Best makeup base: 19 primers for dry, oily and combination skin
A good primer should smooth out skin imperfections on the face and keep the make-up in perfect condition for as long as possible. We have collected the most effective makeup bases - read and choose the one that is right for you.
Facial primers are a controversial product. Today there are a huge number of them on the market and it is not so easy to find a quality makeup base. It is not always clear whether it is needed at all. Let's try to figure it out, and at the same time, we will tell you about those basics for makeup, which, in our opinion, are worth paying attention to.
What is a makeup base?
Primers solve several problems at once:
- Mask imperfections, age spots, uneven tone.
- Makes skin texture smoother.
- Improve the properties of tonal products and increase the durability of makeup.
- A primer cannot replace either foundation or skin care creams, it has a narrow, limited functionality. The basis for makeup does not have to be in a woman's cosmetic bag. However, you can’t do without it if you need impeccable and persistent make-up.
It is important to know that many makeup bases necessarily contain silicones, so due to frequent use, skin pores can become clogged, which will provoke rashes on the face. To prevent this from happening, thoroughly cleanse your skin every evening and, if possible, use a make-up base, not every day.
How to choose a primer according to skin type?
Today, the beauty industry offers a large selection of makeup bases. You need to choose those products that are most suitable for the type and color of the skin.
For normal skin types, a brightening make-up base with sunscreen is ideal. A primer with reflective particles is also suitable.
For dry skin types, it is recommended to use light moisturizing makeup bases with a creamy or oily consistency. To give the face visual moisture, use a product with a shimmer.
For oily skin types, a make-up base is best suited to mattify and mask pores. It will control the appearance of oily sheen throughout the day. The primer can be either water-based or silicone-based. If the skin has inflammation and redness, use a base with a green tint.
For combination skin, you can take a mattifying makeup base and apply it only to problem areas. On other "dry" areas, use a moisturizing primer.
For sensitive skin, you will need a makeup base, with the function of protecting against toxins, toxins, and negative environmental factors. Look for fragrance-free products. If redness and inflammation often appear on the skin, choose a color-correcting primer with a green pigment.
Is there a difference between budget and luxury makeup bases?
Unfortunately, there is no definitive answer here. Choosing a good makeup base requires personal experience. The most important thing in any cosmetic product is how it suits your skin. Hence the relativity of rankings - what has become a panacea for a thousand lucky ones, for you may turn out to be a waste of money.
When choosing a primer, pay attention to the following:
- how effectively it evens out the complexion, hides skin imperfections;
- how long does it keep makeup in perfect condition;
- what type of skin is suitable for.
To make it easier for you to navigate, we have compiled a list of 19 good makeup bases, one of which is potentially suitable for you.
Face Primer Urban Defense Complexion Primer SPF 30, Urban Decay
It is a pleasure to apply it on the skin: the delicate gel texture does not leave any stickiness or film feeling! And the composition itself makes the skin smooth and prepares for the application of foundation, minimizing bumps and pores. You can be calm about the skin, especially in spring and summer: with this primer, care and sun protection are provided.
The basis for the perfect complexion Le Blanc de Chanel Multi-Use Illuminating Base, Chanel
This makeup base is indispensable for creating a flawless look, because it is suitable for any skin tone, hiding visible imperfections and gently illuminating the face. In addition, the product contains caring elements (witch hazel extract, licorice extract and a moisturizing complex) that help preserve the beauty of the skin.
Multifunctional primer Naked Face Balancing Primer, Holika Holika
This tool pleases even externally: inside the bottle there are capsules of three different shades, which, mixing when the dispenser is pressed, give a base that adapts to skin color. The mixture is dense enough to even out the microrelief of the face and last for several hours. Another plus is that you will need significantly less foundation, because the primer provides the necessary undertone.
Cellular Performance Glow Makeup Base Brightening Make-Up Base, Sensai
This base immediately deeply moisturizes, smoothes and brightens the skin, giving firmness and radiance - so that wrinkles and unevenness become less noticeable. A special complex of apricot essence, OH-neutralizer, hyaluronate and collagen stimulators helps the base to fight the first signs of aging. They prevent loss of tone and neutralize pigmentation.
Pore-covering makeup base Master Prime, Maybelline New York
This primer from Maybelline perfectly evens out the texture of the skin, giving it a delicate glow. And at the same time pleases with a very affordable price!
Waterproof face primer You better work! Gym-proof Primer Essence
Thanks to its special waterproof formula, this primer not only hides skin imperfections, but also prevents makeup from "floating" from sweat or heat - ideal for holidays or active workouts, if it is important for you to look "on parade". Bonus: UV filter with SPF 20.
Leveling face primer Prime and Fine Pore Refining Anti-Shine Base, Catrice
The lightweight texture of this primer ensures perfect pairing with any foundation and extra hold. No unwanted shine and enlarged pores!
Makeup base, concealing redness, Base Full HD 16 hours, Eveline
Worried about redness, vascular network and manifestations of rosacea? Then you need the Full HD Base 16 hours from Eveline - the perfect camouflage tool. By the way, she also mattes.
Makeup base Prisme Primer Color Correcting, Givenchy
This makeup base has a light, velvety texture, easy to apply and blends well. The coating is quite dense without the "mask effect". Moreover, this primer not only masks imperfections (it is especially good at fighting dark circles around the eyes), but also gives the skin elasticity over and over again due to vegetative
x extracts in the composition.
Face primer with reflective particles Perfect Glow Primer, Thalgo
Marine spring water and verbena extract, together with reflective particles and color-correcting pigment, give a stunning effect. Firstly, the caring ingredients really take care of the skin - and its natural color evens out over and over again. Secondly, the tone becomes radiant, as if glowing from within.
Primer for flawless skin Smooth Affair Facial Primer & Brightener, Jane Iredale
A sheer, mineral-based soft pink, this primer is virtually invisible on the skin, but that doesn't stop it from effectively tightening pores, unifying skin texture, and giving it a luxurious matte finish. In addition, the formula of the product is enriched with plant components that have an anti-aging effect. Namely - extracts of grapefruit, apple, green and white tea, algae and olive leaves.
Prelude in the Clouds Aqua Base, Rouge Bunny Rouge
This moisturizing foundation is 70% water and literally hydrates the skin for the whole day. Ideal as a make-up base! It contains extracts of sea buckthorn and Florentine iris root, bisabolol and vitamins A and E. With regular use, you will notice that your skin has become softer and more elastic, and inflammation and irritation have decreased.
Face primer Encre de Peau All Hours Primer, YSL Beauty
This base makes it easier to apply the foundation, makes it last longer and helps to keep the matte finish until the evening. Instant perfection for the whole day!
Mattifying base for makeup, masking pores Instant Poreless Pore-Blurring Matifying Primer, Clarins
Despite its light texture, Instant Poreless mattifying base erases pores like an eraser! Thanks to the universal shade, this tool can be used as a base for makeup, or solo. In any case, you are guaranteed perfectly smooth porcelain skin.
Makeup base Photo Finish Foundation Primer, Smashbox
With this primer, you don't need Photoshop or Facetune, because it not only prolongs the durability of makeup, but also visually fills pores and wrinkles, evening out skin texture and tone.
Leveling and illuminating makeup base Radiant Boost Face Base, Kiko Milano
This base visibly improves and refreshes the complexion due to its delicate pinkish tint. The lightweight formula helps the product absorb quickly, smoothing imperfections and giving the skin a slight shimmer.
Makeup base UV Master Primer, Giorgio Armani
Ideal if you are concerned about enlarged pores and uneven skin texture in general. The base will smooth out unevenness and give a soft natural glow, as if you just returned from vacation. Speaking of vacations, this foundation will also come in handy there, because it contains UVA and UVB filters that provide sun protection with an SPF 40 factor.
Aqua-fluid for the face Moisture Genius, L'Oreal
Innovations on guard of your beauty! This product, enriched with aloe juice and hyaluronic acid, immediately turns into a liquid upon contact with the skin and is instantly absorbed, moisturizing the skin, normalizing the hydro-lipid balance and preventing the appearance of oily sheen. Amazing combination of moisturizer and primer!
Moisturizing cream primer for face Hydro Priming Cream InBetween, Blithe
This tool is not just a primer, but a complete care that is suitable for both morning and evening use. Thanks to its elastic formula, this cream is suitable for any skin type, effectively smoothing its texture, correcting tone and mattifying. Bonus: nice lavender scent.
We must recognize that most of us, do not read what is on the list of ingredients on cosmetics, or we do not understand the meaning of all those words. If we had enough knowledge, we would be surprised at what we really use.
The expensive perfume contains feces and whale vomit
Ambergris is a yellow, waxy, solid substance that is produced in the whale's intestines to protect them from the sharp objects they sometimes swallow. It is often called "sea gold". Just half a pound of feces or whale vomit can be worth up to $ 10,000. Whales either vomit the substance or eliminate it along with their feces.
Most lipsticks contain broken parasitic beetles
Cactus beetles (Dactylopius Coccus) are small insects that feed on cactus plants in Central and South America. Cochineal female beetles eat the red fruits of cacti, so when the beetles are crushed, a very strong red dye is produced.
Cochineal dye has been used for centuries and is very safe for most people, so it is commonly used in lipstick, ice cream, candy, yogurt and eyeshadow. In fact, Starbucks admitted a few years ago that they used a red cochineal dye in some of their drinks, which turned out to be a big problem for their vegetarian fans.
Animal fat in lipstick, eyeshadow and soap
Seoul is a common ingredient in many cosmetics. It is present in: eyeshadows, lipsticks, foundations, shampoos, shaving soaps, moisturizers and skin care products. Seoul is made from animal carcasses.
Seoul is made from animal fat, which means boiling carcasses to create fat products. Dead animals used to make tallow come from many sources, including laboratories, slaughterhouses, zoos, shelters, and yes, animals killed on the road are also used.
Bull semen in hair products
Due to its high protein content, bull semen has become a popular ingredient in hair products. Used mainly for dry or damaged hair, the semen is mixed with a plant called Katera and applied to the hair in expensive beauty salons. The process takes about 45 minutes, costs about $ 90-120 dollars and has been described as "Viagra for hair."
Snail secretions in moisturizers
Snail exudate is collected and used as an ingredient in many famous moisturizers. Glycolic acid and elastin in snail secretion protect the skin from wounds, bacteria and UV rays, making it a great source of protein that removes dead cells and regenerates the skin. It is also useful for removing scars, stretch marks and curing acne.
Infant foreskin in anti-aging products
The recovery complex marketed by TNS SkinMedica claims to use cells derived from human infantile foreskin (NouriCel-MD) in a "revolutionary" line of anti-aging products. Using a combination of soluble collagen, antioxidants, natural growth factors and proteins, they claim to slow down the aging process and encourage the growth of new cells for a younger complexion.
Many companies have already announced that they have given up some of these ingredients, opting for "more pleasant" alternatives, but others, given their effect, will not do so too soon.
“No parabens” is the motto of people who are used to reading the list of ingredients carefully. Are they right when they avoid this component?
Sometimes a broad discussion of the action of certain ingredients is a significant phenomenon that helps people maintain their health. We have already understood the beneficial and harmful properties of silicones. This time, let's talk about parabens, among the "victims" of such discussions. Everything is not so simple, and before passing a verdict on them, it is necessary to study the properties of these substances in more detail and get acquainted with the opinion of scientists on this matter. How can parabens in cosmetics be harmful, and are they harmful at all? Let's figure it out right now, but at the same time, we'll see if it's worth choosing natural paraben-free cosmetics as a replacement.
About parabens in cosmetics
Parabens are chemical compounds (to be more precise, we are talking about esters of para-Hydroxybenzoic acid) that are famous for their antiseptic properties and have been used as preservatives for a long time, both in the food industry and in the pharmaceutical and beauty industries.
Parabens can be synthesized or obtained from plants in the laboratory - yes, there are natural parabens found, for example, in cranberries, lingonberries, and sour.
In the composition of medicines or cosmetics, parabens allow you to extend their shelf life by preventing the growth of bacteria.
Why are parabens dangerous? This is where the controversy begins. The trouble with parabens began when scientists studying breast cancer discovered high concentrations of parabens in tumors. And some have linked it to cosmetics containing parabens (such as deodorants that are applied to the underarm area).
So far, it has not been possible to accurately confirm that cosmetics affect the development of this type of cancer. Still, even a hypothesis was enough for many people to take up arms against parabens.
Properties of parabens in cosmetic
Parabens are considered the most popular preservative today. What is the reason for such a choice?
Thanks to parabens in jars and tubes with cosmetics, there will be no active reproduction of bacteria and fungi. This means they can be used safely for longer without fear that the skin will react with irritation or inflammation.
Ability to stabilize the formula
Another plus of parabens is that they perform a stabilizing function in the formulas of products: their presence in the procedure maintains the desired consistency and allows all components to coexist harmoniously.
Parabens, unlike other preservatives, are effective in small concentrations. Manufacturers who emphasize the natural composition of their cosmetics can use natural preservatives. They are needed in much larger quantities to keep the product fresh for a long time. Organic acids and essential oils are potent allergens. There is a high risk that these products will cause an adverse reaction in the skin.
The downside is that parabens can cause allergies. But the long-term practice of their use shows that the risks are more diminutive in the case of parabens. They are used in the food industry. International standards ensure maximum safety. The creators of cosmetics use these substances in a limited amount.
What cosmetics contain parabens?
Parabens are needed primarily in the composition of funds with a liquid, cream,m or gel texture. In a word, in cosmetics that contain water. A humid environment is favorable for the reproduction of bacteria, and parabens prevent this.
Due to the presence of parabens, tonal foundations “live” from six months to 1.5 years. The expiration date,e in this case, is affected not so much by the concentration of preservatives as by the texture of the product - for example, the fluid will serve you less than a thick and dense foundation.
Mascara cannot be made without parabens, but its shelf life is the shortest compared to other beauty products: it is recommended to use mascara no longer than 3 months after opening the package.
Parabens extend the shelf life of this product to about six months.
With these tools - the same story as with the category of concealers: you can do makeup with them only for about six months. But without parabens, this period would be even shorter.
Liquid shadows, highlighters, bronzers, lipstick,s and other water-based products also contain parabens. The most common areethyl parabenss andmethyl parabenss. They are safe and resistant to external influences, including thermal. But dry shadows will last you a long time and without parabens in the composition. True, by the end of the expiration date, they will likely no longer fit perfectly. But from the,m it will be possible to make lipstick of an unusual shade. Just follow this video guide.
How are parabens identified in cosmetics?
We have already discussed the general rules that will help you quickly check the composition of cosmetics here. Since parabens are a whole group of substances, you will have to remember a few bare names and symbols to recognize them on the packaging. Parabens that are often used in the manufacture of cosmetics include methylparaben (it can be found in the list of ingredients under the codes E218 and E219), ethylparaben (E214), propylparaben (E216), butylparaben, benzyl paraben, isobutyl paraben.
In addition, among the designations of parabens are met again, propagation, nipagin, and nipazol. They can even be combined under the general name "hydroxybenzoic acids, without specifying the details.
Are there cosmetics without parabens?
Today, the list of brands that produce cosmetics without parabens and sulfates is quite extensive. In the absence of these ingredients in the composition of their products, many manufacturers use them as an advertisement. Therefore it may seem that such beauty products are becoming more common. However, statistics show the opposite: more than 75% of cosmetics still contain parabens.
Those who are not going to give up cosmetics with parabens completely, but are still afraid of this controversial ingredient, should pay attention to thorough skin cleansing.
What is the best way to remove paraben makeup? One of the leading "working" means micellar water - the features of its production allow you not to use sulfates and parabens. The same applies to many hydrophilic oils.
It's good that cosmetics lovers have a choice. Science is not yet able to provide accurate data proving that parabens in cosmetics are harmful and cause life-threatening diseases. But for those who want to eliminate any risks associated with parabens, products labeled paraben-free can be preferred.
Cosmetics without parabens
It is essential to understand that the absence of parabens does not always make cosmetics 100% safe. So, substitutes for parabens arepropanoll,quaternion-15, butyl hydroxy anisole (E320 or BHA), and butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) - and these substances have been proven toxic and carcinogenic. However, they are found not only in cosmetics but also in food.
About natural cosmetics, manufacturers of natural beauty products also use paraben-free labels. They use vitamins E and C, tea tree oil, eucalyptus oil, propolis, and grapefruit seed extract as preservatives. The last component has gained particular popularity as a natural disinfectant and preservative.
Grapefruit seed extract
In the case of natural cosmetics, the question arises, how effective are the preservatives used in it. If methyl and ethyl parabens in cosmetics, as a rule, are no more than 0.4% of the composition, natural substitutes will be required in much higher concentrations to compare with them in terms of strength. Do not forget that many natural ingredients that can increase the shelf life of cosmetics can cause allergic reactions.
Memory is one of the most important functions of the psyche. It allows you to accumulate experience, navigate the past and the present. According to the calculations of neurophysiologists, the human brain can remember from 5 to 20 petabytes of information.
This is comparable in volume to the entire global network. However, we are often able to forget where we just put the phone and whether the iron was turned off when we left the house. Bemorepanda has compiled a list of amazing memory facts that will help unravel some of the secrets of how our brains work.
Memory is the total amount of what we remember, it is the ability to learn and adapt previous experiences to present situations. Memory is the brain's ability to encode, store, and later recall information, sensations, feelings when needed, automatically or consciously. In other words, it is the ability to use learned or experienced situations from the past to solve and anticipate present and future events, respectively. Memory influences behavior and is part of the continuous process of adapting to the environment with all that it entails.
Facts about memory are really interesting that’s why you need to know how memory works.
1. Memory reserve can be increased.
2. Human memory continues to develop until the age of 25.
3. On average, the peak of its capabilities falls on 19-20 years, and the first signs of attenuation appear after 50. However, with regular exercise, this process can be slowed down. To improve the characteristics of memory, there are a variety of techniques, methods, and technologies, the totality of which is called mnemonics.
4. Photos are erased from memory faster.
5. Scientists at the University of California have proven that photographed objects are erased from memory faster.
6. The fact is that when we photograph, our brain concentrates on the very process of photography, and not on the object that we are photographing.
7. Depression erases memories. In a person who is depressed for a long time, the formation of new nerve cells slows down. This deforms the memory, and some of the memories from our past are erased.
8. The first memories appear even before birth. The embryo begins to remember some events already in the womb. A similar phenomenon is observed already at the 19th week of pregnancy.
9. Memory must be enabled. Memory and attention are closely related.
Etymologically, the word memory comes from the Latin memoria. It is a cognitive, logical process, representing the ability of the human brain to encode, store, store and then remember acquired information and past experiences. It is essential for human development and depends on learning processes because the association of data will stimulate and perfect the memory process.
On the one hand, memory depends on conscious learning, but it also exists in its absence. On the other hand, learning depends on memory, but also on the brain's exceptional ability to make connections between lived and learned experiences. For example, we consciously learn words from a foreign language, but when we use them, we use memory to reproduce them. Memory is related to the learning process, but it differs from what is in itself the mechanism by which man acquires knowledge through the conscious action of the learner.
The ability of humans to draw on memories to imagine their future and to determine the course of future actions was the key to human development as an intelligent species. Phenomenon and state alike, it is intangible, being a concept that refers to the process of memory, a complex and complicated process. Also, memory contributes to the experiences of the individual and stimulates his imagination.
Some have described memory as a file cabinet, others as a supercomputer in the brain. Closer to the truth is the idea that memory is a continuous process (including during sleep), which takes place at all times in the whole brain. Human memory stores, creates, processes information, to provide what is coherent thinking.
Memories are what make us able to read, drive a car, solve math problems and they are also what make us an identity. An example: if we think of an object, a pen, say, the brain takes the name of the object, its shape, its function, and every detail comes from another part of the brain. The image is reconstructed almost instantly and is sometimes accompanied by moments related to this object, all associated with images, emotions, and sensations. This whole process, which we do not yet fully understand in all its complexity, is memory.
10. To start learning new information, you need to concentrate and set yourself up for the memorization process. Passively perceived information is not deposited in the head and is quickly forgotten.
11. Bad memories fade faster. Forgetting is one of the main functions of memory. It helps to erase irrelevant information and protect the nervous system from overstraining.
12. At the same time, the brain quickly replaces negative impressions, leaving in memory the most pleasant and desirable moments.
13. In the brain, the zones responsible for smell and memory are nearby. At the same time, thanks to this close connection, the smell can evoke vivid memories in us, which in turn return as soon as we smell a certain smell again.
14. Memory depends on a person's chronotype. Larks perceive information better in the morning, and owls - in the evening.
15. Vitamins of groups B, C, E, and fatty acids contained in various foods help improve memory. In the brain, there are cells - neurons that are responsible for the process of memorization.
16. Food rich in beneficial minerals promotes good brain function and memory.
Short-term memory is also called working memory, with the ability to retain a small amount of information in the short term. It is separated from sensory and long-term memory. The ability to retain certain sequences depends on the conscious effort that the individual makes.
Without repetition and active maintenance, the information is retained for only a few seconds. For example, to understand what we are reading, we need to remember the beginning of the sentence as we go through it. Short-term memory has a limited capacity in terms of the amount of information that can run and decompose quickly.
Repeating information activates long-term memory, but the process depends on how long the working memory is stimulated and the amount of detail. The process of transferring from short-term to long-term memory involves encoding and consolidating data, hence the need to repeat information to retain it in the long term. The emotional content of information contributes to the activation of long-term memory, in which case we are talking about a special component of long-term memory, called affective memory.
17. Some mistakenly believe that caffeine improves memory. First of all, thanks to this substance, there is a concentration of attention for a while.
18. Memory directly depends on the proper rest and sleep of a person.
19. Clutter is bad for memory. Discipline is the key to success in everything, and memorization is no exception. To retrieve memories at the right time, memory needs organized storage.
20. Memories "live" everywhere. Different parts of the brain are involved in the process of memory.
21. Recent studies note that, for example, memories are not stored in one or more of them, but are scattered through a system of neural connections.
22. Lefties have a better memory. Only 10 percent of the world's population are left-handed, and scientists have proven that this small part of people remembers information much better than right-handed people.
23. Trick to remember: close your eyes. By closing our eyes, we get rid of all distractions, allowing the brain to focus on recent memories.
24. Memory works better outdoors. Even one hour spent outdoors improves memory and attention span by 20 percent.
25. Some types of lies are better remembered. Everyone lies, but we don't remember every lie well. As it turns out, false descriptions—complex figments of our imaginations—are easier to remember than false negatives, where you deny what happened.
26. A short nap helps retain new information. If you are preparing for an exam for a long time and want to memorize a large amount of information, experts advise a short afternoon nap.
27. Physical exercise improves the ability to remember new information. When we train, not only our physical fitness improves, but also our mental abilities.
28. Physical activity has a positive effect on the work of the hippocampus - the part of the brain that is the center of memory.
29. We are bad at remembering sounds. Approximately 65 percent of the population are visual, meaning they must take in information with their eyes to learn it.
30. At the same time, we remember only one-fifth of what we hear. By adding visual data, you can significantly improve the assimilation of information.
31. You better remember what you say out loud. If you need to memorize a report or facts, try to read the important information aloud. Scientists have found that this action helps to store words in long-term memory.
32. Depression erases memories. Against its background, part of the memories simply disappears.
33. The first memories appear even before birth. The embryo already at the 19th week begins to remember events.
34. Memory must be enabled. To begin to assimilate information, you need to concentrate and set yourself up for the memorization process.
35. The brain first of all displaces negative impressions, leaving in memory the most pleasant and desirable moments.
36. The parts of the brain responsible for smelling and remembering are nearby, so smells can trigger vivid memories.
37. Memory depends on a person's chronotype. "Larks" are better remembered in the morning, and "owls" in the evening.
38. Memories are not stored in one or more areas of the brain but are scattered throughout the system of neural connections.
39. Lefties have a better memory.
40. Closing our eyes, we stop being distracted, allowing the brain to concentrate on memories.
41. Even one hour outdoors improves memory and attention by 20%.
42. A short nap helps you remember new information better.
43. Exercise promotes good memory.
44. Most people remember visual information more easily than spoken information.
45. A person remembers more easily what he says out loud.
46. Memories "live" everywhere. The process of memory involves different parts of the brain. Recent studies note that, for example, memories are not stored in one or more of them, but are scattered through a system of neural connections.
47. Lefties have a better memory. Only 10 percent of the world's population are left-handed, and scientists have proven that this small part of people remembers information much better than right-handed people.
48. Trick to remember: close your eyes. By closing our eyes, we get rid of all distractions, allowing the brain to focus on recent memories.
49. Memory works better outdoors. Even one hour spent outdoors improves memory and attention span by 20 percent.
50. Some types of lies are better remembered. Everyone lies, but we don't remember every lie well. As it turns out, false descriptions—complex figments of our imaginations—are easier to remember than false negatives, where you deny what happened.
There are many interesting facts in the biography of Boris Johnson, which we will discuss in this article.
On July 23, 2019, Boris Johnson won the election as the leader of the Conservative Party and became the new Prime Minister of Great Britain, taking over from his predecessor, Theresa May. A master of ambiguous statements and deeds, an eccentric, a hooligan, a eurosceptic, a brilliant politician - with what associations the media did not honor him! We offer you to get to know Mr. Johnson better and reveal some interesting facts about his biography.
The stereotypical British politician has taught us to behave as politely as possible, does not make harsh public statements, and does not shock those around him. And if he shocks, then partly unconsciously, like Teresa May with a crazy robot dance. However, born Alexander Boris de Pfeffel-Johnson does not fit into these stereotypes in any way.
Origin of Boris Johnson
The origin of the current Prime Minister of Great Britain is a topic for a separate interesting conversation. On the paternal side, he is rooted in the Ottoman Empire: his great-grandfather, Ali Kemal, was in charge of internal affairs in the government of the last Grand Vizier of the empire, Ahmed Okday. His wife was an ethnic Circassian refugee Hanifa Fered from the Caucasus, she fell into slavery in the Ottoman Empire, but was ransomed by Ali Kemal, her future husband. Boris Johnson loves this story very much and has retold it many times with or without reason.
Johnson is no stranger to British monarchs. He himself spoke about this in a program about genealogy “What do you think about yourself?” on the BBC. It turned out that his grandmother Yvonne Eilynn Williams is a direct descendant of Duke Paul of Württemberg, who was a descendant of George II. Thus, Johnson is the great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandson of George II. Turkish and Circassian blood also flows in his veins. Boris's great-grandfather, a wealthy Turkish nobleman, married a Circassian slave in the 19th century, whom he bought at a bazaar in Istanbul.
On the mother's side, in the family of the future politician, there were not only Americans in the 9nth generation but also Jews. For example, the famous paleographer Elias Avery Levy was born on the territory of modern Lithuania and was Boris' great-grandfather.
Boris Johnson's early years
Boris Johnson was born on June 19, 1964, in Manhattan, New York. His full name is Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson. His family name was simply Al. His mother is a talented artist, his father worked at the World Bank and was a member of the Conservative Party of the European Parliament. Parents divorced when the boy was 11 years old.
As a child, Boris suffered from deafness. He has undergone several surgeries to restore his hearing.
At birth, Boris received two citizenships at once - British and American. But in 2016, having become a member of the British government, he refused the latter.
Boris is not the only child in the family, his sister Rachel has built a successful career in journalism, regularly appears on discussion panels, including TV projects Question Time and The News. Boris's brother Joe has been Minister of State for Higher Education in the UK since 2016.
He was educated at Eton. To the alma mater of future kings and presidents. It was there that they began to call him Boris, not Alex (the full name of the British Prime Minister sounds like Alexander Boris de Pfeffel-Johnson). After Johnson studied at Oxford, where his closest friend was, oddly enough, former Prime Minister David Cameron. Both were considered promising daredevils at the university: Johnson and Cameron were members of the so-called Bullingdon Club, which, was a society of alcoholics and brawlers. The buddies' favorite pastime was dressing up, getting drunk at a bar, smashing a restaurant, and then honestly writing a check for the damage done.
Boris Johnson's personal life
Johnson is married for the third time. With his first wife, a model, and the daughter of a millionaire landowner, Allegra Mostyn-Owen, he started acting weird at the wedding. Appeared at the altar in trousers belonging to Conservative MP John Biffen. And an hour after the ceremony, he managed to lose the wedding ring he had just put on his finger. The bad omen worked—the marriage barely lasted six years.
Just twelve days after the divorce, the eccentric blond married lawyer Marina Wheeler, with whom he studied at the European School in Brussels. Their union seemed quite prosperous until adultery was discovered - it turned out that Johnson had secretly met with journalist Petronella White for four years, who managed to have two abortions during this time. Upon learning of this, Wheeler refused to let her husband even on the threshold of their house. But later it suddenly cooled down, and the couple reunited. But in the fall of 2018, they nevertheless announced the final break in relations.
Alone, Boris was not bored for long and soon began a relationship with the daughter of The Independent co-founder Matthew Symonds Carrie. The couple is known for emotionally sorting things out - Symonds' neighbors once even called the police after hearing screams and noise. After becoming prime minister, Boris Johnson moved to Downing Street with his lover (but not his legal wife, which is a precedent for the UK). At the end of May 2021, Boris and Carrie played a secret wedding in Westminster Cathedral. Now they are raising a common son, born in April 2020.
On April 29, Boris Johnson became a father for the sixth time - the son of the politician's fiancee Carrie Symonds was named Wilfred Laurie Nicholas. As Symonds, herself explained: "Wilfred is after Boris's grandfather, Laurie is after my grandfather, and Nicholas is after Nick Price and Nick Hart, the two doctors who saved Boris's life last month."
It is also important to mention that Johnson has two unexpected hobbies at once. He enthusiastically watches Bollywood movies and enthusiastically studies ancient Greek and Latin. However, it never hurts to diversify your leisure time, so Boris took part in The Spectator competition for the most offensive rhyme against Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan. And he won, receiving a prize of a thousand pounds for his work.
Boris Johnson as Journalist
During the reign of Margaret Thatcher, Johnson was still far from big politics. In 1987, he began to earn all-around fame as a front-line reporter for the Daily Telegraph. Boris did not excite the audience in the same way that Alexander Nevzorov did in parallel in the perestroika USSR, but he nevertheless stood out against the background of the conservative journalistic workshop. His father's connections allowed the young journalist to get the prestigious position of special correspondent for the publication in Brussels, and upon his return, in 1994, the most popular political observer had the opportunity to take the chair of the deputy editor-in-chief.
Boris Johnson as Politician
With such a big name, it was possible to try yourself in a new incarnation. In 2001, Johnson had his first success in the general election - he was elected to the House of Commons from Oxfordshire. However, it was not enough for the fiery conservative to have a symbolic presence in Parliament, and it was still difficult to aim for more on the scale of the United Kingdom.
A few years later, Boris came up with a wonderful idea to become the mayor of London, because the overloaded capital lacked fresh, topical undertakings.
Boris Johnson as Mayor of London
Almost a decade of mayoral work was remembered first of all by the most successful holding of the 2012 Olympics. There were no infrastructural problems that were typical earlier for Beijing and later for Rio de Janeiro, the city treasury was replenished by a record amount due to the influx of tourists. Yes, and the transition to renewable energy at full capacity spun just under the leadership of an ardent opponent of environmental pollution and a fan of bicycles. The multi-million population remained quite satisfied.
Boris Johnson as Minister
And Boris would be the ruler and guide of grateful Londoners to this day, if not for new parliamentary elections. In July 2016, he was appointed foreign minister in Theresa May's cabinet and immediately took up the implementation of the "most important thing of a lifetime", that is, the UK's exit from the European Union. For the sake of Brexit, Johnson at some point was ready to risk even his political prospects and abandoned the portfolio two years after his appointment due to disagreement with the accepted procedure for renouncing EU membership.
Boris Johnson as Prime Minister
However, no steep dive happened. On the contrary, the British, even after some disappointment in the idea of separation from the European community of conservatives, still supported it. And it was Johnson, with the verbal support of Donald Trump, who replaced the resigned May as prime minister, at the same time gaining the powers of the head of the Conservative Party. As the head of the Cabinet, Johnson carried out Brexit - the UK almost completely left the EU.
Boris was nicknamed the "British Trump". But unpredictability and outrageousness did not immediately become the hallmark of the politician: as a child, he suffered from deafness, underwent four operations to restore the functions of the middle ear, so he was a very quiet child. Which, however, did not prevent him from dreaming of becoming the "king of the world" when he grows up.
Boris Johnson and Coronavirus
In 2020, the UK faced much more serious problems - the country was covered by a new type of coronavirus pandemic. They infected Prince Charles, Johnson himself, as well as thousands of Britons.
The Prime Minister announced his illness on March 27, 2020. The symptoms did not go away for 10 days and on April 5, Boris Johnson was hospitalized - after several days in intensive care, the politician recovered and was discharged.
The Prime Minister has already chosen a song for his funeral. Even though the politician is still quite young, he has already managed to think about such things. Johnson's choice fell on the song You Can't Always Get What You Want by the Rolling Stones, which he talks about quite openly.
March is the month we associate with the coming of warmer days and preparations for plowing and sowing, but two millennia ago this month was the first of the year. Specifically, March was the first month in the Roman calendar and the third in the Gregorian and Julian calendar.
Top interesting facts about March
March was for a few centuries, during the time of the Romans, the first month of the year. The first calendar created during the Roman Republic, over 25 centuries ago, was only 10 months old and had 304 days 31 days) because the winter months were simply not counted or named. That calendar began in March (named after the god of war, Mars) and ended in December, the tenth month, which was the time of harvest in Rome.
This calendar did not last long, because in the 7th century BC, during the time of the second Roman king, Numa Pompilius, the calendar was modified by adding 50 days and creating two new months: January (from the god Janus) and February (from a festival of purification called February). Both months were 28 days old. Janus was the god of the door, of the feasts and rites of passage, and the phenomena of transition.
Each year was related to the year considered the first by the Romans: 753 BC, the year of the founding of Rome. From the year 509 BC when the republic was founded, until the request of the Empire, in the year 27 BC, the Romans, gaining new knowledge, changed the calendar several times.
Changes were needed because this calendar was based on the movement of the Moon, but as the lunar cycle is 29.5 days, there were more and more desynchronizations over the years compared to the seasons that the calendar itself was meant to mark.
March as the first month of spring
1. Snowdrops, the first heralds of spring, rise early from under the snow cover to welcome spring.
2. March is the month of the awakening of nature.
3. March is the first month of autumn in the Southern Hemisphere.
4. According to the Iranian calendar, the New Year should be celebrated on March 21 or 22.
5. In the Old Russian calendar, the month was referred to as dry, protonic, rookery, and also drip.
6. Previously, the New Year in Russia began from March until 1492.
7. March 0 is a non-existent calendar date. To avoid calculations for specific years, it is sometimes used in planning, as well as in software development and astronomy.
Strange habits and superstitions about March
8. If the snow in March melts early, it will melt for a long time.
9. It is said that March is not spring, but pre-spring.
10. In March is good if the frost is creaky, but not burning.
11. If in March, the clouds float quickly and high - it is a sign of good weather.
12. If water does not flow in March, grass does not grow in April.
13. If in March blizzards the snow falls unevenly, wavy, in bumps on the fields, then garden vegetables and spring bread will be good.
14. If snow melts in spring from the north side - the summer will be warm and long, and if from the south - short and cold.
15. Frequent fogs in March portend a rainy summer.
16. Dry March portends fertility and rainy March - crop failure.
17. The thunder that happened in March is a sign of fertility.
18. The water from the March snow is healing: it is from freckles and sunburn.
19. If the seagull has flown by in March - soon the ice will go.
20. If in March a woodcutter began to harvest firewood, for which there will be no time later, firewood harvested in autumn will not have time to dry by winter.
21. On Polycarp (from March 8 to March 15), cold often returns.
22. Clear weather on March 14 portends a good harvest, and the wind from the north means a cold summer.
23. March 22 - Forty magpies, the day of the mass arrival of birds. If it is warm on this day, forty days will be warm, if it is cold, wait for forty cold matinees.
24. If the circles of melted snow around the trees are flat - the spring will be long, if the edges of the snow are steep - the spring will be stormy and short.
Origin of March
25. The name of March comes from the Latin "Mārtius mēnsis" - "Mars month".
26. It received a "name" in honor of the Roman god Mars.
27. There is an opinion that initially Mard was revered as the patron of fertility, vegetation, and wildlife, and only later among the Romans, he begans to be considered the god of war.
28. In ancient Rome, the agricultural season opened in March, and this time was also considered favorable for the start of a seasonal military campaign.
29. Mars, who was also the god of lustrations, i.e. purifications, was approached by farmers with a request for the fertility of livestock and land, priests during lustration rites, and warriors who came to the Field of Mars, where the temple of Mars was located.
30. In the ancient (Romulan) calendar, March was the first month of the year. The ancient Roman poet Ovid in the poem "Fasty" (or "Calendar") writes that the first month of the year was called "stepfather's name." The fact is that Mars, according to legend, is the father of the founders of Rome, Romulus, and Remus, and is considered the founder and guardian of the ancient city.
31. Scientists were not too lazy to calculate how fast spring moves: it turns out, 50 km per day. They managed to determine this by observing the inflorescence of individual plants.
Fauna and Flora in March
32. Not all over the world spring comes in March/April/May. For example, in Australia, Argentina, and Madagascar, it comes in September.
33. Astronomical spring comes on March 20 or 21 - on the day of the vernal equinox.
34. In comparison with the autumn period, in spring, the frequency of breathing in people increases by one-third.
35. In Geneva, spring officially comes only when the "official chestnut tree" that grows under the windows of the cantonal government wants it. Or, more simply, when the first leaf blooms on it. Usually, of course, the chestnut follows the tradition and “announces” spring in March, but sometimes it still violates its customs. For example, in 2002, the chestnut showed its first leaf on December 29, and in 2006 it bloomed twice - first in March and then in October.
36. Not only do we change outfits with the onset of spring. Surely you know that hares, squirrels, and other animals change the color of their light coats to darker ones.
37. In general, all birds can sing from birth. But just "bawling" is not enough, they need to master the songs that are specific to their species. Finally, they manage to do this only next spring, when they are about 300 days old.
38. Plant roots are the first to respond to spring warming. They begin to grow actively already at a temperature of 7-8 degrees Celsius.
39. The spring lungwort flower changes its color four times: blooming, it becomes pink, then purple, violet, and then blue.
40. even though winter in March continues to struggle to extend its reign, the first warm rays of the sun begin to gradually warm the earth and air. The snow chains begin to melt under their persistent light, and in the first thawed patches, the harbingers of spring appear - snowdrops. Of course, winter will not immediately give up its position and remind of itself with chilly cold and sparkling snow, but the spring warmth will declare itself with a daytime temperature rise to 0 degrees.
41. In March, fluffy winter snow begins to become covered with a dirty crust, and snowfall dutifully gives way to rain. The weather freezes in anticipation of warmth and spring awakening and reminds of their imminent approach with the first cumulus clouds.
42. The chirping of sparrows becomes more and more joyful and sonorous. Migratory birds will soon arrive, picking up this mischievous song of spring and using it to tell about the awakening of nature.
Facts about people born in March
This month, creative personalities are born who can infect others with their energy.
43. March is the month of the strong and brave. The month got its name in honor of Mars, the god of war. In ancient Rome, it was March that was considered the most favorable time to start military campaigns.
2. Stones that bring good luck to March birthdays are aquamarine and hematite. The first take away anxieties and fears, stabilizes the nervous system. The second helps to restrain outbursts of anger and excessive irritability protects against someone else's negativity.
44. Babies born before March 20th are melancholy Pisces, empathic, shy, and creative. After the 20th birthday, choleric Aries celebrate, energetic, curious, and tireless.
45. The most famous Pisces are Michelangelo, Albert Einstein, Yuri Gagarin, Cindy Crawford, Sharon Stone, Bruce Willis. Aries - Leonardo da Vinci, Van Gogh, Charlie Chaplin, Robert Downey Jr., Quentin Tarantino, Heath Ledger, Ivan Urgant, Keira Knightley, Victoria Beckham.
46. March children are drawn to the sky! It is in this month that the most future pilots are born, according to research by the UK National Statistical Office.
47. Their glass is always half full! Scientists at the Semmelweis University in Budapest conducted a study in which they took 366 people and found that summer children are more likely to suffer from mood swings, winter children are better in control of themselves in stressful situations and do not get irritated over trifles, autumn children are less prone to depression, and spring children are born optimists.
48. These are real leaders! Researchers at the University of British Columbia in Canada analyzed data from 375 top managers in 500 companies and concluded that CEOs of large companies are more likely to be born in March. Here's how they explain it: March birthdays are more likely to be the oldest in their class, and because of this, they become leaders at school.
49. They need to protect their hearts. Scientists at the Columbia University Medical Center studied the relationship between the month of birth and the risk of various diseases. Among those suffering from atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases, there are many March birthdays, and, for example, among asthmatics, there are more born in September.
50. March children are future creatives! So says Mark Hamilton, a scientist at the University of Connecticut. He analyzed the data of 300 creative individuals (artists, politicians, scientists) and found that most of them were born in the rainy and snowy months of winter and early spring.