30 scientific facts about twins that will expand your knowledge
Twins has always caused and will cause a lot of emotions. Someone is surprised by their similarity, someone is interested in it, and someone is simply touched by two little kids who look alike like two drops of water.
They have their own language, DNA is the same, but fingerprints are different
We at Bemorepanda have prepared some fascinating facts that will make you wonder just how special twins are.
1. Twins can come from different fathers and even belong to different races.
Yes, it sounds incredible, but it could be true. If a woman ovulates twice and then has sexual intercourse with two different men, it may well happen that both eggs are fertilized. This happens in a certain sequence, which is practically impossible to follow on purpose.
The scientific name for this phenomenon is superfecundation (hetero-paternal fertilization). It can happen during IVF. One of the few such cases was reported in Holland. Wilma and Willem Stewart applied for IVF, during which something went wrong, and as a result, two boys were born - one white, the other black. It later turned out that before the procedure, Willem's sperm was accidentally mixed with the sperm of another man.
2. Twice as many twins are born today than in decades past
Studies by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have shown that the birth rate of twins has increased by 76% since 1980. In 1980 alone, every 53rd child was born a twin, and already in 2009, every 30th.
One possible reason is later delivery. At 30, you are more likely to have twins than, for example, at 20. Another reason was reproductive treatments. There is evidence that dairy products are to blame.
3. Geminis speak their own language
Surely you have heard that little brothers or sisters spoke to each other in some incomprehensible language, but understood each other perfectly. This language is called cryptophasia and is spoken by about 40% of twins.
The fact is that children actively imitate each other, which allows them to gain vocabulary. Often it can be replenished with not the best examples, such as incomprehensible sounds, to which children attach a specific meaning and speak them freely. As the child develops and his real vocabulary grows, the so-called cryptophasia disappears - approximately by the junior school age. But some twins retain this language and use it deftly in later years.
4. Different fingerprints
Twins may look like two peas in a pod, but everyone will still have their own fingerprints.
5. If twins were separated during childbirth, then scientists will try to reunite them.
There is a heated debate in genetics and psychology to this day about which prevails - nature or nurture. Genetically, twins are very close to each other. However, how does this affect their upbringing, and will twins raised in different environments look alike?
It is almost impossible to test this experimentally, since cases of twin separation are quite rare, and no one will separate children specifically for the sake of research.
Twins Meredith Grace Rittenhouse and Meredith Ellen Harrington were born in China and adopted by two different American families that did not intersect. Throughout her childhood, Meredith Ellen shared with her parents thoughts that she felt lonely and wanted to have a sister. Subsequently, Meredith's father Ellen came across a photograph of a very similar girl. He immediately turned to the adoption agency to find a second family and arrange a meeting for the girls. When Meredith Ellen and Meredith Grace met, they immediately declared that they were born together.
6. The oldest twins were 104 years old
British twins Ena Pugh and Lily Millward were born in 1910. They are listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the oldest twins living on Earth. But later it turned out that the sisters Edith Ritchie and Evelyn Middleton from Scotland are older by as much as 50 years, and the title passed to them.
7. Twins can be different ages.
When attempts to conceive a child naturally fail, many parents turn to IVF. To increase the chances of conception, you have to fertilize several eggs at once. Parents can transfer all embryos or freeze them for several years. In the second case, it may happen that the children will be born at different times, but genetically they will be twins.
And there are interesting coincidences, as in the case of the Buffalo twins. Ronan is the eldest son, born on December 31, 2011 at 11:37 pm, and his younger brother Rory was born on January 1, 2012 at 00:10 am. The difference is literally half an hour, but it turns out that they were born in different years.
8. Diet increases the chance of having twins
This is good news for those who dream of twins and love dairy products. According to studies, they increase the likelihood of having twins.
The thing is that milk protein stimulates the ovaries and increases the level of IGF (insulin-like growth factor) by 13 times. Perhaps the culprit is growth hormone, which is actively added to livestock feed.
9. The higher the woman, the more likely she is to give birth to twins.
Modern research has shown that the taller a woman is, the higher her level of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) is, making the ovaries more prone to ovulation.
10. Fraternal Twins
This is a less common type of twins, which occurs as a result of the fertilization of two or more eggs. As a result, twins are born, similar to each other like brothers and sisters, but with different genotypes.
11. The twin gene exists
During hyperovulation, a woman is able to reproduce more than one egg, which increases the likelihood of having fraternal twins. Hyperovulation is genetically transmitted, so it is likely that if one of your relatives has this gene, you will inherit it too. However, the appearance of identical twins does not depend on this.
12. Moms with twins are more likely to have morning sickness.
It occurs due to the fact that a woman increases the hormone hCG - human chorionic gonadotropin.
13. Two pairs of identical twins married each other: who are their children to each other?
Despite the fact that officially their children are considered cousins, they are genetically brothers.
14. Siamese twins can "read" each other's minds.
In 2011, The New York Times published an article about the two Hogan sisters, which stated that Siamese twins have a neural connection that connects the two brains. This literally allows them to "read" each other's minds.
15. Twins bond before birth
It's no secret that twins are very attached to each other. After all, they spent nine months in their mother's belly. However, attachment is formed long before birth. Doctors used 3D ultrasound to monitor five pairs of twins. Studies have shown that babies begin to reach out to each other as early as 14 weeks of gestation. The physical contact of the twins took up to 30% of the time, and at 18 weeks the contacts became more frequent.
16. Brazil is the capital of the twins
In the remote Brazilian village of Candido Godoy, between 1959 and 2008, 8% of the total number of twins were born. By the way, in the rest of the world this figure does not exceed 1%.
The initial cause was thought to be a local source of water, but later scientists proved that local women have a hyperovulation gene, which leads to a high twin birth rate.
17. Longevity Moms
Scientists from the University of Utah found an interesting pattern. Mothers of twins often live longer than other parents. For the study, data were selected from 1800 to 1970, in which records of more than 59 thousand women were studied.
18. Geminis synchronize their sleep cycles.
If one of the babies wakes up and starts crying, the other soon joins him. However, even in adulthood, if one twin does not sleep, then the other is unlikely to sleep either.
19. Twins become different
Identical twins are often very difficult to tell apart. They can literally look like exact copies of each other. But a recent article from Live Science published a study that suggests that as they mature, twins may develop differences from each other. It's all about different habits, food, rhythms of life, environmental influences, various substances and other factors.
20. Lefties are more common among twins.
According to statistics, there are more left-handers among twins than among other children. According to some reports, about one in five couples.
21. There are more twins
Between 1980 and 2009, there were 76% more twins born in the US alone, from 18.9 to 33.3 per 1,000 children.
22. Not exactly the same
Many parents sin by dressing twins in the same clothes, giving them similar hairstyles, despite the fact that completely different personalities are sitting inside. Writer Grace Lin spoke about this in her book Ling and Ting: Not Quite the Same. In this book, the writer tells about the life of identical twins with completely different characters and even hairstyles.
23. Twins have different ages
Twins are not born at the same time. The difference in their age can be up to 17 minutes, and sometimes more. There were cases when twins were born even on different days.
24. Main difference
Twins can be distinguished by their navels, because they have nothing to do with genetics. The only problem is that asking people to show their navels for identification is not always appropriate.
25. The phenomenon of the disappeared twin
In medicine, there is such a term as "disappeared twin syndrome." This happens when one of the embryos stops developing in the womb for a number of reasons.
26. There are more divorces in families with twins.
The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology has published a study that says that parents of twins are more likely to resort to divorce than in other families.
27. Record holders for the number of twins
Among all animal species, polar bears most often give birth to twins.
28. Identification of twins
To determine pregnancy with twins, doctors use a stethoscope to listen to two hearts.
29. Get ready to get better
During pregnancy with one child, a woman can add 11 to 16 kg of weight. And during pregnancy with twins, you need to be prepared for the fact that the increase will be up to 20 kg.
30. Where do most twins live?
Nigeria breaks out into the lead in the number of multiple pregnancies. In 2008, about 4% of births were twins.
The lowest figure went to China. There, as of 2011, up to 1.1% of twins are born. In the US, Massachusetts, this figure is approximately 3%. This means that up to 4 twins are born for every 100 children.
40 Parents tell how funny it is to have twins on Twitter
Do you want twins? The idea of having twins is enchanting for many people. If you have a twin or if you have twins in your family, the chances of you having twins are higher than those of people who do not have twins in the family at all.
The genetic predisposition to have twins applies only to mothers. If there are twins in the woman's family, her chances of having hyperovulation increase.
Many reproductive experts believe that most women have multiple pregnancies. It's just that along the way, only one of the embryos of conception remains viable and survives.
There are two types of twins: identical twins and non-identical twins. Identical or monozygotic twins form when the fertilized egg splits into two different embryos. They share the same genetic structure. Also, identical twins share the same placenta. Non-identical or dizygotic twins are made up of two separate eggs fertilized by two different sperm. These twins have a different genetic structure and a placenta for each.
Bemorepanda collected some funny stories.
1.Miracle in Costco:
2.Are they twins?
3.Talking to my friend
5.How are you feeling?
8.My boy twin
11.April Fools Day
12.Crying & Yelling
13.One of my twins
14.Boss has twins
16.Which one is this?
17.Having one kid
18.Both my twins
23.50% of twins
24.Mother and the park
28.Parent of twins
29.In case you are wondering
33.18 years old
35.Woman in tears
39.Wonder Twins power
40.Judgemnt and sympathy
A 24-year-old woman became a mother for 20 babies in less than two years (Photo)
A 24-year-old woman from Moscow, Russia, amazed the whole world when she revealed that she is the mother of 21 children, 20 of them born in the last year and a half, with the help of surrogate mothers. Now, however, she claims she wants a large family with her husband, a 57-year-old businessman.
Kristina Ozturk is only 24 years old and is married to 57-year-old businessman Galip Ozturk, whom she met during a vacation in Georgia. Although the age difference between them is 33 years, the two love each other a lot and, in addition, share the same desire, namely to have a large family.
The couple, who want 105 children, revealed that they spent almost 170,000 euros on surrogate mothers between March 2020 and July 2021 and, in addition, have 16 nannies, which they pay $ 96,000.
Kristina, who has a six-year-old daughter from a previous relationship, claims to be with her children all the time and does "all the things that moms normally do." She admits, however, that the expenses for caring for the 20 children are high, but she does not complain, as her partner is a successful businessman.
"It costs us about $ 5,000 to $ 6,000 a week, which is essential for all children. Sometimes a little more, sometimes less”,said the young mother, who lives in a three-story house.
The couple's first child was born in March 2020. It is about a little boy named Mustafa, and the youngest is only three months old, being born in July of this year.
"I tell you the truth - my days are never boring. Every day is different, from planning the work schedule of the collaborators, to the purchases made for the family. ”, she confessed.
The woman also says she does not plan to have more surrogate children in the next period, but does not rule out having more children naturally.
"I want to plan a pregnancy, but not immediately, because for now I have to be close to my babies. It is difficult to be a mother for 21 children when you are pregnant ", she added.
Who is Galip Ozturk
The woman's husband, Galip Ozturk, is a successful businessman working in tourism, transport and finance. He is originally from Turkey, but has lived in Georgia for more than seven years.
He is the founder of the Turkish company Metro Holding and has a $ 500 million investment in Georgia.
Ozturk was previously married to Hulya Ozturk, with whom he has nine children, who live and work in Turkey.
Interesting facts about Horse Polo - a game of aristocrats
Horse polo is considered the most ancient team game in the world, which appeared more than two thousand years ago and was widespread in Persia and India. In India, the English army officers got acquainted with this game, and polo spread throughout Europe thanks to them. The word "polo" also came from India and is translated as "wood." The sticks for this game are made of wood. Interestingly, in India, polo is played not only on horses but also on elephants.
Facts about horse polo
Thanks to the British, polo has become not just a popular folk pastime but a sport with rules that allow competitions, including international ones. The first documented polo game in England took place in 1869. By the way, the British originally called this sport "hockey on horseback." From England, polo spread not only throughout Europe but the world. For example, in 1875, polo began to be played even in distant Argentina.
Polo in the Olympics
Polo was included in the program of the Olympic Games 5 times: in 1900, 1908, 1920, 1924, and 1936. Interestingly, the traditional Olympic equestrian disciplines appeared at the Olympics only in 1912. Horse polo was considered more of a team sport (like, for example, football) than equestrian. An interesting fact at the Olympics in Berlin, the polo tournament at the Maifeld arena gathered a record number of spectators in the stands, about 70 thousand - more than any other sport.
It is worth considering that since the early 1930s, polio was considered a disgraced sport in Nazi Germany, against which active propaganda was carried out in the press. And shortly after the end of the Games, Adolf Hitler altogether banned polo as a "Jewish" and "Anglo-American" sport. However, this species was excluded from the Olympic program for another reason. The fact is that the class of the Argentina national team, which won both in 1924 and 1936, was so superior to all other groups that it became apparent: that it was useless to play with it; the Argentines would still win. This trend continues to the present. The king of polo "- the Argentinean Adolfo Cambiaso.
Lefties can play polo
Left-handers play polo but must hold the stick with their “uncomfortable” hands. Horse polo rules state that only the right hand can have the bar. In this case, you can hit the ball on the left. In total, four main types of blows are accepted: offside forehand (strong backhand blow forward or sideways), near side backhand (back blow), near side neck shot (hit from the left side under the horse’s neck), and offside tail shot (hit from under horse's tail). Striking from above or below the opponent's horse is prohibited.
Animals other than horses used for polo
In India, polo on elephants is quite popular; in Arab countries - on camels. An exciting fact In 2000, a polo match on yaks took place in Mongolia for the first time. This action initially pursued the goal of drawing public attention to the preservation of these animals from extermination. However, since 2006, yak polo, or sarlagan polo, has become so popular that it has also begun to be played in Pakistan. In Mongolia itself, the Mongolian Sarlagan Polo Association was even formed.
Among the exotic varieties, polo canoes, segways, golf carts, bicycles, and motorcycles should also be noted. Polo on yaks has taken root in Mongolia. Perhaps the most famous polo player Winston Churchill said: "Polo handicap is your passport to the world." Of course, this aristocratic game is far from accessible to everyone.
Spectators watching the match immediately notice that the polo field is much larger than the football field. Its length is 275 meters, and its width is about 180. Each team consists of four riders whose goal is to hit the opponent's goal, which is 7 meters 30 centimeters wide. The players are "armed" with special sticks, and the diameter of the ball is about 8 centimeters. Most often, the game consists of six periods (chukkers), and the duration of each of them is seven minutes.
Even in a short period, the horses manage to pretty much knock out the turf on the field; therefore, during the breaks, you can see a curious sight - the spectators go out onto the lawn and help the workers drive in pieces of turf into their place. For the game, they use a special breed of horses - polo ponies. The leader in their breeding is Argentina. The cost of each horse is about $50,000. At the same time, each athlete has several; you can change them even during the game.
Importance of Argentina in Polo
Horse polo was even included in the program of five Olympics: 1900, 1908, 1920, 1924, and 1936. In the post-war years, polo was excluded from the Olympic sports list. Moreover, this was done with a fascinating wording: in 1924 and 1936. The advantage of athletes from Argentina was so evident that the IOC decided why to hold equestrian polo competitions if the winner was known in advance. Since 1987, the World Polo Championships have been saved.
It is in Argentina that the world's most titled polo player lives. His name is Adolfo Cambiaso. For fans of this sport, Cambiaso is an absolute legend. But horse polo is far from the most popular game in the world. Therefore, the stars of Argentine football are known in the sports world much more than Adolfo Cambiaso.
During the match, the teams change goals after each goal is scored. This is explained by the fact that one of the teams has to play against the sun, which blinds the eyes. An exchange of goals is necessary to equalize rivals' chances. In principle, the sun also affects players in other sports, but nowhere else do the plans change so often.
Horse polo sticks
Horse polo sticks are most often made from bamboo. Sometimes willow and combined materials are used. According to the rules of this sport, the bar is only allowed to be held in the right hand. Can lefties play polo? Of course, they can. But no exceptions are made for them either; the stick must be held in an uncomfortable right hand.
Even though horse polo was not included in the program of the Olympic Games for many years, the federation of this sport does not lose hope of returning to the Olympic family. Currently, equestrian polo is cultivated in more than 70 countries worldwide. The leaders are Argentina, England, Australia, the USA, India, and Pakistan.
Homeland of horse polo - Persia
Modern horse polo is a team sport. It is played on horseback, and the ball must be moved across the field by hitting it with clubs. The main goal set for the players is to get into the opponent's goal.
The country where horse polo first appeared in Persia, which happened in the 6th century AD. After that, the game spread to other Asian territories. And all over the world, this sport became known thanks to the British colonialists, who spread it first on their native island - in Great Britain and then in Europe.
The word "polo" comes from the Indian "pulu," which translates as "wood." India still has various versions of polo: on elephants or camels.
The oldest team game
To date, it is horse polo considered the oldest team sport. In the 19th-20th century, it was trendy in India, and in 1869, thanks to the British, it became the way we can see it now.
It is noteworthy that the stiff British liked this unusual sport so much that it became part of the mandatory training of cavalry officers of the British army, so it was introduced into the program of cavalry military schools.
Today, polo is considered a noble sport. Therefore, it is not surprising that all the men of the British royal family should be able to play it well.
The largest horse polo field in team sports
Equestrian polo boasts the largest field of all currently existing team sports. Its dimensions are 275 meters long and 180 meters wide. For example, according to UEFA standards, the size of a football field should be 105 by 68 meters.
At the same time, the player’s virtuosity largely depends not on the characteristics of the field but on the person’s ability to stay in the saddle, since during the match, you need to keep in the saddle with one hand and with the other, using a stick, accurately hit a small ball, trying to score it into the opponent’s goal. In this case, you need to be able to lead the horse at high speed.
Spectators help polo players trample the lawn.
Modern polo is a game in which two teams of four players participate. Players spend 42 minutes on the field (7 chukkers (rounds) of 6 minutes each).
One of the most exciting features of the equestrian floor is the trampling of the earth between chukkers. This is done not only by employees but also by spectators. They go out into the field and press the pieces of turf uprooted by the horses' hooves back to the ground. Given that this sport is secular, such a spectacle looks very interesting.
Horse polo requires special horses.
Not all breeds of horses can be used in polo, but only special ones - polo ponies. Even though they are similar in height to ordinary horses, since the 147 cm height limit for ponies was abolished in 1919, polo ponies have a stable psyche and a bold character. Moreover, such horses can easily pick up speed over a short distance and simultaneously change their speed dramatically.
The leader in breeding horses for equestrian sex in Argentina. And if the polo pony was not raised in this country, its roots are probably from here.
Polo is not a sport for amateurs
Even though this sport is one of the favorite pastimes of aristocrats, not everyone will be able to achieve significant success in it since the rider and horse must act as a single whole. The ability to play horse polo has been honed over the years because it is difficult to imagine a person who knows exactly how to jump to the ball on the field to correctly hit the ball without many years of practice.
In addition, horse polo is one of the most traumatic sports because you need to be able to stay in the saddle so as not to fall off.
Horse polo is an expensive sport
Today, horse polo is not only noble but also very expensive, so it is not available to everyone. You will need to spend about 50 thousand dollars to purchase one polo pony. Moreover, there should be several such horses in the stall since, during the match, the rider changes them (a rare horse can withstand more than two halves because it feels significant stress during the game). But the rules state that a polo player can change no more than six horses per match.
In addition, it is worth considering the funds for the maintenance of stables, veterinary services, and ammunition.
Top 40 funniest history memes that you need to see
The original meaning of the word "history" goes back to the ancient Greek term meaning "investigation, recognition, establishment." History was identified with the establishment of authenticity, the truth of events and facts. In ancient Roman historiography (historiography in the modern sense is a branch of historical science that studies its history), this word began to mean not a way of recognizing, but a story about the events of the past. Soon, “history” began to be called in general any story about any case, incident, real or fictional.
Stories that are popular in one culture or another but not corroborated by third-party sources, such as the Arthurian legends, are usually considered part of the cultural heritage, and not the "unbiased study" that any part of history as a scientific discipline should be.
1. Propaganda posters
The word history comes from the Greek language (ἱστορία, historia), and comes from the Proto-Indo-European word wid-tor-, where the root is weid-, "to know, to see." In Russian, it is represented by the words "see" and "know".
In ancient Greece, the word "history" meant any knowledge obtained through research, and not just historical knowledge proper in the modern sense. For example, Aristotle used this word in The History of Animals. It is also found in the hymns of Homer, the writings of Heraclitus and the text of the oath to the Athenian state. Ancient Greek also had the word historeîn, "to explore," which at first was used only in Ionia, from where it then spread to all of Greece and, eventually, to the entire Hellenistic civilization.
In the same ancient Greek sense, the word "history" was used by Francis Bacon in the widely used term natural history. For Bacon, history is “knowledge of objects whose place is determined in space and time,” and the source of which is memory (just as science is the fruit of reflection, and poetry is the fruit of fantasy). In medieval England, the word "story" was more often used in the sense of a story in general (story). The special term history (history) as a sequence of past events appeared in the English language at the end of the 15th century, and the word "historical" (historical, historic) - in the 17th century. In Germany, France and Russia, the same word "history" is still used in both senses.
5. Time traveler
Since historians are both observers and participants in events, their historical writings are written from the point of view of their time and are usually not only politically biased, but also share all the delusions of their era. In the words of Benedetto Croce, "All history is modern history." Historical science provides a true account of the course of history through stories about events and their impartial analysis. In our time, history is created by the efforts of scientific institutions.
All events that remain in the memory of generations, in one authentic form or another, constitute the content of the historical chronicle. This is necessary to identify the sources that are most important for recreating the past. The composition of each historical archive depends on the content of a more general archive in which certain texts and documents are found; although each of them claims "the whole truth", some of these statements are usually refuted. In addition to archival sources, historians can use inscriptions and images on monuments, oral traditions and other sources, such as archaeological ones. By providing sources independent of historical sources, archeology is especially useful for historical research, not only confirming or refuting the testimony of eyewitnesses of events, but also allowing information to be filled in time gaps about which there is no evidence of contemporaries.
History belongs to the humanities by some authors, to the social sciences by others, and may be considered as an area between the humanities and the social sciences. The study of history is often associated with certain practical or theoretical goals, but it can also be a manifestation of ordinary human curiosity.
9. Any idea
The term historiography has several meanings. First, it is the science of how history is written, how correctly the historical method is applied, and how it develops. Secondly, the same term refers to a body of historical works, often thematically or otherwise selected from the general body (for example, historiography of the 1960s about the Middle Ages). Thirdly, the term historiography denotes the reasons for the creation of historical works, revealed in the course of their analysis, by the choice of subject matter, the way events are interpreted, the personal convictions of the author and the audience to which he addresses, by the use of evidence or the method of referring to other historians. Professional historians also discuss the possibility of creating a single story about the history of mankind, or a series of such stories, competing for an audience.
The historical method consists in following the principles and rules of working with primary sources and other evidence found during the study and then used in writing a historical work.
Herodotus (484-425 BC) is considered by most historians to be the "father" of this science:
Herodotus of Halicarnassus collected and recorded this information so that the past events would not fall into oblivion over time and the great and surprisingly worthy deeds of both Hellenes and barbarians would not remain unknown, especially why they fought wars with each other.
12. Greece and Rome
However, the beginning of the use of scientific methods in history is associated with another of his contemporary, Thucydides, and his book "History of the Peloponnesian War". Unlike Herodotus and his religious colleagues, Thucydides viewed history as a product of the choice and actions of not gods, but people in whom he looked for all causes and effects.
Own traditions and developed methods of historical research existed in ancient and medieval China. The foundations of professional historiography were laid there by Sima Qian (145-90 BC), the author of the Historical Notes. His followers used this work as a model for historical and biographical writings.
Christian and Western historiography in general was greatly influenced by Aurelius Augustine. Up until the 19th century, history was usually seen as the result of a linear development according to a plan determined by the Creator. Hegel also followed this idea, although he gave it a more secular look. From the philosophy of Hegel, the idea of linear historical progress also found its way into the Marxist philosophy of history.
The Arab historian Ibn Khaldun in 1377 analyzed the mistakes that historians often make. He emphasized the cultural differences between the present and the past, which requires careful attention to the sources, highlighting the principles according to which one can evaluate them and, finally, interpret the events and culture of the past. Ibn Khaldun criticized the bias and gullibility of historians. His method laid the foundations for assessing the role of the state, propaganda, communication and systematic bias in historiography, in connection with which Ibn Khaldun is considered the "father of Arabic historiography". Of great importance was the development by Ibn Khaldun of the concept of political and demographic cycles, which was one of the first attempts at a scientific description of historical dynamics.
17. Karl Marx
Among other historians who influenced the formation of the methodology of historical research, we can mention Ranke, Trevelyan, Braudel, Blok, Fevre, Vogel. The use of scientific methodology in history was opposed by such authors as H. Trevor-Roper. They argued that understanding history requires imagination, so history should be considered not a science, but an art. An equally controversial author, Ernst Nolte, following the classical German philosophical tradition, viewed history as a movement of ideas. Marxist historiography, represented in the West, in particular by the work of Hobsbawm and Deutscher, aims to confirm the philosophical ideas of Karl Marx. Their opponents from anti-communist historiography, such as Pipes and Conquest, offer an anti-Marxist interpretation of history. There is also an extensive historiography from a feminist perspective. A number of postmodern philosophers generally deny the possibility of an unbiased interpretation of history and the existence of scientific methodology in it [source not specified 1140 days]. Recently, cliodynamics, the mathematical modeling of historical processes, has begun to gain more and more strength.
22. New plan
24. Common option
28. That’s new
32. French people
33. Polish people
35. Short explanation
39. The church
40. World war
35 interesting facts about the Bahamas that you need to know this summer
The official name of this state is the Commonwealth of the Bahamas. The country is located in the Atlantic Ocean southeast of the Florida peninsula. The Bahamas is one of the most popular tourist resorts in the world; tourism profits account for more than half of the state's GDP. Every year, the number of tourists visiting these islands is many times greater than the number of local residents.
Facts about the Bahamas
The archipelago includes more than 700 islands, but only a small part of them (about 30) has a permanent population. The total area of all the islands is about 14,000 square kilometers, and the population is almost 400,000 people. It is assumed that the first Indian settlements were founded in the 9th century, and the first Europeans visited here in 1492. It was an expedition led by Christopher Columbus.
1. For a long time, the Bahamas were a colony of Great Britain, they received independence only on July 10, 1973. Currently, the Bahamas are a constitutional monarchy, the head of state is the Queen of England, who is represented on the islands by the Governor General. Residents of the Bahamas are not subject to income tax.
2. Gambling business brings a solid income to the state treasury, there are many casinos on the islands that were opened here in the late sixties, when the Bahamas were a colony of Britain. For a long time, only foreigners were allowed to enter the casino; local residents were forbidden to visit such establishments. The restrictions were only lifted in 2013. They tried to organize a National Lottery for local residents, but it was not particularly popular with the islanders.
3. Currently, more than 80 percent of the local population are descendants of Africans. The standard of living here is quite high, the Bahamas are even called "Caribbean Switzerland". The average life expectancy in this country is 71 years, and literacy is 96 percent. The annual population growth is more than 2,000 people.
4. Eternal summer reigns in the Bahamas, which attracts tourists from all over the world all year round. George Washington, who visited here at one time, called the Bahamas "the islands of eternal June." But, on January 17, 1977, an amazing event was recorded on the island of Grand Bahama - snow fell here. But not many people managed to admire this unexpected natural phenomenon, the snow melted almost instantly.
5. New Providence Island is not even in the top ten of the Bahamas in terms of territory, it covers an area of 207 square kilometers. However, almost 70 percent of the entire population of the country lives here. The capital of the Bahamas, the city of Nassau, is also located here. Not far from the city is the largest international airport in the Bahamas, where tourists arrive from the USA, Great Britain, Canada and the Caribbean.
6. On one of the islands of the archipelago live pigs that willingly swim in the sea. They spend a lot of time in the water, swim up to tourists in anticipation of food. Many legends are connected with their appearance on the island. According to one of them, sailors brought the pigs here, but did not have time to eat them all, and the remaining individuals bred. According to other information, the pigs got to the island on their own from a wrecked ship near the island.
7. There are no railways in the Bahamas, this is due to the small area of \u200b\u200bmost of the islands. The main means of transportation in the Bahamas is a car. The total length of highways is about 3,000 kilometers. Most of them are privately owned. Traffic here is on the left.
8. At one time, the Bahamas were a haven for pirates who traded in the Caribbean. At the beginning of the 18th century, they were expelled by the British, at which time the Caribbean became an English colony. But, until now, there are rumors about countless treasures that were buried by sea robbers on the island of Andros. Many tourists visit the island not only to relax, but also try to find pirate treasures.
9. The most popular seafood is on Sink Island.
10. The population lives on only 30 of the total number of 700 islands in the Bahamas. New Providence is an inhabited island in the Bahamas with a population of over two hundred thousand.
11. While the country is driving on the left, it is surprising to find some cars steering on the left and others on the right.
12. The Bahamas is one of two countries whose official name begins with the word "the".
13. The Bahamas are right on the edge of the infamous Bermuda Triangle.
14. The Bahamas have a wonderful underwater cave system. The sea was low 250 feet from its current level during the Ice Age. Acid rain eroded the limestone on the island and led to the formation of vertical and horizontal caves.
15. On October 12, 1492, Christopher Columbus is believed to have landed on the island.
16. The slave trade was the main economic enterprise on the island after the departure of the first royal governor of the island, Captain Woodes Rogers. Slavery ended in the island nation in 1838.
17. "Linden V" became the country's first prime minister after independence on July 10, 1973.
18. During the 1980s, the island became a notorious destination for the drug trade. Almost 90% of the cocaine reportedly entered the US through the Bahamas.
19. "Hubert Ingraham" became Prime Minister of the Bahamas in 1992 and served another consecutive term in his chair. During his administration, he noted the creation of jobs and the economic development of the country.
20. The Bahamas signed the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) on February 4, 2005.
21. There is no railway on the island, and the road network on the larger islands extends over 2,693 km of roads.
22. Hurricane Floyd caused significant damage to the island, and the country fell into decline in tourism.
23. 2004 - and another ferocious hurricane hit the Bahamas: Hurricane Francis, which causes widespread harm to the living and non-living.
24. The case has not yet been settled, and they saw another monster hurricane on the island; tearing up houses, uprooting trees, throwing up cars and smashing houses. However, the island is ready to shine again and come back as strong as it needs to be to forget the pain and destruction caused by a natural disaster.
25. The Bahamas and an import-oriented economy. However, significant tourism activity and government-provided financial services bring in a lot of foreign exchange to balance the economy. According to the CIA, the economy of the Bahamas is developing and stable.
26. The Bahamas have the world's third largest shipping registry.
27. There is only one stock exchange in the Bahamas, the Bahamas International Stock Exchange (BISX).
28. There is no income or sales tax for residents of The Bahamas. Most government revenue comes from tariffs and import charges.
29. The Government of The Bahamas provides maternity assistance for every live birth and a 13-week maternity benefit.
30. Tourism makes up about 40-45% of the country's economy. It has beautiful beaches, flora, fauna and many recreational and resort facilities.
31. Gambling is legal for non-Bahamians who visit the Bahamas.
32. A tourist from the US and Canada is not required to carry a passport to the Bahamas for a stay of less than three weeks. Every year, millions of visitors to the country spend billions of dollars. The average cost of staying on the island per day varied depending on the time of year and location. You can expect to spend between $30 and $400 a day during your visit to the island.
33. The Bahamian dollar is equal to the US dollar and you can easily use US dollars throughout the island as they are freely accepted as cash. However, the United States does not accept Bahamian dollars at its counters. You will have to exchange currency or spend it in the Bahamas before leaving the country.
34. More than 90% of Bahamians are followers of Christianity. However, there are also spiritists who worship various spirits, and even followers of the voodoo cult. They are mainly immigrants from Haiti and some African countries, as well as their descendants. However, followers of various religions in the Bahamas get along peacefully, and there are no conflicts on this basis.
35. The Bahamas is home to the world's largest colony of pink flamingos, birds that everyone knows. On the island of Big Inagua, which is part of the archipelago, there are about 50,000 of these amazing birds.