90 questions about space for those who want to test their erudition
Ready for the smart quiz? 90 questions and answers to them about space. How much do you know about the planets, about the Universe and our solar system? Do you want to test your knowledge? Then let's check them out right now together. It will be interesting, informative and just useful!
Remember what you forgot, find out what you did not know, and do not forget to show off your new knowledge with your friends on New Year's holidays.
Quiz: a list of questions and answers on the topic of space
So, Bemorepand's editors have selected 90 questions of varying complexity, the answers to some of which can be found by both novice astronomers and advanced people who are interested in the question…
1. When will Halley's comet be seen next?
Answer: She will return in 2061.
2. Which constellation is located in the hottest place in the universe?
3. What is the most plausible estimate of the age of the Earth?
Answer: 4.54 billion years.
4. On which planet can rain of diamonds be found?
5. What is the closest planet to the Sun?
6. How many stars are in our star system (galaxy)?
Answer: About 200 billion.
7. How many planets in our solar system are made of gas?
8. Who was the first person to go into space?
Answer: Yuri Gagarin.
9. What is the most common type of star in the Milky Way?
Answer: Red dwarfs.
10. One of the most famous constellations is Orion. In honor of whom did it get its name?
Answer: In honor of the hunter in Greek myth.
11. How many volcanoes do you think are on the surface of Venus?
Answer: More than 1600 volcanoes.
12. Physical space is often represented in how many linear dimensions?
Answer: In three linear dimensions.
13. What stars in the universe have a rotation speed of 600 revolutions per second?
Answer: Neutron stars.
14. The weight of the Sun in relation to the total mass of the solar system?
Answer: 99.866% of the total mass of the entire solar system.
15. Which planet in our solar system is the densest and has only one satellite?
16. The word "astrophysics" comes from a combination of Greek words. Do you know what the word "Astro" refers to?
17. What is the second smallest planet in our solar system?
18. What is the brightest planet in the night sky?
19. Which planet has the most moons?
20. In what year was Pluto reclassified as a dwarf planet?
21. Where can you find the biosphere?
Answer: The lower part of the atmosphere, the entire hydrosphere and the upper part of the lithosphere.
22. What phenomena keep the planets in a stable orbit around the Sun?
23. What color would the sky be if you were standing on the Moon and the Sun was shining on you?
24. Who was the first person to walk on the moon?
Answer: Neil Armstrong.
25. Who was the first woman to go into space?
Answer: Valentina Tereshkova
26. What color is the Sun?
Answer: The sun appears white to the eye.
27. What elements does the Sun consist of?
Answer: First of all, hydrogen and helium, with a number of some other microelements.
28. Which celestial body in the solar system has the largest mass?
29. What is space debris?
Answer: Any artificial object left to fly in Earth's orbit.
30. How many stars make up Ursa Major?
Answer: 7 stars.
31. Why does the moon glow?
Answer: The moon does not glow by itself, but only reflects sunlight.
32. What is the third brightest celestial object in the sky?
33. How does a meteor become a meteorite?
Answer: When it falls to the surface of the Earth, burning up in the atmosphere.
34. What is the frequency of lunar eclipses?
Answer: At least twice a year.
35. How old is the universe?
Answer: Approximately 13.8 billion years.
36. Imagine that we have arrived at the next planet, Venus. In visible light, we cannot see the surface of Venus from space. Why?
Answer: Venus is covered by a thick layer of clouds.
37. What is the distance between Earth and Mars?
Answer: About 56 million km.
38. Which planet is closest in size to Earth?
39. How many stars are there in the Andromeda Galaxy?
Answer: One trillion.
40. What is an Emission Nebula?
Answer: An interstellar cloud that emits light in the optical range due to the ionization of the gas of which it is composed.
41. What is the size of the Earth in kilometers?
Answer: 40 075.
42. What percentage of the mass of our solar system are the planets?
Answer: 0.135% of the mass of the solar system.
43. On which planet does the wind speed exceed supersonic?
44. This planet, also known as the "morning star" and "evening star", has long inspired poets. What is this planet?
45. What is the name of the planet, which is sometimes called the sister of the Earth?
46. What are the five most famous dwarf planets?
Answer: Pluto, Ceres, Eris, Makemake and Haumea.
47. What is the name of the planet closest to the Sun?
48. What is the smallest planet in our solar system?
49. Around which planet does the moon called Titan revolve?
50. Which planet is larger - Neptune or Saturn?
51. What protects the Earth from meteorites and solar radiation?
52. How many planets can be seen without a telescope?
Answer: 5 - Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn.
53. Phobos and Deimos are satellites of which planet?
54. Which planets do not have moons?
Answer: Mercury and Venus.
55. Which planet rotates around its axis the fastest?
56. How long is a year on Jupiter?
Answer: 12 Earth years.
57. What is the oldest planet in our solar system?
58. What is the densest planet in our solar system?
59. Which planets have rings?
Answer: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
60. Which planet has the most volcanoes?
61. What are the names of the four largest moons of Jupiter?
Answer: Europa, Ganymede, Callisto and Io.
62. Which planet rotates in the opposite direction relative to the others?
63. What are the four planets - "gas giants"?
Answer: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
64. What are the four terrestrial planets in the solar system?
Answer: Mercury, Venus, Mars and Earth.
65. Why does Mercury have craters?
Answer: Its atmosphere is too thin for meteoroids to burn up without harming the surface.
66. Which star is the center of our solar system?
67. How old is the Sun?
Answer: Approximately 4.5 billion years.
68. How long does it take for the sun's rays to reach the earth?
Answer: Eight minutes.
69. When was the solar system formed?
Answer: 4.5 billion years ago.
70. If you weighed 80 kg on Earth, how much would you weigh on Mars?
Answer: 30 kg.
71. What causes the ebb and flow?
Answer: Gravity of the Sun and Moon.
72. How long does a solar eclipse last?
Answer: About seven and a half minutes.
73. Name the three most famous asteroids.
Answer: Ceres, Pallas, Vesta.
74. What is the name of a large number of meteoroids that appear at the same time and in the same place?
Answer: Meteor shower.
75. How many Earths can fit inside the Sun?
Answer: One million.
76. What color is the sunset on Mars?
77. Where can you go to see projections of the night sky?
78. What is the name of the outer atmosphere of the Sun?
79. How is the distance between the Sun and the Earth measured?
Answer: In astronomical units (AU).
80. How long does it take for the moon to go through all its phases?
Answer: 29 days.
81. Where is the Oort cloud located?
Answer: Right behind Pluto.
82. How long does it take for the Moon to complete a revolution around the Earth?
Answer: 27 days.
83. Who was the third astronaut to walk on the moon?
Answer: Pete Conrad.
84. Which astronaut is famous for writing his daughter's initials on the moon?
Answer: Gene Cernan.
85. What are the names of the storms created by the Sun?
Answer: Solar storms.
86. In what constellation are the stars Castor and Pollux?
87. What studies stars, planets and galaxies?
88. Which constellation has the shape of a winged horse?
89. Which star is closest to the Earth?
90. What is the name of the path traveled by a celestial body in space?
The concept of constellations used in modern astronomy and adopted in 1922 in Rome by the decision of the First General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union, is based on the division of the celestial sphere into sections of arbitrary irregular shape. While the sign of the zodiac is equal sectors of the celestial sphere, with vertices at the poles of the ecliptic and based on segments of the ecliptic 1/12 of a full circle in size, and in the tropical zodiac - shifted by about 21 ° (overlapping the previous constellation). Therefore, the modern astronomical system of constellations has nothing to do with the astrological tradition of dividing the ecliptic into 12 parts.
Interesting facts about Zodiac Signs
The names of the signs come from the names of the twelve corresponding zodiac constellations in which the Sun alternately resides in its annual movement. The signs of the zodiac, which are the main element of astrology, have only historical significance for modern astronomy.
What is a Zodiac Sign, and How Does it Relate to Personality?
The zodiac signs are the designations of 12 constellations located along the ecliptic. The names of the animals call them. Astrologers use the Gregorian calendar (or tropical year) to determine the sign. Therefore, due to the precession of the earth's axis, the symptoms of the zodiac shift relative to the Sun in the zodiac constellations, thereby forming astrological eras. Capricorns belong to the water element, like fish to the earth.
At least the birth season shows business stars, which was statistically associated with several personality traits, making it possible to use zodiac signs for a rough assessment of personal qualities.
"Psychologists often want to dispel those patterns that astrologers often talk about, but seasonal effects do seem to exist, and we have yet to explain them. I'm not saying that they are associated with celestial bodies. I just think that the signs of the zodiac are convenient to remember these patterns for ordinary people,” said Mark Hamilton (Mark Hamilton) from the University of Connecticut (USA).
Hamilton came to this paradoxical conclusion by studying the personality and character traits of three hundred stars of show business, politics, science, and literature and comparing the data obtained with their birth.
As it turned out, the dates of birth of the luminaries of science, art, and politics were not randomly scattered around the calendar. Still, they were grouped around certain months of the year and signs of the zodiac.
In general, most celebrities were born in the so-called "wet" months of the astrological calendar - the period from December to March, as well as under those signs of the zodiac that are associated with perseverance and extroversion (the so-called "bright" and "fixed" signs).
The most prominent personality traits you can expect from each zodiac sign
People born under this constellation don't know what it's like to give up. They always know what they want and are ready to go to get what they want. Therefore, they are often chosen as leaders and dream of being just like them.
Representatives of this sign can always be trusted. They treat others with understanding, have angelic patience, and never betray. Smart, honest and robust, Taurus is ready to help loved ones in any situation.
Gemini: communication skills
They can find a common language with anyone, and when people are not around, they are happy to talk with cats. Geminis are incredibly flexible and adapt to any situation without much loss.
Cancers are the real altruists. They are simply unable to leave someone in trouble and strive to help others even in the most challenging situation. And these people also feel pleased when they manage to inspire someone to accomplish something.
They do their work with such enthusiasm, have fun and just live that they infect others with their thirst for life. It is people born under the sign of Leo. They often become real muses and inspirers for many talented people and are happy to be creative.
These people are always in control. And although at first glance they sometimes seem like big bores, in fact, next to such people it is very calm. After all, they are always ready to help you, suggest a non-standard solution to your problem, and support you.
These cheerful and attractive people live in the same breath. They do not think about what is good or bad but simply enjoy life. Even if you just met, Libra can become a great friend and companion to you.
If they start something, they will finish it. The hard work and perseverance of Scorpio can be envied. And they are also distinguished by an incredible passion, which is very attractive to everyone around them. They sincerely believe in their beliefs.
These people never stand still and are always ready to break into any adventure. They love to travel and always try to take as many people as possible.
Capricorn always knows what he is doing and feels comfortable in literally any company. These people are attracted to all who deal with them. You can rely on him in a problematic situation or take him with you to a party - in both cases. He will show his best side.
Aquarius: love of freedom
They are funny and do not limit themselves or others at all. Aquarians will gladly support an idea, no matter how crazy it may seem. Their main life rule is that one must live as long as one lives.
They will always listen to you, even if no one else wants to. Real altruists, Pisces are very humane and friendly. And representatives of this sign do not tolerate when someone is offended and always try to restore justice.
The best pieces of advice for each zodiac sign to improve your life
Live now - do not wait for the right moment to achieve your goals because they may never come. Better enjoy the moment. Do not be afraid of anything. Most of our fears do not come true or turn out to be not scary at all. Close ones are the most important thing. Appreciate them. Do not live in debt - it deprives you of freedom.
When taking care of your children, do not overdo it - they have to live their own lives: the fewer things, the more freedom. Buy only what you need. Do not be afraid to make mistakes - trial and error is the key to success. Learn to learn from your mistakes. Have fun more often - who knows if you will have such an opportunity later.
Live every day to the fullest - remember. There are a limited number of them in our life. Friendship also needs to be worked on. The main thing in life is experience and impressions. If you favor a new fur coat or a trip to another country, feel free to choose the latter. Anger is an emotion that oppresses us, so it is better to refuse it.
Vulnerability is not as bad as it seems. Thanks to this, people will trust you - answer them the same. Don't pretend to be someone else - always be yourself. Pretense is always repulsive. Go in for sports - it will make you stronger physically and spiritually. Let go of grievances - they hurt both you and the one who offended you.
Passion for something makes life so much more beautiful. Traveling is a great way to change yourself, get new emotions and become better. Remember that you are not always suitable - there will always be someone more intelligent than us. Any problem is not eternal - everything passes in life, and time knows how to heal spiritual wounds.
Set goals for yourself - life without them is very dull. Decide what is most important to you and focus on it. Sometimes the risk is the path to something more. Change often changes our lives for the better - don't resist it.
There is no need to try to control loved ones - let them do as they see fit. Treat your body with love and respect. Touch is a natural gift that can heal a person, improve their well-being and increase self-confidence. Use this more. Whatever situation happens in your life, remember that you can always deal with it.
Gratitude is capable of many things - it makes better both the one who thanks and the one to whom the appreciation applies. Listen to your intuition based on your experience and life position. Do not be narcissistic, but never forget about yourself. Remember, you are the most critical person in your life. Be honest with yourself - this is the path to freedom.
Perfection never leads to anything good but makes your life gray. All our imperfections are what create our uniqueness. To find your goal - act because water does not flow under a lying stone. Small things matter too, and all significant victories are made up of small ones. Constantly learn something new - this will keep you in good shape.
The best way to stop being afraid of old age is to enjoy life. People in marriage often change - remember this so that you can not be taken by surprise. It is pointless to worry about something - it is better to use these forces to solve the problem. Innuendo from the past can interfere with your real-life - solve them yourself.
Simplicity is the path to excellence. Don't make life difficult for yourself. Always do your job well if you want to achieve something. It's never too late - they're just excuses for not trying. To get rid of longing - act. This is the best cure for procrastination.
Always do what you like and strive for what you want to achieve. Throw aside prejudice - do not become attached to the opinion of society. Words matter, too - so think before you say anything. Love is the solution to any problem and the answer to any question, the main driving force of this world. Love, share your love, and receive it in return. Use your zodiac signs' personality traits as a guide for better life choices
Scientists have revealed the secrets of stars and planets by exploring outer space. Many objects were at first simply mathematically calculated in theory, and when powerful telescopes were invented, these facts were confirmed. Now people have the technical ability not only to photograph amazing space phenomena, but also to understand how everything works with the help of space probes.
We have collected cosmic facts to prove that the Universe is much more mysterious than it seems
We at Bemorepanda have put together a good dose of scientific space facts for you to show how our Universe is both an amazing and strange place in space.
1. The Perseverance rover is looking for signs of life on the Red Planet
NASA's Perseverance landed on the most intriguing planet in the solar system, Mars, two years ago. This happened in February 2021. The task of "Perseverance" is to collect data to answer the question: did someone live on the planet before it became a lifeless desert.
The rover is drilling and collecting rock samples, looking for signs of microbial life, testing oxygen production for further human colonization of the planet.
Perseverance traveled 211 million km of outer space before successfully landing on the surface of Mars. It took him 7 months of Earth time to do this. NASA plans that the collected samples, which the rover is stockpiling in caches, will be brought back to Earth by follow-up missions in the 2030s.
2. A huge cloud of water floats in space
Astronomical observations in 2011 led to a striking conclusion: at a distance of about 12 billion light-years from our Earth, there is a huge accumulation of water vapor in outer space.
This is the largest cloud that is known to mankind. It appeared at an early stage of the origin of the Universe, when its age was about 1.6 billion years. Therefore, this accumulation of water vapor in space is also the oldest of all known to astronomers.
To imagine its size, you need to try to mentally increase our entire water supply, which is located in the oceans and seas of the Earth, by 140 trillion times. It is unlikely that this will work for an ordinary earthling. But that's not all, here's a little more coolness.
Astronomers believe that this grandiose accumulation of steam is nothing more than a source of energy for the life and growth of a black hole. If there is enough carbon monoxide in the form of gas in the cloud, then the black hole has every chance to increase in size by six times with all the ensuing consequences - black holes absorb matter irrevocably!
3. Jupiter's Great Red Spot Is Shrinking
The planet Jupiter is a gas giant, which is an accumulation of hot gases. Jupiter's calling card is its Great Red Spot, or GRS (Great Red Spot), which is nothing more than a high-pressure storm raging on the planet - a giant storm, or rather a cyclone.
This phenomenon lasts for 300 years, and once its area was three times the diameter of the Earth. But astrophysicists are seeing a gradual contraction of the Great Red Spot, which is getting narrower. Now the dimensions of the GRS are 8000 miles (about 13 thousand km). But you can not worry about the complete disappearance of the Red Spot - it becomes smaller in width, but grows in height.
4. Black and white moon of Saturn
Not one moon revolves around Saturn, like the Earth, but as many as 53, and these are only those that received their own names. In addition to them, smaller satellites revolve near Saturn, which have not yet been honored to be named by official science.
The brightest and most unusual of the moons of the giant of the solar system is Iapetus, who managed to be two-faced: one of his hemispheres is dark and the other is light. This rocky fragment is small in size - its diameter is 914 miles, or about 1.5 thousand km.
The light side is capable of reflecting 20 times more light than the dark side, and scientists are well aware of why this happens. This area is normal ice. But why it is always dark on the other side is not entirely clear. According to one theory, another of the moons - Phoebe - shows a vindictive nature and emits a stream of particles towards Iapetus. According to a more recent theory, Saturn's two-faced moon rotates so slowly that its dark material absorbs heat and therefore darkens more and more.
5. Venus is the hottest planet in the solar system
It is unlikely that a human foot will set foot on Venus in the near future, because on this hot planet the average temperature reaches 450 - 462 ° C. This is enough to melt the lead, but not enough heat to melt the steel (it needs 2500°F, or 1370°C).
450 Celsius means that no form of life known to us today is possible on Venus. By comparison, the average temperature on Earth is only 58.6°F, or 17.8°C. Extremophile organisms can live happily on Earth at 206°F (96.7°C), but even they cannot survive on Venus.
At the same time, it is worth considering that the "Morning Star" is not located closer to the Sun than the rest - it is in second place after Mercury. Venus, on the other hand, has a super-dense atmosphere that can hold greenhouse gases, and therefore the planet is an uninhabitable “gas chamber”.
6. Amazing speed of rotation of neutron stars
The birth of neutron stars occurs at the moment of explosion and death of stars, the mass of which is 8 times greater than the Sun, and as a result of a supernova explosion. These celestial bodies are very small in size - their radius is from 10 to 20 kilometers, and their mass is about the same as that of the Sun, but they have a huge density.
If you theoretically weigh one teaspoon of the substance that makes up a neutron star, then the scales will show one billion tons. How much such a star will weigh as a whole is hard to even imagine, although it is possible to calculate. If people were on the surface of a neutron star, they would experience the force of gravity 2 billion times more powerful than Earth's.
The most amazing thing is the speed of rotation of these celestial bodies. Due to the compression of the core and a sharp decrease in inertia, the new neutron star begins to rotate very quickly - up to 43 thousand revolutions per second, however, the speed slows down over time. Astrophysicists have calculated and then discovered more than 2500 neutron stars in outer space.
7. A distant planet with a diamond core
Exoplanet 55 Cancer e is a celestial body in the status of a super-Earth, which is approximately twice the size of our Earth and is part of the distant planetary system of the star in the constellation Cancer. It was named Janssen and studied with the help of modern telescopes and satellites.
The planet is located far from us - at a distance of 40 million light years. 55 Cancri e revolves around its star in a very low orbit, making one revolution in 18 Earth days - a year there lasts a little more than two weeks! Such proximity of one side of the planet to the star leads to heating to a temperature of 2400 ° C - this is an ocean of lava on the surface. The other side heats up to 1100°C and has an atmosphere.
Scientists have suggested that 55 Cancer e has carbon in its depths, which, due to high temperatures and density, may well have the form of graphite and diamonds, and there are very, very many of them!
8. Ice space cryovolcanoes
A volcano on our planet is a geological object that spews molten and red-hot lava from its depths. In space, at low temperatures, volcanoes also operate, but they spew out frozen water, ammonia and methane, which come out in the form of steam, cryolava and volcanic snow.
Many cryovolcanoes have been discovered on the planets and satellites: Pluto, Triton - the satellite of Neptune, Titan - the satellite of Saturn, on Europa and Io - the satellites of Jupiter. On Io, NASA probes have detected very high activity, with plumes of frozen steam from hundreds of vents stretching horizontally for 400 km. Why cryovolcanoes erupt is still not exactly clear, researchers call the gravitational attraction of cosmic bodies the reason.
9. Our galaxy will collide with the next
Together with our solar system, we are hurtling through space in the Milky Way galaxy. The nearest neighboring Andromeda galaxy is a huge distance of 2.5 million light years. But the problem is that the Milky Way and Andromeda are flying at cosmic speeds towards each other, and someday a collision is inevitable, astrophysicists say. As a result, both galaxies will be destroyed, and everything we know about the world and space will disappear.
The speed of these star formations is 250 thousand miles per hour (402 thousand km / h), and given the enormous mass of both objects, the death of stars and planets is inevitable. As a result, what remains will be a completely different galaxy, which has nothing in common with our star-planetary system.
What should humanity do? You can relax a little: the collision will not happen earlier than in 4 billion years, so for now you can safely go about your business.
10. Space cold welding
On our planet, we connect two metal parts by welding: we heat the metal until it reaches its melting point, after which the molecules combine.
But in outer space, if we want to join metal parts, we don't need hot welding. No other similar steps are needed. There is a method of cold welding - when metals are connected either by compression or by shear sliding. At the same time, the protection in the form of an oxide layer is erased, which prevents the metals from merging under Earth conditions.
But there is no air and oxygen in space, and this layer is lost, so nothing prevents electrons from flowing from part to part, fusing them into one.
11. Uranus has a strong orbital inclination and a long winter.
The planets revolve around the Sun with some tilt. For example, our Earth has a tilt angle of 23 degrees. Thanks to this, we know the pronounced seasons and the change of weather - in summer the part of the planet where we live leans closer to the sun, and therefore we are warm, and in winter our territory is at a far distance, and we have cold.
But the ice giant Uranus has a planetary tilt "beyond". Its rotation angle is nearly 98 degrees, making its placement relative to the Sun "on its side and slightly head down". The planet makes a full revolution around the Sun in 84 Earth years, so the "season", in our understanding, here lasts 21 years, with 42 years being a polar day, the other 42 being a polar night. The winds of Uranus reach a speed of 240 m/s, and the temperature drops to minus 224 °C. In short, this planet is cold, very cold.
12 Largest Canyon System On Mars
Mars is already fairly well understood thanks to the advent of powerful telescopes and space probes, and NASA's Perseverance module is currently doing a detailed study.
This amazing planet has the largest and most extensive canyon found among the planets of the solar system, including Earth. The Mariner Valleys are a gigantic canyon system discovered by Mariner 9 back in 1972. It is 4,500 km long, ten times the length of the Grand Canyon in the United States, and covers a quarter of the entire circumference of Mars.
The width of the canyons reaches 600 km - this is 20 times the Grand Canyon, and the depth reaches 11 km, seven times the largest canyon on Earth. It is believed that the Mariner Valleys were formed during the formation of the planet and deepened due to erosion, and possibly the powerful giant volcanoes of the Martian province of Tharsis.
13. Mercury shrinks in size
It was believed that our Earth is the only planet in the solar system that continues to shrink. This is caused by tectonic activity, when the movement of lithospheric plates under the earth's crust releases energy and deforms the surface, which leads to gradual compression.
But now there are other data. Earth is not the only planet that is gradually shrinking in size. The smallest planet in the solar system, Mercury, as it turns out, is also in the process of warping. This was revealed by the MESSENGER spacecraft in 2016. Rock-like landforms, called fault ledges, have been discovered, which indicate that the planet is still in the formation stage, although 4.5 billion years have already passed since the creation of the solar system.
14. Neptune warms itself
Neptune happened to be at the farthest end of the solar system with a distance of 4.55 billion km from the Sun, so that the year on this ice giant lasts almost 165 Earth years. At the same time, Neptune is spinning as best it can - it rotates around its axis at a speed of one revolution in 16 hours.
It may seem that a severe cold and darkness reigns on the planet, but this is not entirely true. What is on Neptune is hurricane-force winds and storms that accelerate to 600 m / s. But if the planet does not have enough light and heat from the Sun, then you have to produce this heat on your own, which Neptune does.
Its internal temperature is much higher than that of Uranus, due to which weather changes occur. The exact cause is not yet known, but it is believed that the hydrogen, which is located in the depths of Neptune, increases the heat. The planet produces its own heat 2.6 times more than it can receive from the Sun, so it is terribly cold in the upper atmosphere - minus 220 °C, and inside the planet warms up to plus 7000 °C.
15. Saturn and its mysterious hexagon
The size of Saturn is 9.5 times larger than the Earth, and despite the fact that the planet has no solid and consists of gases, its mass is 95 times greater than that of the earth. Saturn makes one revolution around the star in 29.45 Earth years, but it turns around its axis in 10 hours 32 minutes, ranking second in terms of rotation speed after Jupiter.
The features of Saturn include its extraordinarily beautiful rings, consisting of particles of ice and stones, and in addition, a completely unique and amazing phenomenon - a regular hexagon located at its north pole. This is nothing more than a cluster of clouds, but scientists have not yet figured out why they took the correct geometric shape. It is only known that one side is 13800 km and four of our planets Earth can easily fit inside this formation.
The hexagon rotates with a period of 10 hours. 39 min., but at the same time it does not change its shape. A strong turbulent vortex is raging inside it, and this storm has been going on, according to observations, for 40 years now. Perhaps the strange shape is due to zonal jets extending downwards in high-pressure areas.
16. Cosmic distances are beyond imagination.
People do not even think about the fact that they live on a small planet that flies in a boundless dark space. We measure the distance using the time we spend on the move - for example, to work 30 minutes, to the store 10 minutes walk.
But in space, you have to measure the distance in light years. One light year is the distance that a ray of light (its speed is 300 thousand km / s) is able to overcome in one calendar year. To imagine this scale, let's take the distance from the Earth to the Moon - it will take only 1.3 seconds for the beam to travel these 380 thousand km to our satellite. It would take nine hours for a modern spacecraft to do this.
But if we decide to fly to our nearest star, Proxima Centauri, we will have to travel 4.246 light years (at the speed of light). The same journey in a car at a speed of about 100 km/h would take 356 billion years.
17. Twinkling Stars
If we look at the sky, we will find that the stars twinkle and twinkle, but the planets do not, they continue to shine with a steady light. Why it happens?
The explanation lies in the mobility of our planet's atmosphere. The light that the star emits enters the atmosphere and is refracted in it, which our eyes perceive as flickering. The planets seem large to us, and their reflected light is also refracted in the atmosphere, but due to the size of the planets, these distortions are compensated, as a result of which our eyes see a steady brilliance.
18. Temperature spread of Mercury
Even on Earth, one can encounter a large spread in the values of a street thermometer, when in summer it is plus 45 ° C in the region, and minus 30 ° C in winter. But small in size Mercury has gone much further and can greatly surprise with its temperature drops.
Since this planet is located closest to the Sun and the period of its revolution around the star is the shortest - only 87.97 Earth days, Mercury has no atmosphere and there has been no geological activity along with internal heat over the past few billion years, and the temperature change is significant.
So, at night at the equator on the surface of the planet it is minus 173 °C, during the day this area warms up to plus 427 °C. This spread is the widest among all other planets in the solar system. In the polar zones, the temperature is more stable and does not rise above minus 93 °C. If you suddenly find yourself on Mercury as a traveler, you will have to rack your brains well, choosing your wardrobe.
19. Planetary diamond showers
Probably, diamond planets exist somewhere, and scientists even point to these amazing celestial bodies, but they are far beyond our solar system.
But even among the closest neighbors of the Earth there are planets in the atmosphere of which it can rain from real diamonds. The gas giants Jupiter and Saturn are able to turn the methane they are made of into carbon black under the influence of thunderstorms raging on the surface. As the soot settles, it becomes graphite, which crystallizes into diamonds.
When these diamond crystals, about one centimeter in diameter, approach the red-hot core, they melt and transform into diamond liquid droplets. Thus, those astronauts who dare to take these diamonds into their pockets have very little time left.
20. What is more - sand or stars?
Carl Sagan said that there are more stars in the universe than there are grains of sand on the entire earth. Astronomer Bob Berman decided to check and refuted this statement. For calculations, he applied mathematical methods: he multiplied the 100 billion stars that one galaxy in our Universe has by the probable number of galaxies (which is from 200 billion to 3 trillion galaxies). Then he counted how many grains of sand are in one cubic centimeter and multiplied by the amount of sand on Earth. And what turned out? There were as many grains of sand as there are stars in the universe.
Throughout the history of our existence, we have been striving for distant stars since ancient times, but so far we have not been able to study even the objects closest to us. We don’t even know everything about the Moon today. But those facts that are gradually becoming known to us still do not cease to amaze us and make us learn more and more about our world, space and the universe. Have you ever wondered where the Earth's satellite came from? Why can't you see the other side? And did you know that the natural satellite looks more like a lemon than a sphere?
Facts proving that the Earth's satellite is cooler than science fiction writers can come up with.
We at Bemorepanda love science and we are sure that some facts about the Moon can surprise even the most sophisticated readers.
1. Every year, the Moon moves away from the Earth by about 3.8 cm. According to the calculations of astrophysicists, the satellite of our planet will be freed from gravitational influence in 15 billion years.
2. The surface temperature of the moon can reach the boiling point. During the lunar day, which lasts two weeks, the temperature at the equator can reach 120 °C. According to NASA, the lunar night also lasts about two weeks, during which the surface temperature can drop to -130°C to -170°C. In some places on the satellite near its poles, temperatures can drop to -25°C.
3. The moon actually has its own time zone, which is called Lunar Standard Time (LST). The lunar year consists of only 12 days. It may seem that this is some strange, short year, but it is not. The fact is that each lunar day consists of 29.5 Earth days, so the length of the year on the moon is approximately equivalent to the earth.
4. On the Moon, as well as on our planet, there are earthquakes. They are called moonquakes. Seismic fluctuations on the lunar surface are caused by the gravitational influence of the Earth and last only a few minutes.
5. There are many valuable resources on the Moon. For example, hydrogen, which can be used to propel rockets; water ice, which can be split into hydrogen and oxygen for fuel, and helium-3, a non-radioactive isotope of helium that could be used in the future to generate nuclear power.
6. Astrophysicists believe that the Moon is 4.5 billion years old.
7. Shadows appear darker on the Moon than on Earth. This is due to the fact that our satellite has a very thin atmosphere, so photons of light cannot be refracted and cast exactly the same shadows as on our planet, which creates their strong dark contrast.
8. The diameter of Australia is 600 km wider than the diameter of the Moon.
9. Scientists have a plausible hypothesis that the Moon appeared as a result of a giant asteroid the size of Mars falling to Earth, which occurred at the very beginning of the formation of the solar system, about 4.5 billion years ago.
10. A lunar eclipse saved Christopher Columbus from starvation. On February 29, 1504, Columbus used a lunar eclipse to frighten the local Arawak Indians on the island of Jamaica so that the Indian people would feed him and his crew members. The biographer Fernando, son of Columbus, told in his books that when the Arawaks saw the eclipse, they ran in hysterics and screams from all sides to the ships with supplies, begging the crew to save them from the wrath of God.
11. The moon has become something of a dump. After so many Nasa missions, there is a lot of waste and debris left on the Moon. Lunar rovers, probes, various scientific equipment, astronauts' waste products and even golf balls remained here.
Strange things remained on the surface of the satellite: a falcon feather, a piece of the Wright brothers' plane, a family photograph of astronaut Charles Duke, and a silicon disk of goodwill messages. By the way, the feather of a bird of prey was used by David Scott, who decided to test the theory of Galileo, who suggested that if there is no air resistance, heavy and light things fall at the same speed. Apollo 15 astronaut David Scott did just that. He threw a hammer and a feather on the moon from the same height and they touched the surface at the same time.
12. Birds use the Moon as a map to navigate and plot their flight path during their migration season.
13. Authors of gothic stories, poems and novels have been inspired by the mystique and creepiness of the full moon for centuries. So, the first mention of a werewolf on a full moon can be found in the Epic of Gilgamesh, written in 2100 BC. e. (XVIII-XVII centuries BC).
14. Many people still think that the 1969 moon landing was a movie. For example, one of the most common arguments of skeptics is that there are no stars visible in the background of pictures of astronauts from the Moon. Buzz Aldrin, the Apollo 11 lunar module pilot who visited the Earth satellite, slapped one such unbeliever in the face, who called the astronaut a liar.
15. In fact, the surface of the moon is dark. Although the satellite appears extraordinarily bright in the night sky, its reflectivity is only slightly higher than that of cracked old asphalt.
16. There is water on the moon. True, in the form of ice, which is both on the surface and under it. It's covered in dust and miner
16. There is water on the moon. True, in the form of ice, which is both on the surface and under it. It is covered with dust and minerals. Water appeared there, most likely due to comets.
17. Moon dust smells like gunpowder, and scientists do not know why (there are many versions).
18. Lunar craters can reveal cosmic history. Each crater separately can tell the story of the fall of various objects on the Earth's satellite. In addition, all the craters on the Moon can open the veil of mystery about the appearance of the satellite and even about the history of asteroid bombardments of the entire solar system.
19. Lunar research bases similar to Antarctic stations may soon appear on the satellite.
20. Earth and Moon have gravity, but not the same. The moon's gravity is weaker and in fact is only one-sixth that of the earth's. This means that you will weigh less when standing on the Moon than on Earth.
21. The dark side of the moon is a myth. In fact, both sides of the moon receive the same amount of sunlight. However, only one side of the satellite is always visible from Earth. This is because it rotates around its axis in exactly the same time as our planet. The other side, facing away from the Earth, can only be seen from spacecraft orbit.
22. Did you know that the moon shrinks over time? This, by the way, causes moonquakes. It turns out that the diameter of the satellite over the past few hundred million years has decreased by more than 50 meters. It is noteworthy that when it is compressed, "wrinkles" begin to form on the surface - "thrust faults", the earth's crust, which is moving towards each other.
23. The moon may seem like a perfect spherical sphere, but in fact it is more like a lemon.
24. The surface of the Moon is covered with extinct volcanoes, asteroid impact craters and frozen lava flows. And much of this can be seen with the naked eye, even novice astrologers.
25. Since the moon has a very thin atmosphere, a layer of dust on the surface - or a trace on it - can remain on the satellite for several centuries.
26. There are no seasons on the moon.
27. Many astronauts have reported symptoms of hay fever after exposure to lunar dust, most commonly sneezing, itchy throat, and eye pain.
28. In 1998, NASA carried out a controlled descent from orbit and the fall of the American automatic interplanetary station "Lunar Prospector" in a given area of the moon's surface, breaking it. In addition to scientific equipment, the ashes of geologist and planetary scientist Eugene Shoemaker were on board the device. This is the only person whose remains are scattered around the satellite.
29. The light created by the full moon is polarized in the Earth's atmosphere, and therefore dung beetles are better oriented during the full moon.
30. Without the Moon, the Earth would rotate much faster, as a result of which the wind speed would be 160 km / h, and the day would last only 8 hours.
31. Nearly 81% of mental health professionals believe that a full moon can cause mental illness in people.
32. In the 19th century, the Bavarian physician and astronomer Franz von Paula Gruythuisen claimed that he had seen cities and little green men on the Moon with his telescope and that the Earth's satellite was inhabited. And at first they even believed him, but over time it became clear to everyone that this was not so. Despite the loss of reputation, a crater on the Moon was named after him.
33. Some in ancient times considered the Moon a fiery bowl, while others believed that it was a celestial mirror reflecting the solid surface and seas of the Earth.
34. It seems that every night the moon changes its shape, but it is not. In fact, this effect occurs due to the fact that the satellite, revolving around the Earth, is differently illuminated by the Sun - this changes our perception of the Moon.
35. Only 12 people walked on the Moon. Twelve of the 24 people who have traveled from Earth to the Moon have walked on its surface. The first and most famous person to set foot on a moon was Neil Armstrong, who did so in 1969.
36. The first spacecraft to reach the Earth's satellite was the Soviet automatic interplanetary station Luna-1. This happened in 1959. The ship passed 5995 km from the surface of the moon before entering solar orbit.
37. More than 300,000 craters larger than 1 km in diameter have been discovered on the side of the Moon closest to us.
38. Stuart Allen Rusa, an American astronaut, took 500 tree seeds with him on a flight to lunar orbit in 1971. Subsequently, seedlings were grown from the seeds, which were planted in many US states and even in some foreign countries. By the way, such plants are called "Moon trees". Many are still growing.
39. The “dark side” of the Moon, invisible from Earth, was first photographed in 1959 by the Soviet Union from the Luna-3 space module.
40. By the way, the word "lunatic" comes from the fact that many believe that changes in mental state are directly related to the lunar cycles.
41. The ancient Sumerians were the first civilization to use the Moon for calendaring. Each month of this calendar had 29 or 30 days, depending on whether there was a full moon on the first day of the month.
42. The moon is the only natural satellite of the Earth. It flies around the Earth at a distance of about 385,000 kilometers.
43. As you know, the Sun and the Moon are not the same size. The Moon is 400 times smaller than the Sun, but also 400 times closer to the Earth.
44. During eclipses, the Moon, Earth and Sun are on the same straight line. A lunar eclipse occurs when the Earth is directly between the Sun and the Moon, casting our planet's shadow onto the moon's surface. A lunar eclipse can only occur on a full moon.
45. The Moon is a very dusty rocky ball with a diameter of 3476 km - about a quarter of the size of the Earth.
46. In the 1950s, the US considered detonating a nuclear bomb on the moon. The secret project at the height of the Cold War was known as the Lunar Exploration Flight Study, or Project A119, and meant a show of force. Apparently, this is how the Americans wanted to respond to the USSR, which at that time was ahead of the space race.
47. The largest crater discovered on the Moon is called the South Pole-Aitken Basin, its diameter is 2400-2500 km, and its depth is about 8 km.
48. Powerful telescopes on Earth can only see 59% of the moon's surface.
49. To date, NASA has collected about 2200 samples of rocks, dust, sand, pebbles, water and other geological materials from the surface of the Moon.
50. Great Barrier Reef corals spawn in October, November and December just after the full moon.
Surely each of us at least once in his life wondered, looking into the starry sky - what is there, beyond our Earth? Are there brothers in mind in these endless expanses? We are not talking about the sacramental question "Is there life on Mars?".
About black holes, wandering planets and other space facts - in short and accessible language
Of course, from school textbooks on astronomy, we remember something about our Universe, but over time, if you do not get carried away with this subject, knowledge is forgotten. But that's not the point. It's just that new facts about space are constantly being discovered - from a mega-huge void to "Planet Nine". Or, for example, have you heard about white holes? We were not mistaken, it was about whites (you probably already know about blacks anyway). And how long do you think a person can stay in outer space without a spacesuit?
Do you want to know? Then read our selection. We promise: you will learn a lot for yourself.
1. Any freely moving fluid in outer space will turn into a sphere.
2. The mass of the Sun occupies 99.86% of our solar system.
3. The biggest black hole - Monster Black Hole.
4. If a star passes too close to a black hole, it can be torn apart.
5. The gravity of Jupiter attracts a large percentage of asteroids, and this protects us from cosmic collisions.
6. Saturn would float in water if there was a suitable container.
7. We know more about Mars and our Moon than we do about our oceans.
8. There are more stars in the Universe than there are grains of sand on all the beaches of the Earth. That's at least a billion trillion!
9. Earth's Moon is the fifth largest moon in the solar system.
10. Metallic snow and sulfuric acid rain on Venus.
11. Scientists have discovered a 1 billion light-year-wide void in space that could be a parallel universe.
12. Saturn has a huge extra ring that was only discovered in 2009.
13. About once a year, an asteroid the size of a car enters the Earth's atmosphere, but it burns up before it reaches us.
14. Neutron stars can rotate 600 times per second.
15. More than a million Earths can fit inside the Sun, and the Sun is considered a medium-sized star.
16. Comets are the remnants of the creation of our solar system about 4.5 billion years ago, they are composed of sand, ice and carbon dioxide.
17. There is a planet made of diamonds.
18. About 1.4 billion years ago, a day on Earth lasted only 18 hours and 41 minutes.
19. The International Space Station orbits the Earth every 90 minutes.
20. For many years, it was believed that the Earth was the only planet in our solar system with liquid water. Most recently, NASA presented the most compelling evidence that Mars also periodically flows water!
21. The International Space Station (ISS) is the size of a football field.
22. More than 4,000 exoplanets are known, and their number continues to grow.
23. Mercury is still contracting.
24. At the edge of the solar system there may be a huge planet, nicknamed "Planet Nine".
25. Stars twinkle because light is distorted as it passes through the Earth's atmosphere.
26. Pluto is smaller than the United States.
27. The first living mammal to go into space was a dog named Laika from Russia.
28. There is complete silence in space, because there is no air in space - this is a vacuum.
29. At the center of the Milky Way galaxy are tens of thousands of black holes.
30. The largest known asteroid is 940 km wide.
31. Saturn has 83 known moons and the number continues to grow.
32. There are 2,000,000,000,000 galaxies in the observable universe.
33. Gamma-ray bursts can release more energy in 10 seconds than our Sun in its entire 10 billion years of its life.
34. Shooting stars are space junk that burns up as they enter the Earth's atmosphere.
35. If you drill a tunnel through the Earth and jump into it, you will reach the other side in 42 minutes and 12 seconds.
36. The estimated cost of a NASA spacesuit made in 1974 is between $15 million and $22 million per unit.
37. If two pieces of the same type of metal come into contact in space, they will forever unite.
38. On Titan, the satellite of Saturn, there are also lakes. The liquid in Titan's lakes is not water, but a substance called methane.
39. The moon has the shape of a lemon.
40. To date, more than 600 people have been in space.
41. The sun makes a complete revolution once every 25-35 days.
42. We always see the same side of the Moon, no matter where we are on Earth.
43. There is a planet in our galaxy where the daytime temperature is almost 1093.333 degrees Celsius, and it may be raining glass horizontally.
44. Halley's Comet won't orbit Earth again until 2061.
45. Planets can wander in space without a parent star.
46. Only 5% of the Universe is visible from Earth.
47. You can't walk on Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus or Neptune because they don't have a solid surface!
48. If you could fly a plane to Pluto, the journey would take over 800 years.
49. Black holes have theoretical opposites known as white holes.
50. Powerful volcanic eruptions occur on Jupiter's moon Io.
51. There are mountains on Pluto.
52. One teaspoon of a neutron star would weigh as much as Mount Everest.
53. The moon is moving further away from the Earth every year.
54. You would last in space for about 15 seconds without a space suit.
55. Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka spent the most in space - 879 days.
56. The rings of Saturn seem to disappear from time to time.
57. If you fell into a black hole, you would stretch out like spaghetti.
58. The dead skin of your feet flakes off in space.
59. The star VY Canis Majoris is the largest star in the universe, its diameter is about 2000 times the diameter of our Sun.
60. The hottest planet in our solar system is Venus, whose temperature reaches 464°C.