Top 25 Famous Comedians of All Time
In the second half of the 20th century, the stand-up genre emerged in the United States - a conversational performance in which the artist speaks directly to the audience. The members of this collection have something to say.
List of Famous Comedians Who Made us Laugh Hard and Often!
Comedian, from the German Komiker, Komikus is an actor who performs comic roles. Recently, in our country, comedians, and the stand-up genre in general, are gaining more and more popularity. Today we decided to recall the pioneers - the most famous comic actors in the world.
One of the genre pioneers, actor, and writer, winner of four Grammy awards and the Mark Twain Award.
Carlin started as a DJ at a radio station, then put on comedy numbers in nightclubs, and was a frequent guest on various TV shows. His popularity grew like a snowball. In total, the artist released 14 full-length stand-ups.
In his books and speeches, Karlin destroys all the foundations of modern society and universal human values. There are no taboo topics for his penetrating gaze and devastating humor - religious dogmas, gender stereotypes, political correctness, mass media, politics, patriotism, and the institution of the family. Some of his monologues fell under proceedings in the US Supreme Court.
The most influential black comedian, social critic, and actor, whose popularity peaked in the 1970s-1980s. Richard Pryor is the typical African American that Hollywood has portrayed. He was not poor, but he robbed neighbors' houses and often got caught as a child. At 19, Pryor attacked the owners of a club owned by the Italian mafia with a toy gun. He was the son of a boxer and a prostitute and was raised by his grandmother in a brothel, of which she was the mistress.
The five-time Emmy winner started as an entertainer. He soon became a regular on the television entertainment shows The Ed Sullivan Show and The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson. Pryor's popularity quickly grew, and he decided to try his hand at the Las Vegas stage, where he was waiting for success as a stand-up comedian.
In 2004, Pryor was ranked number one on Comedy Central's list of the 100 Greatest Stand-Up Artists of All Time. In a 2005 British poll by The Comedian, Pryor was ranked the tenth best comedy figure.
Although Andy was often called a comedian, Kaufman never called himself that. He refused to do jokes or comedies, at least not in the way that others did. Kaufman considered himself an anti-comedian, an artist of the absurd, and called himself "an artist who dances and sings." In his numbers, Andy always evoked different feelings in the audience - from numbness and disgust to uncontrollable laughter. For him, there were no boundaries in the invented jokes.
In addition to being weird, Andy Kaufman has wrapped himself in mystery. Until now, many believe that he did not die at all, and is just waiting in the wings to appear in public. After all, he joked many times during his lifetime that he would do just that. The fog was added by his brother, who in 2013 stated that he found a note from Andy almost immediately after his death.
Some are still not sure if the artist really died or just faked his death.
The most recognizable American stand-up comedian of our time.
Started as a writer for other comedians and TV presenters. Success came to him when Louis was already over 40. He made a name for himself on the subject of a midlife crisis. C.K. exploits the image of an irritated man who is divorced, has two daughters and eats immoderately. The humor may seem very cynical, but the presentation leaves no doubt - Louis C.K. sincerely loves people.
American stand-up comedian, actor and screenwriter. Winner of two Emmy Awards and a Grammy Award.
At first glance, Chappelle is a typical African-American comedian, talking about racism, weed and "brothers". In reality, he is completely atypical: he talks about the same thing, but in a different way. Therefore, viewers with different skin colors come to his concerts. His low calm voice is combined with rhythm and passion. Chappelle does not draw conclusions for the viewer, but each story provides food for thought.
An English comedian for whom nothing is sacred. A second ago he was joking with dwarfs, and right now he is mocking the city in which he gives his concert. Although sometimes the performance is divided into peculiar headings, like a TV show.
Not everyone likes his sharp jokes and dark humor, which Carr takes lightly, saying that people have the right to be offended, but he also has the right to freely joke about whatever he wants.
Subtle British humor and impeccable one-lines make any black joke in his performance first of all funny. This allows Carr to avoid responsibility for his insults. In most cases.
Woody Allen is a man whose prowess as a stand-up comedian can only be judged by audio recordings and rare surviving video recordings. At the end of many shows, Allen recommended buying his record. Those who did this helped posterity learn what troubles and sores plagued the neurotic from Brooklyn. The future director talked about doctors and failures with women, and also noticed the absurdities in the life of a big city, which later became fragments of many of his films. Allen still inspires young people to conquer the scene with sincere and self-deprecating jokes.
One of the most significant stand-up artists of all time, George Carlin took to the stage with ruthless pamphlets denouncing the state and human stupidity. He ridiculed the routine phrases on board the aircraft, the bombastic statements of environmentalists and the supporting piles of politically correct America. In parallel with the caustic concerts, Karlin also appeared on the wide screen. He collaborated with Kevin Smith three times - on Dogma, Jay and Silent Bob and Jersey Girl. Karlin was dissatisfied with most of his acting work.
Oscar winner (with four nominations) and five-time Golden Globe winner, Robin Williams was a stand-up comedian in the seventies, performing at The Comedy Store club along with the iconic Richard Pryor and George Carlin. Then he had a television career and success in big movies, but in the early 2000s, Williams returned to his roots. He recorded two stand-up gigs where he mocked the names of hurricanes, the last American presidents, tiny electric cars and raccoons, for which ecological separation of garbage is a real punishment. Watching Williams is interesting not only because of the jokes, but also because of the performance skills - he can be given a second Oscar for drawing sketches “by roles”.
In the eighties, Murphy walked around the stage in a tight leather suit, was afraid that one of the men in the audience would stare at his ass, and cursed as often as he could not afford, now a family movie star. African-American stand-up comedians have become a self-sufficient niche in the humor market since Richard Pryor, and the glib Murphy proved to be one of the brightest wisecracking storytellers: he parodied Michael Jackson and Stevie Wonder, and also spoke with equal frankness about sex and childhood love of ice cream.
When Jim Carrey left the stage and moved to the big screen, his stage image did not change much: the “rubber-faced man” continued to amuse the audience with eccentric antics. An emotional story about situations from life was accompanied by pantomime, the apotheosis of which can be considered the image of famous personalities. Carrey is probably the only one who parodied Jack Nicholson as the Joker and Clint Eastwood without a single word - he showed this number exclusively with facial expressions with a striking portrait resemblance.
Chris Rock, following Pryor and Murphy, spoke about the life of an African American in the United States, complained that it has become increasingly difficult to defend rap lately, and did not hesitate to attack the state. "The government doesn't want you to use your drugs, they want you to use their drugs," he declared from the stage. Rock is often said to have changed the face of American humor. However, in the cinema he was less fortunate. Chris Rock was not as successful as Eddie Murphy, but starred twice with Kevin Smith (Jay and Silent Bob, Dogma), voiced a zebra in the Madagascar trilogy, wrote a semi-autobiographical script for the TV series Everybody Hates Chris. , and acted as a director in two more films.
Raised to comedian from high school prankster, Adam Sandler took to the stage in the 1980s as the goofy simpleton that Reese Darby (Always Say Yes and Rock Wave) now uses with equal success. Giggling at his own jokes, Sandler spoke in a thin voice about talking to girls. In a normal voice, he could tell, for example, about the teammates of the famous basketball player Wilt Chamberlain, who set an NBA record by scoring one hundred points in one match. The remaining four, according to Sandler, approached the team leader and said: "Listen, man, I'm open." With such baggage in the early nineties, the native of Brooklyn got on television, acted in films - and away we go.
The young Jud Apatow, speaking to the bar's patrons, looked like the slightly chubbier Ross from Friends, who preferred jokes about his own laziness and wasted life to dinosaurs. Dressed in a formal suit, Apatow looked like a lawyer or a traveling salesman. Twenty years ago, hardly anyone would have recognized him as the “king of comedy” from mass culture. However, before becoming a director, Apatow managed to work on stage on his own, and later supplied Jimm Carrey and other comedians with material.
Gaining fame after The Hangover, Galifainakis made many people learn his hard-to-pronounce last name. The fame of the native of North Carolina was a matter of time: on stage, he was not much different from his extravagant on-screen character. The audience was delighted with the unhurried monologues that he uttered over a bottle of beer. “I look like fat Jesus,” Zach hung from the stage. "Be careful, I'm really funny."
Seth Rogen made people laugh long before Donnie Darko and The 40 Year Old Virgin. One of the main associates of Jud Appatow, he went on stage from the age of twelve. The first speeches contained observations about school, unruly hair, and how hard it is for a child in a Jewish family. The main problem, according to Rogen, is the grandparents. However, even then the comedian knew how to turn a minus into a plus: “Once I asked for a cup of milk, and received $ 20.” Perhaps much in the career of a guy from Canada has developed in a similar way.
Bill Burr is a cynical American comedian, actor, writer, musician, and producer. He started his stand-up career in 1992 and has since released six quite successful shows. But other projects have brought him popularity: his own weekly podcast Bill Burr’s Monday Morning Podcast, appearances on radio shows and podcasts of other comedians, participation in the voice acting of GTA 4, a small role in the TV series Breaking Bad, and much more.
Bill Burr claims that his style was partly influenced by George Carlin. Burr's humor has been described as "furious". His speeches look rude, chauvinistic, indecent. He always chooses the most politically incorrect topics, ridiculing the excessive tolerance of the modern world. But it's his politically incorrectness and fearlessness that make his stand-up show so appealing.
American actress and comedian Ellen DeGeneres is known all over the world as a talented TV presenter, but she started her career with stand-up, and very successful. Back in the 70s, when Ellen was about 20 years old, she began performing in coffee houses and clubs, gradually gaining popularity and moving to a television audience. And in the 80s, the comedian was talked about all over the country, calling the funniest person on American television.
Ellen DeGeneres starred on the sitcom Ellen for four years, playing a bookstore owner. Although the series did not receive high television ratings, critics praised it, especially noting the talent of the comedian. In the 2000s, Ellen began to offer to host the Emmy, Grammy and other awards ceremonies. She turned out to be a great host, she was even nominated for an Emmy for hosting the ceremony.
Ellen is bright, funny and cheerful, without rudeness, unnecessary cynicism and vulgarity, but with wonderful self-irony. Her performances are very laid back and she improvises well.
Bo Burnham is a young but already popular American comedian and musician. He started his career in an unusual way compared to other comedians: from a Youtube channel where he uploaded his funny songs with guitar and electric piano. Then he started posting comedy videos about religion, gender, homosexuality, disability. Bo soon began to perform in clubs and on television, and in 2010 at the Edinburgh Comedy Festival he was nominated for the prize for the best comedy show.
Bo Burnham starred in several TV series and wrote and produced the sitcom Zach Stone Is Going to Be Big. But his main hobbies are still music and comedy.
Bo Burnham's performances can be called a musical comedy, but not in the classic version, when the songs are simply accompanied by jokes. Burnham's shows are more interesting, with jokes interrupted by songs and pantomimes, as if the comedian is mocking a classic stand-up.
Sarah Silverman is an American stand-up actress and satirist, comedy writer. Sarah first performed in the comedy genre at the age of 17, in the late 80s. Although she described her performance as terrible, her career took off quickly. Soon, Sarah began to perform in a satirical talk show on television, act in comedy series and create her own shows.
Sarah starred in dozens of films and TV series. Since 2007, she has been producing the weekly show The Sarah Silverman Program. In 2009, Silverman received an Emmy Award.
Sarah calls herself a "Jewish comedian". She often uses the themes of racism and the Holocaust in her speeches. Her stand-up is laced with deep satire and is often accompanied by black humor.
American stand-up comedian Bill Hicks lived a short life but gained immense recognition after his death. He performed in the 80s and 90s, shocking the audience with obscene language, black humor and discussion of the most controversial topics. Hicks deliberately challenged the mainstream in comedy by getting people to not just laugh at jokes, but to learn new things and think for themselves.
In his stand-up speeches, Bill Hicks criticized the banality and superficiality of popular culture. He wanted people to think more deeply and live more consciously. Hicks ridiculed the media, consumerism and philistinism. His cynical humor was not liked by everyone, but after Hicks' death, he was called one of the greatest comedians of all time.
The Cayman Islands in the Caribbean are known to many primarily as a thriving offshore financial center. On an area of only 264 sq. km and with a population of 54397 people registered about 70 thousand companies. But these islands are also known as a great holiday destination, because the basis of the economy here is tourism. More from history and modernity will tell 65 facts about the Cayman Islands.
Top facts about Cayman Islands
1. The Cayman Islands is a small country lost in the Caribbean.
The Cayman Islands are three islands in the Caribbean.
2. The Cayman Islands are a picturesque archipelago of 262 square kilometers.
3. The Cayman Islands are absent from most maps of the world, their area is so insignificant.
4. For government agencies and large firms, world maps and globes are made to order, on which the Cayman Islands are marked bypassing the cartographic rules.
5. On the world map, they can still be found between North and South America in the western Caribbean.
6. From the Cayman Islands, the distance to the nearest countries is: 240 kilometers to Cuba; 730 kilometers to Miami (USA); 267 kilometers to Jamaica.
7. The islands of Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac and Little Cayman constitute the main group of the archipelago. There is also a very small and completely uninhabited island of Owen, as well as several dozen other uninhabited islets and reefs.
8. Despite the relatively small area of the islands, there are many interesting places for tourists. The Caymans have mangrove forests - a special ecosystem that connects land and sea.
GRAND CAYMAN ISLAND
9. The largest island of the Grand Cayman or Grand Cayman archipelago. It covers an area of 197 sq. km. This is 75% of the entire land area of the country. The island is 35 kilometers long and 6.5 kilometers wide. The highest point of the island is 16 meters.
10. Grand Cayman is divided into 5 administrative districts: Georgetown, Bodden Town, East End, North Side, West Bay.
11. Grand Cayman is an offshore zone and is attractive for businessmen. And tourists are attracted by natural and architectural attractions: caves, parks, old mansions, a turtle farm and many other objects.
12. Tourists from passing cruise ships tend to get to Stingray City first of all - a unique shallow sea area with underwater caves, which was chosen by stingrays in the 80s of the last century. For a long time, fishermen stopped here and threw overboard the offal of cleaned fish, and this attracted relatives of sharks.
13. In 2004, a significant part of the island (about 80% of all buildings) was destroyed by a powerful tropical storm.
LITTLE CAYMAN ISLAND
14. The second largest inhabited island of Little Cayman. Its area is 28.5 sq. km. The lowland turns into a slight elevation in the north of the island and reaches a height of 12 meters above sea level.
15. A little over two hundred people live on Little Cayman. Tourists have the opportunity to stay in modern hotels.
16. Little Cayman attracts lovers of exotic flora and fauna, scuba diving, a relaxing holiday among untouched nature. Here you can go fishing, walk through protected areas and meet a heron, cormorant or pelican. And if there is a certificate for deep diving, then such a tourist will have access to the beauty of a unique reef with a depth of 0.3 kilometers.
CAYMAN BRAC ISLAND
17. Cayman Brac is a small inhabited island. Its area is 38 sq. km. Length - 19 kilometers, average width - 2 kilometers.
18. The limestone plateau near the eastern coast reaches a height of 42 meters. This island got its name thanks to the limestone plateau that stretches across the island, forming many caves and rocks.
19. Almost the entire area of the island is covered with fruit-bearing trees, giant cacti and beautiful orchids. There is a park in the district, named after the famous discoverer - the traveler Columbus.
20. There are no museums and ancient monuments on this island. Adventurers and treasure seekers come here, as well as rock climbers for extreme ascents and speleologists to explore its tunnels and grottoes.
21. The Cayman Islands were discovered in 1503 by Columbus, during the last expedition to America. These islands were first called the Turtle Islands (“Las Tortugas”) and were forgotten until the middle of the 17th century, because the islands were not the best choice for life. After all, there were many mosquitoes, little fresh water and tropical hurricanes often raged. Therefore, the sailors stocked up here with turtles (tortugs) - and sailed on.
22. Although the Spaniards originally called these islands the Turtle Islands (Las Tortugas), it later turned out that there were no less crocodiles here, and the islands were renamed after crocodiles (Caiman crocodilus). But the caimans, which gave the modern name to the islands, are no longer found here.
23. According to the Treaty of Madrid, the Cayman Islands officially became a British colony as early as 1670. However, active colonization began much later. The first large settlements of Europeans appeared on the archipelago only in 1833. The resettlement process was held back by dangerous coral reefs. And even now you can still see ships sunken at that time off the coast of the archipelago.
24. The islanders have long been granted the possibility of partial self-government, but the Cayman Islands still have the status of a British Overseas Territory in the West Indies.
THE CAPITAL OF THE CAYMAN ISLANDS - THE CITY OF GEORGE TOWN
25. The administrative, financial and historical center of the Caymans is the city of Georgetown. It is a modern city with a developed tourist infrastructure and a population of about 28,000 people.
26. Here are the seaport, the international airport, the building of the British Embassy and the offices of about 600 financial institutions.
27. The history of the largest city of the Caymans began in the 10th century. The favorable geographical location and climate attracted many conquerors. Different historical stages of colonization by the Dutch, French and British were reflected in the unique architecture and traditions. Witnesses of bygone times are numerous monuments that have been carefully preserved to this day.
28. The central part of the city is famous for its green spaces. Tourists enjoy walking along the boulevards and park areas, looking at the buildings of 150 years ago.
29. In Georgetown, there are no intersections familiar to residents of megacities. Here, winding streets form bizarre knots with diverging ornate rays. This is especially evident at the intersection of Miles Crescent and Miles Road.
30. A favorite vacation spot for citizens and guests of the capital is the Seawall dam, built during the time of the Dutch. In the evenings, couples and families with children walk along the canal. Sports complexes, solariums and salons are open nearby, beach areas are equipped.
31. In the capital of the Cayman Islands, there is the largest island market, Starbuck.
32. The coastal waters of the Cayman Islands are famous for the abundance of various species of sea and amphibian turtles. The cultivation of these reptiles is the main occupation of the indigenous people.
33. Cayman Islands offer a lot of entertainment for every taste: horseback riding and golf, nightclubs and evening cruises on a yacht. Extreme lovers will love the safari. Unforgettable trips to various caves and grottoes are organized for tourists. Golfers can choose from one of the many golf clubs in Georgetown.
34. Cayman Islands - islands of holidays. You can come here at any time and catch some festive event. Two cultural events take place here on a special scale: the Batabano Festival and the Pirates' Week.
35. Guests of the city are greatly impressed by walks in the Little India district, where Indian cuisine restaurants, jewelry stores with gold jewelry and specialized tea and spice shops are located.
36. Caimans give joy at every step. And above all, it is the joy of communicating with the animal world. And the animal world in the Caymans is the water world. The extraordinary beauty of the Caribbean Sea, the cleanest, most transparent, hides a wonderful world. Here you can feed the fish right on the shore, you just have to stock up on food.
37. But even more can be seen if you dive into this aquamarine depth. Magical creatures live here - shells, wonderful and unusual fish. Here, fish are friends with stingrays that carry fish on their backs and the stingrays themselves can be stroked if they allow it. And if not, then you can swim very close to them.
38. On the Cayman Islands, you can fulfill your dream - to touch the stars. There are a lot of starfish here. Starfish live in shallow water and there is a place in the Caymans where they live and where you can touch them.
39. Just remember that starfish are not toys, but living beings. They are marine animals and, like fish, cannot live long without water. When touching them, taking photographs, you must remember that they cannot be taken out of the water for more than a couple of minutes, otherwise they will die. You have to be careful with them.
40. The Cayman Islands are also known for their global uniqueness for their stingrays. Rather, stingrays live in many places on the planet, but only here is the world capital of stingrays. We can say that the stingrays are the hallmark of the Cayman, here even the guitars in the Hard Rock Cafe are made in the form of stingrays.
41. There are several varieties of stingrays, dangerous and harmless to humans. Stingrays live at shallow depths, where there is a sandy bottom into which they burrow and thus become invisible.
42. Not far from the shores of Grand Cayman Island, there is a sandbank where stingrays live. The most interesting thing is that the strand is located in the middle of the deep sea, which gives everyone a unique opportunity to swim with stingrays. And there are a lot of people who want it. They are ready to sail through the deep aquamarine sea, into the endless distance, towards the dream.
43. People from all over the world come to the Caymans every day to communicate with these marine animals. Therefore, in order to preserve the unique nature of the islands, there are clear rules here: the number of catamarans and other swimming facilities, as well as the time spent by certain groups of people, is strictly limited.
44. Before landing on the bottom, everyone receives a strict briefing. Stingrays are alive and you need to communicate with them very gently. At first glance, their number and size is simply staggering. But the stingrays are already accustomed to the people who feed them, and the stingrays are very friendly. After people get used to it a little, the instructor will teach you how to hold the stingray in your arms. At first it may not work out, but after some attempts, timidity will go away, and you can hold your dream in your hands.
45. Skats reach 2-2.5 meters in length and weigh several kilograms. They, like starfish, cannot be completely removed from the water. If you do everything carefully, then the slopes are absolutely safe. They look at you with their huge eyes and understand everything. At this moment, you can experience infinite happiness!
46. In the Caymans, a state program for the destruction of lionfish is operating. Divers regularly catch it and hand it over to restaurants to be eaten. In this way, they are trying to preserve the local ecosystem, in which the lion fish appeared recently, but behaves unfriendly.
47. The most convenient place to shop is in Georgetown. Here is the largest number of markets and shopping centers, shops that offer inexpensive locally produced fabric. A number of such shops are located on Teluk Bahang street.
48. Shopping in the Caymans is relatively inexpensive. Most of the boutiques operate on the Duty Free system. Souvenirs made from green turtle shells and black coral are the most popular among tourists. An original and inexpensive gift brought from the islands will be products made from the local semi-precious stone "caymanite".
49. Good deals in the Caymans include luxury goods, leather goods, crystal and porcelain. Cosmetics and perfumes are of very high quality here.
50. The basis of the local cuisine is seafood (lobsters, mussels, lobsters, freshly caught fish) and exotic fruits cooked in all sorts of ways. Additional ingredients in dishes are often tomatoes and onions.
51. The main sauce for the islanders is curry. Fashionable restaurants offer delicacies of predominantly European cuisine. Small cafes and eateries serve traditional dishes more often.
IGUANA IN THE CAYMAN ISLANDS
52. The Cayman Islands have magnificent flora and friendly fauna: there are no poisonous snakes, spiders, etc. here. And there are no sharks and stinging jellyfish in the sea.
53. Here the iguana is the largest native animal. There are 3 types of iguanas in the Cayman Islands - green, blue and sand.
54. Blue iguanas are found nowhere else on the planet and are considered one of the rarest species. In the Caymans, there are special programs for the protection and breeding of blue iguanas and green sea turtles.
55. On the days when cruise ships are in port, the population of Grand Cayman increases by a third.
56. There is still little fresh water on the islands, and all the water that is supplied to homes is artificially desalinated sea water with added minerals.
57. Caymans are one of the best places in the world for diving. There are about 350 places for exciting dives in coastal waters. You can explore the underwater world almost all year round. In any weather, there is a safe leeward area. The visibility radius is usually up to 30 meters.
58. Communication between the islands is carried out by water and by air with the help of local airlines Cayman Airways, Cayman Airways Express, Island Air. Cruise and shipping lines connect the Caymans with the United States, Mexico and Jamaica.
59. In addition to the beach type of recreation on the islands, there are many other activities: sea cruises in the Caribbean, surfing, fishing, diving, snorkeling. Jazz, disco and Calypso-style music sound in nightclubs.
60. The official language in the Caymans is English, but there are also many Spanish-speaking residents.
61. 75% of the GDP of the Cayman Islands comes from tourism. Here is a great climate, there is practically no crime, a stable political situation.
62. In this amazing place, everyone can find something attractive for themselves. People come here in search of romance, extreme surfing, exciting diving, relaxation on the sandy beach, as well as exciting excursions to historical places.
63. But tourists should not forget about a number of prohibitions that exist here. So, camping is strictly prohibited on the territory of the islands, for violation the tourist will be taken into custody; spearfishing and fishing are prohibited in island waters; empty shells and corals should not be lifted from the bottom of the sea. And here you can’t go into the jungle without an experienced guide, and you shouldn’t sunbathe for a very long time, you need to remember about the likelihood of sunburn and heat stroke.
64. Holidays in the Cayman Islands will be pleasant and will bring a lot of impressions, if you do not break the laws, follow safety measures and do not forget to take your camera and diving equipment with you.
65. In recent years, various environmental programs have been actively carried out on the islands, in which tourists can also participate. A visit to the Cayman Islands can be not only a pleasant stay, but also a contribution to the preservation of the natural wealth of our planet.
These amazing animals, seals, just seem clumsy. Yes, on land they appear to be such lumps, but in the water, they are swift, strong, and graceful. However, much still depends on the specific species to which the seal belongs - many of them differ vary significantly from each other. But it was thanks to these animals that such a colloquial word as "seal" appeared, that is, to wallow, relax and do nothing. But what, after all, these marine animals really often allow themselves to relax and unwind, although, of course, their life does not consist of continuous rest.
Fun facts about seals
1. Seals belong to the family of true seals.
2. Depending on the species, they can live in both salt and fresh water of the arctic, subarctic or temperate zones.
3. Currently, three types of seals are known: two of them are marine, and one is freshwater.
4. All seals, especially freshwater ones, are living relics that have been preserved on Earth since the end of the Tertiary period.
5. Seals are similar to seals, they have a spindle-shaped body, a small head and limbs that have evolved into flippers, thanks to which the seals are excellent swimmers and divers.
6. The neck of the seal is weakly expressed, sometimes it may even seem that it does not exist at all, and the body simply passes into a small, head with a flattened skull, smoothly turning into a slightly elongated muzzle.
7. In general, the seal's head is a bit similar in shape to a cat's, except for the fact that its muzzle is more elongated. The seals have no ears, they are replaced by auditory canals, which are invisible from the outside.
8. The eyes of this animal are large, dark and very expressive. The eyes of seal cubs seem especially large: huge and dark, they seem even more contrasting against the background of light wool and give the little seal a resemblance either to an owlet or some kind of alien creature.
9. Thanks to the third eyelid that seals have, they can swim and dive without fear of damaging their eyes. However, in the open air, the seal's eyes tend to water, which gives the impression that the animal is crying.
10. In the body of the seal there is a large fat layer that helps this animal survive in the harsh conditions of a cold climate and not freeze in icy water.
11. The same reserves of fat can help the seal survive a temporary hunger strike during a period of starvation, and thanks to them, the animal can lie for hours and even sleep on the surface of the water.
12. The skin of the seal is very strong and strong. It is covered with short, dense and harsh hair, which also protects the animal from hypothermia both in cold water and on ice or on the shore.
13. Between the fingers of these animals there are membranes, and on the front flippers, in addition, there are also powerful claws, thanks to which the seal makes holes in the ice in order to get to land or in order to rise to the surface of the water for a sip of fresh air.
14. The coat color of the seal, depending on the species, can be dark silver or brownish, while it is often covered with darker spots.
15. There are three types of seals. The ringed seal inhabits the temperate waters of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and the Arctic Ocean.
16. In Russia, ringed seals are found in all northern seas, as well as in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea.
17. The Caspian seal is endemic to the Caspian Sea.
18. The Baikal seal is not found anywhere else in the world, except for Lake Baikal.
19. Some scientists suggest that all types of seals are related to each other by a common origin, moreover, the ancestor of the Caspian and Baikal species is called the ringed seal, which migrated to Baikal and the Caspian about two million years ago and there evolved into two new species.
20. However, there is another version, according to which the ringed and Baikal seals simply had a common ancestor that appeared later than even the Caspian seal.
21. All three species differ from each other in color and, in part, in size.
22. The Caspian seal is the smallest of them, its dimensions are approximately 1.3 meters in length and weighs about 86 kilograms.
23. The Caspian seal is found along the coastline and on the rocky islands of the Caspian Sea, in winter it can also often be seen on drifting ice floes. In the warm season, it can even swim into the mouths of the Volga and the Urals.
24. Caspian seals eat fish and crustaceans that live in the Caspian Sea. They are especially willing to eat small herring and sprat - these are the types of fish that make up the bulk of their diet. The proportion of crustaceans is small - it is approximately 1% of the total amount of food.
25. One of the species of these animals, the ringed seal, was named so because of its unusual color, in which the dark rings on its skin have a light border.
26. The ringed seal, or akiba, is the most common species of true seals in the Arctic: according to conservative estimates, there are about 4 million ringed seals in the world.
27. Akiba is distributed in the seas of the Arctic Ocean from the Barents and White in the west to the Bering Sea in the east, it lives in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Baltic Sea, the Tatar Strait, the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga, and sometimes rises along the Neva to St. Petersburg.
28. This seal lives both in the coastal zone and in the open ocean, but more often it keeps in bays, straits and estuaries. This species does not make large regular migrations. In winter, the seal lives on the ice.
29. Subspecies of ringed seal: Baltic ringed seal, White Sea ringed seal, Ladoga ringed seal, Okhotsk, or Far Eastern ringed seal, Saimaa ringed seal.
30. Subspecies of the ringed seal live mainly in the polar or subpolar regions.
31. The White Sea seal lives in the Arctic and is the most common seal in the Arctic Ocean.
32. The Baltic seal lives in the cold waters of the northern regions of the Baltic, in particular, it can be seen off the coast of Sweden, Finland, Estonia and Russia. Sometimes this animal even swims to the coast of Germany.
33. Two other subspecies of the ringed seal - Ladoga and Saimaa, are freshwater and live in Lake Ladoga and Lake Saimaa.
34. The body length of adult ringed seals reaches 1.5 meters, weight 40-80 kilograms. Baltic specimens are even larger - 140 centimeters and 100 kilograms. Males are usually somewhat larger than females.
35. Akiba has excellent eyesight, hearing and sense of smell, which help the animal find food for itself and hide from predators in time. These seals feed on crustaceans, molluscs and fish (spiny goby, Greenland goby, pike, navaga, salmon, salmon).
36. Ringed seals never form colonies. Most often they stay alone, although sometimes they gather in small groups, which, however, are not very stable. All year round they spend at sea, for which their body is very well adapted.
37. The Baikal seal is not only an endemic of Lake Baikal, that is, it is found only here, but the Baikal seal is the only mammal of Lake Baikal. According to morphological and biological features, the Baikal seal is close to the ringed seal that lives in the seas of the Far North and the Far East. There are some signs of similarity between this seal and the Caspian species.
38. The origin of the seal in Baikal remains an unresolved issue to this day. Most researchers adhere to the point of view of I. D. Chersky that the seal entered Baikal from the Arctic Ocean through the Yenisei-Angara river system during the Ice Age simultaneously with the Baikal omul.
39. But there is another point of view - that the entire family of true seals, to which the Baikal seal belongs, originated in large freshwater reservoirs of Eurasia. And only then did the resettlement of three sister species begin: the Caspian seal mastered the Caspian Sea, the ringed one - the Arctic Ocean, and the Baikal one - the deepest freshwater lake.
40. However, there is no doubt that the seal owes its prosperity and high numbers in Baikal to its deep water and food web features.
BAIKAL SEALS ON THE USHKAN ISLANDS
41. The Baikal seal is widespread throughout the lake, but it is especially abundant in its northern and middle parts. The most favorite habitat for seals is the Ushkany Islands, located on the territory of the Zabaikalsky National Park.
42. The basis of nutrition of the Baikal seal is golomyanka and gobies. She eats about a ton of fish a year. In search of food, the seal dives to a depth of 200 meters and remains under water for 20-25 minutes.
43. Previously, it was believed that Baikal seals cause great damage to the whitefish population, but, as it turned out later, they come across them only by chance and the total number of sturgeons in the seal's diet is no more than 1-2%.
44. The seal is called the symbol of Baikal, the same as the famous Baikal omul, its images are used on the emblems. This is an interesting object of ecological tourism.
45. Every year, many wildlife lovers come to Baikal to see and, if possible, photograph it. The main flow of ecotourists goes to the Ushkany Islands, where the conditions for shooting are prepared.
46. It is believed that the Baikal seal has no natural enemies in nature: only humans are a danger to it. However, not often, but it happens that these animals are hunted by a brown bear.
47. Baikal seal cubs are usually safely hidden inside the den, because in the absence of a mother who has retired in search of food, they can become prey for foxes, sables or white-tailed eagles.
48. The ringed seal living in the ice of the Arctic has much more enemies. It is seals that are the main part of the diet of polar bears, and arctic foxes and large polar gulls prey on their cubs. In the water, killer whales and Greenland polar sharks pose a danger to ringed seals. Sometimes they can be hunted by walruses.
49. All seals are animals leading a mostly solitary lifestyle. Only during the breeding season do they gather in flocks. But even so, each seal tries to keep apart and drives away its relatives with an indignant snort.
50. The smallest among the subspecies of seals is the Ladoga seal, which lives in Lake Ladoga itself, has a body length of no more than 135 centimeters and a weight of 40 kilograms.
51. The seal spends most of its life in the water. She dives superbly and can spend up to 70 minutes underwater depending on the species. While diving, the animal's ear canals and nostrils are closed, so that under water it can breathe only thanks to the large volume of its lungs and the supply of air that fits in them.
52. Often these animals even sleep on the surface of the water, and their sleep is surprisingly strong: it happened that people, having swum up to sleeping seals, turned them over on purpose, and they did not even think of waking up.
53. The seal spends winter under water, only occasionally rising to the surface of the water in order to take a new breath of fresh air. On ice or on land, these animals begin to get out closer to the beginning of spring, when the breeding season begins.
54. Moreover, as a rule, seals have favorite places for rookeries, where they gather in order to continue their race.
55. Seals only on the ground can seem clumsy and clumsy creatures. In water, they are active, energetic and almost tireless. Under water, the speed of movement of the seal can be 25 km / h, although in a calm environment these animals swim much more slowly.
56. On the shore, seals move with the help of their front flippers and tail, sorting through them. In the event of danger, they begin to jump, while loudly slapping on the ice or ground with their front flippers and pushing off a hard surface with their tail.
57. Sea seals of cold latitudes, unlike freshwater ones, regardless of the time of year, prefer to spend most of their time on the ice or on the shore, and not in the water, where they dive only in case of danger or in order to get food.
58. Sexual dimorphism is externally expressed in the fact that individuals of different sexes differ from each other in size. Moreover, if the females of the Baikal seal are larger than the males, then the Caspian seal, on the contrary, the males are larger.
59. Depending on the species and gender, seals reach sexual maturity at 3-7 years of age, and males mature later than females. These animals bring cubs either annually or 2-3 years after the previous birth. Female seals usually give birth to one cub, but sometimes 2-3 cubs at a time.
60. It happens that a certain percentage of females after mating do not bring offspring. As a rule, 10-20% of the Baikal seals have such "vacations" every year.
61. The reasons for this still remain unclear: either this is due to the natural regulation of the level of livestock numbers, or simply not all females that have temporarily suspended the development of embryos resume it after a while. It is also not excluded that this phenomenon may be associated with some diseases transferred by the female or unfavorable living conditions.
62. Seals usually mate in the spring, and then the gestation period continues for 9-11 months. Females give birth on ice, at this time they and their newborn cubs are very vulnerable to predators and hunters.
63. The color of babies differs from the color of adults: for example, the cubs of the Baikal seal are born white, from which their name comes - pups.
64. At first, the mother feeds the baby with milk, after which the cub is gradually transferred to an adult diet consisting of fish and invertebrates. By the time this happens, he manages to completely shed and change the color of the fur to the one that is inherent in adults.
RINGED SEAL WITH A BABY
65. Even before giving birth, Baikal seals build special dens from snow, where they feed their cubs exclusively with milk for a month or a half. Depending on weather and temperature conditions, lactation can last from 2 to 3.5 months.
66. The seal is the only animal that can deliberately suspend and resume the intrauterine development of its future cubs. Most often this happens during long and very cold winters, when babies born at term simply cannot survive.
67. Males do not take any part in the upbringing of offspring, while females continue to take care of the babies until they learn to live independently. After the cubs are weaned, the female seal can mate again, but sometimes the breeding season for her comes earlier: when the previous cub is still feeding on milk.
68. In summer, ringed seals keep mainly in coastal waters and in some places form small haulouts on stones or pebble spits. In autumn, as the sea freezes, most of the animals leave the coastal zone deep into the sea and stay on drifting ice.
69. A minority of animals stay for the winter near the coast and keep in bays and bays. In this case, even at the beginning of the freezing of the sea, the seal makes holes in the young ice - loopholes through which it emerges from the water.
70. There are also smaller holes, used only to breathe through them. Often the hole in the hole is covered with a thick layer of snow, in which the seal makes a hole without an outlet to the outside. In such a convenient place, she rests, being invisible to enemies, mainly polar bears.
71. The seal is a valuable object of fishing. She gives fur skins, fat and meat. The meat of the seals is fed to Arctic foxes, hats are made from fur, and it is used to pad hunting skis.
72. Seal meat is eaten, especially tender meat in young seals, and seal flippers boiled in water are considered a delicacy. In the old days, seal fat was used in leather production and in soap making.
73. Fishing seals and eventually led to a reduction in the number of these animals. And, although every effort is currently being made to prevent the seals from disappearing, one of their species is threatened with complete extinction.
74. At present, two types of seals - Baikal and ringed, belong to quite safe species and they have been assigned the status of "Cueing Least Concern".
75. But the Caspian seal is not so lucky: due to human activities leading to pollution of the Caspian Sea, this species is endangered. And, although all efforts are currently being made to restore the former number of Caspian seals, their number is steadily decreasing year by year.
76. Seals can live on average 40-55 years. Sexual maturity occurs at 4-6 years of age. Females are able to bear fruit up to 35-40 years.
77. The age of seals can be easily recognized by the annual rings on their fangs and claws. And this is their unique feature, not characteristic of any other animal in the world.
78. The largest concentrations of seals are observed in the spring on drifting ice during puppies, molting and mating. This is especially true for the seas of the Far East, where in one day of swimming in the ice you can observe many hundreds, and sometimes thousands of animals. More often, seals lie in groups of 10-20 heads, but there are clusters of a hundred or more animals.
79. Seals are amazing animals. They have a lively and curious nature and are easy to train.
80. In natural conditions, they like to swim up to drifting ships and follow them.
Amazing creatures, sea urchins, have long tormented the minds of zoologists. These underwater animals are very interesting from a biological point of view, and the conditions in which some of their species live seem to be truly extreme. But people are willing to collect them, especially in shallow water, as sea urchins in some countries are enviable food. However, most tourists who have tried them do not share this opinion.
Facts about sea urchins
1. Animal sea urchins are echinoderm mollusks.
2. These amazing creatures have long been under the close attention of zoologists, as sea urchins are very interesting from a biological point of view.
3. These underwater animals attract with their unusual appearance and physiology.
4. In total, there are about 940 species of sea urchins in nature, and in our time, zoologists continue to discover more and more of their species.
5. Sea urchins are one of the longest living animals on Earth. They are older than dinosaurs. Their first species appeared on our planet about 450 million years ago.
6. These animals are able to easily withstand the monstrous pressure of the water column. Research probes have detected them at depths of up to 7 kilometers.
7. These animals live only in very salty waters, therefore, where large rivers partially desalinate the seas and oceans into which they flow, sea urchins are not found.
8. The size of the largest sea urchins reaches 30 centimeters in diameter, while in the smallest it does not exceed 2 centimeters.
9. The conditions in which some of the species of sea urchins live seem truly extreme.
10. They are also found not only in warm waters. Some sea urchins even live in the Antarctic climate.
11. Sea urchins can drill holes for themselves even in strong granite rocks.
12. The record holder for the length of the spines among all sea urchins are diadem hedgehogs (the length of their spines is up to 70 cm with a shell diameter 10 times smaller), and in flat hedgehogs their length does not exceed 2 millimeters.
13. Also diadem sea urchins glow in the dark.
14. Most sea urchins lay eggs, but some give birth to live offspring, like mammals.
15. Sea urchins got their name for a reason. Their entire body is covered with movable sharp needles, although there are a small number of species lacking this feature. Basically, the needles serve to protect against predators. Their long needles are a formidable and effective weapon. But needles serve them not only for protection, but also for movement, as well as for obtaining food.
16. On the body of sea urchins there are over 1000 tiny legs with suction cups on them. Thin legs pass through the shell. On their feet are suction cups, with the help of which these animals move.
17. In addition, their legs are adapted for burrowing. The legs of sea urchins are also located on the back, they serve to sense the environment. And some species have adapted their unusual limbs to obtain food and cleanse their shells of pollution.
18. Sea urchins do not have bones. Their body is covered with strong calcium plates that cover the body like an orange peel. These plates are symmetrical to each other, they are strong enough and protect the internal organs from mechanical damage.
19. By the annual rings on the shell of these animals, one can determine their age in the same way as by the growth rings of trees.
20. Sea urchins have five jaws at once, each of which has one tooth. These teeth can move independently of each other. Their teeth grow throughout their lives. Thanks to friction against each other, they grind off and always remain sharp enough. The mouth of these animals is somewhat reminiscent of a beak.
21. The eyes of sea urchins are located in the upper part of the body, and the mouth is in the lower.
22. Puberty in sea urchins occurs only 2-3 years after birth.
23. And in some of their species - even after 5 years. That's why they reproduce so slowly.
24. Sea urchins reproduce by external fertilization - they release sperm and eggs directly into the water.
25. First, the animal passes through the larval stage. Until its final transformation, it moves along the bottom along with other plankton.
26. In food, sea urchins are completely illegible. They feed mainly on algae, but are also not averse to eating small invertebrates, the remains of dead fish and other small living creatures.
27. A large brood needs a lot of food. Hedgehogs literally eat all the coral reefs. Some of them even eat each other.
28. They continue to grow throughout life.
29. Most species of sea urchins are nocturnal.
30. One of the species of sea urchins cannot roll back if they are knocked over. In this case, these animals die.
31. Amazing sea urchins are always a close object of attention for lovers of snorkeling or scuba diving.
32. These strange creatures look very unusual, and many people want to touch them, but this should absolutely not be done.
33. You can easily prick yourself on the spines of a sea urchin, and such injections are very painful.
34. If you step on a sea urchin, its needles, like fragile glass, break into many fragments, sticking into the body. Their extraction is a very complicated and painful operation, which only experienced doctors can do.
35. And some types of sea urchins are poisonous, and therefore very dangerous.
36. Poison is contained in the mucus on their spines.
37. During low tide, sea urchins do not risk staying on the shore, where they can become easy prey. Usually they either hide in burrows or burrow into the sand.
38. Close relatives of sea urchins, according to scientists, are sea cucumbers.
39. Some small fish have learned to have a mutually beneficial coexistence with sea urchins.
40. They hide between its needles in case of danger, and in response they eat the parasites that have stuck around it, from which the hedgehog cannot get rid of on its own.
41. On average, sea urchins live for about 30 years. But some types of sea urchins are real centenarians. In the wild, they live up to 200 years.
42. Despite their own pricklyness, they often become victims of predators. A large number of different animals prey on these echinoderms. They are readily eaten by fur seals, birds, fish, lobsters and starfish.
43. One of the most formidable enemies of sea urchins is the sea otter. He breaks the needles of his prey with a stone, and then eats her insides. Sea otters eat so many sea urchins every day that their entire insides turn purple due to the pigment contained in these echinoderms.
44. Humans also pose a considerable danger to the diversity of species of this class. Sea urchins in many countries are part of the national cuisine. Their caviar is mainly used for food.
45. Many people are willing to collect sea urchins, especially in shallow water, as sea urchins are a delicacy in some countries. But most tourists who have tried them do not share this opinion.
46. There is a whole fishery for their breeding and catching. Due to human activities and active fishing, many species are endangered.
47. Although sea urchins are distributed throughout the world. They are found in all oceans and in almost all seas, including the coldest ones.
48. There are only three seas in which not a single species of sea urchins lives - the Caspian, the Black, and, of course, the Dead Sea.
49. These animals are very useful creatures. They absorb carbon dioxide like plants. And sea urchins reduce the level of radiation in the oceans.
50.Sea urchins are an essential part of the ocean ecosystem.
Cobras are among the most dangerous and venomous snakes in the world. They are found on the territory of many countries and invariably instill fear in the locals. Who does not recognize this silhouette with an open hood? However, you can find an approach to cobras if you know how. Catchers of snakes have already proven this many times.
Top facts about cobras
There are many famous snakes worldwide, but cobras stand apart, mainly because they are perhaps the most recognizable reptiles in the world. There are many more poisonous snakes in the world than cobras, but the habit of these creatures opening the hood in the event of an attack made them very memorable. And does it make any difference to a snakebite victim how deadly poisonous the snake that bit her is if the venom of any cobra is usually enough to kill any living creature on Earth?
1. Cobras are large snakes known for their venom and their peculiar way of puffing out their hoods.
2. This name means, first of all, representatives of the genus of real cobras, as well as the king and collar cobras related to them. Despite its name, the king cobra does not belong to true cobras, it forms a separate genus.
3. Cobras live exclusively in the Old World - in Africa (across the continent), Central and South Asia (in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka).
4. In total, scientists distinguish 16 different types of cobras, and all of them are poisonous and they all belong to the aspid family and are related to other, no less poisonous species - deadly and cruel snakes, kraits and asps.
5. All types of cobras are quite large, one of the smallest - the Angolan cobra - reaches a length of 1.5 meters, and the largest king cobra, or hamadryad, reaches a length of 4.8 and even 5.5 meters.
6. The king cobra is the largest venomous snake in the world, reaching a size of 3-4 meters, but there are some recorded individuals in length over 5 meters, weighing up to 10-12 kilograms.
7. Despite its large size, its body does not look massive (like pythons or boas, for example), in general, these reptiles are characterized by high mobility.
8. King cobras grow all their lives, and their average life expectancy reaches 25-30 years.
9. When meeting, the king cobras stand in a combat stance and measure their height. The shorter one admits defeat and crawls away.
10. The king cobra is the only snake in the world that, on occasion, willingly feeds on other snakes, including poisonous ones.
11. King cobras are rarely kept in zoos and terrariums due to aggressiveness.
12. Unlike other snakes, the king cobra can control the dose of poison. She often bites people without poison at all, so as not to waste it on someone who is not suitable food for her.
13. Cobra swims well, and the speed of its movement on land is 6 km / h. However, this snake does not usually chase a human.
14. Sometimes these poisonous snakes are found even in the mountains, at an altitude of up to 2.5 kilometers above sea level.
15. The poison of some species of cobras is used in medicine.
16. The collared cobra is the only one that does not lay eggs, but gives birth to live cubs, and sometimes up to 50-60 at a time.
17. Collared cobra is considered one of the greatest "actresses" of the snake world. In case of danger (if spitting poison did not help), she turns her belly up and, opening her mouth, deftly pretends to be dead.
18. The habitats of cobras are diverse, however, arid places are more to their taste. A typical landscape for a cobra is bushes, deserts and semi-deserts, a number of species are found in the jungle, along river banks, but these snakes avoid very wet places.
RINGED WATER COBRA
19. Like all reptiles, cobras live alone, but Indian and king cobras are the rarest exception to this rule. These snakes are the only reptiles that form stable pairs during the mating season.
20. Unlike their other poisonous snakes, cobras do not ambush the enemy, but allow themselves to be discovered. They stand upright, open their hood and sway, as if warning that they are not to be trifled with, in order to frighten the enemy and force him to retreat.
CENTRAL ASIAN COBRA
21. These animals are thermophilic and do not occur where snow falls in winter, with the exception of the Central Asian cobra, whose range in the north reaches Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
22. The poison of all types of cobras is deadly to humans, but its strength varies from species to species. The poison of the Central Asian cobra is “not too” strong, death from its bite occurs after a few hours or even days, but the poison of the king cobra can kill a person in half an hour, moreover, there are cases when even elephants died from its bite.
23. During the hunt, cobras do not swallow the victim alive, as many people think, but first paralyze them with their poison, wait for some time until the prey dies, and only after that they start eating.
24. In a calm state, cobras do not stand out among other snakes, but in a state of irritation, they raise the front of the body and swell the neck.
25. A more or less pronounced hood is a distinctive feature of these reptiles, such a structural feature is no longer found in any other snakes.
26. Angolan cobra is the smallest of these snakes. The length of an adult usually does not exceed 1.5 meters.
27. The color of cobras is mostly nondescript, it is dominated by yellowish-brown and black-brown tones, but some species may have a bright color. For example, red spitting - brown-red, South African shield - coral.
28. Also, cobras are characterized by the presence of transverse stripes, especially pronounced on the neck.
29. The famous Indian cobra or spectacled snake got its name from the two spots that are visible on its swollen hood, these snakes have individuals with one spot, such cobras are called monocles.
30. Among the cobras there are a number of specialized species that practice a special way of hunting. They do not bite their prey, but ... shoot it with poison.
31. The Indian spitting cobra is considered the most accurate shooter, and black-necked and collared cobras from Africa also possess this skill. In these species, the opening of the poisonous channel is not located at the bottom of the tooth, but on its front surface, with special muscles the cobra compresses the poisonous glands and the deadly liquid flies out under pressure, as if from a syringe.
32. At one time, the cobra is able to fire several shots (up to a maximum of 28). The snake can shoot at a distance of up to 2 meters, and from such a distance it hits a target with a diameter of a couple of centimeters. Such accuracy is not accidental, because to kill the victim, a simple hit in her body is not enough. The poison cannot penetrate the covers of the prey and kill it, but it can have a strong irritating effect on the mucous membrane.
33. Therefore, spitting cobras always aim at the eyes, the jet of poison irritates the organs of vision and the victim loses orientation, but even if she is lucky to escape, she is doomed. The poison causes irreversible changes in the proteins of the cornea and the victim goes blind. If the poison gets into the eyes of a person, it can only be saved by immediately washing the eyes with plenty of water.
34. African spitting cobras are capable of spraying poison at the enemy up to 30-40 times in a row in a short period of time.
35. The Philippines is home to the second most venomous cobra, whose venom can kill an adult in half an hour. She is especially dangerous because she does not need to bite - she also belongs to the spitting.
36. Distinctive features of the cobra - six shields on the head. True, when meeting with her, there is usually no time to look at them.
37. Despite its poisonousness, the cobra is quite edible, and in a number of Asian countries it is considered a rare and expensive delicacy.
38. Cobras breed once a year. Sexual intercourse in cobras can last two to three days. Male king cobras have two penises instead of one.
39. The breeding season occurs more often in January-February (for example, in the Indian cobra) or spring (in the Central Asian), the females of these species lay their eggs in April-May or June-July, respectively. The fecundity of cobras is highly dependent on the species and can range from 8 to 70 eggs.
40. Cobras lay their eggs in crevices between stones, heaps of fallen leaves and similar shelters. Females usually guard the clutch.
41. The behavior of the royal and Indian cobras is especially interesting. Their females not only protect the eggs, but also build a nest for them. This seems surprising when you consider that snakes are completely devoid of limbs. To do this, the cobra rakes the leaves with the front part of the body into a pile, laying eggs, it remains to guard them. Moreover, the most active part in the protection of the nest is also taken by males, who do not leave their chosen ones until the offspring hatch.
42. During this period, Indian and king cobras can be very aggressive, actively driving animals and people away from their nest. This was the reason to accuse these snakes of unpredictable attacks on humans, in fact, such behavior is observed only during the breeding season.
43. Hatched serpents are completely independent and already have poison, however, due to its small amount, they initially hunt the smallest prey and even insects.
44. Young cobras are usually striped, and the black and white cobra even got its name from the color of the young.
45. The life expectancy of cobras in nature has not been precisely established; in captivity, one black-and-white cobra lived for 29 years, which is a very high figure for snakes.
46. Cobras are more active during the day and are generally very resistant to overheating. In most people's minds, cobras are aggressive, but in fact, these snakes are quite calm and even a little phlegmatic. Knowing their behavior, they are easy to control, which is often demonstrated by "charmers" of snakes.
47. Cobras feed on small rodents, birds (passerines and ground-nesting, for example, nightjars), lizards, frogs, toads, smaller snakes, and eggs.
48. The king cobra feeds exclusively on reptiles, and eats lizards extremely rarely, and more often hunts other snakes. Its victims are usually the most poisonous species and the closest relatives of cobras - kraits and asps.
49. Despite the strong poison, cobras also have enemies. Young animals can be attacked by larger snakes, monitor lizards, and adults are preyed upon by mongooses and meerkats. Although these animals do not have innate immunity to cobra venom, they are so clever at distracting the snake's attention with false attacks that they manage to seize the moment and deliver a deadly bite to the back of the head. A cobra caught in the path of a mongoose or a meerkat has no chance of survival.
50. For protection, cobras have a number of devices. Firstly, this is the famous stand, which performs a signaling role. Although a cobra that puffs out its hood is extremely dangerous in a person’s mind, in fact, this behavior allows you to avoid an unexpected encounter with a snake and bypass it. Cobra, in turn, achieves just such a reaction. Secondly, if a cobra is caught or annoyed, it does not immediately go on the attack. Often in such cases, the snake connects additional means of intimidation - loud hissing and false attacks, during which the snake does not let in poisonous teeth. And only if this does not help, the cobra can bite.
Sometimes it seems that so much has already been written and known about dogs that there is nothing to write about except for fantasy on the Internet. But it turns out that our pets will delight us with scientific facts for a long time, since science does not stand still. For example, you could hardly imagine that there are dogs that cannot bark, or that there is only one breed of dog with six toes. But if you continue to read this article, you will quickly see that these are far from the only entertaining facts about a person's faithful companions.
Facts that prove that nature did a good job on the “Dog” project
Even if you are a big dog lover, you probably have not heard about the facts that we at Bemorepanda have collected and that we want to share with you. And don't miss the bonus at the end about the Beatles song, with sounds that only barking little brothers can hear.
1. Charming Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs are in Welsh fairy tales and myths
In Welsh folklore, these dogs pull fairy carriages, help herd fairy cattle, and are the steeds of fairy warriors.
2. Studies have shown that Border Collies are the smartest dogs.
This was found by scientists from the University of British Columbia. These dogs learn a new command in less than five seconds and obey their owner 95% of the time. In second place according to this criterion are poodles, in third place are shepherd dogs.
3. Labrador Retrievers have been the most popular dogs in the US since 2013.
4. Basenjis do not bark, but make different sounds.
They purr, snort, make other strange sounds that sometimes resemble laughter. Sometimes it looks like they're grumbling.
5. The first Olympic mascot was a dachshund named Waldi.
At the Olympic Games in 1972, which were held in Munich, this dog became the first mascot in the history of the Games, which was named Waldi. This is a male dachshund, which is valued in Bavaria for endurance, perseverance and dexterity.
6. Huskies helped save children In Alaska In 1925
In early 1925, a diphtheria epidemic broke out in Nome, Alaska. To combat it, hospitals needed anti-diphtheria serum. Due to a snow storm, it was impossible to deliver it by plane. As a result, the serum was delivered by train to the station, which was located a thousand kilometers from the village. The rest of the way, the medicine was carried by dog sleds.
7. Greyhounds are the World's Fastest Dogs
They are capable of speeds up to 70 km/h.
8. The Catahoula Leopard Dog is the only breed that can climb trees
These dogs are used for hunting fur-bearing animals. But it can also be used for hunting elk, bear and wild boar. In pursuit of their prey, these dogs are able to climb trees.
9. Basset Hounds use their long ears to pick up scents.
Their ears drag along the ground and pick up scents.
10. On average, the intelligence of dogs corresponds to the intelligence of a 2-year-old child.
According to the American Psychological Association, dogs can learn up to 250 words and gestures, which is something a two-year-old can also do.
11. Dogs have three eyelids
Two of their eyelids are visible, and one is hidden. The third is in the inner corner of the dog's eyes. It contains the lacrimal glands.
12. The world's first dog lived 31,700 years ago and looked like a Siberian Husky
The prehistoric dog was about the size of a sheepdog, with a broad but short muzzle and a broader braincase than that of a wolf.
13. Male small dogs hold their legs high when they go to the bathroom to make other dogs look bigger.
According to a study conducted by scientists from Cornell University (USA), small dogs lift their legs high when they walk in a small way to deceive larger dogs into thinking they are bigger than they really are.
14. Dogs drink with the back of their tongue.
Dogs don't have cheeks, so they can't drink water like we can. Dogs move their tongue very quickly, twisting it back to create an impulse that causes water to collect in a column and rise into the mouth.
15. When dogs sleep, they instinctively curl up to protect their vitals and keep warm.
If the puppy sleeps without curling up, it means that he is just hot or feels safe.
16. Dog ears control 18 muscles
For reference: people have only six of them. Dogs can rotate and tilt their ears to pick up sound waves effectively. Their ears can also move independently of each other, allowing them to hear sounds from different directions.
17. Dogs can now watch TV thanks to the invention of high-definition (HD) television technology with higher frame rates. Before that, to our smaller brothers, the TV seemed to be something like a strobe light.
Now that modern televisions are generating more frames per second, dogs can perceive images like film in the same way that we do.
18. A dog's sense of smell is 10,000-100,000 times sharper than a human's.
Dogs are able to detect substances in concentrations of one part per trillion - it's like a dog finding one dirty sock among two million clean ones.
19. Dogs have sweat glands on their paw pads.
They have a type of sweat glands called merocrine glands that are located in the pads of their paws. Despite this, dogs with sweaty paws are relatively rare.
20. Dogs can be trained to detect cancer and other diseases.
In the human body, cancer cells, in comparison with healthy ones, secrete special metabolic products. The difference is actually so significant that dogs are quite capable of detecting cancer. Dogs can also sniff out cancer cells with a single human breath.
21. Dogs can get jealous
While our pets may be jealous and envious, their emotions are not as complex as those of humans. According to the American Kennel Club, our little brothers have a sense of justice (for example, everyone is rewarded for their efforts), but not when justice is more detailed (for example, when a meal or other reward is equal in volume).
22. A Greyhound can beat a Cheetah in the long run.
Despite the fact that the maximum speed of the Greyhound is not as high as that of cheetahs (a wild cat can run 80-130 km / h), they are more enduring in long-distance running. Cheetahs are champions only in the sprint. Thus, in a long-distance race, the Greyhound will eventually overtake the predator.
23. Dogs' wet nose helps absorb aromatic chemicals.
Various chemicals settle on a wet nose. Dogs lick their noses to taste them.
Wet noses also help dogs regulate their body temperature and keep them cool. Unlike humans, our pets do not have normal sweat glands on their bodies.
24. The normal body temperature of dogs ranges from 37.4-39.0 ⁰С
A temperature above 39.5-40 ⁰С is considered elevated, and the pet should be shown to the veterinarian.
25. Dogs can dream, just like humans...
During sleep, the brain of a human and a dog works in the same way. We both have the same type of non-REM sleep and rapid eye movement (REM). During the REM stage, dogs can dream in the same way as humans. If you see your pet sleeping and his paws moving or twitching, it means that he is most likely dreaming.
26. They see in the dark much better than we do.
They have more light-sensitive cells or rods located closer to the center of the retina. In addition, their large pupils let in more light.
27. A dog's nose print is as unique as a human fingerprint.
It is believed that no two dogs have the same nose print. That is why the Canadian Kennel Club has been accepting nose prints as identification for pets since 1938.
28. Why do dogs like to wallow in dirty and smelly places?
The thing is that what seems smelly and foul-smelling to us is perceived differently by dogs. Their perception of smell is arranged differently.
29. Saluki is one of the most ancient dog breeds.
Lives with people since 329 BC. e.
Some historians claim that there is evidence that this dog breed was popular in ancient Egypt. This is around the time Alexander the Great invaded India.
30. Dogs hear about four times as far as humans.
Dogs hear sounds at a distance of up to 40-50 m, on average, a person picks up sounds from a distance of 6-10 m. At night, in complete silence, our pets can hear a sound from a distance of up to 150 m.
31. Some dogs, such as the Newfoundland breed, have webbing between their toes.
For example, Newfoundlands have webbed feet, which were originally used as fishermen's assistants - they pulled nets from the sea.
There are webbed fingers and the Portuguese Water Dog. These legs help them swim better.
32. They can detect emotions by listening to your voice.
There is a special section in the human brain that helps distinguish voices from other sounds, which helps distinguish between intonation and other speech sounds in speech. This allows you to capture different emotions in your voice. The study showed that dogs also have such a brain area in their heads, located approximately in the same place.
33. There is a legend that the Pekingese was bred in ancient China to protect the emperor and royalty.
The dog was hidden in the sleeve of the emperor in case of protection, if the enemy made his way into the chambers of the royal person. Such dogs were called "sleeve". The emperor and courtiers carried these little dogs with them literally everywhere. By the way, despite the cute appearance of these dogs, they, in fact, can be quite aggressive and able to fight back.
34. Despite those puppy-like innocent eyes, dogs don't feel remorse, as many people think.
According to experts, it is quite clear that dogs do not show guilt. They have only learned to mimic a guilty cute look to calm their owners when they are angry.
So don't believe those puppy mime eyes after your pet has been mischievous yet again.
35. There is a place on Earth that is literally a "dog's paradise"
In Costa Rica there is a shelter "Country of Stray Dogs" ("Territorio de Zaguates"). Thousands of dogs of various breeds live here, cared for by volunteers and veterinarians. Pets feel at home (if not better) running freely throughout the territory. Each dog in the shelter can be given to good hands.
36. Dalmatians are born without spots.
37. The name “pug” most likely comes from the Latin word “pugnus”, which means “fist”, “handful”, because the shadow from a clenched fist resembles the profile of a pug
38. Once a dog ran and walked 4,500 km across plains, deserts, mountains and rivers. And in winter, and all in order to return to his family
39. Most French Bulldogs have a too narrow pelvis for delivery, and therefore their puppies are almost always born by caesarean section.
The puppies' heads are too large, and their mother's narrow pelvis prevents the litter from passing through the dog's natural birth canal.
40. A study showed that dogs like the smell of their owner and other family members more.
Scientists have found that dogs not only distinguish the smell of the owner from others, but this also has a positive effect on the pet. This speaks to the power of dogs' sense of smell and provides important clues about the importance of humans in a dog's life.
41. Pug Doug is the most famous dog on the Internet
This pet in one of the social networks (******ram) has more than 3.5 million subscribers, who every day leave thousands of likes under the posts of his owner.
42. Three dogs of the Border Collie breed were trained to run through the forest with backpacks and scatter seeds.
So the Chileans wanted to restore plants after large forest fires.
43. Dogs have learned to recognize and respond to human laughter
They are also able to detect crying.
44. Dogs sometimes sneeze to show other dogs that they are not threatening but are ready to interact.
45. Roselle, a guide dog, saved her blind owner during the September 11, 2001 attacks in New York by bringing him
45. Roselle, a guide dog, saved her blind owner during the September 11, 2001 attacks in New York by leading him out of the North Tower of the World Trade Center and leading the disabled man through 78 flights of stairs.
Immediately after the explosion, the owner of the dog removed the harness in the hope that his pet would be saved. At first Roselle ran away, but it turns out to find a way out. The dog then returned and led his friend out of the building.
46. There used to be a spit breed of dog whose task was to help cooks swivel meat.
They were also called kitchen or cook dogs. Their task was to run in a special wheel that rotated a skewer with meat strung on it. The dog helped the cook cook the meat evenly.
47. Archaeologists have found 26,000-year-old dog paw prints next to the prints of an ancient child, which proves that the dog has been a true friend of man for many years.
The conventional wisdom is that agrarian man tamed scavenging dogs about 15,000 years ago. However, recent archaeological discoveries and DNA analyzes show that our friendship with our smaller brothers was formed 30,000 years ago (and possibly 40,000).
48. Corgi in a non-adapted translation from Welsh means "dwarf dog"
The word "corgi" is derived from the Welsh cor gi ([kɔrɡi]) cor, "dwarf" and ci ([kiː]), "dog".
49. If you leave your dog alone at home, put an item of clothing that smells like you next to your pet - this will calm your friend and help reduce his separation anxiety
Dogs, like us, are very social animals.
They live in family groups with us for a long time and have evolved along with humans over the millennia to be our true friends. Most dogs prefer to spend most of their time with their owner and family members. Loneliness is simply not a natural state for them. But, alas, we have to leave our pets alone at home. So your dog is always stressed when he is alone. To reduce it, experts advise leaving your clothes and things that smell like you near your pet.
50. The Norwegian Lundehund is the only dog with six toes on each paw.
Of the six fingers, five rest on the ground. Other dogs have five toes on each paw and only four touch the ground.
51. Dogs don't ONLY see in black and white - they can also see in blue and yellow.
The idea that dogs can't see in color has been around for decades, but new research and findings about the anatomy and behavior of dogs have shown that even though our faithful friends can't see the same colors, and we, they can still distinguish some color spectrums.
Research shows that dogs' eyes are capable of perceiving shades of color. So, most likely, our pets do not see the world in gray.
52. Bloodhounds are able to pick up scents that were left over 300 hours ago.
They are one of the champions in flair - they are able to follow the trail for a long time, as they have an excellent memory for smells.
53. USA is the country with the highest population of pet dogs
In this country, there are about 75 million barking pets.