Top 50 amazing facts about Tanzania
The United Republic of Tanzania is located in East Africa; the state was formed on April 26, 1964, due to the unification of the Republic of Tanganyika and the People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba. This is how the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar was born. In October 1964, the name was shortened, and the country began to be called Tanzania. The country's territory is just over 945,000 square kilometers, with more than 60 million inhabitants.
Approximately 4/5 of the total population lives in rural areas. Average life expectancy is one of the lowest in the world. Suffice it to cite this fact - less than three percent of the country's inhabitants live up to 65 years. Almost half of the population are children under the age of 15. Tanzania has two official languages - Swahili and English. At the same time, only a tiny part of the population speaks English. There are more than 120 languages \u200b\u200bof various tribes on the state's territory.
Tanzania is home to Africa's highest mountain, Kilimanjaro, at 5,895 meters. In the language of the Swahili people, its name is translated as "mountain that sparkles." Kilimanjaro is a volcano that has not been active for a long time. The first summit was recorded on October 5, 1889. The German Hans Meyer and the Austrian Ludwig Purtsheller climbed Kilimanjaro that day. Even though Mount Kilimanjaro seems to be gentle, rising to the top is not so easy; about half of all climbers have failed.
Facts about Tanzania
1. Tanzania comprises at least 120 tribes, each significant. Each is culturally distinguished by its unique masks, hand-woven baskets, batik, poetry, ebony or rosewood carvings, and the like.
2. More than 120 languages are spoken in Tanzania, most of which are from the Bantu family. Kiswahili (Swahili) is the official language of Tanzania and Kenya.
3. Tanzanians prefer to drink tea in the morning as a breakfast drink and coffee in the evening.
4. Using your left hand to congratulate someone is considered impolite in Tanzania.
5. Zanzibar, Tanzania's port city, is a cosmopolitan hotspot that dominates East African culture. Its long history with Arab rulers, Indian workers, Portuguese traders, and European colonizers has created a unique blend of tradition, cuisine, music, dance forms, and arts.
6. Dar es Salaam, a city in eastern Tanzania, is the largest city in the country. It is also the largest city that speaks Swahili and has produced many great people in African history.
7. As a former European colony, Tanzanians have adopted football and rugby as their favorite sports.
8. Tanzania's de facto national dish is the humble Ugale. This is a simple porridge made with millet or sorghum flour.
9. In Tanzania, even lakes are sculpted. Lake Natron, a highly alkaline water body, turns birds and other animals into eerie stone statues.
10. The Mpingo tree, found in Tanzania, produces the most expensive wood in the world. It has exceptional mechanical properties that make it ideal for carving and an excellent finish.
11. Mpingo trees are also known as the musical tree of Africa since their wood has been used to make traditional musical instruments since ancient times.
12. In Tanzania, there is a strange solution for elephants who have lost their way to farmland - "Throw condoms filled with chili powder on them," It works pretty well. Despite their lighter side, they used to be used to throwing spears.
13. Freddie Mercury, lead vocalist and songwriter of the rock band Queen, was born in Zanzibar, Tanzania.
14. Tanzanians love hip hop music and have created Bongo Flava, a combination of international styles such as reggae, afrobeat, blues, rasta, and ballroom with local musical traditions such as taarab and dance.
15. Kinjikitile Ngwale was an attractive man who lived in Tanzania during the 1900s and led the revolution against the German colonizers. The uprising was known as the Maji Maji Revolution and was a crucial moment in the country's history.
16. The problem was that Kinjikitil Ngwala believed he was possessed by a snake spirit and claimed that the "magic" portion called "Maji" would turn German bullets into powder. A month later, he was hanged for treason.
17. Tanzania is a friendly country in diplomatic circles, but the government declared war on neighboring Uganda on October 30, 1978. Tanzania wholly owned the Ugandans and won after five months.
18. A shadow fight caused the 1978 war. It all started when one Ugandan soldier moved to Tanzania to drink, shooting at the locals.
19. The flag of Tanzania consists of a black and yellow stripe, cut out two triangles diagonally. The top is green, and the bottom is blue.
20. The flag carries four elements of everyday life in Tanzania. Green is the beauty of nature, yellow is the country's mineral deposits, black is the people, and blue is the large lakes.
21. Zanzibar, so calm, gets its flag. The flag's colors remain the same as in Tanzania, but the style is different.
22. Before Tanzania merged with Zanzibar in 1964, it was known as Tanganyika and had its flag - a green background cut in half with a black and yellow stripe.
23. The world's longest river, the Nile, is synonymous with the world's first civilization, the Egyptian civilization. This river originates from Lake Victoria, Tanzania.
24. Lake Victoria is also the world's largest tropical and second-largest freshwater lake.
25. There is an island in Tanzania called Mafia. The other two major islands are Zanzibar and Pemba.
26. The Three Islands of Tanzania is a favorite vacation spot for lovers of everything tropical. Diving, local seafood, and all-night beach festivals attract tourists in large numbers.
27. The country has designated 25% of its land for nature reserves and national parks. It is one of the highest in the world, and the total area exceeds the size of Germany.
28. Tanzania's most famous national park is the Serengeti National Park, where a million wildebeest stumble into the Masai Mara National Park in Kenya. This migration is so epic, titled one of the world's seven natural wonders.
29. As a tourism booster, the government has installed hot air balloons in the Serengeti National Park.
30. Tanzania is home to the Ngorongoro Crater, the world's largest caldera, or volcanic depression. The crater has an area of 264 kilometers. It is estimated that it formed about 2,500,000 years ago.
31. In general comparison, the area of Tanzania (947,300 sq. Km) is slightly larger than the size of California (423,970 sq. Km) twice.
32. According to the CIA, all land in Tanzania is owned by the government, which can lease land for up to 99 years.
33. The extractive industry remains the primary sector through which the government pays its bills. Gold is the main mineral, and Tanzania is the third-largest African producer of the mineral, after South Africa and Ghana.
34. Tanzania receives about $500,000,000 in aid from around the world, most of which is paid for by the United Kingdom and the United States.
35. Ruaha National Park, Tanzania's largest national park, is home to the largest population of elephants.
36. Tanzania has seven (7) sites on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Facts on Mount Kilimanjaro (has three volcanic cones, "Kibo," "Mawenzi" and "Shira")
37. Mount Kilimanjaro is a poster boy in Tanzania. The iconic mountain is the highest peak in Africa and a place of fantastic beauty.
38. Mount Kilimanjaro is a world in itself, with stunning five different types of climate zones ranging from hot rainforests to arid snow-capped peaks. For comparison, in the whole USA, there are seven climate zones.
39. Mount Kilimanjaro is a lone wolf and loves to stand alone. It is a separate mountain; it is not part of any mountain range. It is the highest free-standing mountain in the world.
40. A German geologist named Hans Mayer was the first to climb Mount Kilimanjaro in October 1889.
41. Bernard Goosen from South Africa was the first person to climb Mount Kilimanjaro in a wheelchair.
42. Kyle Maynard, who has neither legs nor arms, became an inspiration to millions of people when he crawled to the highest peak of Mount Kilimanjaro in 2012 without any prosthetics or assistance.
43. According to the Guinness World Records, Mount Kilimanjaro is the highest delivery point for a modest pizza. The pepperoni pizza was delivered 5,897 m (19,341 ft) after traveling 745 km in 4 days.
44. Tanzania may have had countless geographical riches but remains impoverished. Despite being surrounded by the world's three largest lakes, water scarcity has become a nightmare for rural areas. As of 2009, almost a third of the country did not have access to clean drinking water.
45. Farms and livestock depend solely on rain, and years of drought bring massive starvation and starvation. The 2010 Global Hunger Index ranks the food situation as "deeply worrying."
46. About 40% of the total population lives in extreme poverty, and almost 60% live below the World Bank's $1.25 poverty line.
47. One of the critical causes of poverty is the low rate of urbanization. More than 80% of the population lives in rural areas lacking basic civic amenities such as electricity, sanitation, and education.
48. There are strange heaps of magnetized volcanic ash that travel through the desert at a rate of about 17 meters per year. The dunes are located near Olduvai Gorge within the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, along the road to the Serengeti National Park.
49. Zanzibar, Tanzania, is the site of the shortest war in history. The battle was fought between British forces and Khalid bin Barghash. The battle lasted from 38 to 45 minutes, and the British did well.
50. Traces of tracks formed about 3,600,000 years ago have been found in Tanzania. The footprints vary in size and suggest that they were created by a group consisting of a male and two females.
If you think today's billionaires are refined socialites whose fingers shake from the weight of diamond rings, we hasten to disappoint you and show you what the richest women in the world look like.
According to Forbes, every year the number of women who get rich and multiply their fortunes is steadily growing. And probably this year, we could observe the same positive dynamics, if not for the economic crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic. Therefore, in 2021, 228 women were among the richest people on the planet - 13 less than last year. But paradoxically, their combined wealth has increased by $570 billion (as the stock markets slowly start to recover).
Many leaders of last year's rating managed to strengthen their positions (or even improve them). For example, L'Oreal heiress Françoise Bettencourt-Myers broke into the top spot of the Forbes 2021 Women's list, displacing Alice Walton. Her company's stock rose an incredible 40%, so Betancourt-Myers made $24.7 billion rich.
Top richest women in 2022
2020 has also been a successful year for the ex-wife of Amazon founder Jeff Bezos, Mackenzie Scott. She donated almost $6 billion to charity but still managed to increase her fortune. How did it happen? The fact is that after the divorce, Mackenzie became the owner of a 4% stake in Amazon. Their value increased by 66% last year, and thanks to this, Scott's fortune has grown by almost 50%.
The richest newcomer on the list, with $38.2 billion, was Miriam Adelson of Nevada, who inherited her husband's casino empire after his death.
Using the example of the 30 main billionaires in the world, we decided to figure out what and how to do to appear in the Forbes ranking (small spoiler: the shortest way is to be born into a rich family, but it is not the only one).
30. Zhao Yan
Net Worth: $7.7 Billion
Zhao Yan is the chairperson for Hong Kong-listed Bloomage BioTechnology. The company produces hyaluronic acid.
29. Christy Walton
Net Worth: $7.8 Billion
Christy Ruth Walton is the widow of John T. Walton, one of the sons of Sam Walton, founder of Walmart. In June 2005, her husband died in a plane crash, making her the main heir to his US$18.2 billion fortune. Forbes named Christy Walton the richest woman in the world for several years.
28. Diane Hendricks
Net Worth: $8 Billion
Diane Marie Hendrix is an American billionaire businesswoman and film producer from Wisconsin. She is the widow of the late businessman Ken Hendrix.
27. Blair Parry-Okeden
Net Worth: $8.2 Billion
Blair Parry-Okeden is an American-born Australian billionaire and philanthropist. In 2016, she was Australia's richest person by net worth, according to Forbes Asia. Parry-Okeden's wealth comes from Cox Enterprises.
26. Nancy Walton Laurie
Net Worth: $8.2 Billion
Nancy Walton Laurie is an American heiress to the Walmart fortune. She is also a businesswoman and philanthropist.
25. Zeng Fangquin
Net Worth: $8.3 Billion
Zeng Fangquin is the chairperson of Lingyi Technology, a part supplier for smartphones; including Apple and Huawei products. Lingyi Technology was listed on the Shenzhen stock
24. Cheng Xue
Net Worth: $8.7 Billion
Cheng Xue is the vice-chairman of Chinese soy sauce maker Foshan Haitian Flavoring. Xue currently owns a 9% stake in the company.
23. Ann Walton Kroenke
Net Worth: $9.1 Billion
Ann Walton Kroenke is the heiress to the Walmart fortune. Ann and her sister Nancy Walton Laurie inherited the shares of their father, Bud Walton, who was the brother and one of the first business partners of Walmart founder Sam Walton. She owns the Denver Nuggets in the NBA and the Colorado Avalanche in the NHL.
22. Denise Coates
Net Worth: $9.6 Billion
Denise Coates is a British businesswoman, billionaire, founder, and CEO of the online gambling company Bet365. In October 2019, Forbes magazine estimated Coates' net worth at $12.2 billion.
21. Massimiliana Landini Alleotti
Net Worth: $10.4 Billion
Massimiliano Landini Aleotti is an Italian billionaire heiress, owner of the Menarini pharmaceutical company based in Florence, Tuscany, Italy, and one of the ten richest women in the world. As of February 2016, Forbes estimated her net worth at US$11.6 billion.
20. Kwong Siu-Hing
Net Worth: $12.2 Billion
Kwong Siu-hin, or sometimes Kwok Kwong Siu-Hing, is the matriarch of the Kwok family. She controls conglomerate Sun Hung Kai Properties, the largest real estate developer in Hong Kong in 2019.
19. Wang Laichun
Net Worth: $12.7 Billion
Wang Laichun is a Chinese billionaire chairman and co-founder of electronics manufacturer Luxshare Precision Industry Co., Ltd, better known as Luxshare-ICT. Founded in 2004 in Dongguan, China, the company designs and manufactures computer cables; it is also a key AirPods assembler for Apple.
18. Kirsten Rausing
Net Worth: $13.2 Billion
Kirsten Elisabeth Rausing is a Swedish entrepreneur. The eldest daughter of Swedish industrialist Gad Rausing and his wife Birgit.
17. Abigail Johnson
Net Worth: $15 Billion
Abigail "Abby" Johnson is the granddaughter of Edward Johnson II, a member of the richest family in the United States. American entrepreneur, dollar billionaire, president of the American firm Fidelity Investments and chairman of its subsidiary, one of the richest and most powerful women in the world according to Forbes.
16. Charlene de Carvalho-Heineken
Net Worth: $15.4 Billion
Charlene de Carvalho-Heineken is the heiress of Freddie Heineken, her fortune in 2016 is estimated at approximately $12 billion. Owns a controlling stake in Heineken.
15. Iris Fontbona & Family
Net Worth: $15.5 Billion
Iris Balbina Fontbona Gonzalez is a Chilean mining magnate, media owner, billionaire businesswoman, widow of Andronico Luxica Abaroa, from whom she inherited Antofagasta PLC.
14. Zhou Qunfei & Family
Net Worth: $16.1 Billion
Zhou Qunfei is a Chinese entrepreneur and founder of the major touchscreen maker Lens Technology. After the public listing of her company on the Shenzhen ChiNext market in March 2015, her net worth skyrocketed, making her one of the richest women in China.
13. Gina Rinehart
Net Worth: $16.3 Billion
Gina Rinehart is a large Australian businesswoman, billionaire. Owner of the Australian iron ore company Hancock Prospecting. The richest woman in the world and the richest person in Australia. The fortune for 2020 is estimated at 13.5 billion dollars. She inherited her father's Hancock Prospecting business.
12. Lu Zhongfang
Net Worth: $16.4 Billion
Lu Zhongfang invested in Offcn, a test preparation company, in 1999, after retiring from working in a pesticides factory in 1993. Lu’s son, Liu Yongxin, is the chairman for Offcn. In 2019, Offcn Education Technology was listed on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange.
11. Fan Hongwei & Family
Net Worth: $16.8 Billion
Fan Hongwei is a Chinese chairperson for Hengli Petrochemical, a chemical fiber supplier.
10. Wu Yajun
Net Worth: $17.9 Billion
Wu Yajun is the co-founder and chairperson of Longfor Properties, a real estate developer based in Hong Kong.
9. Zhong Huijuan
Net Worth: $18.9 Billion
Zhong Huijuan is a Chinese pharmacist, billionaire, and the world's richest self-made woman. She is the founder, CEO, and chairman of Hanson Pharmaceutical, headquartered in Lianyungang and listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.
8. Laurene Powell Jobs
Net Worth: $19.9 Billion
Lauren Powell Jobs is an American billionaire businesswoman, CEO, and founder of the Emerson Collective, a non-profit organization that, in addition to investing and charitable work, is politically active in the areas of education reform, social services, and redistribution of resources and protection.
7. Susanne Klatten
Net Worth: $24.2 Billion
Susanna Klatten is a German entrepreneur. Born in the family of industrialists Herbert and Johanna Quandt. Heiress and co-owner of the family business associated with BMW.
6. Jacqueline Mars
Net Worth: $28.9 Billion
Jacqueline Mars is an American businesswoman, daughter of Forrest Mars Sr., and granddaughter of Franklin Mars, founder of the American confectionery company Mars, Incorporated. The value of her stake in the company is $11 billion. According to Forbes magazine, Jacqueline is one of the richest women in the world.
5. Yang Huiyan & Family
Net Worth: $30.6 Billion
Yang Huiyan is the richest woman in China. According to Forbes magazine, her fortune is estimated at $16.2 billion as of October 2007. Since the beginning of 2018, in just four days of the exchanges, Yang Huiyan's fortune has grown from $23.6 billion to $25.6 billion. Today her net worth is 30.6 billion.
4. Julia Koch & Family
Net Worth: $44.9 Billion
Julia Margaret Flescher Koch is an American socialite, billionaire, philanthropist, and one of the richest women in the world. She inherited her fortune from her husband David Koch, who died in 2019.
3. MacKenzie Scott
Net Worth: $62.7 Billion
McKenzie Scott is an American writer, philanthropist, and ex-wife of Amazon founder Jeff Bezos. As of 2021, Forbes estimates Scott's net worth at $59.8 billion. As of 2022, MacKenzie Scott's net worth is estimated to be $62.7 Billion.
2. Alice Walton
Net Worth: $68.1 Billion
Alice Louise Walton is an American billionaire, daughter of Walmart founder Sam Walton and his wife Helen Walton. As of May 2018, her fortune was estimated at $41.8 billion. In the Forbes list, she became the second richest woman of 2018 same as in 2022. As of 2022, Alice Walton's net worth is estimated to be $68.1 billion.
1. Francoise Bettencourt Meyers & Family
Net Worth: $69.6 Billion
Francoise Bettencourt Meyers became the reigning L'Oreal heiress when her mother, Liliane Bettencourt, passed away in 2017. She now runs the holding company as chairwoman, with her family owning 33% of L'Oreal.
Françoise Bettencourt-Myers is a French entrepreneur, after the death of her mother Liliane Bettencourt in September 2017, she received an inheritance of $ 39.5 billion. As of March 2022, with a fortune of $ 69.6 billion, she is the richest woman on the planet and ranks 20th in the ranking richest people on earth.
There are so many fascinating things in the world to learn, and even more to remember, all this is simply unrealistic. Therefore, it is best to learn a little bit of everything, choosing only the most interesting from it. Today we hope to become a source of insight for you by presenting a collection of 20 fascinating facts about a wide variety of things. Educate yourself, have fun and get smarter 💗
The modern air conditioner was invented by Willis Carrier not for the comfort of people, but to control temperature and combat damaging humidity in the printing
house.The actual first apparatus was invented on July 17, 1902 in Buffalo, New York, USA, when Carrier created the first air conditioner for the Brooklyn printing house. The inventor received a patent for the air conditioner on January 2, 1906. The very first air conditioner designed to cool people's homes was installed in 1914 by the design of Willis Carrier in Minneapolis.
Rolling Stones bassist Bill Wyman began dating his second wife Mandy Smith when she was 13 and he was 47. They were married for 2 years and divorced in 1993. In the same year, Wyman's 30-year-old son from his first marriage married his mother Mandy Smith, who at that time was 46 years old
Wyman's son actually married his step-grandmother. After that, he seemed to become his own grandfather 🎪
There has been no Soviet Union for 30 years, but the USSR still holds the record for the number of Olympic gold medals in wrestling
In the medal table of the Soviet Union from 1896 to 2020: 62 gold medals, 31 silver medals and 23 bronze medals, total 116 🥇🥈🥉
Immediately behind the USSR is the United States, they have over the same period: 60 gold, 47 silver and 44 bronze medals.
A Spanish civil servant did not show up to work for 6 years, and this only came to light when his superiors decided to present him with a seniority award.In
Italy, there was a similar case where a public hospital employee did not go to work for 15 years after transferred from one hospital to another in 2005. He reportedly received a total of 538,000 euros over the years of his "work" 👨⚕️
After the plague epidemic in Europe, there was a severe shortage of workers who, therefore, were able to demand higher wages. By some estimates, the wages of the average worker have increased by 50%.
Labor shortages have been observed since 1348. Of course, the rise of salary was not easy, since the feudal lords did their best to keep the workers and peasants in check, limiting their movements and passing other laws. But with the help of the uprisings, they were able to get their way.
The chemical reaction in glow sticks was discovered by Dr. Edwin Chandross in 1962, but he had no idea that his “chemiluminescent” invention was hugely popular at raves and music festivals until an interview with Vice in 2013.
He said, “Is this really so? Perhaps now my granddaughter will think that I am cool ” 🎆
Astronauts need to sleep near ventilation, otherwise, due to weightlessness, carbon dioxide from their own lungs forms a bubble around their
heads.As reported, astronauts almost always feel nasal congestion, since due to weightlessness, the natural leakage of mucus from the nasal cavities does not occur 👃
Albert Spazhyari, a bank robber from France, prepared a fake, encrypted document, allegedly proving his alibi. While the judge was distracted by decryption, Spazhyari jumped out of the window, landed safely on the roof of a parked car and disappeared from his seat on a waiting motorcycle. No one saw him
again.Some sources say that later the car owner received a check for 5,000 francs in the mail for damage to the roof 💰
Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989. He was frustrated by the fact that he had to go to his colleagues and ask what data was on their computer so that he could add it to his computer.
For the invention of the World Wide Web, we have to thank laziness and frustration.
According to the Geneva Convention, an ejected pilot in the air is not a participant in hostilities, so an attack on him is a war crime
Not only does the pilot lose the ability to attack, moreover, having landed on enemy territory, he will presumably become a prisoner of war. Shooting at paratroopers descending by parachute is not prohibited 🪂
In the original script the finale of the film "Pretty Woman" (1990) character Richard Gere had to throw Julia Roberts from his limousine in a dirty alley and throw her an envelope with $ 3,000
Once the main character Vivian (Julia Roberts) had to throw on Hollywood Boulevard, she had to throw an envelope into a leaving car. The envelope should have been torn, and the money should have disappeared in a ditch 💸
The study showed that 94% of Brits said that they talked about the weather in the last six hours, and 38% said that they had discussed it in the last 60 minutes,
which means that at any time in the UK a third of the population, or talking about the weather, or already did it, or is going to do it ☔
In 2012, a Briton named Wesley Carrington bought a metal detector and within 20 minutes found Roman-era gold worth £ 100,000 (at the time of writing, £ 10,125,345), a
34-year-old car salesman walked into a local store where he bought the cheapest metal detector for beginners. He immediately went to the local forest to try out his new toy. He immediately found a spoon and a halfpenny, but then the apparatus began to emit a loud sound signal, making it clear that there was something large and metallic under the ground 🧐
When Muhammad Ali lost the fight to Larry Holmes in 1980, 14-year-old teenager Mike Tyson, who was already a promising boxer, spoke to Ali on the phone, promising to avenge the defeat.He
fulfilled his promise seven years later, knocking Holmes out in just four rounds. Later, Tyson called this a highlight of his career. During the battle, Muhammad Ali was in the hall watching Holmes' defeat 🥊
Corporation McDonald's quietly abandoned its legendary mascot clown Ronald McDonald after the 2016 network filled rolls with cruel jokes from prankerov dressed as clowns, in which they scared people
In 2016, the real trend started in the network, in which prankery in clown costumes scared people in different ways, filming it all on camera 🤡
Popular American presenter Steve Harvey sent a TV every year to his school teacher for Christmas, who said that he would never make it on TV
“Every year, while my teacher was still alive, I sent him a TV for Christmas. I just wanted him to see me, ”said Harvey 📺
Today, in an age of satiety with all sorts of products and things, it is difficult to surprise people with anything, but manufacturers still try their best, releasing brainchilds worthy of us immediately wanting them. Whether it is a set of chocolates in the form of the solar system or playing cards with the image of cats, all these little things cause an acute desire to get them and, stroking them, say: "My excellence."
16th century ring transforming into an astronomical sphere
May the force be with you!
A box of chocolates in the form of the solar system will be a great gift for ... your beloved
Cards for gamblers and cats
"And you, Brutus?"
This flash drive has a scale showing how much memory is already full.
A sword-shaped door key that would delight some modern knight
Multifunctional bed, which you will not want to crawl out of
Descending stairs for those who like to experience the thrill
Ring of Omnipotence
An eraser that "turns" into Mount Fuji during use
Mops that look like dogs that look like mops
Wooden drink cabinet made in the shape of a robot
Waterproof socks. Yes, it turns out there are such too!
Cozy blanket in the form of pita bread, which you just want to wrap yourself in
A phone holder that will surely be the envy of others
Spy movies are a separate genre in world cinema, which has a rich history and characteristics depending on the country of production, involvement in a particular franchise (Mission Impossible, James Bond films), and authors (for example, John Le Carre). Bemorepanda has put together a list of top spy movies that will last long.
Top spy movies
Passwords and appearances, real conspiracy, double life, and a mission to save the world - enjoy exciting stories in films about spies and secret agents!
Tinker Tailor Spy
France, UK, Germany, 2011.
Duration: 127 minutes.
British intelligence suspects that a Soviet spy has been working in the organization's ranks for a long time. However, it is impossible to calculate it, and all agents who openly declare danger are soon dismissed. And then, the former intelligence officer George Smiley begins a secret investigation. The intrigue turns out to be even more complicated than he expected.
The film is based on the book of the same name by John Le Carre (in the original title and Russian, there is a part of the counting rhyme). Moreover, this novel was already transferred to the screens as a series back in 1979. The lead actor in the new version, Gary Oldman, tried to combine in his image the behavior of the actor Alec Guinness, who played in the series, and the author of the book himself. In addition, he tried to grow a slight belly, characteristic of an older adult. Such a deep approach provided him with an Oscar nomination for this role.
USA, Germany, France, Japan, 2001.
Action, thriller, detective.
Duration: 122 minutes.
On the last day of his service, CIA special agent Nathan Muir learns that his colleague Tom Bishop has ended up in a Chinese prison and will be executed within 24 hours. An experienced operative must develop a plan to rescue his partner quickly and, simultaneously, find out why he was imprisoned. It wasn't without romance.
An experienced director Tony Scott (younger brother of the famous Ridley Scott), made a lot of films about tough military men and agents. But in this picture, he decided to bet on psychology and dialogue, inviting very charismatic actors to play the leading roles. Robert Redford and his protégé Bishop played Muir.
Body of Lies
USA, UK, 2008.
Detective, thriller, drama.
Duration: 128 minutes.
US national intelligence agent Roger Ferris searches the world for terrorists and prevents dangerous events. And he is helped by CIA veteran Ed Hoffman, who constantly monitors the hero with the help of a satellite. Ferris comes up with a risky plan to capture a dangerous criminal leader. But it turns out that the management can play their game behind his back.
This film is from Ridley Scott himself, and even with Russell Crowe and Leonardo DiCaprio in the lead roles. By the way, the actors have previously starred together in the film The Quick and the Dead. According to the director's tradition, the twisted plot is filled with drive and manifestations of cruelty.
Action, thriller, adventure.
Duration: 110 minutes.
The plot of this film, based on the TV series of the 60s and which gave rise to an entire franchise, is dedicated to the secret agent of the CIA, Ethan Hunt. After the death of several colleagues, they begin to suspect him of betrayal. To clear his name, he must find the natural "mole."
Six parts of this franchise have already been released, the main advantage of which is considered a very cool action. And the lead actor Tom Cruise, despite his age, continues to perform all the most dangerous stunts without an understudy.
The IPress File
Duration: 109 minutes.
After the disappearance of several famous scientists, Sergeant Harry Palmer, who works for the British Ministry of Defense, takes over the investigation. The search leads him to an Albanian nicknamed Kingfisher. Soon Palmer finds a magnetic tape with the inscription "IPCRESS" and finds out the true purpose of the kidnapping.
The role of Harry Palmer glorified the future legend of cinema - British actor Michael Caine. And besides, many believe that it was Palmer, along with James Bond, who became the prototype of the famous comedy spy Austin Powers.
France, Italy, 1990.
Duration: 117 minutes.
A young girl, Nikita, being under the influence of drugs, went on a robbery and killed a man. The court sentenced her to life imprisonment. But after some time, Nikita was injected, and she woke up already at the school for special agents. Now she is being trained as a professional spy and assassin to perform the most secret tasks.
The success of this French film from Luc Besson spawned many remakes. First, the full-length movie “No Return” was released in the USA with a similar plot, where Bridget Fonda played the leading role. And then two series appeared: the Canadian “Her Name was Nikita” with Peta Wilson and the American “Nikita” with Maggie Q.
Action, thriller, adventure.
Duration: 111 minutes.
Based on the novel of the same name by Ian Fleming, the film first introduced the audience to the secret agent James Bond with the code 007. In this picture, he faces the powerful Spectrum organization, which is trying to take over the American silos at Cape Canaveral. The agent's main rival is the sinister Dr. No.
The James Bond films need no introduction. It was these films that gave impetus to the popularity of the spy action genre itself. More than 20 pictures about agent 007 have already been released, not counting the numerous parodies and copies.
Enemy of the State
Duration: 132 minutes.
Unsuspecting lawyer Robert Dean suddenly becomes the owner of a videotape that can expose the official. An employee is pushing a law that allows people to be monitored. From that moment on, the protagonist's life turns into a nightmare: government agents are chasing him, able to listen in on conversations and spy on any citizen through surveillance cameras. From a successful lawyer, Dean turns into an enemy of the state.
Tony Scott also directed this film. Well, Will Smith, who played the leading role, continued his victorious march on the screens: before that, he starred in Men in Black and Independence Day. Actual ahead of him was the rejection of the "Matrix" and the failure in the "Wild, Wild West."
The Man from U.N.C.L.E.
USA, UK, 2015.
Action, comedy, adventure.
Duration: 116 minutes.
CIA agent Napoleon Solo and Soviet KGB operative Ilya Kuryakin hate each other. But they have to unite to carry out the mission together. With the help of the daughter of a missing German scientist, Gabi, they must hunt down the members of the international criminal organization that created the nuclear bomb.
Like "Mission: Impossible," this film is based on a classic series of the same name. But director Guy Ritchie added his trademark humor to the story and simultaneously made a stunning visual with Cold War costumes.
Three Days of the Condor
Duration: 117 minutes.
Joe Turner, with the official pseudonym Condor, works in the secret department of the CIA. But he is engaged exclusively in paperwork: he looks for information leaks in the press with his assistants. One day, Joe goes out during his lunch break for a sandwich, and when he returns, he finds that all his colleagues have been killed. He soon realizes that he is being hunted not just by criminals but by the CIA.
The film is based on the classic spy novel by James Grady. Only the original was called "Six Days of the Condor," and the action lasted twice as long. Here you can see the still young Robert Redford, who would later play an already experienced agent in Spy Games.
France, Canada, USA, 2005.
Drama, thriller, historical.
Duration: 164 minutes.
The film is based on an actual tragedy during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich when Palestinian terrorists killed Israeli athletes. A group of Mossad agents track down and destroy everyone involved in this crime.
This film by Steven Spielberg received five Oscar nominations, particularly in the Best Picture category. However, the Munich plot drew sharp criticism from both Palestine and Israel. Representatives of both states stated that the authors greatly distorted the actual events. Spielberg replied that the film is only a tribute to the memory of the tragedy and the dead, so it should not be judged as a documentary story.
Bridge of Spies
Germany, India, USA, 2015.
Drama, thriller, historical.
Duration: 142 minutes.
This movie is also based on actual events. In the center of the plot is the lawyer James Donovan, who defended the Soviet spy Rudolf Abel at the trial. He will become the primary mediator in the negotiations when the USSR shoots down the American pilot Gary Powers. Despite the height of the Cold War, Donovan must negotiate a prisoner exchange.
And again, the picture of Steven Spielberg received six Oscar nominations. In many ways, the film's success was ensured by the excellent performance of Tom Hanks, who played the role of James Donovan.
Detective, thriller, drama.
Duration: 108 minutes.
The action of the picture takes place during the Second World War. A servant of the British ambassador in pro-neutral Turkey sells secret documents to Germany and simultaneously tries to have an affair with a Polish countess.
The picture, which appeared just in the era of the US obsession with finding spies, quickly gained public recognition and received Oscar nominations in Best Picture and Best Screenplay categories.
Kingsman: The Secret Service
UK, USA, 2014.
Action, comedy, adventure.
Duration: 130 minutes.
A young, quick-witted guy, Eggsy lives in a poor area and hangs out with criminals. After he again comes across the police, a friend of his dead father, Harry Hart, comes to the rescue. A man arranges a young man for training in the most incredible secret organization Kingsman. However, it isn't easy to stay in this school.
Director Matthew Vaughn took the famous comic book by Mark Millar as a basis, significantly changed the plot, and added utterly insane action to it. As a result, the audience saw a very bright and dynamic spy comedy. The famous film received a sequel, followed by a prequel about the organization of the Kingsman service.
The Bourne Identity
USA, Germany, Czech Republic, 2002.
Detective, thriller, thriller.
Duration: 113 minutes.
The crew of a fishing boat finds the body of an unconscious man with two wounds in the Mediterranean Sea. He does not remember his name or past events when he wakes up. Soon the man learns that his name is Jason Bourne. And at the same time finds out that the killers are on his trail.
The book of the same name by Robert Ludlum was already transferred to the screens in 1988, then Jason Bourne was played by Richard Chamberlain. But the new version with Matt Damon spawned an entire franchise about the adventures of a badass spy, which already has five films.
Thriller, drama, melodrama.
Duration: 102 minutes.
The daughter of Johann Huberman, who was arrested for treason, meets an FBI agent. As it turns out, the meeting was organized on purpose. A girl is asked to help uncover a Nazi conspiracy in Rio de Janeiro. She must marry a German agent and find out the plans of the conspirators to build a nuclear bomb. But the husband begins to suspect something, and the spy is in mortal danger.
The famous Alfred Hitchcock has always approached the development of his films with complete dedication. To be more plausible about creating a nuclear bomb, he began to turn to experts and look for documents on the use of uranium ore. As a result, the director himself fell under the suspicion of the FBI.
North by Northwest
Detective, thriller, adventure.
Duration: 136 minutes.
The protagonist Roger Thornhill, who works as an advertising agent, suddenly finds himself in the middle of a spy game. The thing is that counterintelligence takes him for a secret agent, whom no one knows by sight. Roger has to escape the personal services, and only a mysterious stranger can help him.
Alfred Hitchcock also directed this film. And the plot was based on the real story of the Second World War when British intelligence came up with a non-existent secret agent and forced the enemies to hunt for him.
Duration: 95 minutes.
A resident of Yugoslavia, Iliya Chvorovich, was summoned to the police to ask about his new lodger. He lived in Paris for 20 years, and now he is opening an atelier in Belgrade. Chvorovich decides that he has settled a spy and begins his surveillance of a neighbor, involving his wife and twin brother for this.
Not well-known now, but it is a fantastic film that combines excellent comedy and a tense plot. The picture is often called the best creation of the cinema of Yugoslavia, and the actors who played in it showed the height of their skills.
Science is a special type of human cognitive activity aimed at obtaining, substantiating and systematizing objective knowledge about the world, man, society and knowledge itself, on the basis of which a person transforms reality.
Knowledge is created and used in any sphere of human activity, but only in the field of science, the production of new knowledge is not only a means but also the main goal and main product of labor. At the same time, both the scientific knowledge itself and the process of obtaining it have a number of specific features, which, taken together, are not typical for knowledge obtained in other areas of activity.
1. Med school
2. Small things
3. This kid
Science is also understood as a historically developing set of results of intellectual activity systematized in a certain way and the social institution within which it is carried out. In the institutional context, the concept of "science" is used to refer to certain areas of scientific knowledge and the scientific disciplines that constitute them. Modern science is an extremely ramified set of individual scientific branches.
Science as a special kind of intellectual production has its own productive forces, production relations regulated by the relevant norms and standards, as well as the subject and product of labor, and includes many elements: the actual producers of scientific knowledge (scientists); historically determined forms of division and cooperation of scientific labor; conceptual and categorical apparatus of scientific disciplines; procedures for isolating the field of problems, methods and theories that can be defined as scientific; methods of scientific research, verification and systematization of acquired knowledge; scientific institutions; technical support of scientific production; system of scientific information and communications.
4. Stressed out
5. Made you cry
The direct functions of science are the study, description, explanation and prediction of reality. At the same time, science represents only one of the cuts of the diversity of the world, therefore it does not exhaust the entire culture (see Culture), but constitutes only one of the areas that interacts with other areas of human creative and cognitive activity: philosophical, artistic, empirical, religious, mythological, ideological and others. However, a clear explication of the specific features of science in the form of signs and definitions turns out to be a rather difficult task. This is evidenced by the variety of definitions of science, the ongoing discussions on the problem of demarcation between it and other forms of knowledge.
Science sets itself the ultimate goal of foreseeing the process of transforming objects of practical activity (an object in its initial state) into corresponding products (an object in its final state). This transformation is always determined by the essential connections, laws of change and development of objects, and the activity itself can be successful only when it is consistent with these laws.
Therefore, scientific knowledge is characterized by a focus on the object, on the identification of its own, immanent laws of functioning and development of the object under study. Arising from the needs of practice and regulating it in a special way, science aims to reveal the laws according to which objects can be transformed in human activity. Since any objects can be transformed in activity - fragments of nature, social systems and society as a whole (see Society), states of human consciousness, and others - to the extent that all of them can become subjects of scientific research.
Science studies them as objects that function and develop according to their own natural laws. It can also study a person as a subject of activity, but also as a special object. With regard to the processes of transformation of nature, this function is performed by the natural and technical sciences. The processes of change in social objects are studied by the social sciences. The orientation of science towards the study of objects that can be included in activity (either actually or potentially as possible objects of future transformation), and their study as obeying the objective laws of functioning and development, constitute the first main feature of scientific knowledge.
7. In our lab
8. Sad algae
9. The animal
This feature distinguishes it from other forms of human cognitive activity and determines the nature of scientific discourse, which is characterized by a claim to intersubjective significance (objectivity). So, for example, in art, the assimilation of reality always occurs as a kind of combination of the subjective and the objective, in which any reproduction of certain states of the world, man and society presupposes their emotional personal assessment. An artistic image always acts as a unity of the general and the individual, rational and emotional, and a work of art bears the stamp of a personal attitude to the world.
The scientific assimilation of reality differs from the artistic assimilation of reality by its orientation towards rational, logically substantiated and generalized objective knowledge. The products of scientific knowledge appear to be extremely cleansed of the personal component and open to criticism by any opponent who accepts the presumptions of science.
The sign of objectivity and objectivity of knowledge is the most important characteristic of science, but it is still insufficient to determine its specificity, since ordinary knowledge can also give separate objective and objective knowledge. In contrast, science is not limited to the study of only those objects, their properties and relationships that can be mastered in the practice of the corresponding historical era. It is able to go beyond the boundaries of each historically defined type of practice and open up new objective worlds for mankind, which can become objects of mass practical development only at future stages of the development of civilization.
The constant desire of science to expand the field of objects under study, regardless of today's opportunities for their mass practical development, is the system-forming feature that justifies other characteristics of science that distinguish it from ordinary knowledge.
10. Work hard
11. My thesis
12. Just a book stand
13. A sentance
First of all, it is the difference in their products (results). Ordinary knowledge creates a conglomeration of knowledge, information, prescriptions and beliefs, only separate fragments of which are interconnected. The truth of knowledge is verified here directly in actual practice, since knowledge is constructed in relation to objects that are included in the processes of production and social experience. But since science constantly goes beyond these limits, it can only partially rely on the available forms of mass practical development of objects. She needs special practices, with the help of which the truth of her knowledge is checked. Such a practice becomes a scientific experiment (see Experiment). Part of the knowledge is directly verified in the experiment, the rest are interconnected by logical connections, which ensures the transfer of truth from one statement to another. As a result, the characteristics of its knowledge inherent in science arise - their systemic organization, validity and proof.
Science, unlike everyday knowledge, involves the use of special means and methods of activity; it is characterized by the presence of a developed apparatus of methods and procedures used for rational justification, proof and verification of the knowledge gained. It cannot be limited to using only natural language and those tools that are used in production and everyday practice. In addition to them, it needs special means of activity - a special language (empirical and theoretical, created on the basis of natural language or created artificially) and special technical and instrumental equipment. It is the constant development of these tools that ensures the study of new objects, including those that go beyond the possibilities of existing production and social practice.
Related to this are the needs of science in the constant development of special methods that ensure the development of new objects, regardless of the possibilities of their current practical development. Such objects, as a rule, are not given in advance, are not fixed by the methods of everyday practice and production activities, since they go beyond their boundaries. The method in science often serves as a condition for fixing the object of study and determining its main features. Therefore, along with knowledge about objects, science systematically develops knowledge about methods.
17. Just medicine
18. Exam paper
19. Mom stuff
20. Moving a picture
27. Kelvin is cold
29. Due to the fact
34. What sort?
36. What was the reason?
39. Chemistry exam