53 Things We Didn't Know About the Moon (Spoiler: There's a Falcon Feather in There)
Throughout the history of our existence, we have been striving for distant stars since ancient times, but so far we have not been able to study even the objects closest to us. We don’t even know everything about the Moon today. But those facts that are gradually becoming known to us still do not cease to amaze us and make us learn more and more about our world, space and the universe. Have you ever wondered where the Earth's satellite came from? Why can't you see the other side? And did you know that the natural satellite looks more like a lemon than a sphere?
Facts proving that the Earth's satellite is cooler than science fiction writers can come up with.
We at Bemorepanda love science and we are sure that some facts about the Moon can surprise even the most sophisticated readers.
1. Every year, the Moon moves away from the Earth by about 3.8 cm. According to the calculations of astrophysicists, the satellite of our planet will be freed from gravitational influence in 15 billion years.
2. The surface temperature of the moon can reach the boiling point. During the lunar day, which lasts two weeks, the temperature at the equator can reach 120 °C. According to NASA, the lunar night also lasts about two weeks, during which the surface temperature can drop to -130°C to -170°C. In some places on the satellite near its poles, temperatures can drop to -25°C.
3. The moon actually has its own time zone, which is called Lunar Standard Time (LST). The lunar year consists of only 12 days. It may seem that this is some strange, short year, but it is not. The fact is that each lunar day consists of 29.5 Earth days, so the length of the year on the moon is approximately equivalent to the earth.
4. On the Moon, as well as on our planet, there are earthquakes. They are called moonquakes. Seismic fluctuations on the lunar surface are caused by the gravitational influence of the Earth and last only a few minutes.
5. There are many valuable resources on the Moon. For example, hydrogen, which can be used to propel rockets; water ice, which can be split into hydrogen and oxygen for fuel, and helium-3, a non-radioactive isotope of helium that could be used in the future to generate nuclear power.
6. Astrophysicists believe that the Moon is 4.5 billion years old.
7. Shadows appear darker on the Moon than on Earth. This is due to the fact that our satellite has a very thin atmosphere, so photons of light cannot be refracted and cast exactly the same shadows as on our planet, which creates their strong dark contrast.
8. The diameter of Australia is 600 km wider than the diameter of the Moon.
9. Scientists have a plausible hypothesis that the Moon appeared as a result of a giant asteroid the size of Mars falling to Earth, which occurred at the very beginning of the formation of the solar system, about 4.5 billion years ago.
10. A lunar eclipse saved Christopher Columbus from starvation. On February 29, 1504, Columbus used a lunar eclipse to frighten the local Arawak Indians on the island of Jamaica so that the Indian people would feed him and his crew members. The biographer Fernando, son of Columbus, told in his books that when the Arawaks saw the eclipse, they ran in hysterics and screams from all sides to the ships with supplies, begging the crew to save them from the wrath of God.
11. The moon has become something of a dump. After so many Nasa missions, there is a lot of waste and debris left on the Moon. Lunar rovers, probes, various scientific equipment, astronauts' waste products and even golf balls remained here.
Strange things remained on the surface of the satellite: a falcon feather, a piece of the Wright brothers' plane, a family photograph of astronaut Charles Duke, and a silicon disk of goodwill messages. By the way, the feather of a bird of prey was used by David Scott, who decided to test the theory of Galileo, who suggested that if there is no air resistance, heavy and light things fall at the same speed. Apollo 15 astronaut David Scott did just that. He threw a hammer and a feather on the moon from the same height and they touched the surface at the same time.
12. Birds use the Moon as a map to navigate and plot their flight path during their migration season.
13. Authors of gothic stories, poems and novels have been inspired by the mystique and creepiness of the full moon for centuries. So, the first mention of a werewolf on a full moon can be found in the Epic of Gilgamesh, written in 2100 BC. e. (XVIII-XVII centuries BC).
14. Many people still think that the 1969 moon landing was a movie. For example, one of the most common arguments of skeptics is that there are no stars visible in the background of pictures of astronauts from the Moon. Buzz Aldrin, the Apollo 11 lunar module pilot who visited the Earth satellite, slapped one such unbeliever in the face, who called the astronaut a liar.
15. In fact, the surface of the moon is dark. Although the satellite appears extraordinarily bright in the night sky, its reflectivity is only slightly higher than that of cracked old asphalt.
16. There is water on the moon. True, in the form of ice, which is both on the surface and under it. It's covered in dust and miner
16. There is water on the moon. True, in the form of ice, which is both on the surface and under it. It is covered with dust and minerals. Water appeared there, most likely due to comets.
17. Moon dust smells like gunpowder, and scientists do not know why (there are many versions).
18. Lunar craters can reveal cosmic history. Each crater separately can tell the story of the fall of various objects on the Earth's satellite. In addition, all the craters on the Moon can open the veil of mystery about the appearance of the satellite and even about the history of asteroid bombardments of the entire solar system.
19. Lunar research bases similar to Antarctic stations may soon appear on the satellite.
20. Earth and Moon have gravity, but not the same. The moon's gravity is weaker and in fact is only one-sixth that of the earth's. This means that you will weigh less when standing on the Moon than on Earth.
21. The dark side of the moon is a myth. In fact, both sides of the moon receive the same amount of sunlight. However, only one side of the satellite is always visible from Earth. This is because it rotates around its axis in exactly the same time as our planet. The other side, facing away from the Earth, can only be seen from spacecraft orbit.
22. Did you know that the moon shrinks over time? This, by the way, causes moonquakes. It turns out that the diameter of the satellite over the past few hundred million years has decreased by more than 50 meters. It is noteworthy that when it is compressed, "wrinkles" begin to form on the surface - "thrust faults", the earth's crust, which is moving towards each other.
23. The moon may seem like a perfect spherical sphere, but in fact it is more like a lemon.
24. The surface of the Moon is covered with extinct volcanoes, asteroid impact craters and frozen lava flows. And much of this can be seen with the naked eye, even novice astrologers.
25. Since the moon has a very thin atmosphere, a layer of dust on the surface - or a trace on it - can remain on the satellite for several centuries.
26. There are no seasons on the moon.
27. Many astronauts have reported symptoms of hay fever after exposure to lunar dust, most commonly sneezing, itchy throat, and eye pain.
28. In 1998, NASA carried out a controlled descent from orbit and the fall of the American automatic interplanetary station "Lunar Prospector" in a given area of the moon's surface, breaking it. In addition to scientific equipment, the ashes of geologist and planetary scientist Eugene Shoemaker were on board the device. This is the only person whose remains are scattered around the satellite.
29. The light created by the full moon is polarized in the Earth's atmosphere, and therefore dung beetles are better oriented during the full moon.
30. Without the Moon, the Earth would rotate much faster, as a result of which the wind speed would be 160 km / h, and the day would last only 8 hours.
31. Nearly 81% of mental health professionals believe that a full moon can cause mental illness in people.
32. In the 19th century, the Bavarian physician and astronomer Franz von Paula Gruythuisen claimed that he had seen cities and little green men on the Moon with his telescope and that the Earth's satellite was inhabited. And at first they even believed him, but over time it became clear to everyone that this was not so. Despite the loss of reputation, a crater on the Moon was named after him.
33. Some in ancient times considered the Moon a fiery bowl, while others believed that it was a celestial mirror reflecting the solid surface and seas of the Earth.
34. It seems that every night the moon changes its shape, but it is not. In fact, this effect occurs due to the fact that the satellite, revolving around the Earth, is differently illuminated by the Sun - this changes our perception of the Moon.
35. Only 12 people walked on the Moon. Twelve of the 24 people who have traveled from Earth to the Moon have walked on its surface. The first and most famous person to set foot on a moon was Neil Armstrong, who did so in 1969.
36. The first spacecraft to reach the Earth's satellite was the Soviet automatic interplanetary station Luna-1. This happened in 1959. The ship passed 5995 km from the surface of the moon before entering solar orbit.
37. More than 300,000 craters larger than 1 km in diameter have been discovered on the side of the Moon closest to us.
38. Stuart Allen Rusa, an American astronaut, took 500 tree seeds with him on a flight to lunar orbit in 1971. Subsequently, seedlings were grown from the seeds, which were planted in many US states and even in some foreign countries. By the way, such plants are called "Moon trees". Many are still growing.
39. The “dark side” of the Moon, invisible from Earth, was first photographed in 1959 by the Soviet Union from the Luna-3 space module.
40. By the way, the word "lunatic" comes from the fact that many believe that changes in mental state are directly related to the lunar cycles.
41. The ancient Sumerians were the first civilization to use the Moon for calendaring. Each month of this calendar had 29 or 30 days, depending on whether there was a full moon on the first day of the month.
42. The moon is the only natural satellite of the Earth. It flies around the Earth at a distance of about 385,000 kilometers.
43. As you know, the Sun and the Moon are not the same size. The Moon is 400 times smaller than the Sun, but also 400 times closer to the Earth.
44. During eclipses, the Moon, Earth and Sun are on the same straight line. A lunar eclipse occurs when the Earth is directly between the Sun and the Moon, casting our planet's shadow onto the moon's surface. A lunar eclipse can only occur on a full moon.
45. The Moon is a very dusty rocky ball with a diameter of 3476 km - about a quarter of the size of the Earth.
46. In the 1950s, the US considered detonating a nuclear bomb on the moon. The secret project at the height of the Cold War was known as the Lunar Exploration Flight Study, or Project A119, and meant a show of force. Apparently, this is how the Americans wanted to respond to the USSR, which at that time was ahead of the space race.
47. The largest crater discovered on the Moon is called the South Pole-Aitken Basin, its diameter is 2400-2500 km, and its depth is about 8 km.
48. Powerful telescopes on Earth can only see 59% of the moon's surface.
49. To date, NASA has collected about 2200 samples of rocks, dust, sand, pebbles, water and other geological materials from the surface of the Moon.
50. Great Barrier Reef corals spawn in October, November and December just after the full moon.
Ready for the smart quiz? 90 questions and answers to them about space. How much do you know about the planets, about the Universe and our solar system? Do you want to test your knowledge? Then let's check them out right now together. It will be interesting, informative and just useful!
Remember what you forgot, find out what you did not know, and do not forget to show off your new knowledge with your friends on New Year's holidays.
Quiz: a list of questions and answers on the topic of space
So, Bemorepand's editors have selected 90 questions of varying complexity, the answers to some of which can be found by both novice astronomers and advanced people who are interested in the question…
1. When will Halley's comet be seen next?
Answer: She will return in 2061.
2. Which constellation is located in the hottest place in the universe?
3. What is the most plausible estimate of the age of the Earth?
Answer: 4.54 billion years.
4. On which planet can rain of diamonds be found?
5. What is the closest planet to the Sun?
6. How many stars are in our star system (galaxy)?
Answer: About 200 billion.
7. How many planets in our solar system are made of gas?
8. Who was the first person to go into space?
Answer: Yuri Gagarin.
9. What is the most common type of star in the Milky Way?
Answer: Red dwarfs.
10. One of the most famous constellations is Orion. In honor of whom did it get its name?
Answer: In honor of the hunter in Greek myth.
11. How many volcanoes do you think are on the surface of Venus?
Answer: More than 1600 volcanoes.
12. Physical space is often represented in how many linear dimensions?
Answer: In three linear dimensions.
13. What stars in the universe have a rotation speed of 600 revolutions per second?
Answer: Neutron stars.
14. The weight of the Sun in relation to the total mass of the solar system?
Answer: 99.866% of the total mass of the entire solar system.
15. Which planet in our solar system is the densest and has only one satellite?
16. The word "astrophysics" comes from a combination of Greek words. Do you know what the word "Astro" refers to?
17. What is the second smallest planet in our solar system?
18. What is the brightest planet in the night sky?
19. Which planet has the most moons?
20. In what year was Pluto reclassified as a dwarf planet?
21. Where can you find the biosphere?
Answer: The lower part of the atmosphere, the entire hydrosphere and the upper part of the lithosphere.
22. What phenomena keep the planets in a stable orbit around the Sun?
23. What color would the sky be if you were standing on the Moon and the Sun was shining on you?
24. Who was the first person to walk on the moon?
Answer: Neil Armstrong.
25. Who was the first woman to go into space?
Answer: Valentina Tereshkova
26. What color is the Sun?
Answer: The sun appears white to the eye.
27. What elements does the Sun consist of?
Answer: First of all, hydrogen and helium, with a number of some other microelements.
28. Which celestial body in the solar system has the largest mass?
29. What is space debris?
Answer: Any artificial object left to fly in Earth's orbit.
30. How many stars make up Ursa Major?
Answer: 7 stars.
31. Why does the moon glow?
Answer: The moon does not glow by itself, but only reflects sunlight.
32. What is the third brightest celestial object in the sky?
33. How does a meteor become a meteorite?
Answer: When it falls to the surface of the Earth, burning up in the atmosphere.
34. What is the frequency of lunar eclipses?
Answer: At least twice a year.
35. How old is the universe?
Answer: Approximately 13.8 billion years.
36. Imagine that we have arrived at the next planet, Venus. In visible light, we cannot see the surface of Venus from space. Why?
Answer: Venus is covered by a thick layer of clouds.
37. What is the distance between Earth and Mars?
Answer: About 56 million km.
38. Which planet is closest in size to Earth?
39. How many stars are there in the Andromeda Galaxy?
Answer: One trillion.
40. What is an Emission Nebula?
Answer: An interstellar cloud that emits light in the optical range due to the ionization of the gas of which it is composed.
41. What is the size of the Earth in kilometers?
Answer: 40 075.
42. What percentage of the mass of our solar system are the planets?
Answer: 0.135% of the mass of the solar system.
43. On which planet does the wind speed exceed supersonic?
44. This planet, also known as the "morning star" and "evening star", has long inspired poets. What is this planet?
45. What is the name of the planet, which is sometimes called the sister of the Earth?
46. What are the five most famous dwarf planets?
Answer: Pluto, Ceres, Eris, Makemake and Haumea.
47. What is the name of the planet closest to the Sun?
48. What is the smallest planet in our solar system?
49. Around which planet does the moon called Titan revolve?
50. Which planet is larger - Neptune or Saturn?
51. What protects the Earth from meteorites and solar radiation?
52. How many planets can be seen without a telescope?
Answer: 5 - Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn.
53. Phobos and Deimos are satellites of which planet?
54. Which planets do not have moons?
Answer: Mercury and Venus.
55. Which planet rotates around its axis the fastest?
56. How long is a year on Jupiter?
Answer: 12 Earth years.
57. What is the oldest planet in our solar system?
58. What is the densest planet in our solar system?
59. Which planets have rings?
Answer: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
60. Which planet has the most volcanoes?
61. What are the names of the four largest moons of Jupiter?
Answer: Europa, Ganymede, Callisto and Io.
62. Which planet rotates in the opposite direction relative to the others?
63. What are the four planets - "gas giants"?
Answer: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
64. What are the four terrestrial planets in the solar system?
Answer: Mercury, Venus, Mars and Earth.
65. Why does Mercury have craters?
Answer: Its atmosphere is too thin for meteoroids to burn up without harming the surface.
66. Which star is the center of our solar system?
67. How old is the Sun?
Answer: Approximately 4.5 billion years.
68. How long does it take for the sun's rays to reach the earth?
Answer: Eight minutes.
69. When was the solar system formed?
Answer: 4.5 billion years ago.
70. If you weighed 80 kg on Earth, how much would you weigh on Mars?
Answer: 30 kg.
71. What causes the ebb and flow?
Answer: Gravity of the Sun and Moon.
72. How long does a solar eclipse last?
Answer: About seven and a half minutes.
73. Name the three most famous asteroids.
Answer: Ceres, Pallas, Vesta.
74. What is the name of a large number of meteoroids that appear at the same time and in the same place?
Answer: Meteor shower.
75. How many Earths can fit inside the Sun?
Answer: One million.
76. What color is the sunset on Mars?
77. Where can you go to see projections of the night sky?
78. What is the name of the outer atmosphere of the Sun?
79. How is the distance between the Sun and the Earth measured?
Answer: In astronomical units (AU).
80. How long does it take for the moon to go through all its phases?
Answer: 29 days.
81. Where is the Oort cloud located?
Answer: Right behind Pluto.
82. How long does it take for the Moon to complete a revolution around the Earth?
Answer: 27 days.
83. Who was the third astronaut to walk on the moon?
Answer: Pete Conrad.
84. Which astronaut is famous for writing his daughter's initials on the moon?
Answer: Gene Cernan.
85. What are the names of the storms created by the Sun?
Answer: Solar storms.
86. In what constellation are the stars Castor and Pollux?
87. What studies stars, planets and galaxies?
88. Which constellation has the shape of a winged horse?
89. Which star is closest to the Earth?
90. What is the name of the path traveled by a celestial body in space?
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Your zodiac sign's personality traits
The concept of constellations used in modern astronomy and adopted in 1922 in Rome by the decision of the First General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union, is based on the division of the celestial sphere into sections of arbitrary irregular shape. While the sign of the zodiac is equal sectors of the celestial sphere, with vertices at the poles of the ecliptic and based on segments of the ecliptic 1/12 of a full circle in size, and in the tropical zodiac - shifted by about 21 ° (overlapping the previous constellation). Therefore, the modern astronomical system of constellations has nothing to do with the astrological tradition of dividing the ecliptic into 12 parts.
Interesting facts about Zodiac Signs
The names of the signs come from the names of the twelve corresponding zodiac constellations in which the Sun alternately resides in its annual movement. The signs of the zodiac, which are the main element of astrology, have only historical significance for modern astronomy.
What is a Zodiac Sign, and How Does it Relate to Personality?
The zodiac signs are the designations of 12 constellations located along the ecliptic. The names of the animals call them. Astrologers use the Gregorian calendar (or tropical year) to determine the sign. Therefore, due to the precession of the earth's axis, the symptoms of the zodiac shift relative to the Sun in the zodiac constellations, thereby forming astrological eras. Capricorns belong to the water element, like fish to the earth.
At least the birth season shows business stars, which was statistically associated with several personality traits, making it possible to use zodiac signs for a rough assessment of personal qualities.
"Psychologists often want to dispel those patterns that astrologers often talk about, but seasonal effects do seem to exist, and we have yet to explain them. I'm not saying that they are associated with celestial bodies. I just think that the signs of the zodiac are convenient to remember these patterns for ordinary people,” said Mark Hamilton (Mark Hamilton) from the University of Connecticut (USA).
Hamilton came to this paradoxical conclusion by studying the personality and character traits of three hundred stars of show business, politics, science, and literature and comparing the data obtained with their birth.
As it turned out, the dates of birth of the luminaries of science, art, and politics were not randomly scattered around the calendar. Still, they were grouped around certain months of the year and signs of the zodiac.
In general, most celebrities were born in the so-called "wet" months of the astrological calendar - the period from December to March, as well as under those signs of the zodiac that are associated with perseverance and extroversion (the so-called "bright" and "fixed" signs).
The most prominent personality traits you can expect from each zodiac sign
People born under this constellation don't know what it's like to give up. They always know what they want and are ready to go to get what they want. Therefore, they are often chosen as leaders and dream of being just like them.
Representatives of this sign can always be trusted. They treat others with understanding, have angelic patience, and never betray. Smart, honest and robust, Taurus is ready to help loved ones in any situation.
Gemini: communication skills
They can find a common language with anyone, and when people are not around, they are happy to talk with cats. Geminis are incredibly flexible and adapt to any situation without much loss.
Cancers are the real altruists. They are simply unable to leave someone in trouble and strive to help others even in the most challenging situation. And these people also feel pleased when they manage to inspire someone to accomplish something.
They do their work with such enthusiasm, have fun and just live that they infect others with their thirst for life. It is people born under the sign of Leo. They often become real muses and inspirers for many talented people and are happy to be creative.
These people are always in control. And although at first glance they sometimes seem like big bores, in fact, next to such people it is very calm. After all, they are always ready to help you, suggest a non-standard solution to your problem, and support you.
These cheerful and attractive people live in the same breath. They do not think about what is good or bad but simply enjoy life. Even if you just met, Libra can become a great friend and companion to you.
If they start something, they will finish it. The hard work and perseverance of Scorpio can be envied. And they are also distinguished by an incredible passion, which is very attractive to everyone around them. They sincerely believe in their beliefs.
These people never stand still and are always ready to break into any adventure. They love to travel and always try to take as many people as possible.
Capricorn always knows what he is doing and feels comfortable in literally any company. These people are attracted to all who deal with them. You can rely on him in a problematic situation or take him with you to a party - in both cases. He will show his best side.
Aquarius: love of freedom
They are funny and do not limit themselves or others at all. Aquarians will gladly support an idea, no matter how crazy it may seem. Their main life rule is that one must live as long as one lives.
They will always listen to you, even if no one else wants to. Real altruists, Pisces are very humane and friendly. And representatives of this sign do not tolerate when someone is offended and always try to restore justice.
The best pieces of advice for each zodiac sign to improve your life
Live now - do not wait for the right moment to achieve your goals because they may never come. Better enjoy the moment. Do not be afraid of anything. Most of our fears do not come true or turn out to be not scary at all. Close ones are the most important thing. Appreciate them. Do not live in debt - it deprives you of freedom.
When taking care of your children, do not overdo it - they have to live their own lives: the fewer things, the more freedom. Buy only what you need. Do not be afraid to make mistakes - trial and error is the key to success. Learn to learn from your mistakes. Have fun more often - who knows if you will have such an opportunity later.
Live every day to the fullest - remember. There are a limited number of them in our life. Friendship also needs to be worked on. The main thing in life is experience and impressions. If you favor a new fur coat or a trip to another country, feel free to choose the latter. Anger is an emotion that oppresses us, so it is better to refuse it.
Vulnerability is not as bad as it seems. Thanks to this, people will trust you - answer them the same. Don't pretend to be someone else - always be yourself. Pretense is always repulsive. Go in for sports - it will make you stronger physically and spiritually. Let go of grievances - they hurt both you and the one who offended you.
Passion for something makes life so much more beautiful. Traveling is a great way to change yourself, get new emotions and become better. Remember that you are not always suitable - there will always be someone more intelligent than us. Any problem is not eternal - everything passes in life, and time knows how to heal spiritual wounds.
Set goals for yourself - life without them is very dull. Decide what is most important to you and focus on it. Sometimes the risk is the path to something more. Change often changes our lives for the better - don't resist it.
There is no need to try to control loved ones - let them do as they see fit. Treat your body with love and respect. Touch is a natural gift that can heal a person, improve their well-being and increase self-confidence. Use this more. Whatever situation happens in your life, remember that you can always deal with it.
Gratitude is capable of many things - it makes better both the one who thanks and the one to whom the appreciation applies. Listen to your intuition based on your experience and life position. Do not be narcissistic, but never forget about yourself. Remember, you are the most critical person in your life. Be honest with yourself - this is the path to freedom.
Perfection never leads to anything good but makes your life gray. All our imperfections are what create our uniqueness. To find your goal - act because water does not flow under a lying stone. Small things matter too, and all significant victories are made up of small ones. Constantly learn something new - this will keep you in good shape.
The best way to stop being afraid of old age is to enjoy life. People in marriage often change - remember this so that you can not be taken by surprise. It is pointless to worry about something - it is better to use these forces to solve the problem. Innuendo from the past can interfere with your real-life - solve them yourself.
Simplicity is the path to excellence. Don't make life difficult for yourself. Always do your job well if you want to achieve something. It's never too late - they're just excuses for not trying. To get rid of longing - act. This is the best cure for procrastination.
Always do what you like and strive for what you want to achieve. Throw aside prejudice - do not become attached to the opinion of society. Words matter, too - so think before you say anything. Love is the solution to any problem and the answer to any question, the main driving force of this world. Love, share your love, and receive it in return. Use your zodiac signs' personality traits as a guide for better life choices