Parabens in cosmetics: should we be afraid of them?
“No parabens” is the motto of people who are used to reading the list of ingredients carefully. Are they right when they avoid this component?
Sometimes a broad discussion of the action of certain ingredients is a significant phenomenon that helps people maintain their health. We have already understood the beneficial and harmful properties of silicones. This time, let's talk about parabens, among the "victims" of such discussions. Everything is not so simple, and before passing a verdict on them, it is necessary to study the properties of these substances in more detail and get acquainted with the opinion of scientists on this matter. How can parabens in cosmetics be harmful, and are they harmful at all? Let's figure it out right now, but at the same time, we'll see if it's worth choosing natural paraben-free cosmetics as a replacement.
About parabens in cosmetics
Parabens are chemical compounds (to be more precise, we are talking about esters of para-Hydroxybenzoic acid) that are famous for their antiseptic properties and have been used as preservatives for a long time, both in the food industry and in the pharmaceutical and beauty industries.
Parabens can be synthesized or obtained from plants in the laboratory - yes, there are natural parabens found, for example, in cranberries, lingonberries, and sour.
In the composition of medicines or cosmetics, parabens allow you to extend their shelf life by preventing the growth of bacteria.
Why are parabens dangerous? This is where the controversy begins. The trouble with parabens began when scientists studying breast cancer discovered high concentrations of parabens in tumors. And some have linked it to cosmetics containing parabens (such as deodorants that are applied to the underarm area).
So far, it has not been possible to accurately confirm that cosmetics affect the development of this type of cancer. Still, even a hypothesis was enough for many people to take up arms against parabens.
Properties of parabens in cosmetic
Parabens are considered the most popular preservative today. What is the reason for such a choice?
Thanks to parabens in jars and tubes with cosmetics, there will be no active reproduction of bacteria and fungi. This means they can be used safely for longer without fear that the skin will react with irritation or inflammation.
Ability to stabilize the formula
Another plus of parabens is that they perform a stabilizing function in the formulas of products: their presence in the procedure maintains the desired consistency and allows all components to coexist harmoniously.
Parabens, unlike other preservatives, are effective in small concentrations. Manufacturers who emphasize the natural composition of their cosmetics can use natural preservatives. They are needed in much larger quantities to keep the product fresh for a long time. Organic acids and essential oils are potent allergens. There is a high risk that these products will cause an adverse reaction in the skin.
The downside is that parabens can cause allergies. But the long-term practice of their use shows that the risks are more diminutive in the case of parabens. They are used in the food industry. International standards ensure maximum safety. The creators of cosmetics use these substances in a limited amount.
What cosmetics contain parabens?
Parabens are needed primarily in the composition of funds with a liquid, cream,m or gel texture. In a word, in cosmetics that contain water. A humid environment is favorable for the reproduction of bacteria, and parabens prevent this.
Due to the presence of parabens, tonal foundations “live” from six months to 1.5 years. The expiration date,e in this case, is affected not so much by the concentration of preservatives as by the texture of the product - for example, the fluid will serve you less than a thick and dense foundation.
Mascara cannot be made without parabens, but its shelf life is the shortest compared to other beauty products: it is recommended to use mascara no longer than 3 months after opening the package.
Parabens extend the shelf life of this product to about six months.
With these tools - the same story as with the category of concealers: you can do makeup with them only for about six months. But without parabens, this period would be even shorter.
Liquid shadows, highlighters, bronzers, lipstick,s and other water-based products also contain parabens. The most common areethyl parabenss andmethyl parabenss. They are safe and resistant to external influences, including thermal. But dry shadows will last you a long time and without parabens in the composition. True, by the end of the expiration date, they will likely no longer fit perfectly. But from the,m it will be possible to make lipstick of an unusual shade. Just follow this video guide.
How are parabens identified in cosmetics?
We have already discussed the general rules that will help you quickly check the composition of cosmetics here. Since parabens are a whole group of substances, you will have to remember a few bare names and symbols to recognize them on the packaging. Parabens that are often used in the manufacture of cosmetics include methylparaben (it can be found in the list of ingredients under the codes E218 and E219), ethylparaben (E214), propylparaben (E216), butylparaben, benzyl paraben, isobutyl paraben.
In addition, among the designations of parabens are met again, propagation, nipagin, and nipazol. They can even be combined under the general name "hydroxybenzoic acids, without specifying the details.
Are there cosmetics without parabens?
Today, the list of brands that produce cosmetics without parabens and sulfates is quite extensive. In the absence of these ingredients in the composition of their products, many manufacturers use them as an advertisement. Therefore it may seem that such beauty products are becoming more common. However, statistics show the opposite: more than 75% of cosmetics still contain parabens.
Those who are not going to give up cosmetics with parabens completely, but are still afraid of this controversial ingredient, should pay attention to thorough skin cleansing.
What is the best way to remove paraben makeup? One of the leading "working" means micellar water - the features of its production allow you not to use sulfates and parabens. The same applies to many hydrophilic oils.
It's good that cosmetics lovers have a choice. Science is not yet able to provide accurate data proving that parabens in cosmetics are harmful and cause life-threatening diseases. But for those who want to eliminate any risks associated with parabens, products labeled paraben-free can be preferred.
Cosmetics without parabens
It is essential to understand that the absence of parabens does not always make cosmetics 100% safe. So, substitutes for parabens arepropanoll,quaternion-15, butyl hydroxy anisole (E320 or BHA), and butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) - and these substances have been proven toxic and carcinogenic. However, they are found not only in cosmetics but also in food.
About natural cosmetics, manufacturers of natural beauty products also use paraben-free labels. They use vitamins E and C, tea tree oil, eucalyptus oil, propolis, and grapefruit seed extract as preservatives. The last component has gained particular popularity as a natural disinfectant and preservative.
Grapefruit seed extract
In the case of natural cosmetics, the question arises, how effective are the preservatives used in it. If methyl and ethyl parabens in cosmetics, as a rule, are no more than 0.4% of the composition, natural substitutes will be required in much higher concentrations to compare with them in terms of strength. Do not forget that many natural ingredients that can increase the shelf life of cosmetics can cause allergic reactions.
From beetles and parasites to whale vomit: the disgusting ingredients in cosmetics
We must recognize that most of us, do not read what is on the list of ingredients on cosmetics, or we do not understand the meaning of all those words. If we had enough knowledge, we would be surprised at what we really use.
The expensive perfume contains feces and whale vomit
Ambergris is a yellow, waxy, solid substance that is produced in the whale's intestines to protect them from the sharp objects they sometimes swallow. It is often called "sea gold". Just half a pound of feces or whale vomit can be worth up to $ 10,000. Whales either vomit the substance or eliminate it along with their feces.
Most lipsticks contain broken parasitic beetles
Cactus beetles (Dactylopius Coccus) are small insects that feed on cactus plants in Central and South America. Cochineal female beetles eat the red fruits of cacti, so when the beetles are crushed, a very strong red dye is produced.
Cochineal dye has been used for centuries and is very safe for most people, so it is commonly used in lipstick, ice cream, candy, yogurt and eyeshadow. In fact, Starbucks admitted a few years ago that they used a red cochineal dye in some of their drinks, which turned out to be a big problem for their vegetarian fans.
Animal fat in lipstick, eyeshadow and soap
Seoul is a common ingredient in many cosmetics. It is present in: eyeshadows, lipsticks, foundations, shampoos, shaving soaps, moisturizers and skin care products. Seoul is made from animal carcasses.
Seoul is made from animal fat, which means boiling carcasses to create fat products. Dead animals used to make tallow come from many sources, including laboratories, slaughterhouses, zoos, shelters, and yes, animals killed on the road are also used.
Bull semen in hair products
Due to its high protein content, bull semen has become a popular ingredient in hair products. Used mainly for dry or damaged hair, the semen is mixed with a plant called Katera and applied to the hair in expensive beauty salons. The process takes about 45 minutes, costs about $ 90-120 dollars and has been described as "Viagra for hair."
Snail secretions in moisturizers
Snail exudate is collected and used as an ingredient in many famous moisturizers. Glycolic acid and elastin in snail secretion protect the skin from wounds, bacteria and UV rays, making it a great source of protein that removes dead cells and regenerates the skin. It is also useful for removing scars, stretch marks and curing acne.
Infant foreskin in anti-aging products
The recovery complex marketed by TNS SkinMedica claims to use cells derived from human infantile foreskin (NouriCel-MD) in a "revolutionary" line of anti-aging products. Using a combination of soluble collagen, antioxidants, natural growth factors and proteins, they claim to slow down the aging process and encourage the growth of new cells for a younger complexion.
Many companies have already announced that they have given up some of these ingredients, opting for "more pleasant" alternatives, but others, given their effect, will not do so too soon.
Best makeup base: 19 primers for dry, oily and combination skin
A good primer should smooth out skin imperfections on the face and keep the make-up in perfect condition for as long as possible. We have collected the most effective makeup bases - read and choose the one that is right for you.
Facial primers are a controversial product. Today there are a huge number of them on the market and it is not so easy to find a quality makeup base. It is not always clear whether it is needed at all. Let's try to figure it out, and at the same time, we will tell you about those basics for makeup, which, in our opinion, are worth paying attention to.
What is a makeup base?
Primers solve several problems at once:
- Mask imperfections, age spots, uneven tone.
- Makes skin texture smoother.
- Improve the properties of tonal products and increase the durability of makeup.
- A primer cannot replace either foundation or skin care creams, it has a narrow, limited functionality. The basis for makeup does not have to be in a woman's cosmetic bag. However, you can’t do without it if you need impeccable and persistent make-up.
It is important to know that many makeup bases necessarily contain silicones, so due to frequent use, skin pores can become clogged, which will provoke rashes on the face. To prevent this from happening, thoroughly cleanse your skin every evening and, if possible, use a make-up base, not every day.
How to choose a primer according to skin type?
Today, the beauty industry offers a large selection of makeup bases. You need to choose those products that are most suitable for the type and color of the skin.
For normal skin types, a brightening make-up base with sunscreen is ideal. A primer with reflective particles is also suitable.
For dry skin types, it is recommended to use light moisturizing makeup bases with a creamy or oily consistency. To give the face visual moisture, use a product with a shimmer.
For oily skin types, a make-up base is best suited to mattify and mask pores. It will control the appearance of oily sheen throughout the day. The primer can be either water-based or silicone-based. If the skin has inflammation and redness, use a base with a green tint.
For combination skin, you can take a mattifying makeup base and apply it only to problem areas. On other "dry" areas, use a moisturizing primer.
For sensitive skin, you will need a makeup base, with the function of protecting against toxins, toxins, and negative environmental factors. Look for fragrance-free products. If redness and inflammation often appear on the skin, choose a color-correcting primer with a green pigment.
Is there a difference between budget and luxury makeup bases?
Unfortunately, there is no definitive answer here. Choosing a good makeup base requires personal experience. The most important thing in any cosmetic product is how it suits your skin. Hence the relativity of rankings - what has become a panacea for a thousand lucky ones, for you may turn out to be a waste of money.
When choosing a primer, pay attention to the following:
- how effectively it evens out the complexion, hides skin imperfections;
- how long does it keep makeup in perfect condition;
- what type of skin is suitable for.
To make it easier for you to navigate, we have compiled a list of 19 good makeup bases, one of which is potentially suitable for you.
Face Primer Urban Defense Complexion Primer SPF 30, Urban Decay
It is a pleasure to apply it on the skin: the delicate gel texture does not leave any stickiness or film feeling! And the composition itself makes the skin smooth and prepares for the application of foundation, minimizing bumps and pores. You can be calm about the skin, especially in spring and summer: with this primer, care and sun protection are provided.
The basis for the perfect complexion Le Blanc de Chanel Multi-Use Illuminating Base, Chanel
This makeup base is indispensable for creating a flawless look, because it is suitable for any skin tone, hiding visible imperfections and gently illuminating the face. In addition, the product contains caring elements (witch hazel extract, licorice extract and a moisturizing complex) that help preserve the beauty of the skin.
Multifunctional primer Naked Face Balancing Primer, Holika Holika
This tool pleases even externally: inside the bottle there are capsules of three different shades, which, mixing when the dispenser is pressed, give a base that adapts to skin color. The mixture is dense enough to even out the microrelief of the face and last for several hours. Another plus is that you will need significantly less foundation, because the primer provides the necessary undertone.
Cellular Performance Glow Makeup Base Brightening Make-Up Base, Sensai
This base immediately deeply moisturizes, smoothes and brightens the skin, giving firmness and radiance - so that wrinkles and unevenness become less noticeable. A special complex of apricot essence, OH-neutralizer, hyaluronate and collagen stimulators helps the base to fight the first signs of aging. They prevent loss of tone and neutralize pigmentation.
Pore-covering makeup base Master Prime, Maybelline New York
This primer from Maybelline perfectly evens out the texture of the skin, giving it a delicate glow. And at the same time pleases with a very affordable price!
Waterproof face primer You better work! Gym-proof Primer Essence
Thanks to its special waterproof formula, this primer not only hides skin imperfections, but also prevents makeup from "floating" from sweat or heat - ideal for holidays or active workouts, if it is important for you to look "on parade". Bonus: UV filter with SPF 20.
Leveling face primer Prime and Fine Pore Refining Anti-Shine Base, Catrice
The lightweight texture of this primer ensures perfect pairing with any foundation and extra hold. No unwanted shine and enlarged pores!
Makeup base, concealing redness, Base Full HD 16 hours, Eveline
Worried about redness, vascular network and manifestations of rosacea? Then you need the Full HD Base 16 hours from Eveline - the perfect camouflage tool. By the way, she also mattes.
Makeup base Prisme Primer Color Correcting, Givenchy
This makeup base has a light, velvety texture, easy to apply and blends well. The coating is quite dense without the "mask effect". Moreover, this primer not only masks imperfections (it is especially good at fighting dark circles around the eyes), but also gives the skin elasticity over and over again due to vegetative
x extracts in the composition.
Face primer with reflective particles Perfect Glow Primer, Thalgo
Marine spring water and verbena extract, together with reflective particles and color-correcting pigment, give a stunning effect. Firstly, the caring ingredients really take care of the skin - and its natural color evens out over and over again. Secondly, the tone becomes radiant, as if glowing from within.
Primer for flawless skin Smooth Affair Facial Primer & Brightener, Jane Iredale
A sheer, mineral-based soft pink, this primer is virtually invisible on the skin, but that doesn't stop it from effectively tightening pores, unifying skin texture, and giving it a luxurious matte finish. In addition, the formula of the product is enriched with plant components that have an anti-aging effect. Namely - extracts of grapefruit, apple, green and white tea, algae and olive leaves.
Prelude in the Clouds Aqua Base, Rouge Bunny Rouge
This moisturizing foundation is 70% water and literally hydrates the skin for the whole day. Ideal as a make-up base! It contains extracts of sea buckthorn and Florentine iris root, bisabolol and vitamins A and E. With regular use, you will notice that your skin has become softer and more elastic, and inflammation and irritation have decreased.
Face primer Encre de Peau All Hours Primer, YSL Beauty
This base makes it easier to apply the foundation, makes it last longer and helps to keep the matte finish until the evening. Instant perfection for the whole day!
Mattifying base for makeup, masking pores Instant Poreless Pore-Blurring Matifying Primer, Clarins
Despite its light texture, Instant Poreless mattifying base erases pores like an eraser! Thanks to the universal shade, this tool can be used as a base for makeup, or solo. In any case, you are guaranteed perfectly smooth porcelain skin.
Makeup base Photo Finish Foundation Primer, Smashbox
With this primer, you don't need Photoshop or Facetune, because it not only prolongs the durability of makeup, but also visually fills pores and wrinkles, evening out skin texture and tone.
Leveling and illuminating makeup base Radiant Boost Face Base, Kiko Milano
This base visibly improves and refreshes the complexion due to its delicate pinkish tint. The lightweight formula helps the product absorb quickly, smoothing imperfections and giving the skin a slight shimmer.
Makeup base UV Master Primer, Giorgio Armani
Ideal if you are concerned about enlarged pores and uneven skin texture in general. The base will smooth out unevenness and give a soft natural glow, as if you just returned from vacation. Speaking of vacations, this foundation will also come in handy there, because it contains UVA and UVB filters that provide sun protection with an SPF 40 factor.
Aqua-fluid for the face Moisture Genius, L'Oreal
Innovations on guard of your beauty! This product, enriched with aloe juice and hyaluronic acid, immediately turns into a liquid upon contact with the skin and is instantly absorbed, moisturizing the skin, normalizing the hydro-lipid balance and preventing the appearance of oily sheen. Amazing combination of moisturizer and primer!
Moisturizing cream primer for face Hydro Priming Cream InBetween, Blithe
This tool is not just a primer, but a complete care that is suitable for both morning and evening use. Thanks to its elastic formula, this cream is suitable for any skin type, effectively smoothing its texture, correcting tone and mattifying. Bonus: nice lavender scent.
20 Movie Stars you can't recognize under their Makeup Mask (Photo and Video)
Applying makeup during filming is not a quick process. Mainly when not only the image of the character depends on it but also on the film's overall success. The Deadpool actors must endure many hours of sitting in the make-up chair and all their manipulations, sometimes reminiscent of “torture.”
Changed beyond recognition! What makeup can do to actors
Bemorepanda found examples of what actors go through to make their on-screen characters stand out and memorable. For example, make-up for 8-9 hours. And this, it turns out, is not the most challenging thing that they sometimes have to face.
1. 8-9 hours, Rebecca Romijn as Mystique in X-Men
“It was a nine-hour make-up process. Throughout three films, we managed to cut it down to seven hours, but it was still... a lot. And I realized pretty quickly that this was my job, which was to apply all this makeup! — Rebecca Romijn, Looper
2. 8-9 hours, Jennifer Lawrence as Mystique in X-Men: First Class
In First Class, the filmmakers stayed accurate to Rebecca Romijn's original costume. But for Jennifer Lawrence, the body paint caused such severe skin irritation that she had to call a doctor. For the next film, X-Men: Days of Future Past, they switched to bodysuits. It also helped save all that time on set.
“I'm so excited because I'm going to wear a tight suit. It will be from the neck down so that it will cut time and blisters." - Jennifer Lawrence.
3. 8.5 hours, Jim Carrey as the Grinch in The Grinch Stole Christmas
The process of putting on makeup and costume took so long that the film producer brought in a CIA officer whose job was to help people endure torture.
4. 8 hours, Halle Berry as Jocasta Ayres (and five other characters) in Cloud Atlas
In addition to her role as Jocasta Ayres, Berry is also known as:
- Louise Ray
- Native woman
- Indian party guest
5. 8 hours, Christian Bale as Dick Cheney in "Power."
“In the old days, when we were sculpting foam fixtures, we would reshape the jaw and chin area a bit because it would compress a bit. But now, in silicone, we must accentuate the cheekbones and jawlines because his weight pulls him down. So it isn't easy. It would help if you had to know what you're doing." — Makeup artist Greg Cannom, Vox.
6. 7-8 hours, John Hurt as John Merrick in The Elephant Man
The make-up for John Hurt, resembling the real-life John Merrick, was created using the casts of Merrick's body in the Royal London Hospital.
7. 7 hours, Jamie Campbell Bower as Vecna in Stranger Things 4
Take a behind-the-scenes look below for a closer look at the process.
8. 7 hours, Michael Dorn as Worf in Star Trek: The Next Generation
According to Michael Dorn, over time, the makeup process has become easier:
“Now it's not that weird because it used to be quite difficult because they used a lot of glue and makeup. It was just a natural process."
9. 7 hours, Ryan Reynolds as Wade Wilson in Deadpool
Seven hours is a very long time, and the makeup artists were uneasy when Ryan Reynolds once pranked them by ripping it all off after they were done.
Here's how it was:
10. 6 hours, Arnold Schwarzenegger as Mr. Freeze in "Batman and Robin."
For some close-up shots, Arnold had to put an LED in his mouth, and at some point, it became quite dangerous:
“When you put it in Arnold's mouth, Arnold's saliva seeps into the seams of this thing and attacks the batteries. Batteries begin to disintegrate, and battery acid may begin to enter Arnold's mouth." — Makeup artist Jeff Dawn, THR.
11. 6 hours, Gary Oldman as Mason Verger in Hannibal
Greg Cannom, who worked with Christian Bale on The Authority, was Hannibal's makeup artist:
“I knew we could get away with [Oldman] more than any other actor. He first said, "Can we open my eye?" It's disgusting. I showed people pictures of [Oldman as Verger], and they all just said, “Oh my God!” and left, which made me very happy.” — Cannom, The Guardian.
12. 5-6 hours, Doug Bradley as Hellraiser in Hellraiser
“The process started with Clive sketching out his ideas that we had to work through together, and then we came up with other ideas based on those sketches. Initially, Pinhead was not at all what he is now. He was much more like Nightbreed's Shunu Sassi character, with only needles sticking out of the top of his head. I looked at it and thought, "Clive [Barker, director], we can't do it with that budget." I knew this makeup would last six days, and we couldn't do it on such a tight budget. He said, "Okay, let's think about it." That's when we came up with this grid pattern on a lifecast to determine where we were going to insert what were originally supposed to be six-inch nails. Clive looked at the mesh and decided he liked its symmetry, so we left it in place." — Makeup artist Bob Keane, DailyDead.
13. 5 hours, Brad Pitt as Benjamin Button in The Curious Case of Benjamin Button
Greg Cannom ("Power," "Hannibal") is back in business:
“I had time to get it right, which I don’t usually do in a film. We did intensive tests for two weeks before filming started at every age and did make-up after make-up. The make-up had to work. Otherwise, the film wouldn't have worked." — Kann, Variety.
14. 5 hours, John Matuszak as Sloth in The Goonies
Back in 2019, 34 years after the release of The Goonies, test shots of the Sloth makeup were finally found.
15. 5 hours Dave Bautista as Drax in Guardians of the Galaxy
“Drax started with a five-hour make-up, and gradually the time began to decrease, as expected. Such extensive makeup is a real challenge for the team because it is so complex.
“Every day, a plastic mold was offered that was the exact shape of David's body, with perforated holes indicating where the prosthesis begins and ends. Through it, a drawing showing a map was applied to rice paper.
“All teams had different tasks in this sequence. Some begin the application of paint, while others complete the shading of the dentures. We added subtle layers of browns, reds, and greens to the base gray to break up the tone and spice it up before the final color unwrapping.
"The whole body is then sealed with a retainer so that it can withstand daytime shooting." — Makeup artist David White, Business Insider.
16. 5 hours, Zoe Saldana as Gamora in Guardians of the Galaxy
“This time, I was picked up at three in the morning - my dog was not even happy about it. I had to sit for five hours for five months. It was crazy, but it paid off. The film is fantastic." — Zoe Saldana, US Weekly.
17. 5 hours, Jeff Goldblum as Seth Brundle in The Fly
“Yes, Chris Wallace got an Oscar for it. And Stéphane Dupuis put me in the dentist's chair for five hours and used this thing. And then another hour after we finished… well, you know, labor, labor, labor… took it off. This suit is a little tight... the rubber suit... so I look so... ugly. And then prosthetics. — Jeff Goldblum, Yahoo.
18. 6 hours, Arnold Schwarzenegger as Terminator in Terminator 2: Judgment Day
“Maria walked onto the set in the midst of filming Terminator 2. And then she saw me - when half of the face disappeared, and the eye lit up. All this weird makeup... So she started screaming and crying on set because she didn't understand why dad looked like that." - Arnold Schwarzenegger.
19. 5 hours, Marion Cotillard as Edith Piaf in La Vie en Rose
Marion Cotillard didn't mind the five-hour make-up because she's a big fan of Edith Piaf and wanted to give her credit:
“It was very stressful, but she was a powerful person. I love tragedy. Not in my life. But I love to play a tragedy. It allows me to express so many things. At the same time, I feel empty and full of emotions; I feel alive." — Marion Cotillard, Under the Radar.
20. 5 hours, Tim Curry as Lord of Darkness in "Legend."
“We had terrible negotiations about what parts of me would be visible. I fought and begged to have my own eyes… My eyes were solid contact lenses, like wolf or cat eyes, which were very painful to install because they took a cast of your eye and inserted it into your eye. If it hurt, they scratched him a little until he stopped hurting.” — Tim Curry, Legend commentary.
5 facts about the protein behind skin, joint, gut health
20 people who seriously influenced the course of history
Mankind is developing exponentially, and time, as well as the ever-increasing number of people, gives us a chance for development, accumulation of experience, and evolutionary development.
However, not all people in history leave behind the eternal, the good; some do not want a bright future at all, and on the contrary, they drag many generations back.
People who have not changed the world in the best way
Perhaps all of us living on planet Earth could be much more advanced if it weren’t for these 20 guys who didn’t change the world in the best way or at least influenced the world. Here are a few famous names that slowed down our common evolution.
1. Thomas Midgley Jr.
American chemist and mechanical engineer who invented tetraethyl lead to be added to gasoline and chlorofluorocarbons for use in refrigerators and deodorants. Author of over 100 patents.
The production of Midgley's inventions had a devastating effect on the ozone layer. According to historian John McNeill, the inventor "had the greatest impact on the atmosphere than any other living organism in the history of the Earth."
2. Robert Maxwell - the creator of the meme "British scientists"
This man commercialized research articles in British journals. Before him, articles were published in free scientific journals and were available to schools and universities. Robert Maxwell also proposed the practice of paid subscription, and for each individual article. As a result, many educational institutions could not afford expensive information, and the level of education in foggy Albion decreased.
But Maxwell got even richer. However, he was already a media mogul and a lord.
3. Guy de Chauliac
An outstanding French surgeon of the 14th century, who, despite his many merits and in fact the official title of "father of surgery" among modern surgeons, has one unpleasant incident that pushed the development of antiseptics back centuries.
He was the most famous surgeon of the 1300s and part-time a fierce opponent of the work of another surgeon, Theodoric Borgognoni. Theodoric was a surgeon who wrote about his theories of proper wound care and believed that the best thing to do with a wound was to keep it clean.
Guy de Chauliac literally hated what Theodoric wrote, because it directly contradicted the teachings of Galen, the ancient Roman surgeon, who believed that pus is the body's desire for self-healing.
The teachings of the medieval Aesculapius were widely accepted, and it is believed that his delusion set back the development of antiseptics in surgery by about 600 years.
4. The Mongols, the army of the Mongol ruler and commander Hulagu
When they destroyed the libraries in Baghdad that contained much of the past knowledge that set humanity back hundreds of years.
5. Tiberius Caesar, who ordered the execution of the inventor of flexible (vitrum flexile) glass
As a result, the secret of flexible (non-breakable) glass was lost forever. And the story was like this.
The glazier, whose name has not been preserved by history, came to the reception of Emperor Julius Caesar. The craftsman presented a unique bowl - seemingly made of glass, but which, as he claimed, could not be broken.
The emperor tried to do this, but to no avail. Instead of being shattered, the bowl only dented as if it were made of bronze, and the glazier simply took out a hammer and straightened the dent.
Then Tiberius asked if anyone else knew how to produce this type of glass, the inventor replied that he was the only one in the whole world. It was a sentence - by order of Caesar, the inventor was executed.
Why did the emperor act so cruelly and unjustly? He was simply afraid that such an amazing material could devalue gold and silver in the future.
6. Andrew Wakefield
Our contemporary, a former British doctor who made a name for himself after a rigged 1998 study that falsely claimed a link between the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism, and for his subsequent anti-vaccine activity.
To a certain extent, his “work” is directly responsible for what happened around the world with the advent of COVID-19 – distrust of vaccines, a decrease in vaccination rates (especially in the West). Opponents believe that he is directly responsible for thousands, tens of thousands of deaths.
Wakefield is believed to have intentionally rigged the results to fit his hypothesis. What for? For money! To sell "safe" vaccines and diagnostic kits.
7. Sultan Selim the Terrible
It was believed, for example, that the Holy Quran could only be copied by hand. Printing was declared blasphemy, and in 1517, during the era of the Ottoman Empire, Sultan Selim the Terrible, on pain of death, banned printing presses in the territory of the empire. The ban lasted 300 years.
The development of printing in the East stopped, but at the same time, the development of calligraphy was at a great height in the Islamic world!
8. Emperor Yongle of the Ming Dynasty in China ordered the burning of Zheng He's fleet
The largest trading and exploratory fleet of the time during his reign in the early 1400s fell under the onslaught of flames. This was the beginning of an era of isolation of Chinese imperial lands that would eventually lead to the collapse of imperial China.
In addition, the wealth of the world as a whole has decreased as a result of reduced trade with China, and if China had continued exploration, it is possible that they, and not the Europeans, would have colonized North America (instead of discovering it and then simply not telling anyone about this)…
9. Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji
In the 12th century, India had the largest university in the world called Nalanda, where intellectuals from all over the world studied. Then the Turks invaded India. They destroyed almost all the intelligentsia and destroyed the university. They burned the library. According to witnesses, the library continued to burn for 3 MONTHS. This must be the biggest loss for humanity.
10. Sir Mark Sykes
During the First World War, he was considered the greatest British specialist in the Middle East. Known for the fact that, together with the French diplomat Francois Picot, he signed the Sykes-Picot Agreement, according to which the eastern territories of the Ottoman Empire were divided mainly into British and French spheres of influence.
The problem is that the division of borders has passed along religious and tribal unions and formations. Differing cultures, languages, everything mixed up then, inevitably pushing nations into disputes and wars, the echoes of which we still hear.
Imagine the progress, level of education and cooperation that could become a reality if the Middle East were allowed to flourish unhindered, without divisions, naturally?
11. Edward Bernays
He created modern PR, which determined how to control the masses through deceit.
He made a significant contribution to the creation of the modern science of mass persuasion, based not on reason, but on the manipulation of subconscious feelings and impulses.
Bernays combined the ideas on crowd psychology of Gustave Le Bon and Wilfred Trotter with the psychoanalytic ideas of his uncle Sigmund Freud.
12. Cyril of Alexandria
He organized bands of assassins who went around Alexandria and killed everyone who was not a convinced Christian. This included almost all the great minds of that era. Among them, in particular, was Hypatia of Alexandria, one of the greatest minds in history.
13. The one who gave the order to burn the Library of Alexandria
14. Exxon scientists (one of the largest oil companies in the world) who first learned about man-made climate change in the late 70s and decided to hide this fact
15. The top should be Diego de Landa, who burned all the books of the Maya in the name of Christianity on July 12, 1561
16. Ea-Nasir, copper merchant
Our first written texts could have been amazing stories about what life was like at that time. Instead, the records contain people's complaints from the Bronze Age.
17. Queen Victoria is responsible for the deaths of about 60 million people in Brazil, China, India and Ireland
In all these cases, the British crown was involved in the removal of goods from starving areas and led campaigns to spread and aggravate poverty.
18. The one who took possession of all the chests and papers of Nikola Tesla after his death
19. In terms of sheer devastation, perhaps Genghis Khan… is estimated to have killed about 11% of the world's population in a very short period of time.
It's like killing 800 million people in modern times!
20. Charles Babbage - English mathematician, inventor of the first analytical computer
It is unlikely that he did this maliciously, but experts say he was the initiator of hindering the progress of computers for almost 100 years.
In the 1800s (Industrial Revolution), Babbage developed a working prototype of the computer, the Universal Digital Computing Machine. He had interested buyers, but no entrepreneurial spirit.
And what did he end up doing with all this? Nothing! The end product was not produced or sold, and the first prototypes of computers did not appear until the second half of the 1900s. Imagine what would be around us today if we were developing computers for another 100 years?