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Famous women in history and their incredible contribution

3 months ago
famous-women-in-history-and-their-incredible-contribution

They have amazing fortitude, are not afraid to take risks, and are ahead of their time. They delight, fascinate, and turn consciousness and history as a whole. And if suddenly you lack inspiration right now, let their stories become a source of that same charge of energy with which you can achieve no less success.

 

Who are the most famous women in history?

 

In our world, men generally accept that men made all great discoveries. They also invented everything, created innovative technologies, and naturally drove progress. But it's not in our selection of only 30 women who have changed the world. There are, of course, many more of them.

 

Katharine Hepburn

 

American actress Katharine Hepburn (Katharine Houghton Hepburn) was born in Hartford, Connecticut, on May 12, 1907. The Hepburns were an unusual family for their time and surroundings. The father of the future Hollywood star, Thomas Norval, was a well-known urologist in the city, and his mother, Catherine Martha Haughton, whom everyone called 'Keith,' went down in history as a leader of the feminist and suffragist movement; she was orphaned early, managed to get a higher education against the will of her guardian, picketed the White House with calls to improve working conditions for women and allow birth control. 

 

Famous people of that time - the writer Sinclair Lewis, the leader of the suffragist movement Margaret Sanger and others - were frequent guests in the Hepburns' house. Topics that were not customary to talk about then were freely discussed in the living room. The famous actress had five brothers and sisters, who were raised in an atmosphere of free thinking and personal responsibility for their actions, taught to swim in icy water and not be afraid of any work. Katherine Haughton was named after her mother; she was the second child after her brother Tom, whom she loved so much that after his death, she began to consider the date of his birth (November 8) as her own.

 

Marie Curie

 

Maria Curie-Sklodowska was born on November 7, 1867, in Warsaw in the family of a physics teacher. Maria graduated from secondary school in Warsaw with a gold medal, after which she worked as a tutor and governess for eight years. In the laboratory at the Museum of Industry and Agriculture in Warsaw, she passed the preparatory stage in research in chemistry and physics. In 1891-95. studied at the Faculty of Natural Sciences of the Paris Sorbonne University and graduated with a bachelor's degree in physical and mathematical sciences. In the house of Professor Kowalski, she met Pierre Curie, whom she married in 1895 and took French citizenship. The first publication of Curie-Sklodowska was published in 1898 and drew the attention of scientists to Becquerel rays.

 

Edith Clarke

 

Edith Clarke was the first woman to earn an electrical engineering degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She became the first female electrical engineering professor at the University of Texas at Austin. Edith was born into a prosperous family in Maryland in the late 19th century and had no idea that she would become a woman who would build a career as a scientist. Like most girls, she dreamed of being a good wife, mother, and gracious hostess. Later, Edith Clark did not let public expectations hinder her professional aspirations and became one of the most famous engineers of her era.

 

After studying mathematics and astronomy at Vassar College, Clark began her career as a teacher. While working in this position, she realized her genuine interest in technology, even though women in the early 20th century rarely dared to think about something like that. Edith briefly studied civil engineering at the University of Wisconsin-Madison but did not graduate and went on to earn a degree in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, becoming the first woman to do so.

 

As a woman, she could not find a job as an engineer but worked hard at it and eventually became an electrical engineer at the Central Station of General Electric's technical department and achieved great success with this company. Later she entered the electrical engineering department of the University of Texas at Austin.

 

Elizabeth Warren

 

In mid-March 2019, US Senator and Democratic presidential candidate Elizabeth Warren proposed splitting technology companies such as Apple, Facebook, Amazon, and Google. The senator's campaign received support from social networks.

 

Warren proposes to introduce a new category of companies - "platforms." These are virtual store companies with more than $25 billion in sales. Warren believes that Apple, Facebook, Amazon, and Google need to be broken up by forcing them to split or sell parts of their businesses and forbidding them from using their platforms to promote their products.

 

According to the senator, Google should give up ranking priority when searching for its services. Amazon should stop selling products from the Amazon Basics line and spin off Whole Foods into a separate business, and Facebook should sell Instagram and WhatsApp.

 

Warren is concerned about the power over information and, ultimately, the power over the economy that the tech giants have acquired. In her opinion, such companies suppress the development of small IT businesses and innovative technologies. Without platform separation, a new generation of IT leaders in the United States may never appear.

 

Facebook has already shown a prime example of its power: the platform removed Warren's presidential campaign ads. After rising indignation, advertising was returned. Subsequently, a Facebook spokesperson said that the company removed only four of Warren's advertisements due to Facebook's logo rules violations.

 

Either way, with the 2020 presidential election approaching, the internet giants will likely come under increasing criticism from senators. Facebook, in particular, is facing growing scrutiny from lawmakers over a range of issues, including its market share, the spread of misinformation on the platform, and the resale of user data.

 

Hillary Clinton

 

Hillary has a law degree. From 1965-to 1969, she attended Wellesley Women's Private College in Massachusetts, where she majored in political science and received a bachelor's degree. In 1973 she graduated from Yale University with a doctorate in law - where she met her future husband. In 1973 she worked as a legal adviser for the Children's Defense Fund in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and in 1974 - in the office of the Judiciary Committee of the US House of Representatives in Washington.

 

As First Lady of Arkansas, Hillary was active in public life, focusing on children, health, and education.

 

In 1980, she gave birth to a daughter, Chelsea, but the birth of a child did not make her give up her career as a lawyer. By the 1980s, she had established herself as one of the best lawyers in the United States - in 1988 and 1991. The National Law Journal named Clinton among the 100 most influential lawyers in the country.

 

After becoming the first lady of the United States after the election of Bill Clinton as president in the 1992 elections, at her husband's request, she headed the operational committee for the development of health care reform. Hillary went on to turn her attention to protecting the interests of children and women. Her weekly comments entitled "Let's talk" on the White House website were devoted to this issue.

 

After leaving the administration, Clinton began writing her memoirs and giving paid lectures. According to the press, her average fee for one public performance is about $200,000. Forbes magazine estimates Hillary's fortune at $45 million.

 

She is also the author of several books, among them "The whole world and other lessons that children ask us" (1996), "Invitation to the White House" (1999), and memoirs "Living History" (2003). The last book - "A Hard Choice" - was published in 2014.

 

Eleanor Roosevelt

 

First Lady of the United States, public figure, wife of 32 US President Franklin Roosevelt, niece of Theodore Roosevelt. Eleanor Roosevelt is also known as a publicist, writer and human rights activist, took part in the creation of the UN and belonged to the first wave of feminists. She died November 7, 1962.

 

In 1928, Franklin was elected Governor of New York, and in 1933 he became President of the United States. Eleanor Roosevelt's worries increased: she visited schools, hospitals and prisons, traveled around the country, met with voters. She defended the rights of black citizens of the United States, advocated the preservation of prohibition. During her absence from the capital, the duties of the First Lady were performed by her daughter Anne.

 

After the death of Franklin Roosevelt in 1945, Eleanor did not leave public life. She published a lot, dealt with the problems of youth and ethnic minorities. Eleanor Roosevelt became chairman of the Human Rights Committee and traveled to many countries, was part of the US delegation to the UN. President Kennedy appointed her to the Peace Corps and chair of the Women's Rights Commission, and later to the POW Commission.

 

Emmeline Pankhurst

Suffragette Emmeline Pankhurst was ready to literally do anything to defend the rights of women: she collected thousands of protests, participated in pogroms, went on a hunger strike in prison. The suffragettes faced violence and were arrested en masse, but in the end, under the leadership of Pankhurst, they won the right for women to vote.

 

In August 1914, Great Britain entered the First World War. Pankhurst called on members of the Women's Social and Political Union to temporarily suspend actions and rallies in order to help the motherland in wartime. Emmeline asked women to go to work in factories instead of men who went to the front. Between 1914 and 1918, about 2 million women took on jobs that men who had gone to war were temporarily unable to do. If at the beginning of the war only 24% of British women were employed, by the end of hostilities their share had grown to 37%.

 

Pankhurst opened an orphanage during the war and, at age 57, took care of four orphans herself. At the same time, Emmeline had no property for a long time: she sold her house back in 1907, and all her things were placed in a small suitcase. All of Pankhurst's money went to helping others and activism. She herself lived with friends and supporters of the suffragist movement. When Pankhurst was asked how, in such a difficult financial situation, she decided to take care of the orphans, the activist replied: “You’d better ask why I didn’t take forty children.”

 

Women's contribution to the economy during the First World War, as well as their dedication, convinced the government that suffrage should not be exclusively a male privilege. In 1918, the Representation of the People Act was passed. Women were allowed to vote provided they were over 30 years of age, were not restricted in their rights and occupied "land or premises in the district for business purposes generating at least £5 of income". In 1928, these restrictions were also lifted. English women were equal in voting rights with men. It was an absolute victory for the suffragettes. Emmeline Pankhurst died shortly thereafter on June 14, 1928.

 

Today, several monuments have been erected in her honor, including in Manchester and London. Time magazine included her in the list of 100 most prominent figures of the 20th century, noting that Pankhurst "created the image of a woman of our time, transferring society to a new dimension from which it is no longer possible to return to the past."

 

Ada Lovelace

 

From the beginning of 1841, Lovelace began to study Babbage's machines in earnest. In one of the letters to Babbage, Ada writes: “You must tell me the basic information regarding your car. I have good reason for wanting it." In a letter dated January 12, 1841, she outlines her plans: "...Some time in the future (maybe within 3 or 4, and possibly even many years) my head can serve you for your goals and plans ... Precisely I want to have a serious talk with you on this matter." This proposal was gratefully accepted by Babbage. Since that time, their cooperation has not been interrupted and has given brilliant results.

 

Since 1844, Ada Lovelace has become more and more interested in playing at the races, especially since she herself rode beautifully and loved horses. Both Babbage and William Lovelace played at the races, and Babbage, who was interested in applied problems of probability theory, considered the game at the races from these positions and was looking for the optimal game system. However, both Babbage and Ada's husband withdrew from the game relatively soon. But Ada, reckless and stubborn, continued to play. Moreover, Lady Hell became close to a certain John Cross, who blackmailed her. She used up almost all of her funds and by 1848 had become heavily indebted.

 

Then her mother had to pay off these debts, and at the same time buy incriminating letters from John Cross. In the early 50s, the first signs of the disease that claimed the life of Ada Lovelace appeared. In November 1850, he writes to Babbage: "My health ... is so bad that I want to accept your offer and appear on arrival in London to your medical friends." Despite the measures taken, the disease progressed and was accompanied by severe suffering. On November 27, 1852, Ada Lovelace died at the age of 37. Together with her outstanding intellect, her father passed on to her this terrible heredity - an early death - the poet died at the same age ... She was buried next to her father in the Byron family crypt.

 

Successes were given to her with great effort and not without damage to health. Augusta Ada Lovelace accomplished little in her short life. But the little that came out of her pen inscribed her name in the history of computational mathematics and computer technology as the first programmer. In memory of Ada Lovelace, the ADA language, developed in 1980, is one of the universal programming languages. This language was widely used in the United States, and the US Department of Defense even approved the name "Ada" as the name of a single programming language for the American armed forces, and later for the entire NATO.

 

Also in honor of Ada Lovelace, two small cities are also named in America - in the states of Alabama and Oklahoma. There is also a college named after her in Oklahoma.

 

Jane Austen

 

English writer, satirist, forerunner of realism in British literature. Her books are recognized as masterpieces in all countries of the world and are required to be studied in schools and institutes. Jane Austen is known as the "First Lady" of English literature.

 

Jane Austen was born at the end of the 18th century in Steventon, Hampshire. Father George was a priest from an old family. The Austin family was large: six boys and two girls (Cassandra and Jane).

 

Little is known about the writer Jane Austen. Many of her contemporaries even disagree about her appearance. Someone calls her "prim, capricious and unnatural", someone - "attractive, thin, graceful." All that remained of Jane was a portrait painted by her sister Cassandra.

 

In 1783 Jane studied at Oxford, Southampton and Reading with her sister. They were not lucky with their education. Somewhere met the tyrannical nature of the headmistress, but somewhere too soft. Jane's father took the girls home and began to educate them himself. Jane Austen grew up on the works of Shakespeare, Fielding, Stern, Thompson.

 

At the age of 14, Jane Austen wrote her first parody of the boring 18th century odes Love and Friendship. The little girl had the courage to write a parody pamphlet on the work of the English historian Goldsmith "History of England".

 

Jane Austen spent her whole life in her native estate, but kept an active correspondence with her brothers and their wives, who saw the events of the French Revolution, the war with Napoleon, the Indian War of Independence.

 

According to some testimonies, Jane Austen suffered from cancer and metastasis all her life. She died in Winchester in 1817, where she went to treat Addison's disease. She never finished her last novel, Sanditon.

 

Mother Teresa

 

Mother Teresa (worldly name - Agnes Gonje Boyadzhiu) was born on August 26, 1910 in the city of Uskyub of the Ottoman Empire (now the city of Skopje - the capital of the Republic of Macedonia) in a family of Catholic Albanians. She later called her real birthday August 27, when she was baptized.

 

According to Mother Teresa, from early childhood she wanted to devote herself to serving the church. This desire was strengthened at the age of 12 when she met missionaries from India. From that time on, she dreamed of living in India and caring for the poor there. After graduating from high school, in 1928 she left to study English in Ireland and became a novice in the Irish Sisters of Loreto Catholic monastic order.

 

The girl's parents were wealthy people: her father Nikola, a native of Armenia, owned a large construction company and sold medicines, and her mother, an Albanian Dranafile, devoted herself to prayers and worship. The family strictly followed Catholic traditions. Dranafile often visited the sick and needy with her children and invited the poor to her home for dinners. “My child, never eat a single bite until you share it with others,” she said to Agnese. When she asked who the unknown guests were, the mother replied: "Some of them are our relatives, but they are all our people."

 

It was believed that Mother Teresa helped the sick and the poor, alleviated their suffering by providing them with shelter, treatment and food. However, the nun had a special view of death and torment: she said that they should be glorified, not healed. She compared suffering with the noble torments of Christ and was opposed to painkillers: “There is something beautiful in the way the poor take their share, how they suffer, like Jesus on the cross. The world gains a lot from suffering. Anguish means that Jesus is kissing you."

 

Mother Teresa's main departments were the homes for the dying, where doomed people were to spend their last days. Writer Mary Loudon, a former volunteer, recalled: “The first impression of the footage was ... as if I had a photo from Bergen-Belsen [Nazi concentration camp. — Approx. ed.], because all the patients were shaved bald. There were no chairs, only cots, similar to those from the First World War. There was no garden, no yard, nothing at all. And I thought, “What is this? These are two rooms. One has 50 to 60 men, the other has the same number of women. Everyone is dying. They received virtually no medical care. They did not receive any painkillers other than aspirin.”

 

 

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tammina
@Tammina
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3 months ago
Best women ever
they-did-it-56-women-whose-achievements-are-known-around-the-world

Being the first is always an honor and a pleasure. And it doesn’t matter what you excelled in - in sports, politics, politics, politics, or even politics, or even in space. The main thing is that no one has done this before you, and your name will always be associated with some incredible achievement.

 

Women who proved that not only men could be the first

 

However, to understand the full scale of these achievements, Bemorepanda suggests taking representatives of the beautiful half of humanity as an example. For clarity. And you never know who can, you say. However, let's move from words to deeds and see what the heroines of our selection did, which no one had done before them.

 

1. Harriet Tubman became the first woman to lead a US military operation.

Although Tubman was best known for her work in helping enslaved people escape on the Underground Railroad, she was also the first woman to lead an armed expedition. During the Civil War, she led a raid on the Combahee River that freed over 700 enslaved people in South Carolina.

 

There was talk of replacing Andrew Jackson with her image on the $20 bill.

 

2. Marie Curie was the first woman to win the Nobel Prize and the only woman to win it twice.

The Polish scientist Marie Curie received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903 for her research on spontaneous radiation. Eight years later, in 1911, she received the Chemistry Prize for her work on radioactivity. In 1929, President Hoover gave her a $50,000 gift from the American Friends of Science to help her research radium.

 

3. Edith Wharton became the first woman to win a Pulitzer Prize.

She won a Pulitzer Prize for her 1921 novel The Age of Innocence, which deals with the choice between love and duty in Golden Age New York.

 

Wharton was born when women were only required to get married and have children, making her accomplishments all the more impressive.

 

4. Madame CJ Walker is considered America's first self-made millionaire woman.

After suffering from scalp and hair loss problems, Madame CJ Walker, the daughter of slaves, created her line of hair care products for black women. In 1905, she began selling Madame C.J. Walker's excellent hair growth product.

 

While Walker is widely considered the first female self-made millionaire to achieve financial success, Annie Turnbo Malone, Walker's former employer, is less known for achieving relative financial success.

 

Malone created hair products for black women and founded PoroCollege, a cosmetology school, to provide the necessary knowledge. According to Vox, she is considered "a pioneer in the African American cosmetics business."

 

Walker was a former client turned employee and then rival of Malone. After losing her hair, Walker turned to Malone for help and began working for her as a hair care agent before creating her line of products for African Americans.

 

Walker was similar to the original Mary Kay; she had agents who went door to door selling her beauty products. These women received solid wages ranging from $5 to $15 a day, which is $128 to $384 daily in today's dollars.

 

In 2020, Walker's story became the subject of the Netflix series DIY, starring Octavia Spencer.

 

5. Gertrude Ederle was the first woman to swim across the English Channel.

In 1926, Ederle became the first woman to swim across the English Channel. A native of New York, she began swimming at an early age and competed in the 1924 Olympics.

 

To protect herself from the extreme cold and possible jellyfish stings in the English Channel, she coated her body with lanolin, a type of fat obtained from sheep. The entire swim took her 14 hours and 31 minutes, which was faster than some male swimmers who completed the journey.

 

6. In 1928, Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly an airplane across the Atlantic Ocean and the first person to fly across both the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans.

Before mysteriously disappearing while trying to circumnavigate the globe from the equator in 1937, Earhart received numerous awards. She was not only the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean and the first person to fly over the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans but also the 16th woman in history to earn a pilot's license.

 

7. Hattie Caraway became the first woman elected to the US Senate.

Hattie Caraway's husband, Thaddeus Horatio Caraway, was a prominent politician at the time, and Caraway worked extensively behind the scenes on her campaigns. In the 1920s, Thaddeus Caraway served four terms in the House of Representatives and two in the Senate, representing Arkansas. After his death, Hattie was elected to his Senate seat in 1931. Caraway then won the 1932 election with 92% of the vote.

 

Caraway served 14 years in the Senate and supported President Franklin Roosevelt and his New Deal reforms.

 

8. In 1939, Hattie McDaniel became the first African-American woman to win an Oscar.

In 1939, Hattie McDaniel won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her role as Mammy in the film version of Gone with the Wind.

 

9. Frida Kahlo was the first Mexican artist whose work was purchased by a world-famous museum.

Frida Kahlo became the first Mexican artist to be exhibited at the Louvre after a self-portrait of her called "Rama" was purchased by a French museum in 1939.

 

10. Marsdenia Lyle Stone, also known as Toni Stone, was the first woman to play in major league baseball.

Stone-broke through double discrimination by becoming not only the first woman to play professional baseball but also the first black woman to break such a barrier. In 1953, she played for the Indianapolis Clowns of the Negro League.

 

Stone-faced ridicule from her teammates, saying things like, "Go home and make your husband some cookies," but she didn't let that stop her. In 1953, she hit a serve from legendary fastball player Satchel Page.

 

11. Judy Garland was the first woman to win Album of the Year at the Grammy Awards.

At the fourth Grammy Awards in 1961, Judy Garland made history as the first woman to win in one of the Big Four categories. She won Album of the Year for Judy at Carnegie Hall.

 

Nearly 30 years later, in 1990, her daughter Liza Minnelli became the first woman to win the legendary Grammy Award.

 

12. In 1962, Rita Moreno became the first Hispanic woman to win an Oscar.

Rita Moreno won an Oscar in 1962 for her role as Anita in the Broadway musical West Side Story film adaptation. She became the first Latin American to win an Oscar.

 

However, after winning the Oscar, she said she still faced discrimination in Hollywood. However, after winning the Oscar, she said she still faced discrimination in Hollywood, telling the Miami Herald in 2008, "Before West Side Story, I was constantly being offered stereotypical Latina roles. Conchita and Lolitas in Westerns. I have always been barefoot. It was humiliating, and embarrassing. But I did it because there was nothing else to do. After West Side Story, it was pretty much the same. Lots of gang stories.

 

Moreno is also among the few (and only Hispanic) EGOT winners, as she has an Emmy, a Grammy, an Oscar, and a Tony.

 

13. Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman to travel into space

Valentina Tereshkova from Russia became the first and youngest woman to fly into space aboard the Vostok-6 spacecraft. The launch was made on June 16, 1963. Before this, Tereshkova was an assembly worker at a textile factory and an amateur skydiver.

 

14. Kathryn Schwitzer was the first woman to run the Boston Marathon despite officials trying to force her to leave the race.

In 1967, 20-year-old Katherine Schwitzer became the first woman to run the Boston Marathon, even though women weren't allowed to compete at the time. As she ran, a race official ran up to her and tried to force her out of the race, as captured in an iconic photo released by The Boston Globe.

 

Attitude towards women's sports and for the inclusion of the women's marathon in the program of the Olympic Games.

 

“It changed everything,” she told NBC News in 2017. “It has changed my life and the lives of millions of women.”

 

15. Patsy Mink became the first woman of color to be elected to Congress.

An ardent advocate of gender equality, she wrote Title IX of the bills, the Early Childhood Education Act, and the Women's Education Equality Act. She did not want future women to suffer the same gender discrimination that she did.

 

Her work writing Title IX was instrumental in changing women's education, giving them equal opportunities with men.

 

In 1972, she also became the first Asian American woman to run for president.

 

16. Katherine Graham was the first female Fortune 500 CEO and the first woman to become the publisher of a major American newspaper.

The Washington Post was founded by Graham's father, Eugene Meyer. After his death, her husband Philip Graham became president, but after a long struggle with mental problems, he committed suicide in 1963.

 

After the tragedy, Graham became president of The Washington Post and turned the paper into the powerful news outlet it is today. She was a vital supporter of The Post's 1972-1974 investigation into the Watergate scandal.

 

In 1972, Graham took over as CEO of The Post, making her the first woman to become CEO of a Fortune 500 company.

 

17. Juanita M. Kreps was the first woman to serve as Secretary of Commerce

Juanita Kreps was also the first woman to serve on the New York Stock Exchange board of directors. She served as Secretary of Commerce under President Jimmy Carter from 1977 to 1979.

 

According to The New York Times, while serving under President Carter, she was "an advocate for women and older workers, the unemployed, minority-owned businesses, and the development of depressed urban areas."

 

18. Susan B. Anthony was the first woman in America to be featured on a coin.

Suffragette Susan B. Anthony fought for women's right to vote and other women's freedoms for most of her life. In 1888, Anthony helped combine the two most significant suffrage associations, which became known as the National Women's Suffrage Association. She led the group until 1900 and died in 1906, 14 years before women were granted the right to vote.

 

In 1979, it was announced that a portrait of Susan B. Anthony would be issued on U.S. dollar coins.

 

19. Mary E. Clark was the first woman to be promoted to Major General in the United States Army.

Clarke joined the Women's Army Corps during World War II and rose from private to major general. She became the first woman to be promoted to major general.

 

Clark served in the army for 36 years. She was the last director of the Women's Army Corps, which was dissolved at the end of her tenure.

 

Later in her career, she became the first woman to hold a significant Army post at the US Army Military Police Training Center and Schools of Chemistry at Fort McClellan, Alabama.

 

20. Patricia R. Harris was the first woman to serve as Secretary of Health and Human Services.

Harris served under President Jimmy Carter and was also the first black woman to do in the presidential office.

 

She received her law degree from George Washington University and was later admitted to the D.C. bar, where she appeared before the U.S. Supreme Court.

 

President John F. Kennedy appointed her as co-chair of the National Women's Committee for Civil Rights, which helped lay the foundation for her career in politics. Later, in 1980, she became Secretary of Health and Human Services.

 

21. Sandra Day O'Connor was the first woman on the US Supreme Court.

As the first female justice on the US Supreme Court, O'Connor helped make many landmark decisions for women.

 

Appointed in 1981 by President Reagan, by 1982, she published an opinion against enrolling only women in Mississippi nursing school, stating that it "tends to perpetuate the stereotypical view of nursing as an exclusively female job."

 

She continued to help pass bills to soften abortion laws and provide harsher sexual harassment and assault consequences.

 

22. Sally Ride was the first American woman in space

Ride became the first American woman to go into space in 1983 aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger. She beat out 1,000 other highly qualified candidates for a place in NASA's space program.

 

Prior to spaceflight, Ryde was asked questions such as what kind of makeup she would wear and how space might affect her ability to conceive, to which she replied, "It's a shame it's such a big deal. It's a shame our society hasn't progressed further."

 

23. Vanessa Williams became the first black winner of the Miss America pageant in 1984.

On September 17, 1983, Vanessa Williams became the first black woman to win the Miss America crown. During the first 30 years of the Miss America pageant, black women were not even allowed to enter the pageant.

 

Less than a year after receiving the title, nude photos of Williams surfaced and were published by the Penthouse without her consent. She was forced to give up her title, but she still managed to have a very successful career in music, film and stage.

 

24. Barbra Streisand became the first woman to win a Golden Globe for Best Director.

Streisand was awarded Best Director at the 41st Annual Golden Globe Awards in 1984 for Yentl. She also won the Best Picture award.

 

In 2018, Streisand publicly announced the Golden Globes, presenting the Best Director award after no woman was nominated for Best Director that year.

 

“Behind the scenes, I heard them say that I was the only woman… to win Best Director, and you know, that was in 1984. It was 34 years ago. Guys, it's time! - she said. “We need more female directors and more women nominated for Best Director. There are so many films that are so well made by women."

 

In 2021, Chloe Zhao became the second woman — and the first Asian woman — to win the Best Director award for Nomadland.

 

25. Joan Benoit won the first women's Olympic marathon

Joan Benoit won the gold medal in the first ever Olympic Women's Marathon at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, California. Benoit won the Chicago Marathon in 1985 and until 2017 held the record for the fastest time among American women. In 2000, Benoist was inducted into the Maine Women's Hall of Fame.

 

26. Helen Hayes was the first woman to receive an EGOT award

Helen Hayes' career spanned over 80 years until her death in 1993. She is one of only 16 people to win Emmy, Grammy, Oscar and Tony awards and is the first woman to receive this prestigious award.

 

In 1953, she received an Emmy Award for her role in Schlitz Star Theater. In 1977, she received a Grammy Award for Best Voice Acting for Great American Documents. Hayes won two Academy Awards, one for Best Actress in The Sin of Madelon Claudet and one for Best Supporting Actress in Airport. Finally, she received the Tony Award for outstanding performance in the theater.

 

27. Aretha Franklin was the first woman to be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

Nicknamed the "Queen of Soul", Franklin had hits like "Respect", "Freeway of Love" and "I Say a Little Prayer". In 1987, she became the first woman to be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

 

In 2008, she won her 18th Grammy Award, making her one of the most decorated music artists in history.

 

28. Toni Morrison became the first black woman to win a Nobel Prize.

Toni Morrison received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1993. In her acceptance speech, she said, "My job requires me to think about how free I can be as an African-American writer in my gendered, sexualized, all-racial world."

 

Her first book, The Bluest Eyes, was released in 1970 and tells the story of a young black girl who adheres to white beauty standards and dreams of blue eyes.

 

Morrison also won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1988 for her novel Beloved. In 2012, President Obama awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

 

29. In 1997, Madeleine Albright, the first female US Secretary of State, was sworn in under President Bill Clinton.

Madeleine Albright, born in the Czech Republic, served as US Ambassador to the UN from 1993 to 1997 and became the first female US Secretary of State in 1997.

 

Albright's nomination, nominated by President Bill Clinton, was unanimously approved by the US Senate. Albright held this post until 2001.

 

30. Julie Taymor became the first woman to win a Tony Award for Best Direction of a Musical.

In 1998, Julie Taymor became the first woman to win the Tony Award for Best Direction of a Musical for Broadway's production of The Lion King. Her incredible life-size dolls on the show also helped win her a Tony Award for costume design.

 

31. Oprah Winfrey was the first black female billionaire.

Oprah became the first black female billionaire in 2003.

 

She is best known for her award-winning talk show The Oprah Winfrey Show which aired from 1986 to 2011. By the end of the show's first year on television, it had grossed $125 million, of which $30 million went to Winfrey.

 

32. Danica Patrick was the first woman to lead the Indy 500 and the first to take pole position at the Daytona 500.

Patrick dropped out of school to pursue a racing career. She traveled to England to train and compete at the Formula Ford Festival where she placed second, the highest ever female or American finish at the event.

 

In 2005, she became the fourth woman to compete in the Indy 500. She finished fourth, the highest ever for a female rider.

 

In 2013, during her first full season at the Nascar Sprint Cup circuit, she won the Daytona 500 time trial and became the first woman to do so.

 

33. Halle Berry became the first African American to win an Academy Award for Best Actress.

In 2001, Halle Berry became the first African-American woman to win an Academy Award for Best Actress for Monster's Ball.

 

In her acceptance speech, Berry said, “This is for the women who stand by my side, Jada Pinkett, Angela Bassett, Vivica Fox. And that's for every nameless, faceless woman of color that's got a chance now, because that door was open tonight. Thank you. It's a great honor for me."

 

In the wake of the #OscarsSoWhite movement in 2017, Berry told Teen Vogue's Elaine Welteroth that her win is now meaningless for her, as Hollywood has yet to give women of color the honors and opportunities they deserve.

 

“That moment really meant nothing,” Berry said. “It didn't mean anything. I thought it meant something, but I don't think it meant anything."

 

34. Wangari Maathai became the first African woman to receive a Nobel Prize.

Wangari Maathai was a Kenyan activist known as the founder of the Green Belt movement. She was a supporter of environmental protection, as well as women's rights, and repeatedly spoke at the UN. In 2004, Maathai was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

 

35. In 2008, Sarah Palin, then Governor of Alaska, became the first female Republican Vice Presidential nominee.

 

On August 29, 2008, Republican presidential candidate John McCain announced Palin as his running mate, and both were chosen to run against President Barack Obama and Joe Biden.

 

Prior to being elected as McCain's running mate, Palin served as the ninth governor of Alaska from 2006 until her resignation in 2009.

 

36. Kathryn Bigelow became the first woman to win an Oscar for Best Director

Kathryn Bigelow is the first and only woman to win an Oscar for Best Director. She was awarded it in 2010 for the film The Hurt Locker. The film won five more awards, including Best Picture and Best Original Screenplay.

 

At the time, Bigelow was the fourth woman to be nominated for Best Director. Since 2010, only one female director, Greta Gerwig, has been nominated for this award.

 

37. Lauryn Williams was the first American woman to win medals at both the Summer and Winter Olympics.

Lauryn Williams is an American sprinter and bobsledder. At the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, she won gold in the 100 meters. At the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics, she won gold in the women's bobsleigh event.

 

She now owns financial planning firm Worth Winning in Houston, Texas.

 

38. Tammy Duckworth is the first woman with a disability to be elected to the House of Representatives and the Senate

Tammy Duckworth became the first woman with a disability to be elected to Congress in 2012. She is a veteran of the Iraq War and lost her legs when her helicopter was shot down. She told the Washington Post: “I was hurt while serving my country. I was proud that I went. It was my soldier's duty. And I would go tomorrow.”

 

In 2016, she was elected to the Senate, where she became the first disabled woman senator. Then, in 2018, she became the first female senator to give birth while in office.

 

39. Hillary Clinton became the first woman to win a presidential primary.

In 2016, Hillary Clinton became the first American to win the presidential primary. Prior to her presidential run, she was the first "First Lady" and the first woman from New York to win a seat in the Senate in 2001.

 

Although she planned to run for president in 2008, she lost the nomination to President Obama. At the same time, she delivered a speech: “Although this time we could not break this highest and most durable glass ceiling, thanks to you there are 18 million cracks in it.”

 

40. Vera Podorlik became the first Native American to win the right to vote in a presidential election.

Vera Podorlik became the first Native American and the first Native American woman to win the right to vote in the 2016 presidential election. In fact, the vote passed without her knowledge, since she did not even run for president. Washington State Democratic voter Robert Satyakum voted for her during a protest against Hillary Clinton.

 

Podorlik was one of the greatest activists against the Keystone pipeline project and herself experienced the destruction of her native land by the US government as a child. She told the Los Angeles Times in 2016, "My dad looked at me and said, 'You know, my girl... someday you're going to have to do something about all this.'

 

41. In 2018, Chef Dominique Krenn became the first woman in the United States to receive Michelin's highest three-star award.

According to Pointe magazine, Kurlow began taking ballet lessons when she was only 2 but quit when she was 9 and her family converted to Islam. Kurlow was reportedly unable to find ballet studios that catered for Muslim ballet dancers in regards to uniforms.

 

After seeing her daughter struggle with it, Kurlow's mother opened a ballet academy and she has been dancing ever since.

 

44. Nancy Pelosi is the first woman to serve as Speaker of the House of Representatives, and the first person in over 60 years to serve as Speaker non-consecutively.

Nancy Pelosi entered politics in 1987 after winning a special election in California's eighth congressional district, which includes San Francisco. In 2002, Pelosi was elected leader of the Democratic Party in the House of Representatives.

 

In 2010, the Democrats lost the House of Representatives, and Pelosi became the minority leader again. In January 2019, Democrats regained control of the House of Representatives and Pelosi was reinstated as speaker, making her the first non-consecutive speaker in over 60 years.

 

45. Billie Eilish is the first woman to win the Big Four at the Grammy Awards: Album, Record of the Year, Song of the Year and Best New Artist

After the resounding success of her first studio album When We All Fall Asleep, Where Do We Go? Billie Eilish was equally successful at the 2020 Grammy Awards. She won the competition and ended up winning the Big Four awards for Album, Record of the Year, Song of the Year, and Best New Artist.

 

She is the first woman to do so and the second person in history to receive all four awards after Christopher Cross in 1981. Eilish, then 18, also broke Taylor Swift's record as the youngest Album of the Year winner.

 

46. ​​In 2021, Kamala Harris became the first female Vice President of the United States.

Kamala Harris made history in August 2020 as the first black South Asian woman to accept the vice presidential nomination alongside Joe Biden. She was sworn in as Vice President on January 20, 2021.

 

After being confirmed as Vice President-Elect on November 7, Kamala Harris addressed the nation from Wilmington, Delaware, saying, "While I may be the first woman in office, I won't be the last, because every little girl sees that this is the land of opportunity.”

 

47. Amanda Gorman also made history on her inauguration day as the youngest known inaugural poet.

Gorman was only 22 years old when she made an impression throughout the country with her poem "The Hill We Climb."

 

President Joe Biden became the fourth president-elect to have poetry read at his inauguration.

 

48. Avril Haynes is the first woman to serve as director of national intelligence.

Haynes was appointed director of national intelligence by President Biden and was confirmed by the Senate on her inauguration day in 2021. She was also the first person elected to the Biden cabinet.

 

Haynes previously served as deputy director of the Central Intelligence Agency and deputy national security adviser to the Obama administration. She was also the first woman to hold both positions.

 

49. Cardi B became the first female rapper to have a song with a diamond certification.

On March 9, 2021, it was announced that Cardi B's hit "BodakYellow", released by the artist in 2017, had won the RIAA Diamond Award. She is the first female rapper to receive this honor.

 

50. Chloe Zhao became the first Asian woman to win the Golden Globe for Best Director. She is also the first Asian woman to win the Academy Award for Best Director.

Zhao won both Best Director awards for Nomadland, a film starring Frances McDormand about a widow who chooses to live in her van. Zhao also wrote, edited and produced the critically acclaimed film.

 

51. Taylor Swift became the first woman to win Album of the Year three times at the 2021 Grammy Awards.

At the 2021 Grammy Awards, Swift was awarded Album of the Year for Folklore, her ninth studio album, which the singer wrote and produced entirely during quarantine. The album is considered one of Swift's finest works and was the best-selling album of 2020.

 

In 2010, she became the youngest artist ever to win an award for "Fearless" and won again in 2016 for "1989".

 

The only artists to have won Album of the Year three times are Stevie Wonder, Frank Sinatra and Paul Simon.

 

Swift also broke the record for the most Video of the Year wins at the 2022 VMAs, becoming the only artist in history to win the top award three times.

 

52. Beyoncé also made history as the most decorated woman at the Grammy Awards with 28 wins.

Beyoncé has won four of the nine nominations she has been nominated for, also making her the most nominated artist at the 63rd annual ceremony, bringing her total wins to a whopping 28.

 

"I'm so flattered, I'm so excited," she said as she accepted the award.

 

 “It's so overwhelming. I have been working all my life, since I was nine years old. I can't believe this happened. It's such a magical night."

 

53. Amy Schneider is the highest paid woman in Jeopardy! (an American television quiz game) with over $1 million in revenue

Schneider currently ranks second in consecutive games won and fourth in regular season wins with over $1.3 million. She hit the $1 million mark in January 2022 during her 28th game, during which she won over $42,000.

 

54. Speed ​​skater Erin Jackson won a gold medal at the 2022 Beijing Olympics, becoming the first black woman to win the event.

Jackson won gold in the 500m speed skating. The victory also made her the first American woman to win a medal in an individual speed skating event since 2002.

 

"I know I'll be thinking about this for a long time... if a black girl from Central Florida can stand on the top step of an Olympic podium on the other side of the world as a champion... well, maybe it's true that anything is possible," Jackson said.

 

55. In 2022, Ariana DeBos became the first Afro-Latin American actress to receive a SAG (Screen Actors Guild of America Award) for acting.

DeBos won Best Supporting Actress for her role as Anita in West Side Story.

 

"It's a sign that doors are opening," DeBos told reporters backstage in the SAG virtual media room after her win, according to NBC News. "It's an honor for a queer Afro-Latino of color, dancer, singer and actor."

 

56. Zendaya made history when she won her second Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series

Zendaya became the first black actress to win the award twice, both times for her role as Rue Bennett on the hit HBO series Euphoria. She is also the youngest woman to win two Emmy Awards for a lead role.

 

In her acceptance speech, the 26-year-old actress thanked show creator Sam Levinson "for believing in me and even in the moments when I didn't believe in myself."

 

 

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30-facts-about-the-renaissance-that-you-wont-find-in-a-history-book

The Renaissance is called the period of European history, marking the transition from the Middle Ages to the New Age and covering the 15th and 16th centuries. Some researchers consider it the beginning of the era of humanism. Others believe it is a step backward because magic and witch-hunts flourished in parallel with the flourishing of art in the Renaissance.

 

Top facts about the Renaissance

 

We at Bemorepanda decided to find out more about the mysterious Renaissance. We dug up exciting facts that will allow you to draw your conclusions about whether that time is rightly called the Renaissance.

 

 

1. In Renaissance Florence, men married at 30, while girls became wives at 17–18. Such an age difference led to the fact that there were many young widows in the city.

 

2. The life of the ladies in Florence was not sweet. Having visited this city, a French traveler wrote: “Women are more reserved here than in any other part of Italy; they see the world only through small holes in their windows.”

 

3. According to other information, the ladies were forbidden even to look out the window to not tempt random passers-by on the street.

 

4. The main task of women was to be beautiful. Therefore, they were forbidden to play wind instruments: it distorted their facial features. The ladies were asked to master the strings, such as the lute.

 

5. The most beautiful room in the palace was the bedroom. They received guests there.

 

6. Hairstyles that covered the ears were in fashion. Women wore them for fear of pregnancy. According to legend, the Virgin Mary became pregnant through her ear after hearing the word of God.

 

 

7. One of the principal masterpieces of the Renaissance - "The Last Supper" by Leonardo da Vinci - is in poor condition because of the great painter's love of experimentation. Instead of applying paint to wet plaster, as was usually done when creating a fresco, the master decided to develop the "Last Supper" on drywall. As a result, the paint began to peel off, and Leonardo had to correct his work before it was finished. Perhaps in the Last Supper that we see today, almost nothing remains of the original.

 

8. The Renaissance style icon was Henry VIII, who introduced square-toed shoes into fashion. At the same time, he strictly regulated the trend, issuing an order that limited the width of the sock to 6 inches (15.24 cm).

 

9. During the Renaissance, a fashion trend arose to reveal what was hidden under clothing to the world. And all thanks to the English laws on luxury, which ordered commoners to have a single-color wardrobe. They came up with slits on them to diversify their monotonous costumes, thereby demonstrating the lower layer of clothing painted in bright colors.

 

10. The professions of a surgeon and a hairdresser were different facets of the same work. The same artisans could pull out a tooth and cut their hair.

 

11. At the same time, Renaissance doctors began to do plastic surgery. At that time, duels and diseases could significantly spoil a man's appearance, but surgeons were able to fix it. They performed rhinoplasty, transplanting a piece of skin from the forearm to the bridge of the nose. Thanks to the artisans of the Renaissance, many celebrities today can boast of chiseled noses.

 

 

12. Another Renaissance invention is ice cream. The Medici family announced a competition for the most unusual dish, the winner of which was a Florentine chicken seller, who presented a frozen dessert to the court of the famous family. Around the same time, another Florentine, the courtier Bernardo Buonaletti, was organizing a celebration in honor of the arrival of the Spanish guests. He put on theatrical performances and set off fireworks. Most importantly, he prepared a cream with the taste of bergamot, lemons, and oranges, chilled with a mixture of his invention.

 

13. The famous Uffizi Gallery was not conceived as a museum. It was the official center of Florence. Actually, "Uffizi" is translated as "offices".

 

14. The famous Roman Colosseum served as an industrial building during Renaissance. In the 16th century, it was planned to turn it into a wool factory, but this would have led to its destruction. In 1594, a glue factory was built in the building. By the end of the 17th century, the ancient stadium had turned into a dump.

 

15. During the Renaissance, the Latin language ceased to be alive. Back in the Middle Ages, it was spoken and evolved. Still, the enthusiasm of Renaissance scientists for Antiquity led to the fact that Latin returned to its classical form and its natural development stopped.

 

 

16. The Renaissance got its name because, in these few centuries, the flourishing of interest in ancient culture began, which had utterly faded away in the previous Middle Ages.

 

17. The second name of this era is the Renaissance. It comes from the French "Renaissance" and means, in fact, "Renaissance." Interestingly, this world-famous name came from the French language, although the Renaissance began in Italy.

 

18. To describe this era outside of Italy north of the Alps, "Northern Renaissance" is used. And some researchers even single out the French Renaissance, the Renaissance, Spanish, English, and others.

 

19. During the Renaissance, she was not called by this word. It was popularized and introduced by the French historian Jules Michelet only in the 19th century.

 

20. The Renaissance lasted a little less than three centuries, at least where it originated, that is, in Italy - from the beginning of the 14th century to the end of the 16th. But it came to some other countries later and ended there too later.

 

21. The names of the most famous Renaissance artists are familiar to the world. Leonardo da Vinci was generally a “universal man” who succeeded in everything, including Michelangelo, Titian, and Raphael Santi.

 

 

22. The Renaissance had a significant impact on the development of the sciences. In this era, medieval superstitions began to lose popularity, more attention was paid to scientific development, and the most important discoveries were made. In particular, the Great Geographical Discoveries and the findings of Nicolaus Copernicus.

 

23. Renaissance literature began, by all accounts, with the Divine Comedy by the famous Dante Alighieri. This work became so popular that it brought the Tuscan dialect of Italian to the forefront, effectively establishing it as the "official Italian."

 

24. With the beginning of the Renaissance, music ceased to be a purely ecclesiastical art. It began to spread around the world, imbued with a new worldview.

 

25. The ancestor of the Renaissance in Russia is considered the Grand Duke of Moscow, Ivan III. The latter invited Italian architects and other masters to Moscow. But in general, the influence of the 

Renaissance in Russia was relatively weak due to its remoteness and attachment to Byzantine traditions.

 

26. The Vatican stubbornly opposed many of the ideas of the Renaissance, and many scientists, poets, and writers were persecuted, but they had their patrons. In France, such as, for example, the wise King Francis I, a well-known philanthropist.

 

 

27. In the Renaissance, the old prejudices were supplanted, replaced by scientific views, but not entirely, as is commonly believed. For example, alchemy and astrology were considered essential sciences. The famous Galileo was engaged in the compilation of horoscopes, Isaac Newton wrote many works on alchemy, and the astronomer Johannes Kepler was also an astrologer.

 

It was the Renaissance that gave humanity oil painting. Jan van Eyck was a Dutch artist. Oil paints came to Europe early in the 12th century.

 

29. Of great importance to the Renaissance was the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1450. This machine made books dozens of times more accessible, contributing to enlightenment.

 

30. One of the strangest events popular during the Renaissance was anatomical theater. This is a public autopsy carried out by doctors who commented and explained their actions to all those present. In the Middle Ages, the “desecration” of the human body was strictly prohibited. Still, during the Renaissance, these prejudices gradually died out, thanks to which anatomy and medicine began to develop rapidly.

 

 

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25-interesting-facts-about-russia

Russia is the largest state globally, on the territory of which there is everything that may interest travelers of all age groups and individual preferences. Here are the most extensive forests, mountains, and the deepest lakes globally, and twelve seas wash the coastline. Russia is a mysterious country, a country with an “open soul,” and interesting facts about Russia are only a part of what awaits the guests of this vast state.

 

Russia - a short history

 

The history of Russia originates from the emergence of the Slavs, who appeared about 3-3.5 thousand years ago, standing out from the Indo-European ethnic group. From the middle of the 1st millennium BC., they began to move to Eastern Europe, settling by the VIII century. AD the basin of the rivers Dnieper, Dniester, Western Dvina, Oka, and the upper reaches of the Volga.

 

 

The first state of the Russian people, Kievan Rus, existed for about 300 years. It was a federation of principalities ruled jointly by the Rurik dynasty. The development of feudal relations and the strengthening of the independence of individual cities led to the political fragmentation of Kievan Rus. At the end of the thirties of the XIII century. Mongol Tatars attacked Russia, and for almost 250 years, it became dependent on the Golden Horde. The yoke accelerated the process of fragmentation of Russia. Still, at the same time, as the economy and culture revived, it turned into an incentive for unification. Due to several factors, the place of a political leader at the beginning of the XIV century. Moscow advanced, which is explained by its favorable geographical position, and the far-sighted policy of its princes.

 

The reign of Catherine II is called the "golden age of the nobility" and "enlightened absolutism" since the empress completed formalizing the nobility into a privileged class. The situation of the peasants deteriorated significantly: serfdom acquired the features of slavery. The growth of social contradictions resulted in the peasant war of E. I. Pugachev. Still, its defeat led to the expansion of feudal dependence. All this spoke of the brewing crisis of the feudal system, which was acutely manifested in the 19th century.

 

By the middle of the 19th century, serf relations worsened and escalated in the country: among the landowners, they aroused fears for the future, and among the serfs, an increase in dissatisfaction with their beggarly condition. In peasant unrest, which significantly intensified during the Crimean War, the government, led by Alexander II in 1862, carried out a reform that abolished serfdom.

 

 

In the years preceding the First World War of 1914-1917, Russia's foreign policy was determined by the line of rapprochement with Great Britain, fixed by the 1907 agreement on the division of spheres of influence in Iran and Central Asia. This agreement led to the finalization of the Entente - a "cordial agreement," the military-political alliance of England, France, and Russia, and Russia's participation in the First World War. The internal political crisis, which resulted in the February Revolution of 1917, led to Russia's withdrawal from the war. The revolution destroyed the old state system and created a new political situation. The Bolshevik Party seized power in Russia under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin, and the Soviets of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies were proclaimed the supreme authority.

 

On December 30, 1922, the Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) Union was formed. After the death of Lenin, the internal political struggle intensified, and Joseph Stalin came to power, establishing a dictatorship and destroying all his political rivals. In 1939, Russia concluded a non-aggression pact with Germany. Still, on June 22, 1941, Nazi Germany attacked the USSR, violating the agreement's provisions. The Great Patriotic War began. During the battles of Stalingrad and Kursk, Soviet troops went on the offensive. They defeated the German army, victoriously ending the war in May 1945 with the capture of Berlin.

 

Read here more interesting facts: 50 interesting and fun facts about Russia that you probably didn't know

 

 

In 1985, Gorbachev announced perestroika (a set of political and economic reforms). By the early 1990s, perestroika led to the collapse of the USSR. And on December 12, 1993, the Constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted at a referendum, declaring Russia a democratic federal state with a republican form of government headed by a president.

 

How did the Soviet Union's collapse influence today’s Russia?

 

The collapse of the Union was part of the process that began after the First World War - the operation of the failure of multinational states or, more simply, empires. Some of these empires did not survive the First World War - the Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary ... And the Bolsheviks managed to maintain control over most of the Russian Empire through violence and a more resourceful policy towards nationalities and national minorities. The Soviet Union was the first to adopt the nationalism and multinationality of the state. It seemed that the national question was resolved and that history was deceived. Still, until the end of the 20th century, the Soviet Union followed the path of the same Portuguese, British, French, and other empires. The 20th century turned out to be the century of the collapse of multinational states and the creation of national states on their ruins or conditions that would like to be national.​

 

 

In a purely Soviet context, reform attempts took place, the primary ideological and moral source of which were the reforms of the Prague Spring, that is, the 1960s. The idea was that economic and political reforms should develop simultaneously: in China, they took a different path - economic reform without political reform. At the same time, in the Soviet Union, these things were interconnected. As soon as Gorbachev introduced the first elements of electoral democracy, the first forces that could mobilize were the national movements. Which, outwardly, were weak. There were few dissidents. Still, if you look at the composition of political prisoners in various forms of the Gulag, the percentage of national minorities - including the Baltic states, Jews, Ukrainians, and so on - went off the scale compared to the number of ethnic Russian dissidents.

 

Electoral democracy turned out to be incompatible with a multinational state. The main "glue" was a force - military, political repression, etc. International states built on such a basis proved unable to exist.

 

What was life like under communism in Russia?

 

75% of Russians believe that the Soviet era was the best time in the country's history; only 18% of respondents do not agree with this judgment. This follows from the study “The Structure and Reproduction of the Memory of the Soviet Union in Russian Public Opinion” prepared by the Levada Center, which Vedomosti has reviewed.

 

Hearing the expression "Soviet era," the respondents, first of all, think about stability and confidence in the future (16% of answers), good life in the country (15%), and personal life - childhood, youth, parents (11%). Negative assessments occur much less frequently: 4% of respondents recall shortages, queues, and coupons, and 1% about the Iron Curtain, stagnation, and repression. In general, 76% of respondents give positive characteristics of the Soviet era, 38% - neutral, and only 7% - negative. As some respondents gave different estimates, this sum is higher than 100%. 65% of Russians regret the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the same number believe that it could have been avoided; 26% of respondents have an opposite opinion on both issues. 52% of those who regret the collapse of the USSR say that they are upset by the loss of a sense of belonging to great power, 49% regret the destruction of the single economic system and 37% - about the increased mutual distrust and bitterness.

 

But at the same time, only 28% of respondents agree to “return to the path that the Soviet Union was following,” while the majority favor either Russia’s “own, special path” (58%) or the European version of development (10%).

 

Russians' ideas about the Soviet era are primarily favorable. Still, general statements about social stability replace personal memories, confidence in the future, and a good life in the USSR says Levada Center sociologist Karina Pipia. It is also noteworthy, according to her, that representatives of all age and generational groups agree with the installation of the socio-economic well-being of citizens in the USSR. Still, nostalgia for the Soviet Union is more typical for older people. However, young people join those who believe that the collapse of The USSR could have been avoided. However, the romanticization of the Soviet past does not lead to a desire to restore the Soviet system.

 

Neither those who lived in the USSR nor the post-Soviet youth want this.

 

 

How did Vladimir Putin become President, and what has been his impact on Russia?

 

In three years, Putin has risen from Deputy Director for Presidential Affairs to Secretary of the Security Council. In 1996, after the failure of Sobchak in the gubernatorial elections, Vladimir Vladimirovich was invited to Moscow for the post of Deputy Chief of the President of the Russian Federation. Putin oversaw the legal department and the management of Russia's foreign property.

 

In the spring of 1997, Vladimir Putin was appointed deputy head of the Presidential Administration of the Russian Federation, replacing Alexei Kudrin.

 

In the summer of 1998, he became the head of the FSB. In the fall, he reorganized the structure. Six months later, Vladimir Putin took the post of Secretary of Security Council of the Russian Federation while maintaining his position in the FSB. In 1999, President Boris Yeltsin appointed Vladimir Putin as Russia's prime minister.

 

In 1997, Vladimir Putin defended his Ph.D. thesis in economics at the Mining Institute of St. Petersburg. The title of the work is “Strategic planning for the reproduction of the mineral resource base of the region in the conditions of the formation of market relations (St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region).

 

On December 31, 1999, Yeltsin resigned. Putin became acting President of Russia. He was given symbols of power, including the "nuclear suitcase." According to him, it was not an easy decision for him.

 

25  Interesting Facts about Russia

 

1. Russia is the largest country in the world. However, this is no secret to anyone.

2. Russia is the only country washed by a whole dozen seas globally.

3. The deepest lake on earth, Baikal, is in Russia.

4. The most ancient mountains on the planet, the Urals, are of Russian heritage.

5. There are more than eight hundred glaciers in Altai.

6. The borders of Russia and the United States in the north are separated by 4 kilometers.

7. The deepest subway in the world is located in St. Petersburg. Its depth is more than a hundred meters.

8. The world's largest active volcano is Klyuchevskaya Sopka, almost five kilometers high. It has been erupting for over seven thousand years.

9. St. Petersburg has three times as many bridges as Venice.

10. The most significant medieval fortress in the world is the Moscow Kremlin.

11. St. Petersburg is the world's northernmost metropolis with over a million inhabitants.

 

 

12. The area of ​​Siberia is about nine percent of the entire land area of ​​the Earth.

13. Russia borders 16 countries.

14. In Russia, women won the right to vote in elections earlier than in the United States.

15. There are almost ten thousand trains in the Moscow metro.

16. The most extensive plain on the planet is the West Siberian.

17. There are about three million works of art in the Hermitage.

18. The most visited McDonald's globally is in Moscow on Pushkin Square.

19. Sushi is more prevalent in Russia than in Japan.

20. The highest university in the world is Moscow State University.

21. Before the revolution, firearms were sold freely in Russia.

22. The Ostankino TV Tower was the tallest building in Europe for a long time. But in recent years, skyscrapers have surpassed it in height.

23. The coat of arms of Chelyabinsk depicts a camel.

24. About four percent of the territory of Russia is occupied by protected reserves.

25. The world's largest tram network is located in St. Petersburg.

 

Read here more interesting facts: 50 interesting and fun facts about Russia that you probably didn't know

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fourth-of-july-2021-facts-and-history-to-celebrate-the-independence-day

Independence Day is the day of the signing of the US Declaration of Independence in 1776, which proclaimed the independence of the United States from the Kingdom of Great Britain. This holiday, which Americans simply call “Fourth of July,” is a federal holiday that marks the adoption of the July 4 Declaration by the Continental Congress. He stated that thirteen American colonies consider themselves a new nation, the United States of America and are no longer part of the British Empire. Bemorepanda collected some interesting facts for you, and of course the history of the event.

 

American Independence Day is the national day of the United States.

History of the Fourth of July - Brief History & Early Celebrations - HISTORY

Independence Day in the USA History of the holiday. During the American Revolution, the legal secession of the Thirteen Colonies from Britain in 1776 actually occurred on July 2, when the Second Continental Congress voted to approve an Independence Resolution that had been proposed for consideration in June by Richard Henry Lee from Virginia. At that time, the inhabitants of 13 British colonies, which were located along the east coast of today's United States, were at war with the English king and parliament due to the fact that the British Parliament passed the "Currency Act" in 1764. This law prohibited the administration of the American colonies from issuing their own, unsecured and uncontrollably printed money and obliged them to continue to pay all taxes in gold and silver coins. In other words, the law forced the colonies to the gold standard. In 1775 the war broke out.

 

The Committee of Five, led by Thomas Jefferson, prepared the Declaration of Independence. Congress discussed and revised the wording of the Declaration, finally approving it two days later on 4 July. For the first time in an official document, the colonies were called United.

 

From the outset, Americans celebrated the national holiday on July 4, the date specified in a widely publicized Declaration, rather than July 2, when the resolution was approved in closed session of Congress.

 

Historians have long debated whether members of Congress signed the Declaration of Independence on July 4, although Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and Benjamin Franklin all later wrote that they signed it that day. Most historians have come to the conclusion that the Declaration was signed almost a month after its adoption on August 2, 1776, and not July 4, as is commonly believed.

4th of July Activities for Campers | Sun RV Resorts

History of the holiday Independence Day This day is usually associated with fireworks, parades, barbecues, carnivals, fairs, picnics, concerts. The holiday is also famous for baseball games, family gatherings, political speeches and ceremonies, as well as various other social events dedicated to the history, government and traditions of the United States.

 

As with other summer events, the celebration often takes place outdoors. July 4th is a federal holiday, so some federal offices (such as the Postal Service and federal courts) close on this day.

 

Families often celebrate it by hosting friends or attending picnics or barbecues. Many take advantage of the weekend to get together with family or friends. Decorations (such as streamers, balloons, and clothing) are usually painted in the red, white, and blue of the American flag. Parades are often held in the morning, before family gatherings, while fireworks are held in the evening after dark in parks and city squares.

 

America's Independence Day Fireworks are often accompanied by patriotic songs such as the national anthem "The Star-Spangled Banner," "God Save America," "America the Beautiful," "My Country," "This Land Is Your Land," "The Stars and stripes forever. " The Yankee Doodle is popular in the northeastern states and Dixie in the southern states.

Will there still be 4th of July fireworks across the mid-state amid the  COVID-19 pandemic? | WHP

In some states, fireworks are prohibited or limited in size and type for safety reasons. In addition, local weather conditions can dictate whether the sale or use of fireworks is permitted.

 

A one-gun salute for each state in the United States, called the "union salute," fires on Independence Day at noon at any military base.

 

In 2009, New York City had the largest fireworks display in the country, with over 22 tons of pyrotechnics exploding. Other major fireworks display takes place in Chicago on Lake Michigan, Boston on the Charles River, St. Louis on the Mississippi River, San Francisco over San Francisco Bay, and on the National Mall in Washington, DC.

 

Interesting coincidences on July 4th in America. Coincidentally, both John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, both of the signers and later presidents of the United States, died on the same day: July 4, 1826, when they celebrated the 50th anniversary of the Declaration.

 

Yes! This is your day, America! On July 4, 1776, the United States became an independent state. It's time for Americans to get out and clean old barbecues, stock up on fireworks, hot dogs and beer. We invite everyone else to have fun by reading 10 facts about American Independence Day.

 

1. So, on this day

In 1776, the American colonies were declared free and independent from Britain and its king.

 

2. During the first 20 years, Independence Day was not celebrated on July 4

Постеры на тему Дня независимости стали модным трендом

The date was officially declared a holiday only in 1870, almost a hundred years after the Declaration was written and signed. For example, the second president of the United States, John Adams, believed that Independence Day should be celebrated on July 2. He believed that this very date, when Congress voted for the Declaration, should be celebrated as a holiday. In a letter to his wife, Adams wrote that "July 2 should be celebrated with pomp and parade, sports, bonfires, bells and festivals." In the early years after the signing of the Declaration, there was controversy over whether the country should celebrate at all. While Democrats and Republicans were delighted with the Declaration, the Federalists considered the celebration of independence "unpatriotic, anti-British and too French."

 

3. There are more of them

Карта США

In 1776, when thirteen states declared independence from the British Empire, the nation consisted of 2.5 million citizens. These two million citizens celebrated the first on July 4th. Today, the country has over 320 million citizens and the population continues to grow.

 

4. Three American presidents died on July 4:

Томас Джефферсон - Джон Адамс - Джеймс Монро

Thomas Jefferson - July 4, 1826

John Adams - July 4, 1826

James Monroe - July 4, 1831

 

It is noteworthy that two of them, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, who signed the Declaration of Independence, died on the same day.

 

Another president, Zackery Taylor, passed away on July 9, 1850, after the Fourth of July celebration, from food poisoning.

 

5. Born on July 4

Памятная монета с изображением Президента Калвина Кулиджа

President Calvin Coolidge was born on July 4, 1872, which provided another reason to write his name in the history books.

 

6. Another country celebrates Independence Day on July 4 - the Philippines.

Празднование Дня независимости Филиппин

 

7. Instead of an eagle, a turkey could become a symbol of America

Представьте: индейка символ независимости США...

Benjamin Franklin wanted the turkey to become America's national symbol. He believed that the bald eagle was a bird with poor moral characteristics, the turkey, in his opinion, was the more respectable option. Fortunately, his point of view was not supported.

 

8. Fireworks

Фейерверки на День независимости

Every year, Americans launch about 200 million kg of fireworks! And most of them are imported from China - for $ 247.1 million. From there, American flags are brought in for $ 5-6 million annually.

 

9. Hot dog!

Хот-доги в чикагском стиле - это вкусно

Most Americans spend July 4 outdoors, picnicking with family and friends. The favorite dish is obviously the hot dog. America eats about 150 million hot dogs on this day.

 

10. The most drunk holiday

Выпьем?

The fourth of July is unofficially known as the drunkest holiday in the United States. The tradition began in 1778, on the second day of the Independence Day celebrations. Then US President George Washington ordered a double shot of rum to be given to the military to mark the anniversary of the signing of the Declaration. Since then, sales of beer and other alcoholic beverages have grown tenfold during this period. In recent years, Americans have been drinking $ 1 billion worth of beer alone in honor of Independence Day. And that's not counting other alcoholic drinks.



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When you know the answer to something no one else in the room does, it makes you feel like a genius. So, if you're a fan of the little things, want your next night to be memorable, or just love learning new things that no one else knows about, you've come to the right place. You never know when you'll need to pull those facts, which is part of the fun. So, we invite you to play with us and check out our list of random facts.

 

Is there any useless information? Never. All those little random, interesting, funny, scary facts, or did you know that the facts you store in your brain exist for a reason and are sure to come in handy someday...even if it's just for you to could beat your best dude or surprise a bored toddler on a family field trip. Just in case you don't have enough information cluttering your brain, here are some more fun, interesting, or just plain fun tidbits to keep on hand.

 

Interesting and funny facts about animals

 

1. The fur of polar bears is actually clean, and their skin is black.

 

2. Baby flamingos are born grey, not pink.

 

3. A woodpecker's tongue actually wraps around its brain completely, protecting it from damage when it hits a tree.

 

4. The shrimp's heart is in its head.

 

5. Elephants suck their trunks for convenience.

 

6. Anteaters have no teeth.

 

7. Nine-banded armadillos always have quadrupeds, and they are always identical.

 

8. Wombat poop is cube shaped.

 

9. A flock of flamingos is called brightness.

 

 

10. Hippos and horses are actually distant relatives.

 

11. All clown fish are born male.

 

12. In the UK, the Queen legally owns all unmarked swans.

 

13. In order not to disperse, sea otters hold hands during sleep.

 

14. Goats have an accent.

 

15. Dolphins give each other names.

 

16. Gorillas can catch a cold, although you can probably still go to the zoo with a runny nose.

 

17. Forget bald eagles. The turkey was once almost called the national bird.

 

 

18. A group of owls is called a parliament.

 

19. There are 32 muscles in a cat's ear.

 

20. Snails can regenerate their eyes.

 

21. Want to know if your pet turtle is a boy or a girl? Listen carefully! Female turtles hiss and male turtles grunt.

 

22. A starfish can turn its stomach inside out.

 

23. French poodles are actually from Germany.

 

 

24. Seahorses mate for life and are often seen telling each other stories.

 

25. A group of porcupines is called a thorn.

 

26. Andrew Jackson's parrot had to be removed from his funeral because he wouldn't stop swearing. Polly wants to rinse her mouth.

 

27. Sloths can hold their breath for up to 40 minutes.

 

Interesting and funny historical facts

 

28. Henry VIII knighted all four of his Grooms of the Chair - the men in charge of wiping his ass for him.

 

29. Jeanette Rankin was elected to Congress four years before women could vote.

 

30. Women could not apply for a bank loan until 1974.

 

31. Before the invention of modern artificial teeth, dentures were usually made from the teeth of dead soldiers.

 

32. In ancient Egypt, servants were smeared with honey so that flies would fly to them instead of the pharaoh.

 

33. It was once considered blasphemous to use a fork.

 

34. Abe Lincoln was a champion wrestler. He was also a licensed bartender. Maybe they should call him Abe of all trades.

 

35. George Washington owned a whiskey distillery.

 

 

36. More than two percent of the American population died during the civil war.

 

37. Joseph Stalin removed people from photographs after their death or dismissal from office.

 

38. Since 1945, all British tanks have been equipped with everything necessary for making tea.

 

39. Pope Gregory IV once declared war on cats because he thought Satan was using black cats. His statement led to the mass extermination of cats.

 

40. The absence of cats led to an invasion of rats, which led to the spread of the plague.

 

50. John Adams was the first president to live in the White House.

 

51. Go to sleep! Chernobyl, the Exxon Valdez oil spill, and the Challenger explosion are all linked to lack of sleep.

 

Interesting and funny travel facts

 

52. The average person living in Sweden eats about 22 pounds of chocolate a year.

 

53. Although the Wright brothers are known as a couple, they actually flew together only once. They promised their father that they would always fly separately.

 

54. In Montana, there are three times more cows than people.

 

55. Parts of the Great Wall of China were made from sticky rice.

 

56. Ninety percent of the world's population lives above the equator.

 

57. There are more saunas in Finland than cars.

 

58. Sixty percent of the world's lakes (three million in total) are located in Canada.

 

59. Virginia is the only state that has the same staff flower and staff tree - Dogwood.

 

 

60. Think before the season. In Egypt, it is considered incredibly rude to salt the food you have been served.

 

61. Ninety percent of the territory of Libya is desert.

 

62. The height of the Eiffel Tower can vary up to six inches, depending on the temperature.

 

63. Do you spend too much on drinks when you eat out? A small town in Italy has a fountain that serves free wine.

 

64. Pilots and their co-pilots should eat differently before the flight so that both of them do not get sick with food poisoning.

 

65. About 600 Parisians work on the Eiffel Tower every day.

 

66. Do you want to go to Rome? Which one of? Six of the seven continents have a city called Rome. (You really fell, Antarctica.)

 

67. When you visit Key West, you are actually closer to Havana than Miami.

 

Interesting and fun facts about music

 

68. Mary, known as "Mary Had the Lamb", was a real person and the song is based on real events.

 

69. Happy Birthday was the first song ever played on Mars. Mars Rover Curiosity played this song to itself on its first anniversary on the planet.

 

70. When you listen to music, your heart is in sync with the beat.

 

71. President Nixon was an accomplished musician. He played five instruments, including the accordion.

 

72. Is the song stuck in your head? This is called an earworm.

 

73. None of The Beatles could read music.

 

74. However, George Harrison was reportedly able to play 26 instruments.

 

 

75. Barry Manilow didn't actually write I Write Songs.

 

76. Metallica is the only band to play on all seven continents.

 

77. Most department stores tend to play music slower to slow down shoppers and make them shop longer. The reverse is true for restaurants.

 

78. Monaco's orchestra is bigger than its army.

 

79. A concert promoter once sold a thousand tickets to a Spice Girls concert in Hawaii that were never booked. Maybe that's where the idea for Fyre Fest came from.

 

80. Leo Fender, inventor of the Stratocaster and Telecaster, couldn't play the guitar.

 

 

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