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Top historical facts about elephants that you didn't know

2 months ago
top-historical-facts-about-elephants-that-you-didnt-know

Elephants are the only representatives of the ancient group that have survived to our time. Previously, there were 40 species, most of them bred until the end of the last ice age 12,500 years ago, there were pygmy elephants, mammoths, and dinotherium. Only three have survived to this day - the African savannah elephant, the African forest elephant, and the Asian elephant. We present to you the most interesting historical facts about them.


It is a well-known fact that elephants are the largest land animals on earth. The heart of an elephant can reach a weight of 25-30 kg. In its normal rhythm, it contracts about once every two seconds, driving blood through a huge body. In the wild, elephants spend up to 20 hours a day searching for food.


Troops of the nobility


According to the unwritten Aryan code of honor, the highest aristocracy first fought on chariots and later moved to elephants. The princes were taught the methods of training elephants as much as riding. The elephant was used both on the battlefields and during sieges: elephants scattered palisades and broke through city walls.


According to the Mahabharata epic, the ancient Indian military unit (Patti) included one elephant, one chariot, three horsemen, and five-foot soldiers.


The elephant crew consisted of two or three people, with the foremost warrior sitting on the neck of the animal and the rest on the rump; one of them could carry the badge of an aristocratic fighter or hold an umbrella over the nobleman. The weapons were darts and bows. The warriors sat on a colorful blanket or a special saddle, and the elephant itself was sometimes protected by a leather or metal shell, the design of which is unknown.


In any case, finds from Taxila, where rectangular iron plates 21.6 × 25.4 cm in size were made about 2000 years ago, speak of lamellar armor.


If the body of the elephant was invulnerable, then its legs were guarded by four-foot soldiers assigned to the animal - “guardians of the feet” (Kautilya’s treatise “Arthashastra” recommends strengthening the war elephant with fifteen warriors). In the Mahabharata, the elephant-hero could be accompanied by four chariots instead of infantry.


The classic variant of the correct battle was a battle by type of troops: elephants had to fight with the enemy's elephant, chariots with chariots, horse riders with horse riders, and foot soldiers against footmen. Of course, the rules were often broken in the heat of battle.


Where the elephants fought


As an example of the interaction of elephants with other branches of the military on the battlefield, one can cite the Battle of the Hydaspes in May 326 BC. e. between Alexander the Great and the Punjabi Raja Por.


Ancient historians describe the disposition of Por in sufficient detail: infantry was built in the center, in front of which there were about 130 elephants, and on the flanks - quadriga chariots, followed by cavalry.


Thus, the elephants became the main striking force of the Indian army: during the battle, the elephants of Por even attacked the famous Macedonian phalanx. However, tactical superiority remained on the side of Alexander: the Macedonians killed the Kornak drovers with darts, surrounded the enemy's elephant, and captured elephants as trophies.


The first known use of elephants outside of India is at the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC. e. The Persian king Darius III was supplied with 15 animals by the Indian allies against the Macedonians.


The Persians, having painted the place of the elephant in their written disposition, were afraid to bring the elephants to the battlefield so as not to scare away their horses and leave them in the camp. The battle was won by Alexander the Great, who captured the Persian base along with the elephants.



After the Battle of the Hydaspes, Alexander formed a guard detachment-agama from captured elephants in the Macedonian way, putting heavily armed hoplite foot soldiers on the backs of animals. Thus, in the first European elephant, the elephant crew consisted of an Indian Kornak and a Macedonian, equipped with their traditional weapons: a large round shield and a pike-sarisa. The hoplite held his lance with both hands and stabbed down.


After the collapse of the power of Alexander, his elephant was also divided: Antipater took half to Macedonia, and the second half went to the Asian strategist Antigonus One-eyed, who used elephants in the battle Orkinia in the spring of 320 BC. e., fighting with another heir of Alexander, Eumenes.


Two years later, Eumenes received from his supporter Eudamus, the strategist of North India, 125 elephants taken by Eudamus from the army of Por, who he killed. Thus, the elephants of Pore fought each other in two major battles: at Paretaken (317 BC) and Gabiene (316 BC).


Elephant of the Hellenistic era

The era of Hellenism is generally the heyday of the Mediterranean elephant. In the III - the middle of the II century BC. e. the armies of the most powerful states - Macedonia, Syria, Egypt - were armed with several dozen elephants.


The Epirus king Pyrrhus, having encountered Sicily in the 270s BC. e. with the Carthaginians, introduced the enemy to his elephant. By the time of the Second Punic War (218-201 BC), there were up to 300 elephants in the stalls of the Carthaginian army.


The founder of the dynasty of Syrian kings, Seleucus I, had the most significant number of war elephants - he received five thousand heads from India. Seleucid elephants participated in the major wars of the era: with Egypt, Rome, and the Jews.


Alexander's successors improved the elephant's equipment. The animal was dressed in a purple blanket. The protective armor was replenished with a forehead with a sultan and an entire shell. The tusks were reinforced with sharp tips, and weapons were given to the elephant's trunk.


Among the Greeks, elephants threw darts while brandishing heavy chains and swords in India. On the back of the elephant, they began to install a tower resembling a fortification. On the one hand, she gave the fighters solid support for the combat stance, and on the other hand, she covered them with arrows and spears.



This innovation likely appeared in the army of the already mentioned Diadochus Antigonus One-Eyed at the turn of 320-310 BC. e. 2-3 warriors stood in the tower, turning in different directions. In addition to a hook for controlling the animal, the leader-cork also received a chisel with a hammer to neutralize an enraged elephant: the chisel was driven into the back of the animal's head, causing immediate death. Cruel, but out of obedience, the elephants were no less dangerous for their warriors than for the enemy.


The idea of ​​equipping the Kornak with a chisel is attributed to the younger brother of Hannibal, the Carthaginian commander Hasdrubal (245-207 BC).


Now the forces of elephants were not wasted on the siege of cities but used elephants mainly in field battles. The animals were arranged in a chain at a distance of about 30 m from each other; they usually had to charge the cavalry or fight against the enemy elephant.


The success of the attacks on the cavalry was because the horses, unaccustomed to the sight and smell of elephants, began to rage and got out of control. Elephants were soldered with wine before the fight for courage.


Asian monarchies used giant Indian elephants (height at the withers up to 3.5 m). At the same time, the armies of North Africa - the Egyptians, Carthaginians, Numidians, and Ethiopians - had smaller African forest elephants (height at the withers no more than 3 m).


This forest breed was afraid of its taller Asian counterparts: in the battle of Rafia in South Palestine on June 22, 217 BC. e., when the Indian elephants of the Seleucid king Antiochus III collided with the Egyptian elephant of Ptolemy IV, the Libyan elephants of the Egyptians simply retreated.


Depletion of natural resources


Although the Romans learned to fight the elephant successfully, they also acquired this branch of the army, receiving elephants mainly from Africa. The Elephant of the Eternal City fought with the Macedonians, the Spanish Celtiberians, and the Allobroge Gauls.


The last time elephants appeared in the Roman army was at the Battle of Thapsus (46 BC) between Caesar and the supporters of Pompey, who received animals from the Numidian king. Despite the unsuccessful actions of the elephants in that battle, Caesar wanted to use elephants against the Parthians, but his death in 44 BC. e. thwarted these plans.


Emperor Claudius (41-54 AD) was going to use elephants in a campaign in Britain in 43, and the emperor Caracalla (211-217) even formed a detachment of elephants.


However, the Romans were not destined to use it in battle, as historian Andrei Bannikov suggests, due to the loss of elephant combat training skills. It is also possible that the not too numerous elephants of North Africa had already died on the battlefield before Caesar, and the Romans had nowhere to replenish their elephant.


The elephant in the Middle Ages and after


Gradually, outside of Asia, Elephantery fell into disuse everywhere except in Ethiopia. The Africans also erected towers on animals, in which six archers fired in pairs on three sides.


In the 6th century, the Ethiopian ruler of Yemen, Abraha, sent an army to Mecca, including a white elephant. According to Islamic tradition, this event, described in the Koran in a separate sura "Elephant," took place in 570, when the prophet Muhammad was born.


Perhaps in the battles with the Ethiopians, the Arabs gained the experience that they needed when they conquered Persia. The number of elephants in the Shahinshah's army reached 300 heads. Iranian elephant successfully fought against the Romans and Armenians. According to sources, the Persians used elephants more often during sieges.


In the fatal battle of Qadisiya (637) for Iranian history, three dozen elephants located in front of the center and flanks of the Persian army fought fiercely with the Arabs on the first and third days of the four-day battle.


On the first day, the elephants attacked quite successfully. The Arabs stopped them with difficulty, shooting at the trunks and eyes of the animals and the carriages and cutting off the girths holding the towers. The whole second day, the Persians were repairing the equipment of elephants. Each animal was given an infantry detachment and a horse patrol. On the third day of the battle, the Arabs continued to shoot at the eyes of the elephants and put up special squads of swordsmen who managed to cut off several trunks, which led to a stampede of the animals. On the fourth day, the Persian commander died, and his army fled.



This battle dealt a blow to the reputation of the Elephant in the Middle East. However, elephants continued to serve in Ethiopia (at least until the 16th century), India (until the end of the 18th century), and Indochina (until the end of the 19th century). In the 16th-17th centuries, the Mughal kings of India had up to 12 thousand animals, while the kings of Siam and Burma - had five to six thousand.


Elephants received from India also fought in the armies of the most militant Muslim monarchs of the Middle East: Sultan Mahmud Ghaznevi (998-1030), Khorezmshah Muhammad (1200-1220), and Emir Tamerlane (1370-1405).


Afanasy Nikitin, who lived in Central India from 1471-to 1474, described the war elephants of the Bahmanid state in a story about the sultan's parade:


“300 elephants dressed in damask armor with towns, and the villages are chained. There are six people in armor with cannons and squeakers in the cities and 12 people on the great elephant. On each elephant, there are two large banners. Large swords are tied to the fangs, each center (about 40 kg), and heavy iron weights are tied to the trunks; between the ears sits a man in armor, and in his hands is a large iron hook, which he rules.


Nikitin also observed preparations for a campaign against the neighboring state of Vijayanagar: 100 elephants set out "in armor and with towns, and on each elephant, there are four people with squeakers."


Greek fire against artillery


Since the 14th century, the towers of the elephants of the army of the Delhi Sultanate were wooden, upholstered in metal, and shaped like closed towers. They were mounted on animals, protected by steel armor. The buildings housed archers, crossbowmen, throwers of discs or grenades with Greek fire, and for reinforcement, rockets were assigned to the animals - warriors who launched powder rockets at the enemy.


Detachments of five animals were supported by foot soldiers, whose task in battle was to cover the elephants from unexpectedly attacking horse riders. If at the time of Athanasius Nikitin, elephants armed with heavy arquebuses and bows fired from the towns, then later, under the Great Mughals (XVI-XVIII centuries), elephants usually did not carry towers.


The commander's elephant had a special seat (houdah), sheathed in metal in the combat version, for the commander and his guards or servants. Elephants were grouped into groups of 10, 20, and 30 heads.


Animals were actively used during sieges, where they kicked out gates and destroyed fortifications, and on the battlefield for a frontal attack. But against the artillery of the New Age, they were defenseless. In the pitched battle of Karnal (1739) between the troops of the Mughal Padishah Muhammad (1719–1748) and the Persians of Nadir Shah (1736–1747), the ruler of India fielded 2,000 elephants, which were put to flight by the fire of Iranian field guns transported on camels.


In the 16th-17th centuries, special light guns (gajnals) about 1.8 m long were mounted on some elephants, which served four gunners. Swords or knives tied to elephant tusks were sometimes poisoned, and in the trunk, the animal carried a sword or a heavy chain, sometimes with weights.


The elephant could be unarmored, protected by partially or fully covered armor, non-metallic or steel scaly, or ring-plate. Moreover, in Mughal times, the elephant's headband watched the entire trunk, except for the very tip, and had a pair of high-standing "ears" covering the Karnak in front.


At the Royal Armories in Leeds, England, a large part of Mughal elephant armor dating from around the 17th century has been preserved. The armor consisted of eight regions and covered the entire head with ears, trunk, and torso.



Its complete set was supposed to consist of 8349 large and small steel plates with a total weight of 159 kg. Rectangular plates were connected with chain mail and lined with wool, and each large scale was decorated with images of flowers, elephants, birds, and fish.


The elephant was a significant branch of the army in the states of Indochina. Here the warrior sat on the back of the head of the animal, a servant squire was placed in a high saddle, and the leader controlled the elephant, sitting behind. For one warrior with a pike, halberd, or trident, there were two archers, crossbowmen, or, later, shooters with muskets.


If the head of the elephant was a woman (and this happened often), then the entire crew consisted of the fair sex. The elephant was usually accompanied by four "foot guards" in the Indian manner.


In the first half of the 1540s, the ruler of Cochinchina (South Vietnam) had two hundred elephants equipped with towers and swords on their tusks. The Cambodian war elephant in the 19th century wore an iron shell, an open saddle with a hundred darts, and three helmeted warriors: a corner with a hook and a curved sword around his neck, an arrow or spearman in the saddle, and a javelin thrower behind.


Animals rarely wore a shell. Warriors were placed either directly on a blanket or, more often on a special saddle, sometimes covered with a shield at the back.


Elephant Sunset


The artillery of the 19th century drove the elephants out of the first formation of the attacking armies. The tallest and most beautiful animals became “combat command vehicles,” from which the generals watched the battle's progress and, if necessary, participated in duels famous in the East between the leaders of the opposing armies. Elephants with less imposing appearance were increasingly used as tractors.


Their importance in the military affairs of Indochina is confirmed by the offer made in 1861 by the King of Siam Rama IV (1851-1868) to the American president: the king expressed his readiness to send his elephants to help the army of northerners in the transportation of goods. Abraham Lincoln, however, refused under the pretext that the US climate is not suitable for elephants.


In the 20th century, tractor elephants were replaced by steel equipment, although not everywhere: during the Second World War, animals served in the jungles of Burma as a universal transport. With the advent of helicopters, machines intercepted this function from elephants.



But the all-terrain qualities of animals continued to be used by the partisans of Indochina in their combat operations. Hmong and other Vietnamese Montagnards, participants in the Vietnam War, crossed the impenetrable forests on elephants. In 1997, God's Army's Burmese rebel patrols did the same. The civil war in Burma ended with a compromise in 2012: a peace treaty was concluded between the government of Myanmar and the ethnic separatists of the Karen National Union. Perhaps this document has become the last page in the annals of an elephant.



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funny-80-random-facts-that-are-too-interesting-to-ignore-bemorepanda

When you know the answer to something no one else in the room does, it makes you feel like a genius. So, if you're a fan of the little things, want your next night to be memorable, or just love learning new things that no one else knows about, you've come to the right place. You never know when you'll need to pull those facts, which is part of the fun. So, we invite you to play with us and check out our list of random facts.

 

Is there any useless information? Never. All those little random, interesting, funny, scary facts, or did you know that the facts you store in your brain exist for a reason and are sure to come in handy someday...even if it's just for you to could beat your best dude or surprise a bored toddler on a family field trip. Just in case you don't have enough information cluttering your brain, here are some more fun, interesting, or just plain fun tidbits to keep on hand.

 

Interesting and funny facts about animals

 

1. The fur of polar bears is actually clean, and their skin is black.

 

2. Baby flamingos are born grey, not pink.

 

3. A woodpecker's tongue actually wraps around its brain completely, protecting it from damage when it hits a tree.

 

4. The shrimp's heart is in its head.

 

5. Elephants suck their trunks for convenience.

 

6. Anteaters have no teeth.

 

7. Nine-banded armadillos always have quadrupeds, and they are always identical.

 

8. Wombat poop is cube shaped.

 

9. A flock of flamingos is called brightness.

 

 

10. Hippos and horses are actually distant relatives.

 

11. All clown fish are born male.

 

12. In the UK, the Queen legally owns all unmarked swans.

 

13. In order not to disperse, sea otters hold hands during sleep.

 

14. Goats have an accent.

 

15. Dolphins give each other names.

 

16. Gorillas can catch a cold, although you can probably still go to the zoo with a runny nose.

 

17. Forget bald eagles. The turkey was once almost called the national bird.

 

 

18. A group of owls is called a parliament.

 

19. There are 32 muscles in a cat's ear.

 

20. Snails can regenerate their eyes.

 

21. Want to know if your pet turtle is a boy or a girl? Listen carefully! Female turtles hiss and male turtles grunt.

 

22. A starfish can turn its stomach inside out.

 

23. French poodles are actually from Germany.

 

 

24. Seahorses mate for life and are often seen telling each other stories.

 

25. A group of porcupines is called a thorn.

 

26. Andrew Jackson's parrot had to be removed from his funeral because he wouldn't stop swearing. Polly wants to rinse her mouth.

 

27. Sloths can hold their breath for up to 40 minutes.

 

Interesting and funny historical facts

 

28. Henry VIII knighted all four of his Grooms of the Chair - the men in charge of wiping his ass for him.

 

29. Jeanette Rankin was elected to Congress four years before women could vote.

 

30. Women could not apply for a bank loan until 1974.

 

31. Before the invention of modern artificial teeth, dentures were usually made from the teeth of dead soldiers.

 

32. In ancient Egypt, servants were smeared with honey so that flies would fly to them instead of the pharaoh.

 

33. It was once considered blasphemous to use a fork.

 

34. Abe Lincoln was a champion wrestler. He was also a licensed bartender. Maybe they should call him Abe of all trades.

 

35. George Washington owned a whiskey distillery.

 

 

36. More than two percent of the American population died during the civil war.

 

37. Joseph Stalin removed people from photographs after their death or dismissal from office.

 

38. Since 1945, all British tanks have been equipped with everything necessary for making tea.

 

39. Pope Gregory IV once declared war on cats because he thought Satan was using black cats. His statement led to the mass extermination of cats.

 

40. The absence of cats led to an invasion of rats, which led to the spread of the plague.

 

50. John Adams was the first president to live in the White House.

 

51. Go to sleep! Chernobyl, the Exxon Valdez oil spill, and the Challenger explosion are all linked to lack of sleep.

 

Interesting and funny travel facts

 

52. The average person living in Sweden eats about 22 pounds of chocolate a year.

 

53. Although the Wright brothers are known as a couple, they actually flew together only once. They promised their father that they would always fly separately.

 

54. In Montana, there are three times more cows than people.

 

55. Parts of the Great Wall of China were made from sticky rice.

 

56. Ninety percent of the world's population lives above the equator.

 

57. There are more saunas in Finland than cars.

 

58. Sixty percent of the world's lakes (three million in total) are located in Canada.

 

59. Virginia is the only state that has the same staff flower and staff tree - Dogwood.

 

 

60. Think before the season. In Egypt, it is considered incredibly rude to salt the food you have been served.

 

61. Ninety percent of the territory of Libya is desert.

 

62. The height of the Eiffel Tower can vary up to six inches, depending on the temperature.

 

63. Do you spend too much on drinks when you eat out? A small town in Italy has a fountain that serves free wine.

 

64. Pilots and their co-pilots should eat differently before the flight so that both of them do not get sick with food poisoning.

 

65. About 600 Parisians work on the Eiffel Tower every day.

 

66. Do you want to go to Rome? Which one of? Six of the seven continents have a city called Rome. (You really fell, Antarctica.)

 

67. When you visit Key West, you are actually closer to Havana than Miami.

 

Interesting and fun facts about music

 

68. Mary, known as "Mary Had the Lamb", was a real person and the song is based on real events.

 

69. Happy Birthday was the first song ever played on Mars. Mars Rover Curiosity played this song to itself on its first anniversary on the planet.

 

70. When you listen to music, your heart is in sync with the beat.

 

71. President Nixon was an accomplished musician. He played five instruments, including the accordion.

 

72. Is the song stuck in your head? This is called an earworm.

 

73. None of The Beatles could read music.

 

74. However, George Harrison was reportedly able to play 26 instruments.

 

 

75. Barry Manilow didn't actually write I Write Songs.

 

76. Metallica is the only band to play on all seven continents.

 

77. Most department stores tend to play music slower to slow down shoppers and make them shop longer. The reverse is true for restaurants.

 

78. Monaco's orchestra is bigger than its army.

 

79. A concert promoter once sold a thousand tickets to a Spice Girls concert in Hawaii that were never booked. Maybe that's where the idea for Fyre Fest came from.

 

80. Leo Fender, inventor of the Stratocaster and Telecaster, couldn't play the guitar.

 

 

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famous-women-in-history-and-their-incredible-contribution

They have amazing fortitude, are not afraid to take risks, and are ahead of their time. They delight, fascinate, and turn consciousness and history as a whole. And if suddenly you lack inspiration right now, let their stories become a source of that same charge of energy with which you can achieve no less success.

 

Who are the most famous women in history?

 

In our world, men generally accept that men made all great discoveries. They also invented everything, created innovative technologies, and naturally drove progress. But it's not in our selection of only 30 women who have changed the world. There are, of course, many more of them.

 

Katharine Hepburn

 

American actress Katharine Hepburn (Katharine Houghton Hepburn) was born in Hartford, Connecticut, on May 12, 1907. The Hepburns were an unusual family for their time and surroundings. The father of the future Hollywood star, Thomas Norval, was a well-known urologist in the city, and his mother, Catherine Martha Haughton, whom everyone called 'Keith,' went down in history as a leader of the feminist and suffragist movement; she was orphaned early, managed to get a higher education against the will of her guardian, picketed the White House with calls to improve working conditions for women and allow birth control. 

 

Famous people of that time - the writer Sinclair Lewis, the leader of the suffragist movement Margaret Sanger and others - were frequent guests in the Hepburns' house. Topics that were not customary to talk about then were freely discussed in the living room. The famous actress had five brothers and sisters, who were raised in an atmosphere of free thinking and personal responsibility for their actions, taught to swim in icy water and not be afraid of any work. Katherine Haughton was named after her mother; she was the second child after her brother Tom, whom she loved so much that after his death, she began to consider the date of his birth (November 8) as her own.

 

Marie Curie

 

Maria Curie-Sklodowska was born on November 7, 1867, in Warsaw in the family of a physics teacher. Maria graduated from secondary school in Warsaw with a gold medal, after which she worked as a tutor and governess for eight years. In the laboratory at the Museum of Industry and Agriculture in Warsaw, she passed the preparatory stage in research in chemistry and physics. In 1891-95. studied at the Faculty of Natural Sciences of the Paris Sorbonne University and graduated with a bachelor's degree in physical and mathematical sciences. In the house of Professor Kowalski, she met Pierre Curie, whom she married in 1895 and took French citizenship. The first publication of Curie-Sklodowska was published in 1898 and drew the attention of scientists to Becquerel rays.

 

Edith Clarke

 

Edith Clarke was the first woman to earn an electrical engineering degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She became the first female electrical engineering professor at the University of Texas at Austin. Edith was born into a prosperous family in Maryland in the late 19th century and had no idea that she would become a woman who would build a career as a scientist. Like most girls, she dreamed of being a good wife, mother, and gracious hostess. Later, Edith Clark did not let public expectations hinder her professional aspirations and became one of the most famous engineers of her era.

 

After studying mathematics and astronomy at Vassar College, Clark began her career as a teacher. While working in this position, she realized her genuine interest in technology, even though women in the early 20th century rarely dared to think about something like that. Edith briefly studied civil engineering at the University of Wisconsin-Madison but did not graduate and went on to earn a degree in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, becoming the first woman to do so.

 

As a woman, she could not find a job as an engineer but worked hard at it and eventually became an electrical engineer at the Central Station of General Electric's technical department and achieved great success with this company. Later she entered the electrical engineering department of the University of Texas at Austin.

 

Elizabeth Warren

 

In mid-March 2019, US Senator and Democratic presidential candidate Elizabeth Warren proposed splitting technology companies such as Apple, Facebook, Amazon, and Google. The senator's campaign received support from social networks.

 

Warren proposes to introduce a new category of companies - "platforms." These are virtual store companies with more than $25 billion in sales. Warren believes that Apple, Facebook, Amazon, and Google need to be broken up by forcing them to split or sell parts of their businesses and forbidding them from using their platforms to promote their products.

 

According to the senator, Google should give up ranking priority when searching for its services. Amazon should stop selling products from the Amazon Basics line and spin off Whole Foods into a separate business, and Facebook should sell Instagram and WhatsApp.

 

Warren is concerned about the power over information and, ultimately, the power over the economy that the tech giants have acquired. In her opinion, such companies suppress the development of small IT businesses and innovative technologies. Without platform separation, a new generation of IT leaders in the United States may never appear.

 

Facebook has already shown a prime example of its power: the platform removed Warren's presidential campaign ads. After rising indignation, advertising was returned. Subsequently, a Facebook spokesperson said that the company removed only four of Warren's advertisements due to Facebook's logo rules violations.

 

Either way, with the 2020 presidential election approaching, the internet giants will likely come under increasing criticism from senators. Facebook, in particular, is facing growing scrutiny from lawmakers over a range of issues, including its market share, the spread of misinformation on the platform, and the resale of user data.

 

Hillary Clinton

 

Hillary has a law degree. From 1965-to 1969, she attended Wellesley Women's Private College in Massachusetts, where she majored in political science and received a bachelor's degree. In 1973 she graduated from Yale University with a doctorate in law - where she met her future husband. In 1973 she worked as a legal adviser for the Children's Defense Fund in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and in 1974 - in the office of the Judiciary Committee of the US House of Representatives in Washington.

 

As First Lady of Arkansas, Hillary was active in public life, focusing on children, health, and education.

 

In 1980, she gave birth to a daughter, Chelsea, but the birth of a child did not make her give up her career as a lawyer. By the 1980s, she had established herself as one of the best lawyers in the United States - in 1988 and 1991. The National Law Journal named Clinton among the 100 most influential lawyers in the country.

 

After becoming the first lady of the United States after the election of Bill Clinton as president in the 1992 elections, at her husband's request, she headed the operational committee for the development of health care reform. Hillary went on to turn her attention to protecting the interests of children and women. Her weekly comments entitled "Let's talk" on the White House website were devoted to this issue.

 

After leaving the administration, Clinton began writing her memoirs and giving paid lectures. According to the press, her average fee for one public performance is about $200,000. Forbes magazine estimates Hillary's fortune at $45 million.

 

She is also the author of several books, among them "The whole world and other lessons that children ask us" (1996), "Invitation to the White House" (1999), and memoirs "Living History" (2003). The last book - "A Hard Choice" - was published in 2014.

 

Eleanor Roosevelt

 

First Lady of the United States, public figure, wife of 32 US President Franklin Roosevelt, niece of Theodore Roosevelt. Eleanor Roosevelt is also known as a publicist, writer and human rights activist, took part in the creation of the UN and belonged to the first wave of feminists. She died November 7, 1962.

 

In 1928, Franklin was elected Governor of New York, and in 1933 he became President of the United States. Eleanor Roosevelt's worries increased: she visited schools, hospitals and prisons, traveled around the country, met with voters. She defended the rights of black citizens of the United States, advocated the preservation of prohibition. During her absence from the capital, the duties of the First Lady were performed by her daughter Anne.

 

After the death of Franklin Roosevelt in 1945, Eleanor did not leave public life. She published a lot, dealt with the problems of youth and ethnic minorities. Eleanor Roosevelt became chairman of the Human Rights Committee and traveled to many countries, was part of the US delegation to the UN. President Kennedy appointed her to the Peace Corps and chair of the Women's Rights Commission, and later to the POW Commission.

 

Emmeline Pankhurst

Suffragette Emmeline Pankhurst was ready to literally do anything to defend the rights of women: she collected thousands of protests, participated in pogroms, went on a hunger strike in prison. The suffragettes faced violence and were arrested en masse, but in the end, under the leadership of Pankhurst, they won the right for women to vote.

 

In August 1914, Great Britain entered the First World War. Pankhurst called on members of the Women's Social and Political Union to temporarily suspend actions and rallies in order to help the motherland in wartime. Emmeline asked women to go to work in factories instead of men who went to the front. Between 1914 and 1918, about 2 million women took on jobs that men who had gone to war were temporarily unable to do. If at the beginning of the war only 24% of British women were employed, by the end of hostilities their share had grown to 37%.

 

Pankhurst opened an orphanage during the war and, at age 57, took care of four orphans herself. At the same time, Emmeline had no property for a long time: she sold her house back in 1907, and all her things were placed in a small suitcase. All of Pankhurst's money went to helping others and activism. She herself lived with friends and supporters of the suffragist movement. When Pankhurst was asked how, in such a difficult financial situation, she decided to take care of the orphans, the activist replied: “You’d better ask why I didn’t take forty children.”

 

Women's contribution to the economy during the First World War, as well as their dedication, convinced the government that suffrage should not be exclusively a male privilege. In 1918, the Representation of the People Act was passed. Women were allowed to vote provided they were over 30 years of age, were not restricted in their rights and occupied "land or premises in the district for business purposes generating at least £5 of income". In 1928, these restrictions were also lifted. English women were equal in voting rights with men. It was an absolute victory for the suffragettes. Emmeline Pankhurst died shortly thereafter on June 14, 1928.

 

Today, several monuments have been erected in her honor, including in Manchester and London. Time magazine included her in the list of 100 most prominent figures of the 20th century, noting that Pankhurst "created the image of a woman of our time, transferring society to a new dimension from which it is no longer possible to return to the past."

 

Ada Lovelace

 

From the beginning of 1841, Lovelace began to study Babbage's machines in earnest. In one of the letters to Babbage, Ada writes: “You must tell me the basic information regarding your car. I have good reason for wanting it." In a letter dated January 12, 1841, she outlines her plans: "...Some time in the future (maybe within 3 or 4, and possibly even many years) my head can serve you for your goals and plans ... Precisely I want to have a serious talk with you on this matter." This proposal was gratefully accepted by Babbage. Since that time, their cooperation has not been interrupted and has given brilliant results.

 

Since 1844, Ada Lovelace has become more and more interested in playing at the races, especially since she herself rode beautifully and loved horses. Both Babbage and William Lovelace played at the races, and Babbage, who was interested in applied problems of probability theory, considered the game at the races from these positions and was looking for the optimal game system. However, both Babbage and Ada's husband withdrew from the game relatively soon. But Ada, reckless and stubborn, continued to play. Moreover, Lady Hell became close to a certain John Cross, who blackmailed her. She used up almost all of her funds and by 1848 had become heavily indebted.

 

Then her mother had to pay off these debts, and at the same time buy incriminating letters from John Cross. In the early 50s, the first signs of the disease that claimed the life of Ada Lovelace appeared. In November 1850, he writes to Babbage: "My health ... is so bad that I want to accept your offer and appear on arrival in London to your medical friends." Despite the measures taken, the disease progressed and was accompanied by severe suffering. On November 27, 1852, Ada Lovelace died at the age of 37. Together with her outstanding intellect, her father passed on to her this terrible heredity - an early death - the poet died at the same age ... She was buried next to her father in the Byron family crypt.

 

Successes were given to her with great effort and not without damage to health. Augusta Ada Lovelace accomplished little in her short life. But the little that came out of her pen inscribed her name in the history of computational mathematics and computer technology as the first programmer. In memory of Ada Lovelace, the ADA language, developed in 1980, is one of the universal programming languages. This language was widely used in the United States, and the US Department of Defense even approved the name "Ada" as the name of a single programming language for the American armed forces, and later for the entire NATO.

 

Also in honor of Ada Lovelace, two small cities are also named in America - in the states of Alabama and Oklahoma. There is also a college named after her in Oklahoma.

 

Jane Austen

 

English writer, satirist, forerunner of realism in British literature. Her books are recognized as masterpieces in all countries of the world and are required to be studied in schools and institutes. Jane Austen is known as the "First Lady" of English literature.

 

Jane Austen was born at the end of the 18th century in Steventon, Hampshire. Father George was a priest from an old family. The Austin family was large: six boys and two girls (Cassandra and Jane).

 

Little is known about the writer Jane Austen. Many of her contemporaries even disagree about her appearance. Someone calls her "prim, capricious and unnatural", someone - "attractive, thin, graceful." All that remained of Jane was a portrait painted by her sister Cassandra.

 

In 1783 Jane studied at Oxford, Southampton and Reading with her sister. They were not lucky with their education. Somewhere met the tyrannical nature of the headmistress, but somewhere too soft. Jane's father took the girls home and began to educate them himself. Jane Austen grew up on the works of Shakespeare, Fielding, Stern, Thompson.

 

At the age of 14, Jane Austen wrote her first parody of the boring 18th century odes Love and Friendship. The little girl had the courage to write a parody pamphlet on the work of the English historian Goldsmith "History of England".

 

Jane Austen spent her whole life in her native estate, but kept an active correspondence with her brothers and their wives, who saw the events of the French Revolution, the war with Napoleon, the Indian War of Independence.

 

According to some testimonies, Jane Austen suffered from cancer and metastasis all her life. She died in Winchester in 1817, where she went to treat Addison's disease. She never finished her last novel, Sanditon.

 

Mother Teresa

 

Mother Teresa (worldly name - Agnes Gonje Boyadzhiu) was born on August 26, 1910 in the city of Uskyub of the Ottoman Empire (now the city of Skopje - the capital of the Republic of Macedonia) in a family of Catholic Albanians. She later called her real birthday August 27, when she was baptized.

 

According to Mother Teresa, from early childhood she wanted to devote herself to serving the church. This desire was strengthened at the age of 12 when she met missionaries from India. From that time on, she dreamed of living in India and caring for the poor there. After graduating from high school, in 1928 she left to study English in Ireland and became a novice in the Irish Sisters of Loreto Catholic monastic order.

 

The girl's parents were wealthy people: her father Nikola, a native of Armenia, owned a large construction company and sold medicines, and her mother, an Albanian Dranafile, devoted herself to prayers and worship. The family strictly followed Catholic traditions. Dranafile often visited the sick and needy with her children and invited the poor to her home for dinners. “My child, never eat a single bite until you share it with others,” she said to Agnese. When she asked who the unknown guests were, the mother replied: "Some of them are our relatives, but they are all our people."

 

It was believed that Mother Teresa helped the sick and the poor, alleviated their suffering by providing them with shelter, treatment and food. However, the nun had a special view of death and torment: she said that they should be glorified, not healed. She compared suffering with the noble torments of Christ and was opposed to painkillers: “There is something beautiful in the way the poor take their share, how they suffer, like Jesus on the cross. The world gains a lot from suffering. Anguish means that Jesus is kissing you."

 

Mother Teresa's main departments were the homes for the dying, where doomed people were to spend their last days. Writer Mary Loudon, a former volunteer, recalled: “The first impression of the footage was ... as if I had a photo from Bergen-Belsen [Nazi concentration camp. — Approx. ed.], because all the patients were shaved bald. There were no chairs, only cots, similar to those from the First World War. There was no garden, no yard, nothing at all. And I thought, “What is this? These are two rooms. One has 50 to 60 men, the other has the same number of women. Everyone is dying. They received virtually no medical care. They did not receive any painkillers other than aspirin.”

 

 

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@Tammina Best women ever
20-historical-photos-for-those-attracted-by-the-past

If you had the opportunity to travel back in time, what century would you go? Of course, it is difficult to immediately answer this question, because in each era there was something exciting and interesting. Today we will be your time machine and will try to cover different eras and centuries, so that you feel like you've been in the past.

 

Beer bottle melted by an atomic bomb, Nagasaki, 1945

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"Pulp Fiction" at the Cannes Film Festival, France, 1994

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Kiev, USSR, hot summer 1958

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18-year-old Brigitte Bardot dancing on the roof, 1952

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Marilyn Monroe, 1950s

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Metal stamps with embedded needles used by Nazi soldiers to tattoo Jewish prisoners at Auschwitz, 1941

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Installation for the Day of Beer in Moscow at the Luzhniki stadium in 1998

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Sandra Bullock, 1995

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Ice Skating Dress, 1896

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At an exhibition of beauty salon owners in New York, Ruth Scott modeled a mask that warms up the face and tones the skin. The onlays on her fingers were brass thimbles that protected the nail polish until it dries, March 1940

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On October 6, 1889, the Ball Moulin Rouge cabaret opened in Paris on Montmartre. In the photo - his main asset

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Oldest known wine: An ancient Roman 1.5-liter jar of wine found in the tomb of a Roman nobleman, dating back to the 4th century

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Participants of the contest "Miss Universe" 1951

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Soviet store, Ukrainian SSR, Zaporozhye, 1970s

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Exquisite pocket watch, 1645

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In the very first film of 1913, Fantômas looked like this

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Italian actress Maria Grazia Cucinotta, Benevento, Italy, 1995 

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Niagara Falls, 1885

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Demonstration of the reliability and safety of London double-decker buses, 1933

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Captain John "Wild Bill" Crump and his coyote Jeep, 1944

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20-photos-of-unusual-things-to-expand-your-horizons-which-will-again-prove-that-the-world-is-an-amazing-place

We see the world around us every day, but often we simply do not notice its magnificence because of the constant rush and fuss in which we are forced to be. But there are situations that make you stop and say "wow," and these are some of them.

 

"The old estate near my house has been converted to McDonald's, and this fast food restaurant looks like it's from a different dimension."

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"I came across a bare ice cream cone that they forgot to put in a waffle cone."

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Have you ever seen round dice? It even sounds wrong

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This icicle looks like it is floating in the air, but in fact it is held by several strands of web.

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"One of our chickens just laid a huge egg with another egg inside."

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Copper chloride dyed paper towel that now looks like a lettuce leaf

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"I have a non-central pupil since birth"

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This is what the lower leg of a spurred turtle looks like.

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"I have grown a carrot that looks like a finger."

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This coleus decided to give its roots the shape of a vase in which it was

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"Our cat had its side hair shaved off for neutering, and here's the drawing that was underneath."

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Redlove apples have not only red skin, but also the flesh of the same color.

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The power line fell and was so hot it melted the sidewalk and turned the sand underneath into glass

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And this is the skull of a platypus, which looks very frightening

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"My peeler turns the peel into pixels that look like a glitch in the matrix."

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"The ice on the wheels of my car formed in such a way that it looked like a sea urchin."

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The shadow on the stairs looks like another staircase

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"I was photographing the street when lightning struck."

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This is a hammerhead salamander you have hardly met in real life.

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Egg yolk that survived from the mixer

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This cat's name is Maya and she is not at all like her relatives. But look how cute she is!

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And finally, the most ordinary store with a very relaxed and uninteresting view of the ancient Viking well of the 11th century right next to the toilet paper department

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20-abandoned-places-that-enchant-with-their-detachment-and-unique-atmosphere

Many people have a passion for how they like to walk in abandoned places that have long been abandoned by man and taken into their "hands" by nature. These places keep a special atmosphere that attracts and repels at the same time, and now you will see for yourself.

 

It looks like an eerie abandoned church and a scary gingerbread house at the same time. 

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"I was in Vietnam and stumbled upon a long-forgotten burial carriage in an overgrown barn."

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Traces of an alien civilization, which are actually abandoned anti-aircraft installations during the Second World War

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Largest abandoned teddy bear store found in Pennsylvania

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Abandoned Russian Church

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Abandoned residential complex in Turkey

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Abandoned apartment covered with snow and ice, Vorkuta, Russia

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Bus stop in Kazakhstan

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Abandoned Gothic Church in Portugal

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Tower of Saint John the Baptist, Italy

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Water tower in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

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Abandoned house in Watsonville, California

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Cemetery of Soviet military aircraft

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The last house on Holland Island

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It was once someone's home

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Abandoned British Colonial Island, India. The buildings here now have trees

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An entire abandoned island in Japan

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Somewhere in Scotland

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Abandoned amusement park in Nara prefecture, Japan

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40 years later in the same place. Someone's childhood is left here. Pripyat, Ukraine

04-14-45-1619005542920929727

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