Facts about death penalty you need to know
50 amazing facts about Tokyo
Tokyo became the Japanese capital in 1868; before that, it was another ancient city, Kyoto. And Tokyo itself was then called “Edo”; it was renamed only after receiving the capital status. In Japan, it is considered not a city but a unique “capital district.” But it is in the top 50 largest cities in the world in terms of area.
Amazing facts about Tokyo
About 14 million people live in the capital. But the accumulation "Tokyo-Yokohama" is the largest in the world; it is home to about 39,000,000 people. A distance of 30 kilometers separates these cities, but they are both expanding and are about to merge finally - the process is already in full swing. More people already live in this accumulation than in the whole of Poland.
1. The Japanese capital Tokyo is one of the most modern cities in the world today.
2. Tokyo became the capital of Japan only in 1869. Before that, for 1075 years, the money was the city of Kyoto.
3. Tokyo occupies only 0.6% of the area of Japan.
4. The ancestors of modern Japanese inhabited these lands in the era of stone axes.
5. Tokyo is located in the southeast of the island of Honshu, on the Kanto plain, near Tokyo Bay. It was founded on an ancient Edo castle site in the 15th century. Previously, this city was a military fortress and was called Edo.
6. Now, Tokyo is a vast metropolis of Tokyo and one of the most modern and high-tech cities in the world.
7. With the help of colored lights, one of the Tokyo skyscrapers informs residents about whether to take an umbrella with them when going outside.
8. Researchers in Tokyo have developed a mirror that changes a person's facial expression in real-time. It gives a smile to the face. The application is intended for use in shopping mall bathrooms. The technology was adopted in the hope that happy shoppers would spend more.
9. The population density in Tokyo is one of the highest among the cities in the world, and there are only 4 square meters per person.
10. The population of Tokyo is approximately equal in size to the population of Moscow. In total, more than 35,000,000 people live in the Tokyo agglomeration. This is about 60 times more than the population of Montenegro.
11. So many people live in Tokyo that the temperature in the city is always higher than in the suburbs by 8-9 degrees. And there is also a tremendous amount of infrastructure radiating into space.
12. Since many people live here, and the population density is off the scale, this provokes an explosive rise in property prices.
13. The cost of a square meter of real estate in the business center of the city here comes to 2 million dollars. Due to the high price of real estate in Tokyo, capsule micro-apartments are common. Such housing is comparable to a kitchen in a typical Russian apartment.
14. In Tokyo, a building built in 1972 consists of tiny 90-square-foot capsule apartments. If necessary, they can be replaced as Lego pieces.
15. In Tokyo, there are ancient monuments (for example, a castle where the imperial residence is located) and modern buildings 40-60 floors high.
METRO IN TOKYO
16. The Tokyo subway is the largest in the world in terms of ridership - it is used by 3.2 billion people yearly. Curiously, there is even a unique position here - Asia, or pushers, whose duties include pushing passengers into overcrowded cars.
17. The dog Hachiko, famous worldwide due to his devotion, was waiting for his master right here, at Tokyo's Shibuya station, until his death.
18. Public transport in Tokyo is the most reliable, affordable, and fastest way to get around, but it is not cheap.
19. The cost of parking here is fabulously high.
20. To get rid of traffic jams in Tokyo, many high-speed highways were built, but the passage on them is paid for.
21. Each Tokyo train station has its unique theme song.
22. 45 of the 51 busiest train stations in the world are in Japan. The busiest Shinjuku station in Tokyo serves approximately 1.2 billion passengers a year.
23. There are many single people in Tokyo who have never been in any relationship with the opposite sex. Because of this, the suicide rate is extremely high.
24. Blue "anti-suicide" LED lights have been installed on all train platforms in Tokyo to reduce the number of suicides committed here. It is believed that such lanterns have a calming effect. Studies have shown that blue-light stations saw an 84% reduction in suicide rates.
25. Tokyo is clean, safe, and calm, but a foreigner unaccustomed to Japanese flavor can be shocked by strange vending machines, flashing neon signs, futuristic household appliances, and much more.
26. Vending machines ubiquitous in Tokyo sell everything, from chocolates and hamburgers to underwear.
27. Tokyo is the safest metropolis in the world. Tokyo is so safe that young children use public transport on their own.
28. Tokyo is the wealthiest city on the planet. Although Tokyo occupies only 0.6% of the area of Japan, this city provides it with a third of its total GDP.
29. The GDP of Tokyo alone is higher than that of all of Australia. If Tokyo were a separate country, it would be in 15th place in the world in terms of GDP.
30. Some establishments in Tokyo do not allow foreigners. A sign can hang on the door, meaning "foreigners are not served."
31. Back in the 1982 Akira manga, it was predicted that the 2020 Olympics would be held in Tokyo.
32. In Japan, there is an anime and manga called "Saint Young Men," in which Jesus and Buddha live in Tokyo as roommates. They rest on Earth and try to understand Japanese society.
33. Dressing up as your favorite manga or anime character and organizing a Tokyo performance is a normal pastime.
34. Tokyo has an anime-themed Butler cafe. According to his owner, Japanese women "want to visit cafes where male waiters treat them like princesses." This is the only cafe in the city where only foreigners work.
35. “Cat cafes” are typical here - establishments where you can play with these fluffy pets. They have become popular because most Japanese people love cats, but the rules forbid keeping pets in most households.
TOKYO SKY TREE
36. Tokyo Skytree is the tallest freestanding tower in the world. The height of the building is 634 meters. The tower's final size was chosen solely because of a play on words. The result is "Musashi": "mu" (in old Japanese means the number 6), "sa" (3), and "si" (4). This was the name of the historic district where modern Tokyo is located.
37. Tokyo Tower was built from steel, a third of which was scrap metal (American tanks damaged in the Korean War). Often this building is used in the Japanese kaiju film genre. It also became the site of the culminating "battles" of Godzilla, Mothra, and King Kong.
38. There are rumors that a secret underground city is supposedly located under Tokyo, but officials deny this information.
39. There is a 12-story luxury stationery store in Tokyo. On the 12th floor, they serve lettuce grown on the indoor organic farm located on the 11th floor of the same building.
40. The University of Tokyo is developing a tactile hologram, meaning they create a hologram that can be touched and felt.
AT THE TOKYO UENO ZOO
41. Ueno Tokyo Zoo is Japan's oldest zoo, with over 2,600 pets. Once a year, the zoo is closed for two months to give the animals a break from the visitors.
42. A cafe has opened in Tokyo where visitors can hug hedgehogs.
43. One Japanese scientist has created an exact copy of Tokyo. He used oatmeal to create nearby settlements, and bright light to simulate mountains, water sources and other natural features. When a scientist placed a living slime mold in the center of the mock-up, it created a network reminiscent of the Tokyo rail system as it tried to reach the treat (oatmeal).
44. Japan has almost twice as many 7-Elevens stores as the US. Only in Tokyo there are 2079 stores of this network.
45. In 2013, a 39-story hotel in Tokyo was demolished without explosives or a special wrecking ball. All 39 floors were dismantled from the inside using a small crane, which gradually folded floor by floor.
46. The asteroid Tokyo, discovered in this city in 1900 by a Tokyo astronomer, was named after the city. This celestial body of irregular shape with a diameter of approximately 81 kilometers.
47. There are five huge cylindrical shafts under Tokyo that will be filled with water in the event of a flood. This will prevent the destruction of the city.
48. Because of Tokyo's location on a tectonic fault, geologists call it the "city waiting for death." There are about 150 earthquakes in Tokyo every year, but most of them are so weak that people don't even notice them.
49. In 1923, a terrible earthquake destroyed almost half of Tokyo and caused the death of more than 90 thousand people.
50. Nevertheless, the Japanese capital is firmly held in the top of the most visited cities in the world by tourists. In any case, Tokyo is worth visiting this city.
Top 125 amazing facts about the countries of Africa
Africa is the continent of extremes; although it has abundant natural resources, Africa remains the poorest and least developed continent in the world; on its territory are the hottest and driest areas on Earth and, at the same time, some of the wettest and rainiest, so but we present to you a list of curiosities about Africa, they are only some of the vast number of exciting things and data that this considerable continent possesses.
Top facts about Africa
There are 54 countries in Africa (and nine territories), with a total of over 1.1 billion people living on the continent, representing 15% of the world population.
1. There are 196 independent states in the world. There are 54 countries in Africa. More than a quarter of the total number of existing conditions on the planet is in Africa.
2. Before the colonization of Africa, there were more than 10,000 independent states and tribes on its territory, each of which had its own unique language.
3. Africa is the hottest continent on the planet. The reason is that most of the territory lies between the tropics. On the continent there are many countries with different levels of development, breathtaking landscapes, heritage of ancient civilizations.
4. In the past, most African countries were colonies that belonged to England, Belgium, France, Spain, Italy, Germany, Portugal.
5. After the Second World War, African countries began to gradually free themselves from oppression and gained their independence.
NATURE OF ETHIOPIA
6. Of all the countries in Africa, only Liberia and Ethiopia could not be colonized by Europeans, these countries could always defend their independence.
7. More than 2,000 different languages are spoken on the African mainland, but the most common language is Arabic. Over 100 million people speak Swahili.
8. Most of the states of North Africa are very underdeveloped, although Algeria and Libya are considered an exception, where there are considerable deposits of oil and gas.
9. And Morocco is known as a place where phosphorites are mined, which are necessary for the manufacture of fertilizer. Almost the entire population of North Africa is engaged in the cultivation and cultivation of agriculture: olives, dates, sugar cane and so on.
10. Libya is a state located in the very center of North Africa, it has access to the Mediterranean Sea. Basically, a large area of this area is a plain. In addition, the Western part of the state is separated from the Eastern by a chain of ridges and mountains.
11. Mostly, Libya is a desert country, because 90% of Libya's area is occupied by deserts. In the past, this territory was an Italian colony, but in 1951 it gained independence. It has the richest culture, which it inherited from the Byzantine Empire.
12. Morocco is an amazingly beautiful state with its contrasts and immense wealth. It was here that a small part of European traditions gave Arab culture a modern breath.
13. Morocco is the only country on the entire African continent that does not belong to a single African Union. She suspended her membership in 1984. This state is one of the main allies of America, which is not a member of NATO. In addition, it ranks 12th among the richest countries on the continent.
14. In Africa, 10 oil producers in terms of exports: Nigeria, Algeria, Angola, Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Republic of the Congo, Gabon, South Africa.
15. The only volcano with alkaline lava is located in Tanzania. Millions of pink flamingos live on the shores of the soda lake. Against the backdrop of a black lake, flamingos look especially bright and exotic.
16. South Africa speaks 11 languages, among them: Zulu, Xhosa, Afrikaans and English. Most of the population knows more than three languages, and the most popular language among Africans is English.
17. South Africa is the largest supplier of fruits in the world.
18. More than 1.5 million tourists come to South Africa every year to see with their own eyes all the uniqueness of this continent.
19. There are more Portuguese in Angola than in Portugal.
20. In Senegal there is Pink Lake - Retba.
21. The University of Timbuktu in Mali is one of the oldest universities in the world. It was founded in the 12th century.
22. Translated from Portuguese, the name "Cameroon" means "river of shrimp." About 250 different peoples live on the territory of Cameroon, each of which has its own language and dialect. Because of this, it is difficult for locals to understand each other. However, there is still a language that most residents understand - this is the language of football.
23. Cameroonians are ardent fans. Their national team, the Indomitable Lions, won the African Cup several times, and in 1990 reached the quarter-finals of the World Cup.
24. The largest frog in the world called Goliath lives in Cameroon.
MOROCCO, CITY OF FES
25. The African city of Fes has the oldest university in the world. It was founded in 859, not only Muslims, but also Christians studied here.
26. Lagos is the largest city on the continent. The government claims that the city has a population of about 17.5 million, but other estimates of residents put it at 21 million.
27. The Republic of the Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo are two completely different states. More than 80 tribes live on the territory of the Republic of the Congo. Many of the inhabitants here believe in reincarnation. They are convinced that all bad people after death become animals that run away from hunters all their lives. Good people become white Europeans.
28.The local population of the Congo has a rich and distinctive folklore, but written literature appeared only after the Second World War.
29. The western region of the mainland includes 16 states. In this part is the most populous country in Africa - Nigeria. It is home to about 200 million people.
30. Tunisia is considered the smallest state among those that belong to North Africa. In 1957, this territory gained its independence from France.
31. Tunisia leads in the number of students among African countries and, as a result, holds the record for the percentage of people with higher education.
32. Tunisia is a country whose territory is located along the Mediterranean Sea. This state attracts here those people who love adventures, wonderful holidays, especially in the cold season. Thanks to the local landscapes, paragliding, various sea and mountain sports are developed here.
33. Equatorial Guinea is the only Spanish-speaking country in Africa.
34. Algiers has the most poisonous lake in the world. The thing is that instead of water in the lake there is ink, which is formed as a result of the decomposition of various organic compounds.
35. Algeria claims to be the largest African country in terms of area. Its area is 2,381,741 km². In second place is the Democratic Republic of the Congo with an area of 2,344,858 km².
IN THE SERENGETI NATIONAL PARK
36. Tarangire National Park (Tanzania) is home to unique albino lions.
37. A must-see place in Tanzania is the world-famous Ngorongoro Crater, one of the 7 natural wonders of Africa.
38. It is believed that in Eritrea, Egypt and Libya are the most dangerous roads in the world.
39. The most aggressive ethnic group are the Mursi living in Ethiopia. For this tribe, fights and murders are considered commonplace, men here do not go without machine guns, and women wear necklaces made of human fingers around their necks. The Mursi tribe can be recognized by the deformed lip, which they stretch to an incredible size.
40. Benin has the largest terrestrial structure in the world, which is under the protection of UNESCO. This is a wall of moats and ramparts, the construction of which began in 800 BC. The length of this structure exceeds even the Great Wall of China.
41. Niger, Mali and Uganda rank among the highest birth rates in the world.
42. Nigeria is the most populous country with over 145 million people.
43. South Africa has the most Grammy winners. Nollywood in Nigeria releases about 50 films every week.
44. Algeria has the highest cost of living in North Africa. And the inflation rate of 4% is the lowest among the countries of North Africa. There are more than 780 research laboratories in the country and more than 20,000 research professors reside in Algeria.
45. Sudanese people practice "ghost marriages" where a brother marries his deceased brother's wife to provide him with an heir. All children born are considered descendants of the deceased.
46. And annual grass fires in Sudan can cover more than half of the entire country.
47. Botswana has the largest population of elephants on the continent.
48. Botswana produces about 17.7% of the world's diamonds and is the world's largest producer of the most valuable diamonds.
49. Zimbabwe has the highest literacy rate in Africa.
50. In Zimbabwe, men with a big belly are considered rich. A large belly indicates that a person is financially stable and can afford to eat meat every day.
51. The flag of Mozambique is the only one in the world with the image of a Kalashnikov assault rifle.
52. In Mozambique, photographs of any armed forces, airports, bridges or government buildings are not allowed.
53. Namibia is the first country to include environmental protection in its constitution. About 90% of Namibia remains a natural habitat.
BENIN, PORTO NOVA
54. Benin is one of the most politically stable countries in West Africa.
55. It also has one of the highest birth rates in the world - 5 children per woman.
56. The Global Peace Index named Ghana the most peaceful country in Africa.
57. In 1991, Ghanaian Ferdy Ato Adobe set a world record by running 100 meters backwards in 13.6 seconds.
58. There are no railways in Cape Verde, but there are seven operating airports, one of which is over 3,047 meters long.
59. Côte d'Ivoire boasts the largest church in the world - Notre Dame de la Paix with an area of 30,000 m².
60. Mali has one of the highest child and maternal mortality rates in Africa.
61. Also, this country is famous for dancing in ritual masks, of which there are more than 75 types.
62. Niger has the youngest population in the world. In 2013, over half of the population of Niger (50.09%) were under the age of 14.
63. Senegal is the only country in West Africa where there have been no military coups.
64. The most popular TV show in Senegal about sheep.
65. Christianity is the main religion in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and is practiced by about 95% of the country's population.
66. Luanda, the capital of Angola is known as the "Paris of Africa". This name, apparently, is associated with the sophisticated culture and atmosphere of the city.
67. In Morocco, the national drink is green tea with mint leaves and sugar. This drink is served as a symbol of hospitality and it is considered an insult to refuse it.
68. Zambia is known for Victoria Falls, twice the size of Niagara Falls. Because of its spray, it rains 24 hours a day, seven days a week in the forest next to the waterfall.
69. South Africa is the only country in the world that has voluntarily abandoned its own nuclear weapons program. And also the only country in the world to host the World Cup in football, cricket and rugby.
70. In Burkina Faso, the symbol of the country is a white stallion.
71. In this country, only 1% of rural areas are electrified.
72. Lake Lac Assal in the center of Djibouti is 10 times saltier than the Dead Sea. It is the second saltiest body of water in the world after Don Juan in Antarctica.
73. It is also the lowest point on land on the entire African continent and the second lowest on Earth after the Dead Sea.
74. Uganda is home to 11% of the country's global bird population and 50% of the world's mountain gorillas.
75. In Uganda, motorcycles are used as taxis to transport people, which are known as "Boda Boda".
76. Up to 85% of the territory of Gabon is covered with tropical forests, 11% of which are national parks. These are one of the largest natural parks in the world.
77. Ethiopia is the only African country with its own alphabet and it is called Ge'ez (geez). The alphabet has 345 letters.
78. Dodo birds once lived in Mauritius. It was they who inspired Lewis Carroll to write the book Alice in Wonderland.
79. Guinea-Bissau is the sixth largest cashew producer in the world. This is one of the poorest countries in the world.
80. Chad has the second fastest growing economy in the world.
81. In June 2016, South Sudan experienced an inflation rate of 309%, one of the highest in the world. In a country, wealth is measured by the number of livestock each family owns.
82. Mauritania was the last country to abolish slavery in 2007. The traditional standards of female beauty here are obese women who are considered beautiful, while thin women are considered sickly.
83. In the country of Eswatini (Swaziland), the last absolute monarchy in Africa and one of the few remaining in the world. King Mswati III now has 15 wives. His predecessor had 125.
84. The official title of the President of the Gambia is Sheikh Professor Doctor President. People vote in elections in the Gambia by throwing stones into pits.
85. The ancient Egyptians were the first to have a calendar of 365 days divided into 12 months.
86. Nigeria has the highest twin birth rate in the world. It has more species of butterflies than any other country.
87. Kenyan men can have multiple wives. Hunting is prohibited in Kenya. In 2015, Kenya was ranked as the world's leading safari country.
88. The six driest places in the world are in Africa. These are: Al-Kufra in Libya, Aswan and Luxor in Egypt, Wadi Halfa in Sudan, Pelican Point in Namibia and Aoelef in Algiers.
89. Traditionally, Ethiopian parents and children do not have a family name. Most children take their father's first name as their last name.
90. The Democratic Republic of the Congo is the eleventh largest country in the world and the fourth most populous in Africa. Nyiragongo Volcano is one of eight active volcanoes in the country and one of the most active volcanic areas in the world.
91. It is better for tourists to avoid the CAR country. Staying here is dangerous, the CAR is one of the most troubled African republics. The local population is already accustomed to constant civil wars and coup d'état.
92. Also, cases of cannibalism here also do not surprise anyone. Jean Bedel Bokassa, the president of the Central African Republic from 1966 to 1976, was a real cannibal.
93. Liberia is in the top 20 most non-smoking countries in the world - 104 cigarettes per adult per year. The largest cruise ships are also registered in Liberia.
94. Among all the countries of Central Africa, Gabon is considered the richest. This is one of the oldest oil-producing states, there are more than a hundred oil fields.
95.Most of the territory of this country is covered with tropical forests with unique flora and fauna. It’s just that it’s unlikely that you will be able to capture this beauty - photography is prohibited in most places in the country.
96. Translated from Portuguese, the name "Gabon" means "Coat with a hood."
97. The country of Eritrea, after Egypt, ranks second in archaeological discoveries in Africa with 80,000 archaeological sites.
98. Eighteen people from Africa have been awarded the Nobel Prize. They are from Algeria, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa.
99. Despite being the second largest continent in the world, Africa has the shortest coastline. In Africa, 16 countries are landlocked.
100. Cameroon is often referred to as "Africa in Miniature" as it represents all the landscapes of the continent, including tropical forests, desert, swamp and savannah.
101.Egypt is best known for its pyramids, but the Republic of the Sudan has 223 pyramids of its own, twice the number of Egyptian pyramids.
102. The traditional clothing of the country of Lesotho is the Basotho blanket with colorful patterns. The blanket is used not only for protection from the cold, but also as a status and cultural accessory. By the way, Lesotho has one of the scariest airstrips in the world.
103. In Togo, men and boys are allowed to walk holding hands. The Togolese wear everything on their heads and love to haggle. Here you can bargain for everything you buy in the market.
104. Somali women are not allowed to communicate publicly with men. This country is also known for its maritime piracy.
105. In the Central African Republic, one can meet local forest tribes living in low huts made of vines and covered with leaves. Education in the CAR is free and compulsory, but about half of the country's adult population is illiterate.
106. Fish River Canyon in Namibia is the second largest canyon in the world.
107. Sudan is located in northeastern Africa. The state has access to the Red Sea. Currently, the country is considered one of the poorest territories.
108. South Africa has three capitals (Cape Town, Pretoria, Bloemfontein).
109.SADR is the least densely populated country not only in Africa but throughout the world. Its density is approximately 1.3 people per square kilometer.
110. Tunisia has 8 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. In the Matmata area, people still live in underground houses. Women can pass on their names and nationalities to their children.
111. The literacy rate in Guinea is one of the lowest in the world. In this country, men can use their wealth to take another wife.
112. In Sierra Leone, rice is the staple food consumed at almost every meal. Bones, especially chicken bones, are considered a delicacy.
113. The inhabitants of the Republic of the Congo are known throughout the world for their love of fashionable clothes. Fashion for them is art, a way to entertain people, passion and individuality. The country even has a society La Sape ("Society of creators of the atmosphere and elegant people").
114. The country of Chad is also called the "Dead Heart of Africa" because of its proximity to deserts. Nile perch is one of the largest freshwater fish, it lives in Lake Chad and can reach up to 2 meters with a weight of up to 200 kilograms.
115. The most important meal for Libyan families is lunch, and it has great symbolic significance. Businesses, shops and schools in Libya are closed for several hours so families can get together for lunch.
116.Rwanda is considered one of the best countries with high internet connectivity in Africa. Since 2000, it has been among the five most developed countries. Registration of a business in Rwanda takes 48 hours.
117. Equatorial Guinea is the smallest African country that is a Member of the United Nations and one of the richest countries in Africa. However, the vast majority of its inhabitants live in poverty.
118. In Tanzania, greeting with the left hand is considered impolite and rude. In Tanzania, the most expensive wood in the world is produced from the Mpingo tree. It is the birthplace of Mount Kilimanjaro.
119. Money of Angola (kwanza) cannot be taken out of the country.
120. Egypt is considered one of the most unusual and mysterious states, thanks to which tourists from all over the world come here. And what is most surprising, the people of the local desert were able to build not only the greatest pyramids, but also give the world toothpaste, paper, the first understanding of surgery.
121. Egypt - a country of ancient pyramids on the shores of the Red and Mediterranean Seas. It also has its own reserves of gas and oil.
122. Coming here, many tourists are surprised that men wear white clothes and women wear black. And all then that, dark clothes heat up faster, which makes the representatives of the weaker sex return home faster.
123.Sudan ranks 10th in terms of the number of illiterates.
124.Once upon a time, Sudan was regularly engulfed in ethnic, including religious conflicts. Such wars were facilitated by neighboring territories. Tourism is practically not developed here, so there are no hotels. But having arrived here, you can ask the locals for an overnight stay.
125. The area of modern Sudan occupies a huge part of Nubia, which was previously ruled by Ancient Egypt. And closer to the North, in the country there is a huge number of monuments dating back to those times.
50 interesting facts about Venezuela
The official name of this state is the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. The country is located in South America, its territory is 916,000 square kilometers, and its population is just over 30 million. Most live in the coastal area of the country. Europeans are believed to have first landed on the coast of modern Venezuela in 1499; they were members of a Spanish expedition led by Alonso de Ojeda. And Venezuela got its name thanks to the Italian Amerigo Vespucci; the Indian houses on stilts reminded him of his native Venice.
Top facts about Venezuela
The capital of Venezuela is the city of Caracas, home to over 2 million people. In the old days, Indians of the Karaka tribe lived in this place, hence the name of the city. It was founded on July 25, 1567, on the day of St. Iago Leonski. The full name of the capital of Venezuela is Santiago de Leon de Caracas. The crime rate in the capital of Venezuela is very high.
1. Venezuela is a country located in the very north of South America.
2. The full name and official country are the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.
3. The name of this state means "little Venice."
4. Christopher Columbus was the first European to set foot on the territory of modern Venezuela.
5. Venezuela gained independence from Great Britain in 1830.
6. More than 28 million people live in this South American country.
CITY OF CARACAS - THE CAPITAL OF VENEZUELA
7. In the capital of Venezuela, the city of Caracas, there are a lot of cars, and there are even more traffic jams than in Moscow.
8. Venezuela, like many other Latin American countries, has a high percentage of poverty, a huge external debt and a terrible record of corruption. All these social problems are exacerbated by a number of natural disasters, in particular floods.
9. The population of this state mainly consists of four groups: mestizos (mixed Europeans and Indians), they account for about 67% of the population; whites (citizens of European origin, mainly Spaniards, Italians and Portuguese) - about 21%; blacks (persons of African and Caribbean origin) - about 10%; Indians (these are Native Americans) - 2%.
RESIDENTS OF VENEZUELA
10. These groups are mostly localized: mestizos and whites mostly live in cities; the Indians live in the hinterland of the Guianan and Amazonas; blacks live along the Caribbean coast.
11. All whites in Venezuela are a priori considered Americans. And most Venezuelans do not like Americans.
12. The official language in the country is Spanish. It appeared on the territory of Venezuela in the 16th century.
13. In addition to Spanish, there are 25 other indigenous languages spoken in Venezuela that belong to three language families: Caribbean, Arawakan and Chibcha.
14. Venezuelans consider it important to learn English, as it opens up new perspectives for them.
15. The vast majority of Venezuelans (about 90%) are Catholics. There are also significant Jewish communities in Caracas and Maracaibo. The country also has a small number of Muslims.
GENERAL SIMON BOLIVAR
16. The main national symbol in this state is the image of the famous fighter for the independence of Venezuela, General Simon Bolivar. He led the movement that liberated Venezuela and the neighboring countries of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia from Spanish rule.
17. The walls of almost all houses in Venezuelan cities are painted with graffiti, and most of these graffiti are drawn very professionally.
18. In general, the climate in Venezuela is hot, but at an altitude of one and a half kilometers above sea level it can be called moderate. That is why most of the major cities here were built on high ground.
19. Thermometers in this country show the temperature in degrees Celsius, and air conditioners in degrees Fahrenheit.
20. Venezuela is dominated by a patriarchal society. Men always hold important political positions and are more successful at work, while women are more housewives.
21. Patriarchy is more pronounced in the city, while in the countryside it is not so pronounced. Although, based on the constitution, men and women have equal rights.
22. The country has the largest oil reserves on the planet. Now they are more than 48 billion tons.
23. The Venezuelan economy is 95% based on the production and export of petroleum products.
24. Petrol is very cheap in Venezuela. It's practically free.
25. Thanks to subsidized policies, gasoline costs only $0.01 per liter (64 kopecks per liter). This is incredibly cheap, given the average cost of gasoline in the world - 0.97.
NATURE OF VENEZUELA
26. The country has many beautiful landscapes, there is magnificent tropical weather.
27. The government takes care of the preservation of flora and fauna. Venezuela occupies a leading position in the world in terms of environmental protection. More than 53.9% of its territories are under state protection.
28. In this regard, other countries are far behind Venezuela. For example, in the UK, only 28.4% of the territories are protected, while the global average is 14.8%.
29.Venezuela belongs to a small list of countries with a huge number of endemic animals.
30. About 23% of reptiles and 50% of amphibian species living in the territory of this country are endemic to it.
31. On the territory of this country is the highest waterfall on the planet. It's called Angel. Its height is 979 meters (and according to some sources 1054 meters). The height of continuous free fall is 807 meters.
32. This waterfall is located in the tropical forests of the Venezuelan state of Bolivar, in the Canaim National Park. Canaim Park was included in the list of UNESCO national heritage sites in 1994.
33. The Venezuelan health care system includes a large number of public and private hospitals and clinics. However, despite the fact that medical care in this state is better than in other South American countries, it is far from ideal.
34. There are still long queues of patients in public hospitals, there is a shortage of qualified personnel, who, by the way, have rather low wages.
35. This state has rather low defense spending, approximately 1.5% of the country's GDP. The Venezuelan army has about 80,000 soldiers who serve in the navy, ground forces and aviation.
36. Local Lake Maracaibo is the largest in South America.
37. In every city here you can see the square of Simon Bolivar - the man thanks to whom Venezuela gained independence.
38. The Venezuelan currency, the sovereign bolivar, was named after Bolivar.
39.Also, the airport in Venezuela is named after Simon Bolivar.
40. Statues of Simon Bolivar are found in almost all cities of the country.
41.The State provides every citizen of the country with free primary education. As for higher education, only 20-30% of the population study at universities. Higher education takes four to five years, after which you can get the degree of licenciado (Licentiate).
42. Venezuelans are famous for their sociable and cheerful nature. This is noticeable in their behavior. When meeting even strangers, Venezuelans will kiss him twice, on the right and left cheeks. Women greet both men and women in this way, while men only kiss women. A firm handshake is accepted between men, the same as we have in Russia.
43. Printed newspapers are still very popular among the citizens of Venezuela.
44. The Internet sector in Venezuela is underdeveloped. Only large companies have their own websites. Home internet here is expensive and very slow.
45. Asteroid 9357 is named after Venezuela.
46. The most popular sport in Venezuela is baseball, not football, as in all other Latin American countries.
47. At night, the movement on the streets of the cities of this country becomes extremely dangerous due to the high level of crime. In all of Venezuela, it is unlikely that you will be able to find at least one person who has never been robbed.
48. In provincial towns and villages, local residents usually deal with criminals on their own, rarely resorting to the help of the police.
49. Venezuelan girls have won more beauty pageants than girls from any other country.
50. The nature of Venezuela is amazingly beautiful, but the lack of a normal service in the European sense and the dangers that await tourists scare away most fans of eco-tourism.
Top 50 facts about cobras that you didn't know
Cobras are among the most dangerous and venomous snakes in the world. They are found on the territory of many countries and invariably instill fear in the locals. Who does not recognize this silhouette with an open hood? However, you can find an approach to cobras if you know how. Catchers of snakes have already proven this many times.
Top facts about cobras
There are many famous snakes worldwide, but cobras stand apart, mainly because they are perhaps the most recognizable reptiles in the world. There are many more poisonous snakes in the world than cobras, but the habit of these creatures opening the hood in the event of an attack made them very memorable. And does it make any difference to a snakebite victim how deadly poisonous the snake that bit her is if the venom of any cobra is usually enough to kill any living creature on Earth?
1. Cobras are large snakes known for their venom and their peculiar way of puffing out their hoods.
2. This name means, first of all, representatives of the genus of real cobras, as well as the king and collar cobras related to them. Despite its name, the king cobra does not belong to true cobras, it forms a separate genus.
3. Cobras live exclusively in the Old World - in Africa (across the continent), Central and South Asia (in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka).
4. In total, scientists distinguish 16 different types of cobras, and all of them are poisonous and they all belong to the aspid family and are related to other, no less poisonous species - deadly and cruel snakes, kraits and asps.
5. All types of cobras are quite large, one of the smallest - the Angolan cobra - reaches a length of 1.5 meters, and the largest king cobra, or hamadryad, reaches a length of 4.8 and even 5.5 meters.
6. The king cobra is the largest venomous snake in the world, reaching a size of 3-4 meters, but there are some recorded individuals in length over 5 meters, weighing up to 10-12 kilograms.
7. Despite its large size, its body does not look massive (like pythons or boas, for example), in general, these reptiles are characterized by high mobility.
8. King cobras grow all their lives, and their average life expectancy reaches 25-30 years.
9. When meeting, the king cobras stand in a combat stance and measure their height. The shorter one admits defeat and crawls away.
10. The king cobra is the only snake in the world that, on occasion, willingly feeds on other snakes, including poisonous ones.
11. King cobras are rarely kept in zoos and terrariums due to aggressiveness.
12. Unlike other snakes, the king cobra can control the dose of poison. She often bites people without poison at all, so as not to waste it on someone who is not suitable food for her.
13. Cobra swims well, and the speed of its movement on land is 6 km / h. However, this snake does not usually chase a human.
14. Sometimes these poisonous snakes are found even in the mountains, at an altitude of up to 2.5 kilometers above sea level.
15. The poison of some species of cobras is used in medicine.
16. The collared cobra is the only one that does not lay eggs, but gives birth to live cubs, and sometimes up to 50-60 at a time.
17. Collared cobra is considered one of the greatest "actresses" of the snake world. In case of danger (if spitting poison did not help), she turns her belly up and, opening her mouth, deftly pretends to be dead.
18. The habitats of cobras are diverse, however, arid places are more to their taste. A typical landscape for a cobra is bushes, deserts and semi-deserts, a number of species are found in the jungle, along river banks, but these snakes avoid very wet places.
RINGED WATER COBRA
19. Like all reptiles, cobras live alone, but Indian and king cobras are the rarest exception to this rule. These snakes are the only reptiles that form stable pairs during the mating season.
20. Unlike their other poisonous snakes, cobras do not ambush the enemy, but allow themselves to be discovered. They stand upright, open their hood and sway, as if warning that they are not to be trifled with, in order to frighten the enemy and force him to retreat.
CENTRAL ASIAN COBRA
21. These animals are thermophilic and do not occur where snow falls in winter, with the exception of the Central Asian cobra, whose range in the north reaches Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
22. The poison of all types of cobras is deadly to humans, but its strength varies from species to species. The poison of the Central Asian cobra is “not too” strong, death from its bite occurs after a few hours or even days, but the poison of the king cobra can kill a person in half an hour, moreover, there are cases when even elephants died from its bite.
23. During the hunt, cobras do not swallow the victim alive, as many people think, but first paralyze them with their poison, wait for some time until the prey dies, and only after that they start eating.
24. In a calm state, cobras do not stand out among other snakes, but in a state of irritation, they raise the front of the body and swell the neck.
25. A more or less pronounced hood is a distinctive feature of these reptiles, such a structural feature is no longer found in any other snakes.
26. Angolan cobra is the smallest of these snakes. The length of an adult usually does not exceed 1.5 meters.
27. The color of cobras is mostly nondescript, it is dominated by yellowish-brown and black-brown tones, but some species may have a bright color. For example, red spitting - brown-red, South African shield - coral.
28. Also, cobras are characterized by the presence of transverse stripes, especially pronounced on the neck.
29. The famous Indian cobra or spectacled snake got its name from the two spots that are visible on its swollen hood, these snakes have individuals with one spot, such cobras are called monocles.
30. Among the cobras there are a number of specialized species that practice a special way of hunting. They do not bite their prey, but ... shoot it with poison.
31. The Indian spitting cobra is considered the most accurate shooter, and black-necked and collared cobras from Africa also possess this skill. In these species, the opening of the poisonous channel is not located at the bottom of the tooth, but on its front surface, with special muscles the cobra compresses the poisonous glands and the deadly liquid flies out under pressure, as if from a syringe.
32. At one time, the cobra is able to fire several shots (up to a maximum of 28). The snake can shoot at a distance of up to 2 meters, and from such a distance it hits a target with a diameter of a couple of centimeters. Such accuracy is not accidental, because to kill the victim, a simple hit in her body is not enough. The poison cannot penetrate the covers of the prey and kill it, but it can have a strong irritating effect on the mucous membrane.
33. Therefore, spitting cobras always aim at the eyes, the jet of poison irritates the organs of vision and the victim loses orientation, but even if she is lucky to escape, she is doomed. The poison causes irreversible changes in the proteins of the cornea and the victim goes blind. If the poison gets into the eyes of a person, it can only be saved by immediately washing the eyes with plenty of water.
34. African spitting cobras are capable of spraying poison at the enemy up to 30-40 times in a row in a short period of time.
35. The Philippines is home to the second most venomous cobra, whose venom can kill an adult in half an hour. She is especially dangerous because she does not need to bite - she also belongs to the spitting.
36. Distinctive features of the cobra - six shields on the head. True, when meeting with her, there is usually no time to look at them.
37. Despite its poisonousness, the cobra is quite edible, and in a number of Asian countries it is considered a rare and expensive delicacy.
38. Cobras breed once a year. Sexual intercourse in cobras can last two to three days. Male king cobras have two penises instead of one.
39. The breeding season occurs more often in January-February (for example, in the Indian cobra) or spring (in the Central Asian), the females of these species lay their eggs in April-May or June-July, respectively. The fecundity of cobras is highly dependent on the species and can range from 8 to 70 eggs.
40. Cobras lay their eggs in crevices between stones, heaps of fallen leaves and similar shelters. Females usually guard the clutch.
41. The behavior of the royal and Indian cobras is especially interesting. Their females not only protect the eggs, but also build a nest for them. This seems surprising when you consider that snakes are completely devoid of limbs. To do this, the cobra rakes the leaves with the front part of the body into a pile, laying eggs, it remains to guard them. Moreover, the most active part in the protection of the nest is also taken by males, who do not leave their chosen ones until the offspring hatch.
42. During this period, Indian and king cobras can be very aggressive, actively driving animals and people away from their nest. This was the reason to accuse these snakes of unpredictable attacks on humans, in fact, such behavior is observed only during the breeding season.
43. Hatched serpents are completely independent and already have poison, however, due to its small amount, they initially hunt the smallest prey and even insects.
44. Young cobras are usually striped, and the black and white cobra even got its name from the color of the young.
45. The life expectancy of cobras in nature has not been precisely established; in captivity, one black-and-white cobra lived for 29 years, which is a very high figure for snakes.
46. Cobras are more active during the day and are generally very resistant to overheating. In most people's minds, cobras are aggressive, but in fact, these snakes are quite calm and even a little phlegmatic. Knowing their behavior, they are easy to control, which is often demonstrated by "charmers" of snakes.
47. Cobras feed on small rodents, birds (passerines and ground-nesting, for example, nightjars), lizards, frogs, toads, smaller snakes, and eggs.
48. The king cobra feeds exclusively on reptiles, and eats lizards extremely rarely, and more often hunts other snakes. Its victims are usually the most poisonous species and the closest relatives of cobras - kraits and asps.
49. Despite the strong poison, cobras also have enemies. Young animals can be attacked by larger snakes, monitor lizards, and adults are preyed upon by mongooses and meerkats. Although these animals do not have innate immunity to cobra venom, they are so clever at distracting the snake's attention with false attacks that they manage to seize the moment and deliver a deadly bite to the back of the head. A cobra caught in the path of a mongoose or a meerkat has no chance of survival.
50. For protection, cobras have a number of devices. Firstly, this is the famous stand, which performs a signaling role. Although a cobra that puffs out its hood is extremely dangerous in a person’s mind, in fact, this behavior allows you to avoid an unexpected encounter with a snake and bypass it. Cobra, in turn, achieves just such a reaction. Secondly, if a cobra is caught or annoyed, it does not immediately go on the attack. Often in such cases, the snake connects additional means of intimidation - loud hissing and false attacks, during which the snake does not let in poisonous teeth. And only if this does not help, the cobra can bite.
50 interesting facts about the city of Rhodes
The island of Rhodes belonging to Greece is not only an extremely popular place among tourists, but also a real paradise for lovers of history and ancient Greek culture. A great many ancient monuments, monuments and other buildings of the ancient Greeks have been perfectly preserved here, which will never leave an inquisitive tourist indifferent.
Most of the interesting facts about Rhodes are connected with the myths and monuments of Ancient Greece. Any guide to the island will attest to this. We propose to dig deeper and find out what else attracts travelers to this amazing place. The Mediterranean pearl, Rhodes, rightfully bears the title of the most beautiful of the islands of Greece.
It is located in the south of the Aegean Sea and belongs to the Dodecanese archipelago. The mild tropical climate and picturesque nature attract tourists from all over the world all year round. And for lovers of ancient history, this is just a real gift. What else do you need to know about the island, going there?
Facts about Rhodes
1. The city of Rhodes is a pearl and one of the largest historical centers of Greece.
2. This ancient port is located in the north of the island of the same name, on the coast of the Aegean and Mediterranean seas.
3. The ancient city of Rhodes is considered one of the most unique corners of Hellas, the main city of the Dodecanese Islands and the center of the island of the same name.
4. The first settlements appeared here several millennia BC. e. This is evidenced by archaeological finds.
5. Rhodes is one of the most ancient cities on the planet. Historians call 408 BC the date of the founding of Rhodes ... According to Greek legend, the ancient Telchin magicians were the discoverers of the island. They were endowed with magical powers and were excellent blacksmiths. The magicians gave the sword to the god Kron and the Trident to the sea lord Poseidon. Despite the gifts, the grandchildren of Poseidon drove the wizards off the island.
6. The history of Rhodes is replete with interesting facts, fascinating events and sights, some of which have survived to this day, and some have remained only in legends.
7. It was in this policy of Ancient Greece that the famous Kolos of Rhodes was located - one of the 7 wonders of the world. In 226 BC. e. As a result of the earthquake, the city was almost completely destroyed, and the world-famous landmark was wiped off the face of the earth.
8. Finally, the city fell into decay 170 years after the death of Caesar.
9. Convenient geographical position attracted the attention of Byzantium to Rhodes. Between the 4th and 14th centuries, the old city was a naval base and a strategically important port, the capital of the Theme of Kivirreota.
10. Since 1309 Rhodes was ruled by the Order of the Knights, in 1522 the Ottomans captured the Greek land, and at the beginning of the 20th century the Italians ruled here.
11. As a result of this, modern Greece has received a unique city that combines the features of antiquity, Byzantine style, baroque and gothic, a cultural capital and a powerful military base.
12. During its history, the city of Rhodes has been subjected to strong earthquakes several times. So, in 515, he lost almost half of the territory, and after the disaster of 1481, there were practically no ancient temples left in the city.
13. The city of Rhodes in antiquity earned itself prestige in the trading circles of the Mediterranean, as evidenced by the surviving records.
14. During the V-IV centuries BC. e. Rhodes was known for its political struggle between democracy and the oligarchs, several times power passed from the people to the owners of great wealth.
15. The heyday of the city falls on the III-II centuries BC. e., when a stadium, numerous temples, a theater, fortifications, sewerage and water supply were built.
16. Not everyone, even an ancient city, can simultaneously boast one of the 7 wonders of the world, several UNESCO World Heritage Sites and an abundance of ancient monuments.
17. The entire territory of the Island of Rhodes and the city of the same name is filled with sights, stories and legends, dating back to the Neolithic times. But especially many events occurred in the period of antiquity and the Middle Ages.
18. The city was founded by people from the island policies of Kamir, Ialis and Lind. This event took place in 408 BC.
19. Due to its convenient geographical position, ancient Rhodes in the Mediterranean became a major center of transit trade. According to historical data, earlier there were as many as 5 ports in the city. However, only three of them have been located so far.
20. Medieval Rhodes got its interesting facts thanks to the arrival of the Knights of St. John (Hospitallers) to these lands. In 1309 the city became the seat of the order.
21. The Rhodes knights significantly strengthened the defense capability of the settlement. The city was surrounded by a high and thick stone wall, the length of which was 4 kilometers. The fortification was equipped with watchtowers and 7 gates, near which there was an armed guard.
22. From the inside, the city was also divided by a wall. A smaller part, it was called Collachio, was completely given over to knighthood. It housed the Palace of the Grand Masters, the Cathedral, a hospital and other administrative buildings.
23. For the most part, Burgo, or as it was also called Hora, was settled by ordinary people. Houses, markets, churches, public buildings, etc. were erected in this area.
24. Chivalry helped the townspeople defend Rhodes and fight off foreign raids for more than two centuries. But in 1522, the Hospitallers were defeated during the siege of the city by the Ottoman troops. So Rhodes fell under the rule of the Turkish ruler Suleiman the Great.
25. As a result of the change of power, local residents were forced out of the city walls. The expelled townspeople had to settle down in a new place, and this is how the New Town (the modern part of Rhodes) got its development.
26. The name of the city in Greek means "island of roses".
27. Now the city is home to almost 60 thousand people employed in tourism, fishing and agriculture.
28. The city is territorially divided into two parts: Burg and Kollahiy.
29. Ordinary residents lived in Burg. The main street of this area is filled with shops, restaurants and souvenir shops. Kollahiy has always been the abode of knights and masters.
30. The Palace of the Grand Masters, built in the 14th century, managed to be well preserved to this day, despite the explosion of 1856. Enthusiasts restored the architectural masterpiece in the 20th century according to old sketches.
31. The Palace of the Grand Masters is now one of the visiting cards of the city. Two castle exhibition halls are dedicated to the historical and cultural heritage of Rhodes.
32. Some parts of the ancient city were discovered as a result of excavations. You can visit them and admire the man-made works of art: architecture, sculpture and crafts.
33. Temples, sculptures, and other ancient structures have been preserved in the city, which have been restored to date and receive tourists.
34. In addition, many items of ancient life have been preserved. But the paintings remained only in fragments due to the destruction caused by the earthquake.
35. The appearance of the modern city was influenced by the Italians, who rebuilt the city during the Italian occupation of the islands.
36. The cult of the sun god, Helios, is widespread not only in the city, but throughout the island. It was believed that he is the patron of the island, as he carried it out of the depths of the sea on his own hands. This territory was named after the nymph Rhodes, whom Helios loved. The locals also revered other gods, though to a lesser extent.
37. The emblem of Rhodes is a deer, the statues of which are on the columns left after the destruction of the giant statue of Helios.
ELEMENTS OF THE ACROPOLIS IN RHODES
38. Of the ancient monuments, the most valuable for the world and the country are the interesting ruins of the temple of Athena Poliada and the stadium, which is an analogue of the stadium in Olympia. To date, this is the only antique copy that has survived to this day.
39. Street of the Knights in the Old Town of Rhodes is a unique medieval street with a length of 200 meters. Laid in the XXIV century, it still retains its original appearance.
40. On the territory of the city, some elements of the acropolis and medieval buildings have been preserved. For fans of the era of medieval piracy, the siege of medieval castles, Rhodes will be a discovery.
41. Most of the region's income comes from the tourism business. Of course, first of all, people come to the city of Rhodes to see the ancient sights, but a beach holiday is also available here.
42. Therefore, tourists come here not only to see ancient monuments, but also to relax under the gentle Mediterranean sun on comfortable beaches.
43. In the northern part of the city, on the Mediterranean coast, there is one of the best beaches in Rhodes Greece - Elli. There are always a lot of vacationers here, half of them are local youth.
44. Life is in full swing on the beach around the clock: during the day, the main attention is paid to the calm and clear sea, and at night - to the nearby cafes and discos that are held in it.
45. Ella has a well-developed infrastructure. There are sun loungers and umbrellas, showers, changing cabins, a rental area, many water activities and a free jumping tower located 25 meters from the sand and pebble coast. Entry into the water on Ella is convenient, but there is music playing around the clock, so this place is not the best option for families with small children.
46. And the beach near the village of Kalawarda is an ideal place for a secluded holiday, especially for not the most picky tourists. There are no umbrellas or sun loungers, shops and entertainment areas, but all this is compensated by the clean sandy coast, calm water and beautiful nature.
47. It is also a great place for children, as there is a shallow bay on Kalavard with a convenient entry and always calm water. There are several toilets and showers on the beach, and an excellent restaurant is a 10-minute walk away.
48.A pebble-sand beach, located in the center of Rhodes, will provide you with everything you need for a good rest. It is well equipped and has all the necessary amenities. But compared to Elli Beach, located nearby, there are much fewer people here. Akti Miauli is located on the coast of the Aegean Sea, the water here is warm and clean, but in summer it is constantly windy and waves rise.
49. Modern Rhodes is distinguished by a combination of ancient civilization, interspersed with medieval architectural monuments and modern buildings, recreation areas and beaches.
50. The city of Rhodes is an interesting and unusual place. Here you can feel the atmosphere of ancient Greece and enjoy the rest on two seas at the same time.