent at killing bacteria, so use it. —


39. Cover exposed cords with split tubes to prevent cats from chewing through them.


40. Spend a few extra minutes in the morning or evening combing your cat, and you'll have less hair all over your furniture!


41. Use cat toothpaste that contains an enzyme that cleans their teeth and breath. Especially since it looks like a soft treat!


PLEASE take care of your cat's and dog's teeth as much as possible. Every animal tolerates or can be trained to accept this to some degree. Still, dental care can be costly (I am a dental hygienist who also had a dog with the dental disease - our dog had an annual checkup and cleaning with extractions, and it usually costs around $1,000). My husband had a cat as a child that died of a periodontal infection. Our new dog has been taught to expect and enjoy brushing his teeth every night after he goes outside for the last time. I started by putting some pet toothpaste on my finger and letting her lick it off. Then I moved my bare finger in her mouth and around her teeth as she licked off the toothpaste. Then I introduced her to the pet toothbrush, letting her lick off the toothpaste and get used to it. — ItsJess


42. Try to keep a balance of wet and dry food. This can be especially helpful for cats who need more water but like to eat dry food rather than canned food. —


43. Rubber brushes are an excellent tool for removing stubborn hair from carpets and floors.



44. Serve cat food on a shallow plate to prevent overeating.


Yes, kneading is perfect. They take longer to eat and are much less likely to vomit. — Valerie G


45. If you need to bathe your cat, do it in the sink, not the tub. —


46. ​​Make food shelves, so your cat's food is out of the dog's reach.


47. If you need to take either to the vet, leave the carrier a few days in advance. It will become less intimidating if it turns into a familiar piece of home furnishings for a while. —


48. Put tin foil in places you don't want your cat to climb. Most cats hate the rustle of foil. —


49. Don't bathe your cat. Due to their rough tongues, they are usually able to keep their fur clean without any help from humans. —


50. If your cat has hairball problems, use cat grass to provide fiber. —


51. Flushable cat litter is great. It is made from biodegradable materials, does not harden when mixed with water, and is considered safe to flush toilets. —


52. Get your cat used to brushing. Use a small, soft-bristled brush or fine-toothed comb and hold the kitten gently with the brush or comb. Let him sniff, but don't let him attack; you don't want him to think that fighting grooming tools are acceptable. Gently brush or brush your kitten a few times and then let him go. —


It also helps them get used to the flea comb, which is effective at trapping fleas between the teeth when you comb them; plus, cats love grooming (comb their fur but don't press too hard because it hurts them). Please ensure you're near a sink to sink them in or have a bowl of rubbing alcohol you can put in while brushing. If you find yourself combing out more than a couple of fleas, it's time for a flea treatment. — Kathryn Baylis



53. Apply double-sided tape to surfaces you don't want your cat to jump on. The cat will soon learn to avoid these places, as she thinks there might be something sticky on them.


54. Use natural wood as a stylish cat scratching and climbing post.


55. Draw a circle around your pet's food bowl with chalk to keep ants away.


56. Cats are more attached to places than to people. If you move, don't be surprised if your cat leaves to find his way home. Prevent this by preparing a feline paradise in your new home: plenty of apparently affordable food and water, toys, litter, and interesting feline places to explore.


57. Use an old triangular bag of chips, toss it once, and then the cat will play alone for a while. — dannieupton


58. Do not use your hand or wiggle fingers to play. They will associate it with prey and will want to bite and attack. — Alarming-Two61


59. Wean the cat to walk on the table. Pay attention to which side the cat usually jumps on the table. Place a large tray there, so it peeks over the edge of the countertop. Now, if the cat tries to climb on the table, it will fall.


60. If you have a computer connected to an extension cable, purchase a cable box. Cats like to lie in warm places; extension cords are friendly, they will eventually step on the switch, and all your work will go down the drain.




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Rodents are characterized by the lack of canines and by a high development of incisors, with the help of which they can gnaw.


Most rodents are mammals, almost a third. This group includes squirrels, mice, rats, beavers, marmots (mammals related to the abalone), prairie dogs, and guinea pigs. They are herbivorous animals. Because incisors have no roots, they always grow. Only by gnawing, do the teeth become dull.


The digestive system is large, with a very long intestine and a developed cecal appendix. They have several habitats: arboreal (squirrels), semi-aquatic (beavers, nutria), and semi-subterranean (field mice, shrews).


Interesting facts about rodents


1. There are more than a thousand species of various rodents in the world.


They differ from each other in body structure, diet, habits and lifestyle.


2. Among all mammals, it is the family of rodents that occupies a leading position in terms of numbers.


3. Rodents are common on all continents, except for Antarctica (stations with scientists do not count, because rodents will not survive outside them) and some remote uninhabited islands.




4. Paleontologists have established that the first representatives of rodents arose on Earth about 60 million years ago.


5. One of the criteria that all rodents have is the presence of at least one pair of teeth growing throughout their lives, both on the lower and upper jaws.


6. The ubiquitous rodents are sometimes, of course, a problem for people, especially when it comes to mice or rats.


7. Rodents cause the most damage in Asia, regularly devastating rice storages and rice fields.




8. The word "mouse" comes from the word "musha".


9. African mice can shed their skin when threatened.


10. Needle mice are capable of tissue regeneration.




11. Shaggy hamsters live in the forests of East Africa. They look like porcupines.


12. Hamsters are not afraid of heights at all.


13. The average life expectancy of a hamster is no more than four years.




14. Hamsters are not only cute and funny pets. Mexican hamsters, for example, are aggressive small predators. They hunt their prey at night.


15. Some types of American hamsters can prey on poisonous scorpions. The cell structure of hamsters is able to actively block the poison.


16. A hamster bite can be scarier compared to a large animal.




17. Dwarf African mice living in Africa are the smallest rodents in the world. The average body length of an adult usually does not exceed three centimeters.


18. Gerbils can perceive human speech.


19. Human laughter resembles the sounds that mice make during games.




20. The most expensive rodent in the world is the chinchilla.


21. Half a kilogram weighs an adult male chinchilla.




22. Beavers are also rodents.


23. Beavers are found in heraldry more often than most other animals.


24. The largest rodent lived in South America about 4 million years ago.


25. Capybara is the largest rodent in the world today. These rodents now live in South America. An adult capybara can grow up to 1.3 meters in length.




26. The hare is the fastest rodent on the planet. When running, this animal is able to reach speeds of up to 72 kilometers per hour.


27. The number of teeth in rodents, depending on the species, varies from 12 to 22, even in hares they are not 4, as some believe, but much more.




28. Many of them have surprisingly strong teeth. They are able to withstand pressure up to 0.5 tons per 1 square centimeter of surface.


29. Some rodents can easily prey on others. Rats, for example, readily eat mice.


30. Fried rat is considered one of the most delicious dishes in Asia and Africa.




31. In an aggressive state, a rat can attack a person.


32. The world's largest rats live in the Philippines.


33. Rats can swim more than 30 kilometers.


34. Fine rat hairs are used in ophthalmology.


35. Up to 12 kilograms of food per year can be eaten by one rat.




36. Stony squirrels that are found in North America are able to do without water for up to 3 months, since they get almost all the moisture they need from the food they eat.


37. Several thousand hiding places in one season can prepare ordinary squirrels.




38. Gray squirrels have developed their food storage skills very well.


39. A rat will not receive any damage when falling from a five-story building.


40. Rodents are subject to alcohol addiction, just like people. Simply put, they can become real alcoholics if they are given the opportunity.




41. Porcupines are also rodents. And one of their species, living mainly in Malaysia, holds the record for longevity - the officially registered record is as much as 27 years.


42. On an Indonesian island, a species of rodent has been discovered that cannot gnaw. They only feed on earthworms.


43. In a year, up to 15,000 cubs can give birth to rats.


44. Since the teeth of rodents grow continuously, they need to constantly gnaw something to grind them down. Otherwise, the teeth will reach such a size that the animal will not be able to eat, and as a result will die of starvation.


45. Rodents can feel x-rays.




46. ​​Up to 1300 beats per minute can reach the pulse rate of a shrew during excitement.


47. Gambian rats are used to detect mines.


48. Different rodents are sometimes depicted on the money of different countries. For example, in Canada, the image of a beaver was used, and in Belarus, a hare.


49. It is rodents that are considered smart and intelligent animals. Any rodents easily adapt to new circumstances.


50. And, of course, the contribution of rodents to medicine cannot be underestimated - it was on them that numerous experiments were carried out in the course of work on new drugs and other medicines.



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Amazing armadillo animals seem to be actual living relics. They look like what animals seem to have looked like many millions of years ago and somehow subtly resemble dinosaurs, although they have nothing to do with them. However, armadillos are defenseless against people despite their somewhat frightening appearance, and their habitat has been inexorably shrinking in recent decades. If this continues, these amazing and interesting animals in all respects will be threatened with extinction.


Interesting facts about armadillos



1. Armadillos are the only mammals with a body covered with a hard shell.


2. They are also among the few mammals that lay eggs.


3. Armadillos got their name in honor of the conquistadors, Spanish warriors chained in steel armor.


4. South America is considered the birthplace of these animals, but armadillos also live in Central and North America and Mexico.


5. In the Pleistocene era, glyptodons lived in South and Central America - giant relatives of modern armadillos. With its size and dimensions, the glyptodon resembled the Volkswagen Beetle. The body length of the armadillo ancestors reached 3 meters.


6. Now, giant armadillos weigh about 32 kilograms and reach one and a half meters in length.


7. The smallest frilled armadillo - often does not exceed 15 centimeters in length.


8. Sometimes, armadillos are confused with pangolins. But pangolins, or lizards, are a separate detachment of placental mammals.


9. Armadillos are animals that got their name from the shell covering their bodies. This armor, consisting of bone plates, allowed their ancient ancestors to survive.


10. The shell of these animals is a bone that grows directly from their vertebrae. A strong shell reliably protects the animal's upper body; it consists of rigid plates covered with a keratinized layer of skin. All this helps armadillos to defend themselves from predatory animals.




11. The plates are also located on the shoulders and hips. On the back, they consist of belts, between which there is a leathery layer, which allows animals to curl up into a ball in case of danger.


12. But only one species of these animals can curl up into a ball to protect themselves from attack. Those armadillos that do not know how to fold into a ball will either run away when attacked or dig a hole where you can hide.


13. The head, the upper part of the paws, and the tail, as a rule, are also protected by armor. Therefore, the armadillos' most vulnerable part is the body's lower part, which has only a bristly hairline.


14. Now, there are about 20 species of these individuals and nine genera, combined into the following groups: bristly; rugged armored; ball; large; frilled.


15. Of the existing 20 species of armadillos, only one of them lives in North America. The rest are found in South America.


16. These animals live in tropical forests, grasslands, and semi-arid places.




17. Head-tailed armadillos. This species has medium dimensions, body length is about 35-80 centimeters, body weight is 36-40 kilograms. A distinctive characteristic of this species is the tail of the animal, it is not protected by bone growths.


18. These animals have a wide muzzle with straight ears. There are 5 fingers on each limb, and the middle one is much larger than the rest. Their body is covered with 9-13 movable plates. The color is dark, almost black.


19. The lifespan of this armadillo species in its natural habitat is 11 years, the survival rate in captivity is very low.




20. Nine-banded - the most famous and well-studied type of armadillos. These animals perfectly adapt to the environment, so it is found everywhere.


21. Their habitat is wide, they are distributed not only in most of the United States, but also in Mexico.


22. Nine-banded armadillos love to burrow on river banks near green bushes and trees, they can also swim short distances. For this feature they are called marine armadillos, the animal can hold its breath for up to 5-7 minutes.




23. Bristly armadillos. Their characteristic feature is their small size, the body length rarely exceeds 45 centimeters. Weight - 3.5-3 kilograms, their life expectancy is about 10 years.


24. Their body is covered with granular shields and has a large amount of hair. These animals have a light brown color. They appear both during daylight hours and at night.


25. Bristly armadillos feed on carrion, worms and insects. They breed 2 times a year, their pregnancy is infertile.




26. Gigantic or giant armadillos. The length of their body is 1 meter, and the tail is 50 centimeters. Weight reaches 60 kilograms.


27. These animals have a tube-shaped muzzle and wide ears, and the number of teeth that do not have roots reaches 100 pieces. They are found in open grasslands, savannahs and jungles.


28. Frilled armadillos are often found in central Argentina, Bolivia, Chile. They live in dry meadows with thorny bushes.


29. A sexually mature individual of these animals has a body length without a tail of 10 centimeters, a tail - 2-3 centimeters, their weight - 80-90 grams. These armadillos look small and defenseless. Their color varies from soft pink tones to dark saturated shades.


30. Their small, oblong head and strong forelimbs are perfectly adapted for burrowing. Most of the time these animals spend underground. They are active at night. This species of armadillos is under threat of extinction.




31. There is also a dwarf species, their body size is 26-35 centimeters, weight is about 1 kilogram.


32. Scientists cannot reliably determine how many teeth each type of armadillo has. It is known that their jaws are not very powerful, and rare teeth are peg-shaped and practically not covered with enamel.


33. Such a structure is explained by the fact that the animals eat soft food, which is digested in the stomach, the anterior part of which is covered with hard plates. Teeth have one root and grow throughout the life of the animal.


34. Most armadillos are unable to roll into a ball because they have too many plates that limit their flexibility.


35. Armadillos are clumsy animals with an elongated muzzle and huge erect ears. They come in black, dark brown, gray, red and even yellow.


36. These animals are omnivores. The basis of their diet is a variety of insects and larvae, and armadillos can also eat plant foods or carrion.


37. Armadillos are excellent at digging - this is how they find their food, namely insects, as well as small mammals, roots and fruits.



38. In addition to digging, armadillos have a fantastic sense of smell for finding food. They can smell their prey even underground. This compensates for the fact that they have very poor eyesight.


39. Ants and termites are considered their special delicacy, they are not afraid of their bites, armadillos dig them out with their clawed paws. Their long, sticky tongues help them suck up ants (including fire ants) and termites.


40. Their front and hind legs have from 3 to 5 fingers and large sharp claws that help the animals dig the ground, open anthills and termite mounds. Large species can even break stumps or termite mounds, and then take the prey with their long tongue.


41. Thanks to the large salivary glands located on the lower jaw and reaching the sternum, the tongue is constantly covered with mucus. At one time, the animal eats up to 35 thousand insects.


42. The most common type of armadillos - nine-belted ones in one sitting can eat about 40 thousand ants.


43. Some species in the warm season feed on small invertebrates, and can also eat fruits. Sometimes they replenish their diet with the eggs of birds that make nests on the ground.


44. These animals, despite the fact that digging the ground in search of food, spoil crops, they also bring a lot of benefits, destroying harmful insects and their larvae.


45. These animals do not have very good eyesight and do not distinguish colors at all, but they have a fairly developed sense of smell and excellent hearing. This helps to recognize representatives of a kind, as well as to receive information about the readiness of the opposite sex for reproduction.



46. ​​Since armadillos belong to the group of mammals, they are placental. The placenta is formed only during pregnancy, through it nutrients enter the body of the embryo, cells are saturated with oxygen and hormones are produced that are responsible for the growth of the fetus.


47. The mating season falls on the warm season, most often in July, it is at this time that the females are physiologically ready for mating. Conception occurs sexually and often only one egg is fertilized.


48. At the earliest stage, the embryo remains in the uterus for about 3-3.5 months, then implantation occurs and the fetus develops for another 4 months. Delaying implantation is necessary to ensure good survival of the offspring.




49. Cubs are born in early spring, they are well developed and within a few hours after birth they can move independently.


50. The shell of babies is soft, and only by the onset of puberty does it harden.


51. During the first months, newborns stay close to their mother, who feeds them with breast milk.


52. Further, already grown cubs leave the hole and begin to master adult food. Fully development is completed by 3-4 years, depending on the sex.


53. Most of the animals are nocturnal, but activity may vary depending on the weather and the age of the armadillo. Juveniles may emerge from their burrows early in the morning or towards afternoon. In the cold season, animals are also active during the day.


54. No family of mammals has such a variable number of teeth - from 28 to 40 (in a giant armadillo - up to 90-100). The number of teeth differs not only in different species, but also in different individuals.


55. Due to their thin shell and low body fat, armadillos cannot maintain their internal temperature, as most other mammals do.



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People sparsely populate the high mountains. The cultivation of the land is difficult here, and it can only be used in summer as a pasture for domestic animals. In the last century, the mountains have become a popular place of entertainment - at first, they were chosen by climbers, later by skiers. The laying of ski tracks, the construction of lifting devices, hotels, and recreation centers sometimes cause adverse changes in the natural environment.


Mountain animals


High in the mountains, even on the rocks, flowers of extraordinary beauty grow, such as aquilegia. The highest city in the world is Lhasa (China), located in Tibet at an altitude of 3,630 meters.



1. Living conditions in the mountains are very different from the plains.


As you climb the mountains, the climate changes rapidly: the temperature drops, the amount of precipitation increases, the air becomes more rarefied—changes from the foot of the mountains to the peaks and the nature of the vegetation. Therefore, mountain habitats vary greatly from the base to the mountain peaks.


2. The variety of living conditions contributes to the fact that the mountains are inhabited by many species of animals. On the mountains, each vertical zone has its own fauna, to some extent similar to the fauna of the corresponding latitudinal zones of the Earth.


3. By the number of species of mountain animals, the forest zone is the richest. Highlands are much poorer than them. The higher up the mountains, the fewer species of animals - this is typical for most mountainous countries. On the mountain peaks, the ambient temperature is low, the atmosphere is rarefied, and the level of ultraviolet radiation is high. The most elevated parts of the high mountains are covered with eternal snow and are almost completely devoid of life.


4. Most animal species live at lower altitudes, only in a few or even in one zone of mountains. And only the most enduring representatives of the fauna have adapted to the difficult conditions of life on the tops of the world.




5. Mountain goats and sheep can enter very high mountains - up to almost 6000 meters. Of the vertebrates, only vultures and eagles penetrate above them, and occasionally other smaller birds fly in.


6. The wild yak is a large wild animal native to the Himalayas in Central Asia. It is the ancestor of the domesticated yak. Yaks are common in treeless areas, at an altitude of 3000 to 6100 meters. They are most often found in alpine tundras with relatively high amounts of grasses and sedges.




7. This animal is characterized by a massive body, with strong legs and rounded hooves. The fur is extremely dense, long, hanging below the belly, and perfectly protects from the cold. The color of the coat, as a rule, varies from light brown to black.


8. The fauna of the alpine zone is most peculiar, where many animals are found that are unknown on the plains: various types of mountain goats (in Western Europe - stone ibex, in the Caucasus - tour, in the mountains of Asia - Siberian ibex), chamois, Asian red wolf, some rodents , vulture, mountain turkey, or snowcock, alpine jackdaw and others.


9. It is interesting that the fauna of the Alpine zone in Europe, Asia, North America and northern Africa is generally homogeneous. This is due to the fact that in the highlands of different parts of the world, living conditions are very similar.




10. Orongo is a medium-sized artiodactyl mammal native to the Tibetan Plateau. Males have long, curved horns, while females lack them. The color of the back is reddish-brown, and the lower part of the body is light.


11. On the Tibetan plateau, orongos live in open alpine and cold steppe regions, at an altitude of 3250 to 5500 meters. These animals are found almost entirely in China, where they are found in Tibet, the provinces of Xinjiang and Qinghai; some populations are also found in Ladakh, India.




12. The Tibetan fox is a species from the canine family. These foxes are found in the Tibetan plateau, in India, China, the Sutlej valley in northwestern India and parts of Nepal, in particular in the Mustang region. Tibetan foxes are known to prefer barren slopes and streams.


13. The maximum height at which these mammals were seen was 5300 meters. Among all types of foxes, the Tibetan has the most elongated muzzle. Its coat color on the back, legs and head is reddish, and on the sides it is gray.


14. Hares are found in almost all areas of the mountains.


15. In many mountains, screes are formed; the life of interesting animals is connected with them - snow voles and mountain pikas (otherwise it is called hay rate).




16. Brown bears have the widest range, and are found in the northern part of Eurasia and North America. The animals do not appear to have specific altitude restrictions and are found from sea level up to 5,000 meters (in the Himalayas).


17. Brown bears are the largest land predators, after polar bears, and can weigh up to 750 kilograms. Brown bears are adapted to high altitude conditions due to their thick fur and ability to climb mountains.


18. Many mountain animals live only where there are rocks.




19. Musk deer, mountain goats and goral antelope are saved in the rocks from predators.


20. Now on many mountains one can meet argali and other wild sheep in the rocks. This is apparently due to the long pursuit of them by hunters.


21. Where wild sheep are little disturbed, they prefer to live on relatively gentle slopes, and only the bighorn sheep, or chubuk, living in the mountains of Northeast Asia, lives very similar to mountain goats.


22. Viviparous species of reptiles penetrate the mountains above others: some lizards, vipers, in northern Africa - chameleons.




23. In Tibet, at an altitude of more than 5000 meters, there is a viviparous round-headed lizard. Roundheads, living on the plains, where the climate is warmer, lay eggs.


24. When a lot of snow falls in the mountains, it is very difficult for ungulates: it prevents them not only from moving around, but also from getting food.


25. In the mountains of the Western Caucasus in 1931-1932 there was a very snowy winter. The layer of snow in some places exceeded 6 meters. Many deer, roe deer and other animals migrated to the lower parts of the mountains, where the snow cover was less. In this winter, roe deer ran into the villages and were easily given into hands. They were caught and kept in barns along with cattle until the snow melted in the mountains.




26. The Himalayan marmot is distributed throughout the Himalayas and on the Tibetan plateau at an altitude of 3500 to 5200 meters. These animals live in groups and dig deep burrows in which they sleep. The body size of the Himalayan marmot is comparable to that of a domestic cat. It has a dark chocolate brown coat with contrasting yellow spots on its head and chest.


27. The peculiar conditions of life in the mountains affected the external appearance of animals, the forms of their bodies, their way of life and habits.


28. Many generations of these animals lived in the mountains, and therefore they developed characteristic adaptations that help in the struggle for existence.




29. Mountain goats, chamois, American bighorn goats, bighorn sheep have large, mobile hooves that can move widely apart. Along the edges of the hooves - from the sides and in front - a protrusion (welt) is well defined, the pads of the fingers are relatively soft.


30. All this allows animals to cling to barely noticeable bumps when moving on rocks and steep slopes, and not to slip when running on icy snow.


31. The horny substance of their hooves grows very strong and quickly, so the hooves never “wear out” from abrasion on sharp stones. The legs of mountain ungulates allow them to make strong jumps on steep slopes and quickly reach rocks where they can hide from persecution.




32. Kiang is a large mammal from the horse family, which has a size at the withers of up to 142 centimeters, a body length of up to 214 centimeters, and a weight of up to 400 kilograms. Kiangs are common on the Tibetan Plateau, between the Himalayas in the south and the Kunlun Mountains in the north. Their range is almost entirely limited to China, but small populations are found in the Ladakh and Sikkim regions of India, and along the northern border of Nepal.


33. Kiangs live in alpine meadows and steppes, at an altitude of 2700 to 5400 meters above sea level. They prefer relatively flat plateaus, wide valleys, and low hills dominated by grasses, sedges, and a small amount of other low vegetation. This open area, in addition to a good prey base, helps them spot and hide from predators. Their only real natural enemy other than humans is the wolf.




34. In the spring, as the snow melts, the animals that descend down migrate to the upper zones of the mountains. Among wild ungulates, adult males are the first to rise, later - females with recently born, not yet strong enough babies.


35. Chamois, mountain goats, wild sheep and other ungulates living in the mountains often die in winter and early spring during snowfalls. In the Alps in the winter of 1905-1906, one of the snow avalanches buried a herd of chamois - about 70 heads.




36. Tibetan gazelle is a relatively small antelope, with a slender and graceful body. Males have long, tapering, ribbed horns, up to 32 centimeters long. Most of the body is grayish brown. Their fur has no undercoat, and consists only of long protective hairs, which thicken considerably in winter.


37. The Tibetan gazelle is native to the Tibetan plateau and is widely distributed throughout the region, at altitudes between 3,000 and 5,750 meters. They are limited to the Chinese provinces of Gansu, Xinjiang, Tibet, Qinghai and Sichuan, and small populations are found in the Ladakh and Sikkim regions of India.


38. Alpine meadows and steppes are the main habitats of these animals. Unlike some other ungulates, Tibetan gazelles do not form large herds and are usually found in small family groups. These artiodactyls feed on local vegetation, including forbs. Their main predator is the wolf.




39. In the Caucasian Reserve, it was possible to observe goat-turs during a heavy snowfall. Snow avalanches fell from the opposite slope of the gorge. But the tours, usually very cautious, did not pay attention to this. Apparently, they are accustomed to the menacing sounds of a snow avalanche.


40. At the end of December 1936, snowfall continued for four days in the Caucasian Reserve. At the upper border of the forest, a layer of new loose snow reached a meter. The scientists of the reserve went out to explore the state of the snow and noticed a fresh deep path that went down the slope. They skied down this trail and soon overtook a large tur. Only a head with horns was visible from the snow.


41. The tour was so helpless that one of the employees could even afford liberties in handling him - he sat on a wild tour on horseback! Another employee photographed the scene. Tur was helped out of the snow and left. The next day, his tracks were found much lower - in the forest on a steep slope, where the aurochs could feed on lichens hanging from fir branches.




42. The snow leopard living in the high mountains of Asia has unusually long and lush fur, while its tropical relative, the leopard, has short and rarer fur.


43. Animals living in the mountains molt in the spring much later than the animals of the plains, and in the fall their hair begins to grow back earlier.


44. One of the remarkable adaptations caused by living conditions in the mountains is vertical migrations, or migrations.


45. In autumn, when it becomes cold high in the mountains, snowfalls begin and, most importantly, food is difficult to obtain, many animals migrate down the slopes of the mountains.


46. ​​Deer, roe deer and wild boars are found in the mountains up to alpine meadows; in autumn they descend into the forest. Most of the chamois go here for the winter.


47. Mountain goats migrate to the forest part of the mountains and settle here on steep rocky slopes. Sometimes they move to the southern slopes, where snow melts in alpine meadows in the very first hours or days after a snowfall, or to steeper windward slopes, where the snow is simply blown away by the winds.


48. Following wild ungulates, predators hunting them migrate - wolves, lynxes, snow leopards.


49. The variety of natural conditions in the mountains allows animals to find places for wintering near the areas where they live in summer. Therefore, the seasonal migrations of animals in the mountains are, as a rule, much shorter than the migrations of animals and birds on the plains.


50. In the mountains of Altai, Sayan and North-Eastern Siberia, wild reindeer make seasonal migrations of only a few tens of kilometers, and deer living in the far north sometimes travel a thousand kilometers to reach their wintering grounds.



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