17 embarrassing moments that actors had to go through when they were caught off guard on purpose.
Art requires sacrifice! This is exactly how film directors seem to reason, sometimes subjecting actors to difficult tests, so long as their emotions are as realistic as possible. And no matter how terrible it may sound, such harsh methods pay off.
Tricks of directors who helped to get real emotions from actors
Of course, what the actors have to go through is known only to themselves and the film crew. It remains for us to enjoy the wonderful game and genuine emotions of the heroes and heroines of the films.
But today you can go behind the scenes and find out what tricks directors use to make everything that happens in the frame look believable.
1. In Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory, no one was warned about the boat scene, the spooky tunnel, or the Gene Wilder song, so the children's worried faces don't look fake.
That's not the only surprise - Peter Ostrum, who played Charlie, had no idea Gene would be so pissed off in Wonka's office, which is why he looks so depressed.
2. Everyone on the Titanic knew the water was going to be cold, but they weren't prepared for how cold it would actually be. The water was so cold that Kate Winslet couldn't stop shaking during the ax scene.
Despite shooting in extreme conditions and even hypothermia, Kate said she didn't want the water to be warm, because then she would never know what it was like to be in a similar situation.
3. Michel Gondry, director of Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, encouraged actors to do things that others didn't expect. In some scenes he asked Kate to be funny while Jim was told to be serious
According to Michel Gondry, although he eventually got into the process, such jokes made Jim nervous - everyone but him was encouraged to improvise, and there were several moments when he seemed to be really taken by surprise.
4. In "Mary Poppins", the kids playing Jane and Michael had no idea that Mary's bag had some kind of "magical" properties, so when she pulled the whole hanger out of it, their emotions were genuine.
Karen Dotrice, who played Jane, recalled that the crew went to great lengths to make sure she and her on-screen brother Matthew Garber were busy on set to distract them from what was happening.
5. And in The Alien, none of the kids saw the doll until filming started. The film was shot in chronological order, so their first impressions were completely real.
Steven Spielberg had several ways to get the most out of the kids: the writer took notes when they chatted during filming and also encouraged them to improvise.
6. It had a similar idea - children were kept away from Bill Skarsgård to capture their first frightened reactions on film.
Although they were clearly frightened by his clownish antics and intense scenes, none of the children seemed to be as frightened as Bill feared.
7. In "The Mockingjay, Part 1," the director filmed and edited test footage of Pete's interviews that will be played during scenes with Jennifer Lawrence. Jen missed working with Josh Hutcherson so he knew showing him on screen during her scene would elicit an emotional reaction.
According to Francis Lawrence, filming the interview scenes only took a few hours, and while it was hard for Jennifer to see Josh only on screen, it helped her feel some genuinely painful emotions.
8. The Blair Witch Project actors were given a 35-page script and asked to improvise. They were taken into the woods, and as you can imagine, the results were horrendous.
If you don't know the story, the film was presented as "restored footage" of three directors who disappeared after searching for the Blair Witch. For eight days, the actors worked almost around the clock and seven days a week, and were even deprived of food. Their realistic performances and some extreme promotional methods have led many people to think that they are actually dead.
9. To recreate the revolutionary spirit, the actors of Les Misérables were told to build a barricade in 10 minutes. All this time they were filmed, and what they did ended up being used in the film.
The actors didn't know where the cameras were placed and it looked quite chaotic, but the barricade turned out to be quite realistic, and only needed to be secured a little to keep it up.
10. To prepare for Saving Private Ryan, all the main actors were sent to a 10-day boot camp with harsh conditions, except for Matt Damon, who remained in America. Matt's character was meant to be repulsive, and he was intentionally left out to keep the on-screen hostility as realistic as possible.
The conditions at this boot camp were really not sugary, and the fact that Matt was at home at this time naturally created a negative attitude towards him. Training was so hard that after four days everyone wanted to quit,
The conditions at this boot camp were really not sugary, and the fact that Matt was at home at this time naturally created a negative attitude towards him. The training was so hard that after four days everyone wanted to quit, but Tom Hanks persuaded them to pull themselves together. Matt said that when he eventually showed up on set, his co-stars were hostile towards him and it showed on screen.
11. When Alan Rickman was filming the end of Die Hard, the director told him that he would count down from three and that Hans would fall to his death after he said "one" but told the stuntmen to let him go first.
The actor was dropped just a moment earlier than he expected, but there is genuine fear in his eyes. And although Alan, as you might imagine, was not too happy with such a trick, the end result was worth it.
12. While filming The Exorcist, director William Friedkin fired a gun on set to really scare the actors.
In his defense, Friedkin said that he used blanks, but the actors portrayed exactly the emotions that he needed, and at the same time looked very believable.
13. Jay Baruchel was so afraid of roller coasters that he even made a deal with Knocked Up director Judd Apatow to film the earthquake scene naked if he didn't have to ride any of the rides. However, those who have watched the movie know that Judd did not keep his promise.
Jay was sure that his agreement with Judd was still valid (Jay told him that he was going to have a panic attack), but on the right day, Jonah Hill did not appear for the shooting of this scene, and Judd persuaded Jay to film instead of Jonah. Therefore, the screams in the film are real.
14. Steven Spielberg hired a female stuntman to play the first victim in Jaws. She was tied to a cable, and the diver was ready to pull her under the water. After the first few takes were unsuccessful, Spielberg ordered the actress to be dragged under the water unexpectedly for her - so although the shark was a prop, the victim was drowning as if in reality
All this looked so realistic that many thought that the girl was really injured. It was rumored that her ribs and hip were broken, but in fact she was not injured, except for the fright from the unexpectedness of what was happening.
15. The first dance at the Yule Ball is one of Harry's most awkward Goblet of Fire moments, and it's no coincidence that Daniel Radcliffe had a lot less time to memorize the choreography than the rest of the cast.
In the book, Harry is described as a bad dancer, and thanks to Daniel's busy filming schedule, this was reflected in the film. While he was busy filming the tournament scenes, the other actors spent all their free time choreographing. They rehearsed a lot together, while Daniel had only four days to prepare for the ball.
16. It's more of an accident when nature took the actors by surprise, but it's worth mentioning. There is a scene in Call Me by Your Name where Elio and Oliver are climbing the hill towards the waterfall. It's a happy scene, but the actors' cheers are actually reactions to nettle burns on the field.
Director Luca Guadaningo only had a short window of time to film the entire scene—the "waterfall" was actually a hydroelectric dam that only opened once a year. Since there were few opportunities for re-shoots, there was probably no time to pay attention to small things like nettles.
17. Avoiding spoilers in Marvel movies is no joke, so in Endgame, the directors made sure no one found out. So when it came to filming Tony's funeral, some of the actors thought they would be in the wedding scene.
After Avengers: Endgame was released, Tom Holland and Mark Ruffalo released photos from the day of filming, despite the fact that everyone present was forbidden to film what was happening on smartphones.
One can only wonder how the actors were able to reincarnate in such a way and demonstrate grief after such a prank.
How "Avatar: The Way of Water" was filmed - the film that showed the world a new level of special effects
James Cameron's epic sci-fi film Avatar: The Way of the Water (2022) has hit the screens, showing audiences stunning visuals and masterful character art. An incredible world of Na'vi humanoids from the planet Pandora opens up to us; the action now takes place underwater.
Avatar 2 - the new sensation
But even more surprising is how the film was shot. You can get acquainted with the secrets of "Avatar 2" and see in the videos how the ideas and plot of the film were technically embodied. If you have yet to see this movie, then after you learn these 19 facts, you will most likely want to quickly go to the cinema or find a picture on the Web to plunge into the fantastic Universe of the legendary filmmaker again!
1. The film has a huge budget.
Director James Cameron tried to keep the production cost of Avatar: The Way of Water under wraps but didn't mention in interviews that it was "very, f... expensive" (quote). He also stated that the film arguably represents the worst business case in history, as to be profitable, it must be the third or fourth highest-grossing film in history to break even.
Wow, right? According to the latest sources, Cameron hit the spot as it was recently revealed that the film could have cost a whopping $350-400 million!
2. Everything animated characters do on screen, the actors acted out in real life.
One of the critical differences between Avatar 2 and other films that use computer characters is that all the actors of the second Avatar acted out their scenes. And the advanced motion capture technology used in filming meant that their eyes, facial expressions, emotions, and movements were captured and translated into three-dimensional computer graphics (CGI).
By comparison, one example of a movie that didn't have this was Venom. Tom Hardy, who played it, explained that motion capture was not used in the film, which gave us reason to understand that Venom himself and all his movements and facial expressions were brought to life by digital animation (which, by the way, still looks fantastic).
This leads to the idea that the technology used is one of the main reasons Avatar: The Path of Water can convey so many emotions. The characters on the fictional extraterrestrial planet seem very human. If you watch the excellent video in English of how the film was shot, you will see how the actors work and, in parallel, how their characters come to life in the digital world.
3. Actors' skills were tested when Cameron chose to shoot "wet on wet."
Forget floating rigs and dry-for-wet green screens. This is when the actors have to move on cables, depicting scuba diving, and then special effects are added - water graphics.
James Cameron was set to film the water scenes in natural water to make them as accurate as possible. Therefore, he applied the wet-for-wet technology - “wet on wet,” and immersed the actors in the water.
As visual effects supervisor Richie Baynham explained in an interview, “If an actor is actually in the water, he experiences viscous resistance. This impacts the game. That makes it feel real."
When watching the movie, you'll notice and feel the effort put into the underwater scenes, from the fluid movements of the sea creature Skimwing to the shots where the character's arms swing as they interact with aquatic plants. While the cast and stunt crew aren't in Pandora's ocean, you get to see these magical moments that would seem more raw and unnatural if filmed on land.
4. Underwater Reservoirs Were Created For The Movie
At Manhattan Beach Studios, two massive tanks were designed with which Cameron could put his wet-on-wet plan into action.
One of the tanks was used for character training and personal moments, while the other monstrous pool (measuring 36.6 meters long, 18.3 meters wide, and 9.1 meters deep, to be exact, and with a capacity of 946 cu. meters) was filled with modern machines for creating waves and currents, designed and used to enhance dynamic episodes.
5. Even the epic final fight scene was played UNDERWATER
Towards the film's end, there is a long and very verbose fight scene between Jake Sully (Sam Worthington) and Quaritch (Stephen Lang). As the episode unfolds, the viewer is drawn into what is happening and begins to believe that the characters' lives are really at stake!
Doubles play out a fight in a highly extreme situation. Also, in explaining playing out the battle with Lang, Worthington said he had his risks for several reasons. First, when he grabbed Lang with a chokehold, in his words, “the realism that you are trying to convey means that the partner can die and he cannot give an alarm because you are underwater and you simply cannot speak.”
Luckily for the actors, says Worthington, you have to rely on the people in charge of security on set and the director watching the action on the screens and counting on each other…
Judging by the footage from the set, there was nothing to do for those unable to hold their breath even for one minute. Kudos to the actors and stunt performers for practically risking their lives for our amusement. Those risks paid off!
6. The cast and crew spent over 200,000 hours of freediving.
John Garvin, a lead master diver for Avatar: The Way of the Water, stated that over 200,000 dives were completed to make "the most challenging diving movie ever made." In an interview, he said this number includes the number of challenging dives to record because some were 30 to 60 seconds long, and others were invariably longer!
Garvin explained that on a typical busy day of filming, you could see 26 scuba divers and free divers simultaneously in the water, jumping up and down like a yo-yo. That's not to mention the technicians and lighting technicians who were constantly submerged in water to set things up on set.
It's one thing to imagine how hard it was for the actors. But what to say about how much collective effort the cast and crew took to put in so many hours of hard underwater work?
7. Kate Winslet broke Tom Cruise's record for holding her breath.
In Mission: Impossible: Rogue Nation (2015), Tom Cruise managed to hold his breath for over 6 minutes. The crazy result, you say? But now he's been knocked off the championship pedestal thanks to Kate Winslet. Her preparation for the role in "Avatar 2" allowed the actress to break her record (and Cruise's record) - she held her breath for 7 minutes and 14 seconds!
8. James Cameron preferred 3D cameras to 3D film conversion
Many filmmakers prefer to convert their films to 3D in post-production. If you think about 3D movies over the years, you may not even remember that many were shot on 3D cameras. Take the useless remake of the slasher film My Bloody Valentine (2009) as one example.
But not Cameron. The director ensured that the film was shot in IMAX and 3D using a particular Sony CineAlta Venice 3D system that could be used underwater. Is there anything this person can't?!
9. 57 new species of sea creatures were created for the film
Cameron's ideas for Pandora were inspired by the marine life that exists (or once existed) right here on Earth. Nevertheless, 57 new sea creatures that have never lived on our planet were created for the film.
Speaking of Ilu, a somewhat tame reef swimmer, Cameron mentioned that he has the neck of a plesiosaur and the body of a manta ray with lower and upper wings. As you watch the movie, you will notice other unearthly amazing creatures that are still familiar to the eye - in particular, look at the talks!
10. Na'vi costumes were first created in real life
Looking at all this cinematic digitalization, one would have thought Na'vi clothing would be created from scratch by a team of digital specialists. But no! James Cameron, I'm sorry we doubted you.
It turns out that costume designer Deborah L. Scott and her team made every bracelet, necklace, and fabric worn by the Na'vi people. What is the reason for this moral approach?
"Because the technology is so good at capturing the image and texture of these elements, you can't draw them on a computer and expect them to have the 3D life they should." So the costume department went to great lengths to ensure that the design, the fabric, and how everything interacts with water would inform the digital artists well enough to make the clothes and accessories look real!
11. Filming started when all five Avatar films were written.
Having conceived five films for Avatar, Cameron followed the example of Peter Jackson (Lord of the Rings), waiting to start filming the sequel until all the scripts for Avatar 2, 3, 4, and 5 were ready!
Jackson used this approach for the Lord of the Rings trilogy, and it's safe to say that the result was a masterpiece, so Cameron decided to follow the tried and tested method.
In an interview, Cameron explained that it was necessary to "play for the actors" as if the books were written and already existed in reality. The only way to show it is with scripts that are already fully prepared so that the actors are convinced of what happened to their characters and what everything they did on set meant. Now we want to know what will happen next!
12. It took three whole years to shoot
The audience has been waiting for this sequel for a long time, and with good reason! Since so much time has been spent writing the scripts for all the remaining Avatar films, it's no surprise that filming has also taken quite a long time, starting in 2017 and wrapping up in 2020.
The creation of the second "Avatar" was indeed a long process. To estimate filming time, compare: one of the highest-grossing blockbusters of recent years, Avengers: Endgame (2019), was filmed in just five months.
13. Cameron wrote 1,500 pages of notes for four screenwriters tasked with turning them into screenplays.
The director wrote 1,500 pages of his notes to create a visually detailed universe for the writers. The team included Josh Friedman (War of the Worlds), Shane Salerno (Armageddon), Rick Jaffa, and Amanda Silver (Rise of the Planet of the Apes). You can see the last two writers in the photo.
In terms of process, Cameron and the writing team sat in the writer's room for eight hours a day for five months, working through the story in all the remaining Avatar films to make it a saga.
Cameron's trick was the last day, so everyone would be equally involved in all stories. Cunning and brilliant, Cameron!
14. One plot idea in the movie could have failed.
According to screenwriters Jaffa and Silver, there is one moment in the film that they considered "tightrope balancing" because if it wasn't done right, the audience might think it was too crazy and wouldn't buy it. What is this scary moment? Pay attention to the friendly communication between Loak (Britain Dalton) and the giant Tulkun Payakan. The writers were worried that the storyline was quite alien to the audience!
15. The film was edited twice
Avatar: The Way of Water listed the four editors-in-chief in the credits, with director James Cameron, Stephen Rivkin, John Refua, and David Brenner rounding out the team. Cameron stated that four editors "were on duty for five years with two other editors who worked for one or two years, and then a staff of about a dozen assistants was divided between Los Angeles and New Zealand."
The process was intense as the team edited the entire film twice—A revised performance.
After that, Cameron starts the process of her virtual camera, figuring out what a close-up is, a wide shot, etc., and adjusting the lighting. When these shots come into the editing room, the team has to edit everything again!”
16. Composer Simon Franglen wrote music following the example of the late James Horner.
James Horner wrote the soundtrack for the first Avatar, apparently even making a few of his instruments to bring Pandora's world to life with music. Unfortunately, his death in 2015 meant that the Avatar sequels would continue without him. However, composer Simon Franglen (pictured), who previously worked with Horner, was able to refine the score for the sequel while maintaining respect for the late composer.
“I was tasked with adding new textures, voices, and elements to the music. The sea is an integral part of many themes and motifs in my music; the shimmer of light, the ebb and flow of the waves, and the Na'vi's connection to the water were all inspiring,” says Franglen.
17. Sigourney Weaver Contributed To Kiri's Look
One crazy thing about Avatar's technology is that Sigourney Weaver, at 73, could play a 14-year-old girl and pull it off, as far as I can tell.
Kiri, Jake, and Neytiri's adopted daughter seem to have an affinity for the outside world. She is a quirky and strong character and very likable! But when Weaver first saw Kiri's original design, she objected because she thought it was too neat and pretty. Therefore, Kiri was designed to have a slightly more messy look and look more like the awkward teenager she should be.
18. Avatar 2 Rendering Caused Weta Power Grid To Be Exceeded
Film production visual effects company Weta FX exceeded the power grid that powered its data center in Wellington, New Zealand, as it prepared to render (computer-rendered) stills from a new film.
Avatar 2 averaged 500 iterations per frame, and they all had to be rendered one after the other. Higher frame rates and new technologies meant that each frame took 8,000 thread hours to generate (equivalent to 3,000 vCPUs in a cloud data center running for an hour).
The high demands were mainly due to the need to simulate water for the film. This meant that Weta was pushed to its limits and had to partner with Amazon Web Services data centers for more computing power and storage space.
19. Edward Norton Turned Down Avatar 2
, but although the actor was interested in taking part, he wanted to avoid playing the character responsible for destroying Pandora. Norton was such a big fan of the first film that he only wanted to play Na'vi, but Cameron conceived a human role. Perhaps we will see Norton in what
Inconspicuous Details that the Filmmakers have Skillfully Hidden in the Movies
Almost every film has curious details that are difficult to notice when you first watch it. Sometimes it can be unexpected characters, unobtrusively left by the director. Or inconspicuous moments that reveal the plot of the picture and add a special peppercorn to it.
At Bemorepanda, we found 13 hidden movie parts that even seasoned moviegoers might overlook. At the end of the article, you will find an unexpected fact about the cult melodrama, which many watched before the holes in the sunset of the 1990s.
1. "Matrix" - the symbol of yin and yang
When Neo and Morpheus attack each other in The Matrix, their clothing and body position form a symbol of the union of yin and yang. In Chinese philosophy, it means the interaction of opposites: light and darkness, day and night, positive and negative.
2. "Pirates of the Caribbean" - compass
In Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl, when Commander James Norrington holds up the compass, he points to Jack, not Elizabeth. This compass does not point north or south, but in the direction of what the person holding it desires most. So the filmmakers wanted to show that the commander values his duty above his feelings: it is more important for him to catch a pirate than to be with his beloved.
3. "Casino Royale" "- actress
In the 2006 film Casino Royale, actress Tsai Chin plays one of the poker players. She also appeared in the role of a minor Bond girl in the 1967 film "Live Only Twice".
4. "Cabin in the woods" - pupils
In the thriller "Cabin in the Woods" after a van crash and a collision with a zombie, you can see that Dana's pupils have become of different sizes. This is a common symptom of a concussion.
5. "The Truman Show" - cameras
In The Truman Show, the cameras appear in very obvious places, but the main character (Jim Carrey) stubbornly does not notice them. Even when a neighbor brings a trash can to Truman's car, he still does not see anything unusual in what is happening, since he has always lived in the conditions of a TV show.
6. "Shape of water" - shoes
The Oscar-winning film The Shape of Water features a scene in which Eliza admires a pair of red shoes. Later, when the heroine begins a relationship with Amphibian Man, you can see how she confidently walks through the laboratory in those very shoes. Perhaps this is how the filmmakers wanted to show that Eliza gained confidence and expanded the boundaries of her capabilities.
7. "Pirates of the Caribbean" - Jack Sparrow's father ring
In Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End, Captain Teague wears a silver skull ring. In fact, it is not a prop for the film, but a real decoration of actor Keith Richards. This ring was given to him for his birthday in 1978, and he has not taken it off since.
8. "Santa Claus" - elves
In the movie Santa Claus, when Charlie walks to school, an elf can be seen sitting behind him. This means that throughout his life, the elves watched over him and his father.
9. "Maleficent" - magic
Maleficent's magic changes color. When a witch is kind, her magic is golden. And when she does evil things, her enchantment turns green.
10. "The Chronicles of Narnia" - the fur of the White Witch
In The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, the White Witch gave the order to cut the mane of Aslan's lion, and then coldly thrust a dagger into him. Later, Tilda Swinton's heroine can be seen wearing his mech during the battle.
11. "Parasites" - Mr. Pak's company
In Parasite, the viewer is constantly reminded that Mr. Park runs a firm called Another Brick, like the song of the same name by Pink Floyd. The film's director Bong Joon Ho was a huge fan of them in college. It raises the problems of education, inequality, there is a significant line: "In general, you are just another brick in the wall." The company logo appears on the glass in the office of the head of a wealthy family, as well as on the mugs from which the heroes drink.
12. "Alice in Wonderland" - the Hatter's phrase
The Mad Hatter's lines are not as meaningless as they seem at first glance. When the Hatter asks "What do a raven and a desk have in common?" One of the most famous works of Poe is the poem "The Raven".
By the way, Depp himself suggested adding orange spots on the Hatter's face. The fact is that in the 18th-19th centuries, hatters worked with mercury, which left orange and reddish spots on the skin. In addition, the metal caused chronic intoxication, which had a detrimental effect on mental health.
13.Bonus: "10 reasons I hate" - a scene with a poem
At the end of the tape "10 Things I Hate" Julia Stiles burst into tears while reading a poem she wrote about Patrick for her English lesson. This was not actually in the script. In one of the interviews, the actress told why emotions came over her during this scene. “I absolutely did not expect to start crying. I don't know why this happened. Perhaps this was due to what was happening in my life at that time. Or I was just blown away by the whole experience of making my first big movie, ”admitted Stiles.
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Top 50 facts about cobras that you didn't know
Cobras are among the most dangerous and venomous snakes in the world. They are found on the territory of many countries and invariably instill fear in the locals. Who does not recognize this silhouette with an open hood? However, you can find an approach to cobras if you know how. Catchers of snakes have already proven this many times.
Top facts about cobras
There are many famous snakes worldwide, but cobras stand apart, mainly because they are perhaps the most recognizable reptiles in the world. There are many more poisonous snakes in the world than cobras, but the habit of these creatures opening the hood in the event of an attack made them very memorable. And does it make any difference to a snakebite victim how deadly poisonous the snake that bit her is if the venom of any cobra is usually enough to kill any living creature on Earth?
1. Cobras are large snakes known for their venom and their peculiar way of puffing out their hoods.
2. This name means, first of all, representatives of the genus of real cobras, as well as the king and collar cobras related to them. Despite its name, the king cobra does not belong to true cobras, it forms a separate genus.
3. Cobras live exclusively in the Old World - in Africa (across the continent), Central and South Asia (in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka).
4. In total, scientists distinguish 16 different types of cobras, and all of them are poisonous and they all belong to the aspid family and are related to other, no less poisonous species - deadly and cruel snakes, kraits and asps.
5. All types of cobras are quite large, one of the smallest - the Angolan cobra - reaches a length of 1.5 meters, and the largest king cobra, or hamadryad, reaches a length of 4.8 and even 5.5 meters.
6. The king cobra is the largest venomous snake in the world, reaching a size of 3-4 meters, but there are some recorded individuals in length over 5 meters, weighing up to 10-12 kilograms.
7. Despite its large size, its body does not look massive (like pythons or boas, for example), in general, these reptiles are characterized by high mobility.
8. King cobras grow all their lives, and their average life expectancy reaches 25-30 years.
9. When meeting, the king cobras stand in a combat stance and measure their height. The shorter one admits defeat and crawls away.
10. The king cobra is the only snake in the world that, on occasion, willingly feeds on other snakes, including poisonous ones.
11. King cobras are rarely kept in zoos and terrariums due to aggressiveness.
12. Unlike other snakes, the king cobra can control the dose of poison. She often bites people without poison at all, so as not to waste it on someone who is not suitable food for her.
13. Cobra swims well, and the speed of its movement on land is 6 km / h. However, this snake does not usually chase a human.
14. Sometimes these poisonous snakes are found even in the mountains, at an altitude of up to 2.5 kilometers above sea level.
15. The poison of some species of cobras is used in medicine.
16. The collared cobra is the only one that does not lay eggs, but gives birth to live cubs, and sometimes up to 50-60 at a time.
17. Collared cobra is considered one of the greatest "actresses" of the snake world. In case of danger (if spitting poison did not help), she turns her belly up and, opening her mouth, deftly pretends to be dead.
18. The habitats of cobras are diverse, however, arid places are more to their taste. A typical landscape for a cobra is bushes, deserts and semi-deserts, a number of species are found in the jungle, along river banks, but these snakes avoid very wet places.
RINGED WATER COBRA
19. Like all reptiles, cobras live alone, but Indian and king cobras are the rarest exception to this rule. These snakes are the only reptiles that form stable pairs during the mating season.
20. Unlike their other poisonous snakes, cobras do not ambush the enemy, but allow themselves to be discovered. They stand upright, open their hood and sway, as if warning that they are not to be trifled with, in order to frighten the enemy and force him to retreat.
CENTRAL ASIAN COBRA
21. These animals are thermophilic and do not occur where snow falls in winter, with the exception of the Central Asian cobra, whose range in the north reaches Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
22. The poison of all types of cobras is deadly to humans, but its strength varies from species to species. The poison of the Central Asian cobra is “not too” strong, death from its bite occurs after a few hours or even days, but the poison of the king cobra can kill a person in half an hour, moreover, there are cases when even elephants died from its bite.
23. During the hunt, cobras do not swallow the victim alive, as many people think, but first paralyze them with their poison, wait for some time until the prey dies, and only after that they start eating.
24. In a calm state, cobras do not stand out among other snakes, but in a state of irritation, they raise the front of the body and swell the neck.
25. A more or less pronounced hood is a distinctive feature of these reptiles, such a structural feature is no longer found in any other snakes.
26. Angolan cobra is the smallest of these snakes. The length of an adult usually does not exceed 1.5 meters.
27. The color of cobras is mostly nondescript, it is dominated by yellowish-brown and black-brown tones, but some species may have a bright color. For example, red spitting - brown-red, South African shield - coral.
28. Also, cobras are characterized by the presence of transverse stripes, especially pronounced on the neck.
29. The famous Indian cobra or spectacled snake got its name from the two spots that are visible on its swollen hood, these snakes have individuals with one spot, such cobras are called monocles.
30. Among the cobras there are a number of specialized species that practice a special way of hunting. They do not bite their prey, but ... shoot it with poison.
31. The Indian spitting cobra is considered the most accurate shooter, and black-necked and collared cobras from Africa also possess this skill. In these species, the opening of the poisonous channel is not located at the bottom of the tooth, but on its front surface, with special muscles the cobra compresses the poisonous glands and the deadly liquid flies out under pressure, as if from a syringe.
32. At one time, the cobra is able to fire several shots (up to a maximum of 28). The snake can shoot at a distance of up to 2 meters, and from such a distance it hits a target with a diameter of a couple of centimeters. Such accuracy is not accidental, because to kill the victim, a simple hit in her body is not enough. The poison cannot penetrate the covers of the prey and kill it, but it can have a strong irritating effect on the mucous membrane.
33. Therefore, spitting cobras always aim at the eyes, the jet of poison irritates the organs of vision and the victim loses orientation, but even if she is lucky to escape, she is doomed. The poison causes irreversible changes in the proteins of the cornea and the victim goes blind. If the poison gets into the eyes of a person, it can only be saved by immediately washing the eyes with plenty of water.
34. African spitting cobras are capable of spraying poison at the enemy up to 30-40 times in a row in a short period of time.
35. The Philippines is home to the second most venomous cobra, whose venom can kill an adult in half an hour. She is especially dangerous because she does not need to bite - she also belongs to the spitting.
36. Distinctive features of the cobra - six shields on the head. True, when meeting with her, there is usually no time to look at them.
37. Despite its poisonousness, the cobra is quite edible, and in a number of Asian countries it is considered a rare and expensive delicacy.
38. Cobras breed once a year. Sexual intercourse in cobras can last two to three days. Male king cobras have two penises instead of one.
39. The breeding season occurs more often in January-February (for example, in the Indian cobra) or spring (in the Central Asian), the females of these species lay their eggs in April-May or June-July, respectively. The fecundity of cobras is highly dependent on the species and can range from 8 to 70 eggs.
40. Cobras lay their eggs in crevices between stones, heaps of fallen leaves and similar shelters. Females usually guard the clutch.
41. The behavior of the royal and Indian cobras is especially interesting. Their females not only protect the eggs, but also build a nest for them. This seems surprising when you consider that snakes are completely devoid of limbs. To do this, the cobra rakes the leaves with the front part of the body into a pile, laying eggs, it remains to guard them. Moreover, the most active part in the protection of the nest is also taken by males, who do not leave their chosen ones until the offspring hatch.
42. During this period, Indian and king cobras can be very aggressive, actively driving animals and people away from their nest. This was the reason to accuse these snakes of unpredictable attacks on humans, in fact, such behavior is observed only during the breeding season.
43. Hatched serpents are completely independent and already have poison, however, due to its small amount, they initially hunt the smallest prey and even insects.
44. Young cobras are usually striped, and the black and white cobra even got its name from the color of the young.
45. The life expectancy of cobras in nature has not been precisely established; in captivity, one black-and-white cobra lived for 29 years, which is a very high figure for snakes.
46. Cobras are more active during the day and are generally very resistant to overheating. In most people's minds, cobras are aggressive, but in fact, these snakes are quite calm and even a little phlegmatic. Knowing their behavior, they are easy to control, which is often demonstrated by "charmers" of snakes.
47. Cobras feed on small rodents, birds (passerines and ground-nesting, for example, nightjars), lizards, frogs, toads, smaller snakes, and eggs.
48. The king cobra feeds exclusively on reptiles, and eats lizards extremely rarely, and more often hunts other snakes. Its victims are usually the most poisonous species and the closest relatives of cobras - kraits and asps.
49. Despite the strong poison, cobras also have enemies. Young animals can be attacked by larger snakes, monitor lizards, and adults are preyed upon by mongooses and meerkats. Although these animals do not have innate immunity to cobra venom, they are so clever at distracting the snake's attention with false attacks that they manage to seize the moment and deliver a deadly bite to the back of the head. A cobra caught in the path of a mongoose or a meerkat has no chance of survival.
50. For protection, cobras have a number of devices. Firstly, this is the famous stand, which performs a signaling role. Although a cobra that puffs out its hood is extremely dangerous in a person’s mind, in fact, this behavior allows you to avoid an unexpected encounter with a snake and bypass it. Cobra, in turn, achieves just such a reaction. Secondly, if a cobra is caught or annoyed, it does not immediately go on the attack. Often in such cases, the snake connects additional means of intimidation - loud hissing and false attacks, during which the snake does not let in poisonous teeth. And only if this does not help, the cobra can bite.
It's Wednesday and your work week is half over. Do you still have little energy to complete the burning tasks, but do you feel spiritually exhausted? Choose to feed your mind and soul with an artistic pleasure, namely watching some quality movies, which will surely take you out of your comfort zone and routine. We have chosen for you some European and American films, with sensitive topics, which you will talk about long after you watch them.
"Nowhere special" - is a drama directed by Uberto Pasolini, with a cast of James Norton and Daniel Lamont. To be honest, this film deals with the viewer's emotions. We have the story of a father with terminal cancer, who tries hard to find the right adoptive parents for his son. The journey of the two is imbued with a lot of sadness and despair, but also with moments of peace and calm, just like before a storm that is about to break out. I am sure that you will empathize with the heroes of this film, who are simple, sincere people, thrown into the arms of despair.
"Worth" - a film, directed by Sara Colangelo, which polls the subject of September 11, 2001, but from the perspective of grieving families who must accept a compromise with the state and not claim their rights in court. The subject of the film is resonant and is based exclusively on real facts. The cast of the film is also worthy of our attention, because we have in the foreground Michael Keaton and Stanley Tucci, two heavyweights of American cinema. It is a major legal drama, in which the ethical dimension of events is capitalized. After all, it matters how much a man's life costs, right?
"Dad moves mountains" - a Romanian production, directed by Daniel Sandu, which addresses a malicious theme: what does a parent whose child is swallowed by a natural element? As far as he can go to save him. The central hero, Mircea, is desperately looking for his son, Cosmin, who got lost in the Bucegi mountains, with his girlfriend. I must mention that it is a film that is sometimes alert, sometimes slow, but that keeps you in a state of constant alert. Some moments may seem implausible, and some truths are overwhelming.
All these films have one thing in common: man's determination and position in the face of seemingly endless difficulties. There are productions that we cannot pass in the commercial category, but about which we can discuss in moments of hardship. I go so far as to say that they are exactly what we need in moments of despair, which could overwhelm us.
80 amazing facts about seals
These amazing animals, seals, just seem clumsy. Yes, on land they appear to be such lumps, but in the water, they are swift, strong, and graceful. However, much still depends on the specific species to which the seal belongs - many of them differ vary significantly from each other. But it was thanks to these animals that such a colloquial word as "seal" appeared, that is, to wallow, relax and do nothing. But what, after all, these marine animals really often allow themselves to relax and unwind, although, of course, their life does not consist of continuous rest.
Fun facts about seals
1. Seals belong to the family of true seals.
2. Depending on the species, they can live in both salt and fresh water of the arctic, subarctic or temperate zones.
3. Currently, three types of seals are known: two of them are marine, and one is freshwater.
4. All seals, especially freshwater ones, are living relics that have been preserved on Earth since the end of the Tertiary period.
5. Seals are similar to seals, they have a spindle-shaped body, a small head and limbs that have evolved into flippers, thanks to which the seals are excellent swimmers and divers.
6. The neck of the seal is weakly expressed, sometimes it may even seem that it does not exist at all, and the body simply passes into a small, head with a flattened skull, smoothly turning into a slightly elongated muzzle.
7. In general, the seal's head is a bit similar in shape to a cat's, except for the fact that its muzzle is more elongated. The seals have no ears, they are replaced by auditory canals, which are invisible from the outside.
8. The eyes of this animal are large, dark and very expressive. The eyes of seal cubs seem especially large: huge and dark, they seem even more contrasting against the background of light wool and give the little seal a resemblance either to an owlet or some kind of alien creature.
9. Thanks to the third eyelid that seals have, they can swim and dive without fear of damaging their eyes. However, in the open air, the seal's eyes tend to water, which gives the impression that the animal is crying.
10. In the body of the seal there is a large fat layer that helps this animal survive in the harsh conditions of a cold climate and not freeze in icy water.
11. The same reserves of fat can help the seal survive a temporary hunger strike during a period of starvation, and thanks to them, the animal can lie for hours and even sleep on the surface of the water.
12. The skin of the seal is very strong and strong. It is covered with short, dense and harsh hair, which also protects the animal from hypothermia both in cold water and on ice or on the shore.
13. Between the fingers of these animals there are membranes, and on the front flippers, in addition, there are also powerful claws, thanks to which the seal makes holes in the ice in order to get to land or in order to rise to the surface of the water for a sip of fresh air.
14. The coat color of the seal, depending on the species, can be dark silver or brownish, while it is often covered with darker spots.
15. There are three types of seals. The ringed seal inhabits the temperate waters of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and the Arctic Ocean.
16. In Russia, ringed seals are found in all northern seas, as well as in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea.
17. The Caspian seal is endemic to the Caspian Sea.
18. The Baikal seal is not found anywhere else in the world, except for Lake Baikal.
19. Some scientists suggest that all types of seals are related to each other by a common origin, moreover, the ancestor of the Caspian and Baikal species is called the ringed seal, which migrated to Baikal and the Caspian about two million years ago and there evolved into two new species.
20. However, there is another version, according to which the ringed and Baikal seals simply had a common ancestor that appeared later than even the Caspian seal.
21. All three species differ from each other in color and, in part, in size.
22. The Caspian seal is the smallest of them, its dimensions are approximately 1.3 meters in length and weighs about 86 kilograms.
23. The Caspian seal is found along the coastline and on the rocky islands of the Caspian Sea, in winter it can also often be seen on drifting ice floes. In the warm season, it can even swim into the mouths of the Volga and the Urals.
24. Caspian seals eat fish and crustaceans that live in the Caspian Sea. They are especially willing to eat small herring and sprat - these are the types of fish that make up the bulk of their diet. The proportion of crustaceans is small - it is approximately 1% of the total amount of food.
25. One of the species of these animals, the ringed seal, was named so because of its unusual color, in which the dark rings on its skin have a light border.
26. The ringed seal, or akiba, is the most common species of true seals in the Arctic: according to conservative estimates, there are about 4 million ringed seals in the world.
27. Akiba is distributed in the seas of the Arctic Ocean from the Barents and White in the west to the Bering Sea in the east, it lives in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Baltic Sea, the Tatar Strait, the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga, and sometimes rises along the Neva to St. Petersburg.
28. This seal lives both in the coastal zone and in the open ocean, but more often it keeps in bays, straits and estuaries. This species does not make large regular migrations. In winter, the seal lives on the ice.
29. Subspecies of ringed seal: Baltic ringed seal, White Sea ringed seal, Ladoga ringed seal, Okhotsk, or Far Eastern ringed seal, Saimaa ringed seal.
30. Subspecies of the ringed seal live mainly in the polar or subpolar regions.
31. The White Sea seal lives in the Arctic and is the most common seal in the Arctic Ocean.
32. The Baltic seal lives in the cold waters of the northern regions of the Baltic, in particular, it can be seen off the coast of Sweden, Finland, Estonia and Russia. Sometimes this animal even swims to the coast of Germany.
33. Two other subspecies of the ringed seal - Ladoga and Saimaa, are freshwater and live in Lake Ladoga and Lake Saimaa.
34. The body length of adult ringed seals reaches 1.5 meters, weight 40-80 kilograms. Baltic specimens are even larger - 140 centimeters and 100 kilograms. Males are usually somewhat larger than females.
35. Akiba has excellent eyesight, hearing and sense of smell, which help the animal find food for itself and hide from predators in time. These seals feed on crustaceans, molluscs and fish (spiny goby, Greenland goby, pike, navaga, salmon, salmon).
36. Ringed seals never form colonies. Most often they stay alone, although sometimes they gather in small groups, which, however, are not very stable. All year round they spend at sea, for which their body is very well adapted.
37. The Baikal seal is not only an endemic of Lake Baikal, that is, it is found only here, but the Baikal seal is the only mammal of Lake Baikal. According to morphological and biological features, the Baikal seal is close to the ringed seal that lives in the seas of the Far North and the Far East. There are some signs of similarity between this seal and the Caspian species.
38. The origin of the seal in Baikal remains an unresolved issue to this day. Most researchers adhere to the point of view of I. D. Chersky that the seal entered Baikal from the Arctic Ocean through the Yenisei-Angara river system during the Ice Age simultaneously with the Baikal omul.
39. But there is another point of view - that the entire family of true seals, to which the Baikal seal belongs, originated in large freshwater reservoirs of Eurasia. And only then did the resettlement of three sister species begin: the Caspian seal mastered the Caspian Sea, the ringed one - the Arctic Ocean, and the Baikal one - the deepest freshwater lake.
40. However, there is no doubt that the seal owes its prosperity and high numbers in Baikal to its deep water and food web features.
BAIKAL SEALS ON THE USHKAN ISLANDS
41. The Baikal seal is widespread throughout the lake, but it is especially abundant in its northern and middle parts. The most favorite habitat for seals is the Ushkany Islands, located on the territory of the Zabaikalsky National Park.
42. The basis of nutrition of the Baikal seal is golomyanka and gobies. She eats about a ton of fish a year. In search of food, the seal dives to a depth of 200 meters and remains under water for 20-25 minutes.
43. Previously, it was believed that Baikal seals cause great damage to the whitefish population, but, as it turned out later, they come across them only by chance and the total number of sturgeons in the seal's diet is no more than 1-2%.
44. The seal is called the symbol of Baikal, the same as the famous Baikal omul, its images are used on the emblems. This is an interesting object of ecological tourism.
45. Every year, many wildlife lovers come to Baikal to see and, if possible, photograph it. The main flow of ecotourists goes to the Ushkany Islands, where the conditions for shooting are prepared.
46. It is believed that the Baikal seal has no natural enemies in nature: only humans are a danger to it. However, not often, but it happens that these animals are hunted by a brown bear.
47. Baikal seal cubs are usually safely hidden inside the den, because in the absence of a mother who has retired in search of food, they can become prey for foxes, sables or white-tailed eagles.
48. The ringed seal living in the ice of the Arctic has much more enemies. It is seals that are the main part of the diet of polar bears, and arctic foxes and large polar gulls prey on their cubs. In the water, killer whales and Greenland polar sharks pose a danger to ringed seals. Sometimes they can be hunted by walruses.
49. All seals are animals leading a mostly solitary lifestyle. Only during the breeding season do they gather in flocks. But even so, each seal tries to keep apart and drives away its relatives with an indignant snort.
50. The smallest among the subspecies of seals is the Ladoga seal, which lives in Lake Ladoga itself, has a body length of no more than 135 centimeters and a weight of 40 kilograms.
51. The seal spends most of its life in the water. She dives superbly and can spend up to 70 minutes underwater depending on the species. While diving, the animal's ear canals and nostrils are closed, so that under water it can breathe only thanks to the large volume of its lungs and the supply of air that fits in them.
52. Often these animals even sleep on the surface of the water, and their sleep is surprisingly strong: it happened that people, having swum up to sleeping seals, turned them over on purpose, and they did not even think of waking up.
53. The seal spends winter under water, only occasionally rising to the surface of the water in order to take a new breath of fresh air. On ice or on land, these animals begin to get out closer to the beginning of spring, when the breeding season begins.
54. Moreover, as a rule, seals have favorite places for rookeries, where they gather in order to continue their race.
55. Seals only on the ground can seem clumsy and clumsy creatures. In water, they are active, energetic and almost tireless. Under water, the speed of movement of the seal can be 25 km / h, although in a calm environment these animals swim much more slowly.
56. On the shore, seals move with the help of their front flippers and tail, sorting through them. In the event of danger, they begin to jump, while loudly slapping on the ice or ground with their front flippers and pushing off a hard surface with their tail.
57. Sea seals of cold latitudes, unlike freshwater ones, regardless of the time of year, prefer to spend most of their time on the ice or on the shore, and not in the water, where they dive only in case of danger or in order to get food.
58. Sexual dimorphism is externally expressed in the fact that individuals of different sexes differ from each other in size. Moreover, if the females of the Baikal seal are larger than the males, then the Caspian seal, on the contrary, the males are larger.
59. Depending on the species and gender, seals reach sexual maturity at 3-7 years of age, and males mature later than females. These animals bring cubs either annually or 2-3 years after the previous birth. Female seals usually give birth to one cub, but sometimes 2-3 cubs at a time.
60. It happens that a certain percentage of females after mating do not bring offspring. As a rule, 10-20% of the Baikal seals have such "vacations" every year.
61. The reasons for this still remain unclear: either this is due to the natural regulation of the level of livestock numbers, or simply not all females that have temporarily suspended the development of embryos resume it after a while. It is also not excluded that this phenomenon may be associated with some diseases transferred by the female or unfavorable living conditions.
62. Seals usually mate in the spring, and then the gestation period continues for 9-11 months. Females give birth on ice, at this time they and their newborn cubs are very vulnerable to predators and hunters.
63. The color of babies differs from the color of adults: for example, the cubs of the Baikal seal are born white, from which their name comes - pups.
64. At first, the mother feeds the baby with milk, after which the cub is gradually transferred to an adult diet consisting of fish and invertebrates. By the time this happens, he manages to completely shed and change the color of the fur to the one that is inherent in adults.
RINGED SEAL WITH A BABY
65. Even before giving birth, Baikal seals build special dens from snow, where they feed their cubs exclusively with milk for a month or a half. Depending on weather and temperature conditions, lactation can last from 2 to 3.5 months.
66. The seal is the only animal that can deliberately suspend and resume the intrauterine development of its future cubs. Most often this happens during long and very cold winters, when babies born at term simply cannot survive.
67. Males do not take any part in the upbringing of offspring, while females continue to take care of the babies until they learn to live independently. After the cubs are weaned, the female seal can mate again, but sometimes the breeding season for her comes earlier: when the previous cub is still feeding on milk.
68. In summer, ringed seals keep mainly in coastal waters and in some places form small haulouts on stones or pebble spits. In autumn, as the sea freezes, most of the animals leave the coastal zone deep into the sea and stay on drifting ice.
69. A minority of animals stay for the winter near the coast and keep in bays and bays. In this case, even at the beginning of the freezing of the sea, the seal makes holes in the young ice - loopholes through which it emerges from the water.
70. There are also smaller holes, used only to breathe through them. Often the hole in the hole is covered with a thick layer of snow, in which the seal makes a hole without an outlet to the outside. In such a convenient place, she rests, being invisible to enemies, mainly polar bears.
71. The seal is a valuable object of fishing. She gives fur skins, fat and meat. The meat of the seals is fed to Arctic foxes, hats are made from fur, and it is used to pad hunting skis.
72. Seal meat is eaten, especially tender meat in young seals, and seal flippers boiled in water are considered a delicacy. In the old days, seal fat was used in leather production and in soap making.
73. Fishing seals and eventually led to a reduction in the number of these animals. And, although every effort is currently being made to prevent the seals from disappearing, one of their species is threatened with complete extinction.
74. At present, two types of seals - Baikal and ringed, belong to quite safe species and they have been assigned the status of "Cueing Least Concern".
75. But the Caspian seal is not so lucky: due to human activities leading to pollution of the Caspian Sea, this species is endangered. And, although all efforts are currently being made to restore the former number of Caspian seals, their number is steadily decreasing year by year.
76. Seals can live on average 40-55 years. Sexual maturity occurs at 4-6 years of age. Females are able to bear fruit up to 35-40 years.
77. The age of seals can be easily recognized by the annual rings on their fangs and claws. And this is their unique feature, not characteristic of any other animal in the world.
78. The largest concentrations of seals are observed in the spring on drifting ice during puppies, molting and mating. This is especially true for the seas of the Far East, where in one day of swimming in the ice you can observe many hundreds, and sometimes thousands of animals. More often, seals lie in groups of 10-20 heads, but there are clusters of a hundred or more animals.
79. Seals are amazing animals. They have a lively and curious nature and are easy to train.
80. In natural conditions, they like to swim up to drifting ships and follow them.