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50 new facts about rabbits

6 days ago

Rabbits are not only fluffy animals that are massively bred in many countries. They are also surprisingly tenacious creatures that have successfully survived in the wild for many thousands of years of evolution, despite the fact that they are willingly fed by all predators that surpass them in size. By the way, contrary to the common stereotype, rabbits and hares are by no means the same thing. There are enough differences between them.


Facts about rabbits



1. Rabbits are not rodents, they belong to the hare family


They are not included in the group of rodent mammals because they have an extra pair of incisors and other skeletal features.


2. Rabbits and rodents like hamsters and rats have a common ancestor that lived many millions of years ago. However, rabbits still do not belong to rodents.


3. Rabbits are often confused with hares. But there are many differences between these animals, despite the fact that they are relatives in a biological sense.


4. Rabbits in general are not very intelligent, but nature has perfectly adapted them to survive.


5. Rabbits have been successfully surviving in the wild for many thousands of years of evolution, despite the fact that they are willingly fed by all predators that surpass them in size.


6. More than 50% of all rabbits in the world live in North America.


7. Rabbits reproduce so quickly that they successfully capture vast habitats, and many people also keep them as pets. And it's not just about farmers - some breeds of rabbits are popular as pets.




8. Despite the existence of more than 150 rabbit colors, they have only five different eye colors: brown, blue-gray, blue, pink and marble.


9. Rabbits actually have a lot more teeth than it seems at first glance - as many as 28.


10. There are about 17 thousand taste buds on the rabbit tongue.


11. They chew very quickly. When a rabbit feeds, its jaw makes an average of two chewing movements per second, and it can chew for a very long time without getting tired.


12. Nature has adapted rabbit eyes to a magnificent view so that they can always see a creeping predator. So, rabbits can even see what is happening behind them without turning their heads.


13. A hare can reach a running speed of 72 km/h, while a rabbit can only reach 56 km/h.


14. All 16 species of American rabbits live in forests and swamps and do not dig holes for themselves. In addition, they are great at climbing trees.



15. And outside of North America, all rabbits live exclusively in burrows, and they don’t know how to climb trees.


16. Wild European rabbits dig deep and branched burrows, which sometimes combine into entire underground cities.


17. Rabbits are social animals, that is, in the wild they live in groups. This distinguishes them from hares, which exist more alone.


18. Only American rabbits can live alone, and all other species usually exist in groups.


19. All kinds of rabbits, except for one, live in underground burrows. This distinguishes them from hares that build nests on the surface.


20. Previously, rabbits were specially released on deserted islands so that the shipwrecked would have a source of food before they were rescued.




21. The smallest breed of rabbits is called Little Idaho or pygmy rabbit. The weight of an adult individual reaches a maximum of only 450 grams, and the length is from 22 to 35 centimeters.


22. A rabbit has 18 claws: 4 on the hind legs and 5 on the front.


23. A female rabbit usually feeds her cubs for about 5 minutes a day.


24. Rabbits can snore. Not all rabbits snore, but some do so with great pleasure.


25. Rabbits are very quiet animals, but they are not dumb. They mutter, hiss, squeak, and the male makes a short but rather loud sound immediately after the act of mating.


26. A two-kilogram rabbit can drink as much water as a ten-kilogram dog.


27. In summer, male rabbits can become sterile, reproductive function is restored with the onset of cool weather.


28. Introduced to Australia, rabbits have bred so much on the territory of this mainland that they have become a threat to the entire Australian ecosystem. To contain their spread, the government of this country even had to erect a special fence around places abounding with rabbits.



29. In the Australian state of Queensland, it is illegal to keep rabbits, even decorative breeds. Violators face a fine of 30 thousand Australian dollars.


30. Rabbits are most active at dawn and dusk of the day.


31. Rabbits are known to be good jumpers. Rabbits easily jump to a height of a meter and a half.


32. And the longest officially registered jump of a rabbit in length is three meters.


33. On average, rabbit ears are 8-12 centimeters long, but a domestic rabbit entered the book of records, whose ears reached a length of 80 centimeters.


34. Rabbits have tiny teeth behind their front incisors.


35. A cornered rabbit resorts to its last weapon - a blow with its hind legs. With a blow of powerful hind legs armed with sharp claws, a harmless rabbit may well kill or seriously injure a predator.


36. When a danger is detected, for example, a predator, rabbits warn their relatives by drumming with their front paws on the ground or on a tree.


37. A predator can literally scare a rabbit to death.



38. In nature, rabbits live an average of about a year, and in captivity - ten times longer. This is due to the fact that almost all rabbits sooner or later become someone's prey.


39. The record for longevity belongs to the Floppy rabbit, who was born in 1964 on the island of Tasmania and died in 1983 at the age of 18 years 10 months. However, this record is already being broken by another rabbit from Nova Scotia, who recently turned 24 years old.


40. Rabbits are massively bred in many countries.




41. The history of rabbit breeding began about 4000 years ago. The remains of the first rabbit farms of this age have been found during archaeological excavations in Spain and Portugal.


42. President Lincoln allowed his son to keep many pets in the White House, including rabbits.


43. The Prussian king Frederick kept a whole colony of rabbits on a small island in the river near Berlin.


44. Napoleon 3, nephew of Napoleon 1, was one of the most famous rabbit breeders.


45. In one of the myths of the North American Indians, the rabbit, like Prometheus, stole the fire from the "fiery people" and gave it to people.


46. ​​Rabbits bring many offspring at one time, but the female herself usually cannot take out all the newborn rabbits. If you help her, they can all survive. The official litter record is 24 rabbits at a time. Such a record was recorded only twice - in 1978 and 1999.



47. A rabbit can bear two offspring at the same time, conceived at different times and from two different males, since she has a bifurcated uterus. This partly explains the fertility of these animals.


48. Some of their breeds become sexually mature as early as 3 months of age.


49. By law in the United States, rabbits under 8 weeks old are not allowed to be sold because until then they cannot be weaned from their mother. And in order to buy a rabbit there, you need to be at least 18 years old, and in some states they even require a certificate from the police stating that the potential buyer was not convicted of animal husbandry.


50. If rabbits were given the opportunity to breed as freely as possible, then after 90 years the number of rabbits would become equal to the number of square meters on our planet.



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Squirrels are cute animals that many tenderly feed nuts in parks. They are widespread all over the world, and everywhere they cause only a positive reaction in people. Shy and nimble, squirrels have a good-natured disposition. True, they are not amenable to taming - caged squirrels wither away, although they live longer than in freedom.


Most interesting facts about squirrels



1. About three thousand nuts are enough for a squirrel to eat all winter.


2. The closest relatives of squirrels are chipmunks (see interesting facts about chipmunks).


3. Squirrels molt twice a year, but their tail hair is renewed half as often.


4. The squirrel's tail serves as a rudder - when jumping, it controls its flight with its help.


5. Sensitive vibrissae in squirrels are available not only on the ears but also on the front paws.


6. Squirrels live on all continents except Australia and Antarctica (see interesting facts about Antarctica).



The squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris fuscoater) is the acrobat of the animal world. She is amazed by her leaps, from one branch to another, at great heights, and by the speed with which she runs on the branches of the trees, to which she clings with her sharp claws.


Its bushy tail, longer than the rest of its body, makes it so easily recognizable by everyone. It is the squirrel, which the ancient Greeks called "skiouros", a name resulting from the juxtaposition of the words "skia" (meaning shadow) and "oura" (tail).


That is, in a translation adapted to our day, "the one who stands in the shadow of his tail." It has lived on Earth since ancient times when American zoologists discovered fossils of gray squirrels in Carolina, whose "age" was estimated to be about 50 million years old!



7. The squirrel's body does not absorb peanuts, so it is absolutely impossible to feed them to squirrels.


8. A squirrel can land without consequences from a height of 20-30 meters, using its tail in the manner of a parachute and thus slowing down the fall.


9. In addition to ordinary squirrels, there are also flying squirrels that are able to change direction in flight (see interesting facts about flying squirrels).


10. Squirrels often forget the places of their numerous hiding places with nuts and other supplies.


11. In a day, a squirrel is able to stock up on nuts from hundreds of pine cones, which it can then eat for several months.


12. Squirrels are excellent swimmers, but at the same time they keep their tail on the surface of the water. If suddenly the tail is wet, for example, by a wave, the squirrel will most likely drown, as the wet fluffy wool will pull it to the bottom.


13. In ancient times, for many peoples, squirrel skins were the equivalent of currency (see interesting facts about currencies).



We still find it in many areas of the globe, especially near wooded land, but even in parks and on the streets of villages near forests, the squirrel easily adapts to living among people.


And people love and protect her because she is cute, playful, and not at all aggressive.


Although there are no major differences between them, there are currently over 300 breeds of squirrels, divided into seven large families, the best known and most numerous being gray squirrels, flying squirrels, and tree squirrels.


Although rodents are not usually beloved animals, in North America a breed of squirrel has become a favorite of all.


This is the striped squirrel (Tamias striatus), which lives in the woods, but spends most of its time on the ground, being a bold and courageous animal that is not afraid of humans. Striped squirrels usually search for seeds and berries, but they also eat leftovers from picnics.



14. Squirrels communicate with each other using tail movements.


15 Squirrels are very trusting, and with a little patience, you can feed them treats from your hands.


16. The average squirrel eats no more than a third of its reserves during the winter.


17. Squirrels in captivity live longer than in nature, but they do not reproduce.


18. The weight of an adult squirrel, even a very well-fed one, does not exceed one and a half 

kilograms, and usually does not even reach one kilogram.


19. A squirrel eats an amount of food equal to its body weight in a week.


20. In addition to plant foods, squirrels willingly eat bird eggs and even attack young hares (see interesting facts about hares).


21. This animal does not breed in captivity. 


22. Statistics on the number of mating periods of squirrels is not true. 



Returning to the usual squirrels and their way of life, let's say that these small animals are active all year round, not entering hibernation in winter. The fact that with the onset of the cold season they do not appear again has another explanation: they retreat into holes or burrows to protect and keep their body warm, leaving their shelter only to replenish their food supplies.


This is also a tactic to protect against predators, which in those times diversified their menu, hunting even small animals that are not usually on the list of preferred victims. One of the few natural enemies of the squirrel remains - regardless of the season - the eagle, this bird of prey often hovering over the land on which the small fluffy mogaldetes top.


A curiosity that zoologists find no other explanation than that of kinship with some rodent species is that the squirrel can move through the water swimming "doggy" and using its tail as a rudder!


Indeed, this happens very rarely: only when the squirrel has no choice does she resort to this extremely tiring means of transportation for her. Otherwise, he runs at very high speeds or makes jumps, the length of the jump can reach almost two meters.


If these jumps take place at height, from one branch to another, or even between two neighboring trees, the jump can be likened to flight, from this comparison comes the name of the flying squirrels.


You just didn't think it flew, did you?



23. Meat squirrels are forbidden to be eaten by pregnant women in Croatia. 


24. Over the past 50 million years, proteins have not changed much. 


25. A newborn squirrel weighs no more than 50 grams. 


26. These animals are born without teeth. 


27. The four front teeth of a rodent grow continuously. 


28. The squirrel is considered the cleanest rodent. 


29. Male squirrels spend more time on their appearance compared to females. 


30. The smallest species of squirrel is the African pygmy squirrel.



31. About 2.5 cm long is the smallest squirrel in the world. 


32. In the modern world, there are about 365 types of squirrels. 


33. All types of squirrels are divided into seven families. 


34. Squirrels have a well-developed sense of smell. 


35. At a distance of one mile, a male squirrel can smell the female. 


36. Baby squirrels are completely blind at the time of birth.


37. At 8 weeks after birth, this rodent can see normally. 


38. Within two months after birth, baby squirrels are completely dependent on their mother. 



39. During the winter, these rodents usually mate. 


40. Winter is considered an active season for squirrels. 


41. The male during the entire mating season tries to attract the attention of the female to himself. 


42. These rodents mate only twice a year. 


43. More than once a female does not mate with the same partner. 


44. A squirrel can fly from one tree to another. 


45. These rodents have excellent night vision.


46. ​​Squirrels are perfectly oriented in the dark. 



47. In one week, a squirrel can eat food with a mass equal to its body weight. 


48. The hind legs of these rodents are quite well developed. 


49. The front legs of the squirrel are shorter than the hind legs. 


50. A squirrel can jump about 20 pounds.



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Do you know everything about cats? Think again. Cats are naturally mysterious, they are like an onion: endless layers! Dogs will tell you all the facts about themselves. Get cozy with your best furry buddy and learn some lesser-known facts about cats.


Interesting facts about cats


We use the term "big cats" to refer to animals such as lions, tigers, and leopards for a good reason. Cats and tigers shared a common ancestor over ten million years ago. However, today's domestic cats still share 95% of their genetic code with tigers. It's no wonder why the two exhibit many of the same behaviors, including scent marking, prey stalking and attacking.


1. The cat's domestication took place approximately 9500 years ago in the Middle East in the Fertile Crescent region (the conditional name for the region with increased rainfall during the winter months), where the oldest human civilizations originated developed. 


2. A cat's tongue is pulled out at a speed of 1 meter per second when licking liquid. Unlike dogs, a cat's tongue only touches the surface of the liquid and does not penetrate it. Then the tongue rushes up and drags a column of liquid with it. 


3. Currently, there are about 600 million domestic cats in the world. 



4. A distinctive feature of the structure of the cat's eye, which is characteristic of many mammals, is the presence of a nictitating membrane (third eyelid). It can be seen when the cat sleeps with its eyes open or feels tired. If the third eyelid is constantly visible, including when the cat is awake, this in most cases can be a sign of illness. 


5. Most cats are able to give birth to one to nine kittens in one litter. The largest known litter consisted of 19 kittens, 15 of which survived. 


6. The longest-lived cat ever recorded is Cream Puff, who lived 38 years and 3 days (1967-2005). 


7. Cats see excellently in low light conditions, however, contrary to common misconception, they cannot see in absolute darkness. 


8. Vibrissae (colloquially whiskers) in cats are specialized sense organs that perform a tactile function. In no case should a cat's vibrissae be removed, since by doing so it will actually be deprived of its "orientation and navigation system" in space. 


9. While in most countries the black cat is considered a symbol of bad luck, in the UK and Australia they are, on the contrary, regarded as animals that bring good luck. 



10. Cats have a sense of smell that is about 14 times stronger than a human's, which allows them to smell odors that humans are not even aware of. 


11. Mathematician Richard Montgomery once developed a special theory called the falling cat theorem. According to her, a cat falling backwards always flips upside down to land on its feet. 


12. A cat almost never meows to other cats, mostly this sound is intended for people. They tend to purr or hiss at other felines. 


13. The Burmese cat breed has a very calm, obedient and gentle character. They are very smart and sociable. As a rule, they greet guests with great curiosity and completely without fear. Unlike some other more active breeds, cats of this breed often like to sit on their laps and hands. 


14. Cats should not be deprived of meat food, since it is impossible to synthesize all the amino acids they need from plant foods. 


15. Cats eat grass, leaves and young shoots of plants to improve the functioning of the digestive system, as well as to induce vomiting to cleanse the stomach of hair. 


16. Cleanliness is an instinct in all felines: cleanliness of the body is necessary when hunting, so that the victim could not smell the lurking predator. They wash themselves by licking their fur at least ten times a day. 



17. Maine Coon cats are highly intelligent. This is one of the few breeds that can be trained. 


18. In the claws of cats there is a pulp - a blood vessel that reaches almost to the tip of the claw. In cases where the nails need to be trimmed, this must be done with extreme caution. 


19. Cat nail amputation is prohibited by law in Germany and Switzerland, and in many other European countries it is also prohibited under the European Companion Animal Convention. 


20. Valerian root extract contains actinidin, which is the culprit in the unusual behavior of domestic cats and other felines (tigers, lions, cougars, etc.). Its smell is similar to the smell of one of the components contained in cat urine. 


21. Cats are able to give their voice about a hundred different intonations, while dogs - only about ten. 


22. The Abyssinian cat is one of the oldest cat breeds. They are named after the African country of Abyssinia, now Ethiopia. 


23. The "purr apparatus" in cats is the thinly connected hyoid bones that lie between the base of the skull and the base of the tongue. Muscle contraction near the vocal cords causes them to vibrate. The cat makes a purring sound with its mouth and nose, and the vibration spreads throughout its body. 



24. When a cat is pleased, it extends and retracts its claws on its front paws. This movement is called the "milk step" - with this movement, the kittens stimulate the release of milk from the mother's nipples during feeding. 


25. Yuri Dmitrievich Kuklachev gained fame by being the first in the USSR to engage in circus work with cats. In addition to performances with cats, Yuri Kuklachev regularly conducts "Lessons of Kindness" in schools, child care facilities and even in children's colonies in different cities of Russia. 


26. In the UK, two cats - Humphrey (1988-2006) and Larry (2007-) were awarded the official title. Cats living in the residence of the Prime Minister of Great Britain received the title of "Chief mouser of the government residence". 


27. Cats are very sensitive to vibrations. They can feel an earthquake 10 or 15 minutes before a human. 


28. In the 1930s, two Russian biologists discovered that the color change in Siamese kittens depended on their body temperature. Siamese cats carry albino genes that are triggered at body temperatures above 36℃. In warm parts of the body, less pigment is produced than in cold parts, so the ears, paws, tail and muzzle are painted in a darker color compared to the rest of the body. 



29. Even a cat entering the water for the first time will swim well, because the position and movements of its body when swimming will be the same as when walking. 


30. In ancient Egypt, cats were considered the embodiment of the goddess of fertility Bast and were revered as sacred animals. The punishment for their murder was the death penalty. 


31. In the Catholic countries of medieval Europe, the cat was considered a companion of witches and the personification of evil spirits. Because of this, they were burned alive at the stake or thrown from the bell towers. The destruction of cats is indirectly attributed to the cause of outbreaks of plague epidemics, since there was almost no one to exterminate rats and other rodents that carry the disease. 


32. In Russia, a domestic cat was expensive and could serve as a valuable gift, since it guaranteed the protection of the crop from rodents. She was also a symbol of peace and prosperity in the house, protecting the house from evil spirits. 


33. Cats are the only animals allowed to enter the mosque. 


34. The most fluffy and thick fur among cats has a manul. While other cats have an average of 2,500 hairs per square centimeter, Pallas' cats have 9,000.



35. Unlike dogs, cats have not undergone significant changes during their domestication process. 


36. In cats, sweat glands are located only on the paw pads. 


37. A cat's heart beats almost twice as fast as a human's, between 110 and 140 beats per minute.


38. Like humans, cats have a dominant hand. 


39. The most popular breeds are Persian, Maine Coon and Siamese cats. 


40. On short distances, the speed of cats can reach 49 kilometers per hour.



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Chickens are popular pets in the yard, but ducks have many of the same characteristics. This has led to the care of these waterfowl for feathers, meat, and eggs and simply as pets. There are a variety of duck breeds, and some make better pets than others, but they all have similar care requirements. Before purchasing a pet duck, housing, food, water, zoning restrictions, and health issues should be considered. But if you are adequately prepared for one, you will be rewarded with a few years with your feathered friend.

Cute duck pictures 

1. Flower duck

2. Lost dog

3. Strong dog

Some ducks, such as Pekin ducks, can be very friendly and calm, while others are more active and noisy. If noise is an issue, make sure you choose a breed that is not overly talkative, but otherwise sleeping, grazing, and swimming will consume most of your duck day.

Ducks, like other birds, do best in groups and will be friendlier if tamed by hand at an early age. Most ducks are not aggressive, unless they are nesting or keeping their young, so while a duck is more likely to run away than to bite if scared, this does not mean that socialization is not important. Ducks may not have teeth, but they have beaks that can hurt if bitten.

Ducks are outdoor pets, but they can still enjoy a safe home. You should have plenty of space to travel and swim during the day, but at night, in bad weather or if predators are free, you need a shelter to keep your ducks safe. A shed, a large dog house, a modified chicken coop, or a specially designed and sold duck house should be permanently accessible to your feathered birds. About four square feet of floor space is suitable for one duck, so if you have more than one duck, you may need a large henhouse or several burrows.

4. Happy duck

5. Ducklings

6. Traveling duck

Ducks do not bake, so no roosters are needed in the duck house, as they are for chickens, but they should have clean bedding to walk and stretch. Ducks produce a lot of feces, so regular cleaning is a must. Straw is best, but pine needles or wood chips can also be spread on the floor of the duck house. Wire wire grills can cause injuries, and unclean bedding can cause health problems, so the floor in your duck house is very important.

If your ducks are not outdoors in your yard or on your farm, the wire fences should be attached to the basket to keep them covered. Each duck should have at least 15 square feet of land to travel, so the space you need to secure in this enclosure will depend on how many ducks you have.

Ducks are omnivorous, so pet ducks should eat a variety of foods. A commercially available pellet duck feed should be the basis of any pet duck's diet, as it is complete and balanced, but vegetables and insects can also be offered as delicacies. Leafy greens, earthworms, worms, green peas, corn kernels and other products are healthy additives to the duck's daily meals.

In addition to the fact that there are pellets available in a feeder or in a shallow dish, fresh drinking water should also be provided. A duck waterer should be cleaned regularly and kept full, as ducks drink at least one liter of water a day.

7. Real life

8. Bath duck

9. Hello

Ducks are often considered farm animals and are not legal to keep everywhere due to zoning restrictions. Not all cities and communities allow ducks, so you'll need to check the specific rules, regulations, and ordinances you live in before buying pet ducks. Wild ducks are not legal to own, but domesticated ducks can be kept if the place where you live allows it. If pets or poultry are allowed, you may be allowed to keep ducks, but there may be specific housing requirements when they are allowed outside their home.

Since it is not legal to take a duck out of the wild, you will want to find a place where you can buy a domesticated duck. Incubators sell ducks that can be ordered online or purchased in person, but many feed stores and family farms will also sell ducks. Make sure you choose an active duck that has no eye or nose drain and has clean ventilation feathers to increase the likelihood of buying a healthy pet.

If you are interested in pet ducks and can legally own birds or animals, check out these other popular pet options:

10. Beach mood

11. Sleeping buddy

12. So cool

The rates require quite a lot of care compared to the care of chickens. They need a lot of fresh water, which they pollute frequently - so they need to be changed fairly regularly. And you'll have to do a lot of cleaning after the ducks - and it's often a lot of damp, smelly debris.

Because ducks usually cannot fly, they are a possible target when it comes to local wild predators. This does not mean that you will have to keep them closed, but when they are outside, your rates will need to be monitored and protected from potential wildlife attacks.

Rates are not doing well in colder climates. If the temperature is below -1 gr. Celsius, the rates will spend only a short time outside every day, which means more dirt to clean in the house.

Finally, pet rates can be quite noisy, especially when they want something or someone. Neighbors may not tolerate their sniffing as well as you do.

You will need a completely closed, predator-resistant shed. Ducks do not tend to fly up and perch like chickens so height is not important. What you need to keep in mind when it comes to installment payments is the floor space.

The floor matters because you will need to place a pot of water here. Ideally, the floor should be waterproof. You can use linoleum, tarpaulins or a rubber floor to prevent damage to the floor. As a bedding material you can use softwood chips, recycled paper, absorbent materials, etc.

Since the rates cannot jump, it is good that the entrance to the cottage has a low opening or a fairly wide and stable ramp for the rates to enter.

Ducks love to swim. Sprinkle with water. To drink water. To take a bath. Everything in their lives revolves around water, which means that the bigger the tub, the better.


13. Dog mom

14. Baloon

15. These feet

16. Look mom

17. Traveling

18. Einstein

19. Buddy

20. Cute duck

21. So playful

22. Sun vibes

23. Duck in black

24. Chilling

25. Fast duck

26. Time goes by

27. Good morning

28. Sea vibes

29. Love

30. Chilling 


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Amazing creatures, sea urchins, have long tormented the minds of zoologists. These underwater animals are very interesting from a biological point of view, and the conditions in which some of their species live seem to be truly extreme. But people are willing to collect them, especially in shallow water, as sea urchins in some countries are enviable food. However, most tourists who have tried them do not share this opinion.


Facts about sea urchins



1. Animal sea urchins are echinoderm mollusks.


2. These amazing creatures have long been under the close attention of zoologists, as sea urchins are very interesting from a biological point of view.


3. These underwater animals attract with their unusual appearance and physiology.


4. In total, there are about 940 species of sea urchins in nature, and in our time, zoologists continue to discover more and more of their species.


5. Sea urchins are one of the longest living animals on Earth. They are older than dinosaurs. Their first species appeared on our planet about 450 million years ago.


6. These animals are able to easily withstand the monstrous pressure of the water column. Research probes have detected them at depths of up to 7 kilometers.


7. These animals live only in very salty waters, therefore, where large rivers partially desalinate the seas and oceans into which they flow, sea urchins are not found.


8. The size of the largest sea urchins reaches 30 centimeters in diameter, while in the smallest it does not exceed 2 centimeters.


9. The conditions in which some of the species of sea urchins live seem truly extreme. 


10. They are also found not only in warm waters. Some sea urchins even live in the Antarctic climate.


11. Sea urchins can drill holes for themselves even in strong granite rocks.




12. The record holder for the length of the spines among all sea urchins are diadem hedgehogs (the length of their spines is up to 70 cm with a shell diameter 10 times smaller), and in flat hedgehogs their length does not exceed 2 millimeters.


13. Also diadem sea urchins glow in the dark.


14. Most sea urchins lay eggs, but some give birth to live offspring, like mammals.


15. Sea urchins got their name for a reason. Their entire body is covered with movable sharp needles, although there are a small number of species lacking this feature. Basically, the needles serve to protect against predators. Their long needles are a formidable and effective weapon. But needles serve them not only for protection, but also for movement, as well as for obtaining food.


16. On the body of sea urchins there are over 1000 tiny legs with suction cups on them. Thin legs pass through the shell. On their feet are suction cups, with the help of which these animals move.


17. In addition, their legs are adapted for burrowing. The legs of sea urchins are also located on the back, they serve to sense the environment. And some species have adapted their unusual limbs to obtain food and cleanse their shells of pollution.


18. Sea urchins do not have bones. Their body is covered with strong calcium plates that cover the body like an orange peel. These plates are symmetrical to each other, they are strong enough and protect the internal organs from mechanical damage.


19. By the annual rings on the shell of these animals, one can determine their age in the same way as by the growth rings of trees.



20. Sea urchins have five jaws at once, each of which has one tooth. These teeth can move independently of each other. Their teeth grow throughout their lives. Thanks to friction against each other, they grind off and always remain sharp enough. The mouth of these animals is somewhat reminiscent of a beak.


21. The eyes of sea urchins are located in the upper part of the body, and the mouth is in the lower.


22. Puberty in sea urchins occurs only 2-3 years after birth.


23. And in some of their species - even after 5 years. That's why they reproduce so slowly.


24. Sea urchins reproduce by external fertilization - they release sperm and eggs directly into the water.


25. First, the animal passes through the larval stage. Until its final transformation, it moves along the bottom along with other plankton.


26. In food, sea urchins are completely illegible. They feed mainly on algae, but are also not averse to eating small invertebrates, the remains of dead fish and other small living creatures.



27. A large brood needs a lot of food. Hedgehogs literally eat all the coral reefs. Some of them even eat each other.


28. They continue to grow throughout life.


29. Most species of sea urchins are nocturnal.


30. One of the species of sea urchins cannot roll back if they are knocked over. In this case, these animals die.


31. Amazing sea urchins are always a close object of attention for lovers of snorkeling or scuba diving.


32. These strange creatures look very unusual, and many people want to touch them, but this should absolutely not be done.



33. You can easily prick yourself on the spines of a sea urchin, and such injections are very painful.


34. If you step on a sea urchin, its needles, like fragile glass, break into many fragments, sticking into the body. Their extraction is a very complicated and painful operation, which only experienced doctors can do.


35. And some types of sea urchins are poisonous, and therefore very dangerous.


36. Poison is contained in the mucus on their spines.


37. During low tide, sea urchins do not risk staying on the shore, where they can become easy prey. Usually they either hide in burrows or burrow into the sand.




38. Close relatives of sea urchins, according to scientists, are sea cucumbers.


39. Some small fish have learned to have a mutually beneficial coexistence with sea urchins.


40. They hide between its needles in case of danger, and in response they eat the parasites that have stuck around it, from which the hedgehog cannot get rid of on its own.


41. On average, sea urchins live for about 30 years. But some types of sea urchins are real centenarians. In the wild, they live up to 200 years.


42. Despite their own pricklyness, they often become victims of predators. A large number of different animals prey on these echinoderms. They are readily eaten by fur seals, birds, fish, lobsters and starfish.


43. One of the most formidable enemies of sea urchins is the sea otter. He breaks the needles of his prey with a stone, and then eats her insides. Sea otters eat so many sea urchins every day that their entire insides turn purple due to the pigment contained in these echinoderms.



44. Humans also pose a considerable danger to the diversity of species of this class. Sea urchins in many countries are part of the national cuisine. Their caviar is mainly used for food.


45. Many people are willing to collect sea urchins, especially in shallow water, as sea urchins are a delicacy in some countries. But most tourists who have tried them do not share this opinion.


46. ​​There is a whole fishery for their breeding and catching. Due to human activities and active fishing, many species are endangered.


47. Although sea urchins are distributed throughout the world. They are found in all oceans and in almost all seas, including the coldest ones.


48. There are only three seas in which not a single species of sea urchins lives - the Caspian, the Black, and, of course, the Dead Sea.


49. These animals are very useful creatures. They absorb carbon dioxide like plants. And sea urchins reduce the level of radiation in the oceans.


50.Sea urchins are an essential part of the ocean ecosystem.


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There are many types of sharks in the world, although the word "shark" most of us think of a huge killer fish from some Hollywood horror movie, terrifying the coastal waters. In fact, not all types of sharks are dangerous to humans, and even those that can harm or kill do not often cause the death of a careless diver.


More than 550 species of sharks live on our planet, and we periodically meet information about sharks from news sources. However, we know little of the interesting facts associated with them, such as the fact that sharks have been living on the planet for more than 400 million years. So sharks are older than dinosaurs.


Interesting facts about sharks


1. The body of a shark produces a special substance that blocks all its pain sensations.


2. Up to 30 tons per 1 sq. cm is the largest shark bite force.


3. About 3.5 years is the gestation period for a shark. 


4. The speed of large sharks can reach up to 50 km / h. 


5. A shark can't stop abruptly. 


6. No more than 15% of its own weight is the average weekly diet of a shark. 



7. 15 cm is the smallest shark size, and 12 meters is the largest. 


8. The minimum speed of a shark is 2.5 km / h. 


9. To regulate the salinity of water, the body of a shark can produce special means. 


10. To conserve energy, a shark can turn off part of the brain. 


11. In the water column, the scales of the skin of a predator help to move faster. 


12. Thanks to its large liver, the shark stays on the water. 



13. This predator has a low level of blood flow activity. 


14. Shark skin is lubricated with a special oily secret to reduce resistance when moving in water. advertising | 16+ More 


15. Some species of sharks may have glowing eyes. 


16. The lateral line helps sharks navigate in space. 


17. A shark's eating habits can be affected by the phases of the moon. 


18. Sharks never stop moving or sleep. 


19. Warm-blooded species include the blue, great white, and mako sharks. 


20. Sharks never blink. 



21. There is a species of shark that emits photophores on its fins. 


22. Along the intestine there is a special valve in the form of a spiral to increase the absorption surface of the large intestine. 


23. Two whirlwinds in one muscle movement can create a shark's tail fin. 


24. The osmotic pressure of a shark provides half the salt content in the sea water of the ocean. 


25. Sharks can suffer from food fever. 


26. Some sharks can rest on the ocean floor.


27. If you pull the shark by the tail for a long time, then it can drown. 



28. A shark's sense of smell is one of the best on the planet. 


29. A shark can experience a voltage of 0.01 microvolts. 


30. Even above the surface of the water, a shark can smell. 


31. In 360 degrees, the hammerhead shark is able to inspect the space. 


32. The shark is perfectly oriented in space. 


33. The Earth's electromagnetic field serves as a "compass" for sharks. 



34. The structure of the eye in sharks has the same configuration as in humans. 


35. The muscles of the diaphragm in a shark are responsible for focusing the image. 


36. At a distance of up to 15 meters in opaque sea water, a shark is able to see. 


37. Shark sees 45 frames per second. 


38. Shark eyes are able to distinguish colors. 


39. 10 times the quality of a shark's vision compared to a human.


40. A shark can swim safely in the dark and with its eyes closed. 



41. A shark can feel sounds with its entire skull. 


42. In the range of 10-800 hertz, a shark is able to distinguish sound signals. 


43. The white shark has the best hearing. 


44. Sharks are able to detect changes in water temperature thanks to sensitive skin receptors. 


45. Among the possible threats to humans in the water, the shark is the last on the list. 


46. ​​A double shark attack on the same person is known. 



47. Every year, sharks make up to ten attacks on ships. 


48. Sharks, attacking ships, often get stuck in them. 


49. Florida's New Smyrna Beach is the place where most shark attacks have been recorded. 


50. Shark often attacks inedible objects that impede its movement.


51. A shark uses a special system to warn people of an attack. 


52. Predators often attack the male half of the population. 


53. A dressed person in the water attracts the attention of a shark more than an undressed one. 



54. In 1873, the white shark received its official name. 


55. A juvenile white shark feeds exclusively on fish. 


56. At the age of 15, a white predator reaches sexual maturity. 


57. Killer whale often hunts the great white shark. 


58. The great white shark closes its eyes at the last moment of the attack. 


59. More than 10 meters in length reached the largest sharks caught. 


60. Young predators survive on their own without the support of their parents. 



61. About 47% of all shark attacks end successfully. 


62. Waiting and many hours of tracking down prey is part of the shark's hunting strategy. 


63. In one year, on average, a white shark eats up to 11 tons of food. 


64. A great white shark can live without food for three whole months. 


65. Often in captivity, a shark refuses to eat. 


66. The "scavenger" of the ocean is called the tiger shark. 


67. Powder kegs and cannonballs were found in the stomach of a tiger shark.


 68. Compared to bull skin, tiger shark skin is 10 times stronger. 



69. A tiger shark is considered a nocturnal predator. 


70. A bull shark can live in fresh waters. 


71. About half of all attacks on humans are carried out by a bull shark. 


72. In India, the dead are thrown into the water with voracious bull sharks. 


73. A bull shark is considered an almost immortal predator, which can eat its own insides. 


74. The largest amount of testosterone is produced in the bull shark. 


75. Only in the back row do new teeth grow in a bull shark. 



76. The maximum length of a shark's teeth is 18 cm. 


77. Up to 15,000 pieces can be the number of teeth in a shark. 


78. A shark renews up to 24,000 of its teeth in one decade of life. 


79. Only 6 mm is the size of the teeth of the whale shark. 


80. About 5 cm is the length of the white shark teeth. 


81. The only bone tissue in the body of a shark is the teeth. 


82. Shark can determine the fat content of the victim with the help of teeth. 



83. Each type of shark has its own shape of teeth. 


84. A shark jumps up to three meters in the water while hunting. 


85. The fox shark has an unusual way of hunting. 


86. The wolf is the terrestrial brother of the shark. 


87. The gray shark hunts in an original way. 


88. A dolphin can attack a shark to protect its offspring. 


89. The tiger shark has characteristic teeth and a very large mouth. 


90. Large crocodiles are among the shark's enemies. 



91. A shark can hunt a whale.


 92. Sperm whales and porpoises can attack a shark. 


93. Shark attacks only obviously weak opponents. 


94. The whale shark is the largest species. 


95. About 15 tons is the weight of the largest shark. 


96. In the shape of a rectangle, the whale shark lays its eggs. 


97. About 100 kg on average weighs a baby whale shark. 


98. A female whale shark can carry 300 new embryos at the same time. 


99. About 200 kg of plankton are eaten daily by a whale shark. 


100. The speed of the whale shark often does not exceed 5 km / h.


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