30+ facts about how nominees and winners are selected for the Oscar, Grammy
Broadcast awards in the field of cinema, music or theatrical arts are extremely exciting and make us run to the TV to find out how it all happens and who will be the winner of the Oscar or Grammy this year. Sometimes we agree with the choice of the organizing committee for the awards, and sometimes we are indignant and do not understand what criteria were used to select the nominees and, in general, who are these people who get the right to choose the winners.
How nominees are selected for the most prestigious awards in music, theater and cinema
Now Bemorepanda will lift the veil of this secret, and you will learn more than thirty rules, almost unknown to the general public, that operate in various committees of the most prestigious world awards in the field of cinema, music, television and theater. Who are these mysterious electors on whom the victory of world stars nominated for the main prize depends? Now you will know it!
Here are the facts that remain hidden from the audience of colorful shows with the participation of dazzling movie stars. Somewhere behind the scenes of the organizing committees are the nomination processes for various major awards - from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to the Video Music Awards VMAs and other important awards that are received by actors and directors, musicians and theatrical figures, as well as representatives of other professions for their excellent work. So here are 31 facts:
1. Oscar winners are selected by members of the Academy Awards, which has over 6,000 members
2. All members of the Academy vote for the Best Film nomination, but other categories are nominated by specific professional groups
For example, the Actors Guild votes for Best Actor.
3. Academy Awards nominations are voted online, but participants can request a paper ballot instead
4. Electors don't just vote for a potential candidate they like, they're asked to rate up to five candidates.
5. Candidates who get enough first places become nominees in that category
6. Then for the final vote, the participants go online to choose the winners in each category, not just their industry
7. Before the envelopes are opened on stage, only two people from PricewaterhouseCoopers (the company that counts the votes) know who the winners are.
8. Potential nominees are actually campaigning for their nominations - and they've been doing so almost since the beginning of the Oscars.
For example, when the panel of judges chose the winners, Mary Pickford invited the panelists to her stately estate for tea. They were so impressed that they named her best actress at the 1928-1929 Oscars, although her performance in The Coquette was widely criticized.
9. For the Grammy Awards, all members of the Recording Academy can vote for nominees in a general area including Record of the Year, Album of the Year, Song of the Year, and Best New Artist.
10. A committee of 20 then selects eight candidates in each category from the top 20 applicants.
11. For categories in certain genres, nominees are selected by ad hoc committees of 13-17 experts who meet to hear the top 15 nominees and then select five finalists
12. Each committee may add two nominees to the general vote, but only the Classic Nominations Review Committee may make three additions.
13. The term of office of members of the nominating committee is three years, followed by one year of rest.
14. Members are not allowed on the Nominating Committee if they have a potential conflict of interest - for example, they themselves are potential candidates, have financial ties to the candidates, or are the immediate family of the candidate
For example, Billie Eilish was unable to vote in the category in which she was nominated, just like her brother Finneas.
15. Moving on to the TV Emmy Awards, where, unlike other award shows, potential nominees must submit themselves for consideration - and that costs money.
Your first performance is free, but thereafter it's $425 per program or $225 per person.
16. Once applications are closed, all members of the Television Academy vote to select nominees in program categories (i.e. TV shows and films) such as drama series or TV movies.
17. However, categories of performers (such as lead actor) and individual achievements (such as directing) are voted by smaller groups of electors
18. Each nominee is then required to submit a set number of episodes, which voters view through a secure online platform
19. For the final vote, the same category rules apply - and you definitely can't vote for yourself.
20. The number of voters for the Golden Globes is much smaller than for other awards ceremonies.
Because it is made up of representatives of the Hollywood foreign press - all of them are American entertainment journalists and write for international publications.
In 2019, there were only 87 participants. However, the exclusive group was criticized for allegedly accepting gifts and other perks from the studios in exchange for their voices.
Recently, all members were required to sign a new code of conduct that stated that "Members are prohibited from corruptly accepting, agreeing to accept, soliciting or soliciting anything of value in exchange for action taken by a member as an HFPA."
21. Studios must submit their eligible films, which are on the list, voters then receive it along with their ballots
22. Throughout the year, members are invited to watch eligible films and receive DVD copies of some of them
23. Each member evaluates their top five nominees in each category, but they do not know who will be the nominee until it is publicly announced.
24. BAFTA nominations begin with British Film members judging up to 20 of their favorite films made by British filmmakers and the top five are automatically nominated
25. In the second round of voting, the jury selects five of the remaining 15 films to complete the list of 10 nominees
26. All BAFTA members vote in the third round to choose the final winner
27. For the Tony Theater Awards, the Administrative Committee appoints approximately 50 theater professionals to the Tony Award Nominating Committee, a position that each member may hold for a period of three years.
28. Every Tony Nominating Committee member is supposed to see every new Broadway show.
29. Then, after the deadline has passed, the committee holds its annual meeting for a secret ballot to select candidates.
30. Then a wider group of approximately 831 voters eligible to vote from the theater profession must vote online to determine the winners.
But if the voter did not see the nominated production, then he cannot vote in any category in which there were nominations.
31. Finally, while MTV has not made public how VMA nominees are selected, their official voting rules indicate that the sponsor "reserves the right to choose winners at its sole discretion"
90 facts about tigers that tell more than a book
We all know tigers as striped predators. But what else? They live in Africa. And you will be wrong because most tigers live in Asian countries, especially India. Did you know that despite their ferocious appearance, tigers are considered vulnerable due to habitat loss and poaching for illegal trade? Or can you name any of their physical characteristics besides the fact that they have a tail, fangs, and stripes on their skin? In the meantime, they are pretty impressive. For example, tigers are so strong that they can kill a person with one blow of their paw.
Facts about tigers prove how little we know about wild cats
So if you're not a feline expert, you might be interested to know some of the facts Bemorepanda found about these majestic animals. Putting together information from various sources will help you get a much better understanding of tigers and save you a lot of time because you don't have to hunt for them yourself.
So, who are they really - tigers? Dangerous predators or an endangered species? Or both?
1. White tigers have enzymes that are activated at low temperatures and can make their fur darker.
2. Carnivores such as tigers have an easier process of converting meat into protein, providing them energy compared to herbivores that need to process grass. This is because carnivores don't need as many gut microbes to break down plant cellulose. As a result, tigers and other predators have small and light stomachs that do not slow them down when chasing prey.
3. Tigers hunt alone, not in groups. Even though they can live alongside other tigers, they prefer to hunt on their own. Their hunting style is quiet and stealthy, so it's better for them to be alone.
4. When tigers feel safe, they close their eyes as a sign of satisfaction or calm, as they cannot purr.
5. Tigers and other cats cannot taste sweetness because their taste buds do not recognize it. Even if they are given sweet food or treats, they will not be able to taste the sweetness on their tongue.
6. Despite the fact that tigers are endangered, they still make up the largest population among big cats. The lions are in second place, and the jaguars are third.
7. Tigers can interbreed with other wild cats, creating hybrid breeds such as tigons (male tigers and female lions) and ligers (male lions and female tigers). In addition, scientists believe that many other feral cat hybrids have yet to be discovered.
8. The belief that Bali tigers were evil spirits led to their hunting and eventual extinction along with the Caspian and Javanese tigers. This is a terrifying fact about these majestic creatures.
9. The tiger's skull is strong and rounded, which helps support its powerful jaws.
10. India has the highest population of wild tigers, with about 3,000 individuals living in the country.
11. Although seeing black tigers is rare, there have been cases of tigers with very thick stripes that give the impression of a completely black coat.
12. The Bali tiger was last seen in the mid-1930s. A few individuals probably survived into the 1940s and possibly 1950s.
13. Tiger saliva contains an antiseptic protein that helps prevent infection when the animal licks a wound. This helps tigers heal wounds quickly and speed up recovery.
14. While lions don't usually share their prey with others, tigers tend to be more cooperative and share their prey with other group members, even taking turns eating to give others a chance to get food.
15. The roar of a tiger is heard at a distance of three kilometers.
16. One hit of the paw can break your bones and kill you. Just in case you need a reminder not to get into a fistfight with a tiger.
17. Tigers, of all the wild cat species, are the most reserved and tend to roar loudly only for long distance communication or when defending their territory. They also display more nurturing behavior, allowing their young and females to eat ahead of them.
18. One of the amazing features of tigers is their ability to imitate the sounds of other animals. This skill allows them to trick their prey into approaching while hunting.
19. India initiated Project Tiger in the 1970s to protect the Bengal tiger population and continues to work towards the conservation and rehabilitation of these animals.
20. The speed at which tigers can move varies from 49 to 65 km/h.
21. There have been reports of blue tigers, although there is limited evidence to support the existence of such a color variation in this species. However, since the blue color trait is indeed present in some lynx families, this is not entirely ruled out as a possibility.
22. Tigers are one of the oldest animals on our planet.
23. Each tiger has a special fur pattern that is different from all other tigers. This is similar to how humans have unique fingerprints. Even if a tiger loses all of its fur, its stripes will still be visible.
24. Tigers are big cats and eat a lot. They can eat about 40 kg of meat at a time and feast on their prey for several days or bury it to eat later.
25. Adult Amur tigers are about 3.3 m long.
26. Tigers have eye-like markings on the back of their ears. There are two theories behind this: some believe that these markings help the tiger look larger and scare off predators approaching from behind. Others think that they help the tiger in aggressive communication.
27. The Bengal tiger subspecies has the most stable population of all tiger subspecies, with about 2,500 living individuals.
28. The fur of many tigers varies from light yellow-orange to dark reddish-orange.
29. Tigers have the largest fangs of any species of big cat. These teeth can be 6.3 to 7.6 cm long. The fangs also have nerves that help the tiger feel where to bite in order to gnaw through the neck of its prey.
30. Female tigers often give birth in a litter of 3-4 tiger cubs during their lifetime. These cubs are born blind and rely on their mother to care for them until they are old enough to hunt on their own, which usually takes about 2-3 years.
31. Tigers mark their territory, which can be as long as 100 km, using scent to let other tigers know they are in the area.
32. In the wild, tigers can live up to 26 years.
33. The Sumatran tiger is the smallest of all tiger species.
34. The length of the tiger's tail is about one meter, and it helps to maintain balance when the animal makes quick turns in pursuit of prey.
35. The surface of the tiger's tongue is covered with papillae which give it a rough and rough texture. These papillae allow the tiger to easily strip feathers, fur, and flesh from its prey.
36. Female Amur tigers usually weigh between 100 and 167 kg.
37. The bones in the paws of a tiger are tightly connected by ligaments, which help soften the impact of landing when running and jumping.
38. Tigers have a small clavicle. This helps them take longer strides while running because the small collarbone allows the shoulder blade to move more freely and with a wider range of motion.
39. Reports of white tigers seen in the wild date back to the 1800s. The first white tiger was captured in India by Maharaja Marthand Singh, then the ruler of the state of Rewa. The tiger was named Mohan and used to breed more white tigers. Some experts believe that all white tigers living today can trace their ancestry back to Mohan, but this has yet to be proven.
40. Tigers are known for their love of swimming, which is unusual compared to other types of cats. They often go to streams and ponds to cool off, and have been seen swimming in the wild after a successful hunt.
41. In the past, there were 9 different types of tigers. Now only 6 remain. These are the Bengal, Sumatran, South China, Indochinese, Malayan and Amur tigers. The remaining 3 species - the Bali, Caspian and Javan tigers - no longer exist. Human activity, like industrialization, has affected tigers over time.
42. Tigers are more active at night as this is when they usually hunt and patrol their territory. They tend to avoid interacting with humans during the day, so they engage in this activity at night.
43. Along the border between Bangladesh and India, there is a swampy forest where the largest number of Bengal tiger attacks on people is recorded. About 100 people die in this area every year.
44. In addition to the pronounced stripes, tigers have glands that secrete unique odors. These glands allow them to mark their territories.
45. Tiger incisors tear off small pieces of meat and feathers from prey.
46. White tigers are rare and used by zoos, circuses and private owners to make money. These enterprises breed white tigers so that their cubs are also white. This is dangerous as the cubs can develop health problems such as strabismus and spinal deformity and tend to be more likely to get sick.
47. Saber-toothed tigers are now extinct felines that many believe were a type of tiger. They became extinct about 10,000 years ago and belonged to a family of feline cousins called the Machairodontinae.
48. The Indochinese tiger lives in Cambodia, Laos, Burma, Thailand and Vietnam. They tend to inhabit forests surrounded by hills and mountains, making them difficult to study widely by scientists. Consequently, less is known about this species than about others.
49. The Malayan tiger is very similar to the Indochinese tiger, and apart from Malaysia, they can also be found in Thailand.
50. The Amur (Siberian) tiger is the largest subspecies of the tiger: the body length of males is at least 3.3 m, and the average weight is 300 kg or more. Female Siberian tigers, although usually smaller than males, are larger than other subspecies of tigers.
51. The rear teeth of a tiger are specially shaped to help the tiger cut meat from its prey like a knife. The tiger can then swallow large chunks of this sliced meat whole.
52. Tigers are known to protect prey they have killed and often cover the carcass with leaves, dirt, grass or even rocks before leaving to drink or move to another location. Instead of eating at the scene of the kill, they usually drag the prey to a more secluded place to eat.
53. Tigers use two main methods of killing prey: blood loss and strangulation. They attack the neck, using their sharp teeth to pierce a large artery. This often causes the victim to die from blood loss within seconds. Otherwise, the tiger will choke the victim by the neck until she suffocates.
54. Although it is commonly believed that white tigers are albinos, in fact this is not so. Rather, the white coloration of these tigers is due to recessive genes that affect the pigmentation of their skin, which is slightly different from albinism. Most white-skinned tiger species also have blue eyes.
55. India has a high concentration of tigers - 75% of the world's population lives in the country. Tourists can even visit places in India where large groups of tigers can be seen. Therefore, it is quite logical that in 1973 the tiger was declared the national animal of India.
56. Adult tigers can fetch up to $10,000 on the black market, resulting in ongoing illegal tiger hunting and poaching.
57. Tigers can retract their claws back into their protective skin when not in use, thanks to the ligaments that hold the claws in place, which relax when the claws are retracted. This allows the tiger to keep its claws sharp and ready to use and to move silently while tracking prey, and it also allows the tiger to quickly and efficiently extend its claws when needed and retract them when they are no longer needed.
58. Tigers have fewer teeth than other carnivores. For example, dogs have 42 teeth, while tigers have only 30.
59. White tigers need a lot of space to live, roam and hunt - usually around 20 square miles (32 sq km). This helps them find enough prey to survive. White tigers are easier to spot than orange ones because they stand out more in their surroundings.
60. Siegfried and Roy were German-American entertainers known for performing with white tigers in Las Vegas. However, in 2003, one of the tigers attacked Roy during a performance, ending his career as an entertainer. Roy survived, but suffered very serious injuries.
61. Tigers usually have only one main meal per week, usually deer. However, if given the opportunity, they will also eat other animals such as wild boars, birds, fish, rodents, amphibians, reptiles, and insects.
62. Tigers living in southern China are distinguished by a characteristic stripe on their foreheads. This stripe, reminiscent of the Chinese character for "king"/"king", is a distinctive feature of the South China tiger.
63. It is unclear why white tigers get bigger and grow faster than their orange cousins.
64. Male Bengal tigers typically weigh around 220 kg (480 lb) and are 2.9 m (9.5 ft) long when fully grown. Females are slightly smaller, with an average weight of 140 kg (300 lb) and a length of 2.5 m (8 ft).
65. White tigers sometimes have unusual reactions to anesthesia. For example, a male white tiger named Cheitan died at the San Antonio Zoo in 1992 due to complications from anesthesia during root canal treatment.
66. In 2013, a Bengal tiger mauled his trainer during a circus performance in Mexico. The American trainer later died from his injuries and the tiger was killed. This incident and others like it led some circuses to stop working with dangerous animals.
67. The Caspian tiger, which used to live in Turkey, Iran and Central Asia, became extinct in the 1970s.
68. The South China tiger is probably on the verge of extinction - there are only 47 individuals left, which can only be found in zoos in China. Perhaps some of them remained in the wild, but their number is unknown.
68. The South China tiger is probably on the verge of extinction - there are only 47 individuals left, which can only be found in zoos in China. Perhaps some of them remained in the wild, but their number is unknown.
69. The number of tigers in captivity in the US exceeds the number left in the wild.
70. Tiger urine seems to smell like buttered popcorn.
71. Tiger cubs stay with their mother, following her scent. Unfortunately, this is not always enough to ensure their survival, as many cubs remain on the hunt and do not survive the harsh conditions of cold or starvation.
72. Taiwan has banned the crossing of tigers on its territory in order to preserve the protected species. Those who violate this ban in Taiwan may face fines. The practice is now legal in various countries, including China, Iran, Argentina, the United States, the Czech Republic, the United Arab Emirates, India, and Russia.
73. The Bengal tiger is the most well-known subspecies of the tiger, perhaps due to its depiction as the main antagonist, Shere Khan, in Disney's The Jungle Book.
74. Tigers are responsible for more human deaths than leopards and lions combined. In the 19th century alone, more than 100,000 people were killed by tigers. Tigers generally try to avoid human contact as much as possible. However, certain circumstances can lead them to attack, such as when they are provoked or have a shortage of food, which leads them to seek food from people.
75. Despite all efforts to protect Amur tigers, according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), they are still among the endangered species. Although their numbers have now stabilized, there is a possibility that they may soon become extinct.
76. Tasmanian tigers, once the largest carnivorous marsupials, became extinct in 1936 when the last of them died at the Tasmanian Zoo in Hobart.
77. Tigers have developed the ability to see clearly at night due to their nocturnal hunting habits. They have developed unique eye structures that allow them to see in the dark 6 times better than humans.
78. Tigers have long been revered as symbols of strength and determination. In some Asian cultures, they are also seen as symbols of intelligence and power, and are revered as the undisputed rulers of those territories.
79. Tigers can starve to death in just 2 weeks due to their size and appetite.
80. Unlike other types of cats, tigers have thick, spiky bristles on their tongues.
81. Tigers can inhabit a wide variety of environments, including mangrove swamps, rainforests, savannahs and grasslands. As long as they have access to basic resources, they can survive.
82. Tigers can jump at least 30 feet (9 m) forward in a single jump.
83. The subspecies of the tiger determines the density of its stripes.
84. Tigers have two types of coat: outer coat and undercoat. The outer hair is longer and stronger than the undercoat and primarily performs a protective function. The main purpose of brindle fur is to keep the animal warm, and the undercoat helps achieve this by trapping air and insulating the body.
85. Male South China tigers typically weigh about 150 kg and are about 2.5 m long, while females are smaller, weighing about 110 kg and measuring about 2.3 m in length.
86. Tigers have four claws on each paw and a special claw called a dewclaw. The dewclaw is located farther on the paw and does not touch the ground when the tiger walks. It functions similarly to the human thumb and is used for prey capture and climbing.
87. The curved claws of the tiger allow them to effectively grab and hold large prey, as well as easily climb trees head first. However, the combination of curved claws, size, and weight can make it difficult for tigers to climb down trees. As a result, they must either slide down the tree or jump down, making them the least skilled climbers among the big cat family.
88. In tigers, powerful jaw muscles are attached to a bony ridge on the top of the skull called the sagittal crest. These muscles allow the tiger to quickly grasp its prey with crushing force, helping it to subdue and kill it.
89. White tigers are often found in zoos and can be very popular with visitors. However, many zookeepers do not allow these tigers to breed and they may also be neutered to prevent this. In the wild, white tigers are sometimes illegally hunted for their valuable white fur. There are programs to protect white tigers from illegal hunting and provide them with proper living conditions.
90. It is widely believed in China that various body parts of tigers, such as whiskers, bones and tail, have medicinal properties. These beliefs have greatly contributed to the illegal trade in tigers.
The strength of a person's spirit and the will to win is based on courage - a trait that the most worthy have. This quality has always been necessary for people to win battles; it is essential for everyday life. And in our difficult times, we need courage more than ever.
Sayings and aphorisms on the theme of courage
Suppose your reserve of courage is a little depleted. In that case, it must be replenished immediately with the help of quotes and aphorisms of the great minds of humanity - writers, politicians, spiritual leaders, and educators. Read the selection of Bemorepanda and gain courage and perseverance!
1. "Without courage, there can be no truth, and without truth, there can be no other virtue." — Sir Walter Scott
2. “The madness of the brave is the wisdom of life!” - Maksim Gorky
3. “He who loses wealth loses a lot; he who loses a friend loses more; but he who loses courage loses everything.” - Miguel de Cervantes
4. "Courage does not lie in blindly not noticing danger, but in seeing and overcoming it." — Jean-Paul
5. “Courage is an excellent property of the soul; the people marked by him should be proud of themselves. – N. M. Karamzin
6. “All the brave love; for only those who have affections to fight for are brave.” — Nathaniel Hawthorne
7. "In life, it takes great courage to be human and maintain your dignity." – V. A. Zubkov
8. "Fortitude is the protection and support of other virtues." — John Locke
9. "Courage is cultivated day by day in stubborn resistance to difficulties." – N. A. Ostrovsky
10. "True courage is taciturn: it costs him so little to show himself that he considers heroism itself to be a duty, not a feat." – A. A. Bestuzhev-Mariinsky
11. “Conscience is the root of all true courage; if a man is brave, let him obey his conscience.” - James Freeman Clark 12. "Courage derives its gain from the cowardice of others." - Ya. B. Knyazhnin
13. "The best hearts are always the bravest." — Lawrence Stern
14. "Three main virtues of the leader: courage, mind, health of body and soul." – A. V. Suvorov
15. "Courage is the resistance to fear, the mastery of fear, not the absence of fear." - Mark Twain
16. "The difference between the brave and the coward is that the former, aware of the danger, do not feel fear, and the second feels fear, not conscious of the danger." – V. O. Klyuchevsky
17. "A man who has never been in danger cannot be held accountable for his courage." — Francois de La Rochefoucauld
18. "Courage usually goes along with gentleness of character, and a courageous person is more than others capable of generosity." – N. V. Shelgunov
19. “Life is a struggle, and to win a worthy victory in it, a person needs everyday courage.” – V. A. Zubkov
20. "Courage without discipline is closer to brutality than to masculinity." — Sir P. Sidney
21. “Not the one who climbs into danger without feeling fear is courageous, but the one who can suppress the strongest fear and think about danger without submitting to fear.” – K. D. Ushinsky
22. “Physical courage, which despises all danger, will make a man brave in one respect; moral courage, scorning all opinion, will make a man brave in another. The first, it would seem, is the most necessary for the camp; the second for advice, but both are necessary to become a great man. – Charles Caleb Colton
23. "Courage to defend the fatherland is a virtue, but courage in a robber is villainy." – A. A. Bestuzhev-Mariinsky
24. “There is a big difference between true courage and simple contempt for life.” - Cato, the Elder
25. “More than once, our great empire approached the brink of destruction, but it was not the wealth that did not exist, not the weapons with which we always limped, but the iron courage of her sons, who spared neither strength nor life, that saved her, if only Russia lived.” – M. O. Menshikov
26. “Courage is doing what you fear. You can't have courage if you're not scared." — Eddie Rickenbacker
27. "Wisdom is the courage of the spirit." – A. V. Lavrukhin
28. “To see what is right and not do it is a lack of courage.” – Confucius
29. "Neither an officer's uniform will make you brave, nor a priestly cassock - merciful, nor a judge's toga - just, nor a ministerial chair - strong if your soul does not abound with either courage, or compassion, or righteousness, or strength." - Nikolay Serbian
30. "No one can be brave if he considers pain the greatest evil of life." – Cicero
31. “Don’t be afraid to make mistakes! And do not despair of falling! Have patience and courage - restore strength, heal wounds, and know that fate will give you a chance! – Oleg Roy
32. "A real knight is more full of courage in the thick of battle than at the beginning of danger." — Sir P. Sidney
33. "To admit one's mistakes is the highest courage." – A. A. Bestuzhev-Mariinsky
34. "A huge amount of talent is lost in this world due to lack of courage." — Sydney Smith
35. "War is an area of danger; courage is the most important quality of war." – Carl Philipp Gottlieb von Clausewitz
36. "Courage must be guided by skill, and skill should be armed with courage." — Sir P. Sidney
37. “Qualities such as courage, truthfulness, and justice are acquired through development. Therefore, morality is an undoubted product of culture. – G. I. Chelpanov
38. “Courage based on the hope of reward, the fear of punishment, the experience of success, rage or ignorance of danger, is just ordinary courage, and it does not deserve this name. True courage presupposes a just end; measures the dangers and meets the result with calmness and unwavering determination.” — Francois de la Noue
39. "There are two main manifestations in courage: contempt for pain and contempt for death." - Marcus Tullius Cicero
40. “Courage is when a person does not let the fear of death rule his life.” – S. S. Govorukhin
41. “Courage is not a virtue or value among other personal values such as love or loyalty. It is the foundation that underlies all other virtues and personal values and makes them a reality. Without courage, our love turns pale and turns into a simple addiction. Without courage, our loyalty becomes conformity.” — Rollo May
42. “Courage makes a man greater than himself; for then he is himself plus his prowess.” — William R. Alger
43. "True courage consists in loving life, knowing the whole truth about it." – S. D. Dovlatov
44. "Courage is a lamp of adversity." — Luc de Clapier
45. "The discovery of the courage to rise above the vanity and dependence on suffering brings true satisfaction and freedom to the soul." – R. V. Share
46. “Remember now, when you meet your antagonist, do everything in a gentle, pleasant manner. May your courage be as sharp, but at the same time as polished as your sword.” – Richard Brinsley Sheridan
47. "God holds fast to the strong." — Giuseppe Mazzini
48. “Fearlessness is indispensable for the development of other noble qualities. Is it possible without the courage to seek the truth or carefully keep love? - Mahatma Gandhi
49. "In war, courage wins, not good weapons." - Miguel de Cervantes
50. "Dare to glorify the motherland with courage!" – M. V. Lomonosov
51. “He has not learned the lesson of life who does not overcome fear every day.” — Ralph Waldo Emerson
52. “A person is loved mainly for two virtues: firstly, courage, secondly, fidelity.” - Gaius Lucilius
53. "There are three things that need to be affirmed in boys and young men - the duty of a man, the responsibility of a man, the dignity of a man." – V. A. Sukhomlinsky
54. "Courage does not consist in taking risks without fear, but in being resolutely disposed to a just cause." – Plutarch
55. “Keep your fears to yourself, but share your courage with others.” – Robert Louis Stevenson
20 cool things that are hard not to notice and start poking money right into the screen
Today, in an age of satiety with all sorts of products and things, it is difficult to surprise people with anything, but manufacturers still try their best, releasing brainchilds worthy of us immediately wanting them. Whether it is a set of chocolates in the form of the solar system or playing cards with the image of cats, all these little things cause an acute desire to get them and, stroking them, say: "My excellence."
16th century ring transforming into an astronomical sphere
May the force be with you!
A box of chocolates in the form of the solar system will be a great gift for ... your beloved
Cards for gamblers and cats
"And you, Brutus?"
This flash drive has a scale showing how much memory is already full.
A sword-shaped door key that would delight some modern knight
Multifunctional bed, which you will not want to crawl out of
Descending stairs for those who like to experience the thrill
Ring of Omnipotence
An eraser that "turns" into Mount Fuji during use
Mops that look like dogs that look like mops
Wooden drink cabinet made in the shape of a robot
Waterproof socks. Yes, it turns out there are such too!
Cozy blanket in the form of pita bread, which you just want to wrap yourself in
A phone holder that will surely be the envy of others
20 curious facts that will tell you something new and make you a little smarter
There are so many fascinating things in the world to learn, and even more to remember, all this is simply unrealistic. Therefore, it is best to learn a little bit of everything, choosing only the most interesting from it. Today we hope to become a source of insight for you by presenting a collection of 20 fascinating facts about a wide variety of things. Educate yourself, have fun and get smarter 💗
The modern air conditioner was invented by Willis Carrier not for the comfort of people, but to control temperature and combat damaging humidity in the printing
house.The actual first apparatus was invented on July 17, 1902 in Buffalo, New York, USA, when Carrier created the first air conditioner for the Brooklyn printing house. The inventor received a patent for the air conditioner on January 2, 1906. The very first air conditioner designed to cool people's homes was installed in 1914 by the design of Willis Carrier in Minneapolis.
Rolling Stones bassist Bill Wyman began dating his second wife Mandy Smith when she was 13 and he was 47. They were married for 2 years and divorced in 1993. In the same year, Wyman's 30-year-old son from his first marriage married his mother Mandy Smith, who at that time was 46 years old
Wyman's son actually married his step-grandmother. After that, he seemed to become his own grandfather 🎪
There has been no Soviet Union for 30 years, but the USSR still holds the record for the number of Olympic gold medals in wrestling
In the medal table of the Soviet Union from 1896 to 2020: 62 gold medals, 31 silver medals and 23 bronze medals, total 116 🥇🥈🥉
Immediately behind the USSR is the United States, they have over the same period: 60 gold, 47 silver and 44 bronze medals.
A Spanish civil servant did not show up to work for 6 years, and this only came to light when his superiors decided to present him with a seniority award.In
Italy, there was a similar case where a public hospital employee did not go to work for 15 years after transferred from one hospital to another in 2005. He reportedly received a total of 538,000 euros over the years of his "work" 👨⚕️
After the plague epidemic in Europe, there was a severe shortage of workers who, therefore, were able to demand higher wages. By some estimates, the wages of the average worker have increased by 50%.
Labor shortages have been observed since 1348. Of course, the rise of salary was not easy, since the feudal lords did their best to keep the workers and peasants in check, limiting their movements and passing other laws. But with the help of the uprisings, they were able to get their way.
The chemical reaction in glow sticks was discovered by Dr. Edwin Chandross in 1962, but he had no idea that his “chemiluminescent” invention was hugely popular at raves and music festivals until an interview with Vice in 2013.
He said, “Is this really so? Perhaps now my granddaughter will think that I am cool ” 🎆
Astronauts need to sleep near ventilation, otherwise, due to weightlessness, carbon dioxide from their own lungs forms a bubble around their
heads.As reported, astronauts almost always feel nasal congestion, since due to weightlessness, the natural leakage of mucus from the nasal cavities does not occur 👃
Albert Spazhyari, a bank robber from France, prepared a fake, encrypted document, allegedly proving his alibi. While the judge was distracted by decryption, Spazhyari jumped out of the window, landed safely on the roof of a parked car and disappeared from his seat on a waiting motorcycle. No one saw him
again.Some sources say that later the car owner received a check for 5,000 francs in the mail for damage to the roof 💰
Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989. He was frustrated by the fact that he had to go to his colleagues and ask what data was on their computer so that he could add it to his computer.
For the invention of the World Wide Web, we have to thank laziness and frustration.
According to the Geneva Convention, an ejected pilot in the air is not a participant in hostilities, so an attack on him is a war crime
Not only does the pilot lose the ability to attack, moreover, having landed on enemy territory, he will presumably become a prisoner of war. Shooting at paratroopers descending by parachute is not prohibited 🪂
In the original script the finale of the film "Pretty Woman" (1990) character Richard Gere had to throw Julia Roberts from his limousine in a dirty alley and throw her an envelope with $ 3,000
Once the main character Vivian (Julia Roberts) had to throw on Hollywood Boulevard, she had to throw an envelope into a leaving car. The envelope should have been torn, and the money should have disappeared in a ditch 💸
The study showed that 94% of Brits said that they talked about the weather in the last six hours, and 38% said that they had discussed it in the last 60 minutes,
which means that at any time in the UK a third of the population, or talking about the weather, or already did it, or is going to do it ☔
In 2012, a Briton named Wesley Carrington bought a metal detector and within 20 minutes found Roman-era gold worth £ 100,000 (at the time of writing, £ 10,125,345), a
34-year-old car salesman walked into a local store where he bought the cheapest metal detector for beginners. He immediately went to the local forest to try out his new toy. He immediately found a spoon and a halfpenny, but then the apparatus began to emit a loud sound signal, making it clear that there was something large and metallic under the ground 🧐
When Muhammad Ali lost the fight to Larry Holmes in 1980, 14-year-old teenager Mike Tyson, who was already a promising boxer, spoke to Ali on the phone, promising to avenge the defeat.He
fulfilled his promise seven years later, knocking Holmes out in just four rounds. Later, Tyson called this a highlight of his career. During the battle, Muhammad Ali was in the hall watching Holmes' defeat 🥊
Corporation McDonald's quietly abandoned its legendary mascot clown Ronald McDonald after the 2016 network filled rolls with cruel jokes from prankerov dressed as clowns, in which they scared people
In 2016, the real trend started in the network, in which prankery in clown costumes scared people in different ways, filming it all on camera 🤡
Popular American presenter Steve Harvey sent a TV every year to his school teacher for Christmas, who said that he would never make it on TV
“Every year, while my teacher was still alive, I sent him a TV for Christmas. I just wanted him to see me, ”said Harvey 📺
50 interesting facts about Venezuela
The official name of this state is the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. The country is located in South America, its territory is 916,000 square kilometers, and its population is just over 30 million. Most live in the coastal area of the country. Europeans are believed to have first landed on the coast of modern Venezuela in 1499; they were members of a Spanish expedition led by Alonso de Ojeda. And Venezuela got its name thanks to the Italian Amerigo Vespucci; the Indian houses on stilts reminded him of his native Venice.
Top facts about Venezuela
The capital of Venezuela is the city of Caracas, home to over 2 million people. In the old days, Indians of the Karaka tribe lived in this place, hence the name of the city. It was founded on July 25, 1567, on the day of St. Iago Leonski. The full name of the capital of Venezuela is Santiago de Leon de Caracas. The crime rate in the capital of Venezuela is very high.
1. Venezuela is a country located in the very north of South America.
2. The full name and official country are the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.
3. The name of this state means "little Venice."
4. Christopher Columbus was the first European to set foot on the territory of modern Venezuela.
5. Venezuela gained independence from Great Britain in 1830.
6. More than 28 million people live in this South American country.
CITY OF CARACAS - THE CAPITAL OF VENEZUELA
7. In the capital of Venezuela, the city of Caracas, there are a lot of cars, and there are even more traffic jams than in Moscow.
8. Venezuela, like many other Latin American countries, has a high percentage of poverty, a huge external debt and a terrible record of corruption. All these social problems are exacerbated by a number of natural disasters, in particular floods.
9. The population of this state mainly consists of four groups: mestizos (mixed Europeans and Indians), they account for about 67% of the population; whites (citizens of European origin, mainly Spaniards, Italians and Portuguese) - about 21%; blacks (persons of African and Caribbean origin) - about 10%; Indians (these are Native Americans) - 2%.
RESIDENTS OF VENEZUELA
10. These groups are mostly localized: mestizos and whites mostly live in cities; the Indians live in the hinterland of the Guianan and Amazonas; blacks live along the Caribbean coast.
11. All whites in Venezuela are a priori considered Americans. And most Venezuelans do not like Americans.
12. The official language in the country is Spanish. It appeared on the territory of Venezuela in the 16th century.
13. In addition to Spanish, there are 25 other indigenous languages spoken in Venezuela that belong to three language families: Caribbean, Arawakan and Chibcha.
14. Venezuelans consider it important to learn English, as it opens up new perspectives for them.
15. The vast majority of Venezuelans (about 90%) are Catholics. There are also significant Jewish communities in Caracas and Maracaibo. The country also has a small number of Muslims.
GENERAL SIMON BOLIVAR
16. The main national symbol in this state is the image of the famous fighter for the independence of Venezuela, General Simon Bolivar. He led the movement that liberated Venezuela and the neighboring countries of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia from Spanish rule.
17. The walls of almost all houses in Venezuelan cities are painted with graffiti, and most of these graffiti are drawn very professionally.
18. In general, the climate in Venezuela is hot, but at an altitude of one and a half kilometers above sea level it can be called moderate. That is why most of the major cities here were built on high ground.
19. Thermometers in this country show the temperature in degrees Celsius, and air conditioners in degrees Fahrenheit.
20. Venezuela is dominated by a patriarchal society. Men always hold important political positions and are more successful at work, while women are more housewives.
21. Patriarchy is more pronounced in the city, while in the countryside it is not so pronounced. Although, based on the constitution, men and women have equal rights.
22. The country has the largest oil reserves on the planet. Now they are more than 48 billion tons.
23. The Venezuelan economy is 95% based on the production and export of petroleum products.
24. Petrol is very cheap in Venezuela. It's practically free.
25. Thanks to subsidized policies, gasoline costs only $0.01 per liter (64 kopecks per liter). This is incredibly cheap, given the average cost of gasoline in the world - 0.97.
NATURE OF VENEZUELA
26. The country has many beautiful landscapes, there is magnificent tropical weather.
27. The government takes care of the preservation of flora and fauna. Venezuela occupies a leading position in the world in terms of environmental protection. More than 53.9% of its territories are under state protection.
28. In this regard, other countries are far behind Venezuela. For example, in the UK, only 28.4% of the territories are protected, while the global average is 14.8%.
29.Venezuela belongs to a small list of countries with a huge number of endemic animals.
30. About 23% of reptiles and 50% of amphibian species living in the territory of this country are endemic to it.
31. On the territory of this country is the highest waterfall on the planet. It's called Angel. Its height is 979 meters (and according to some sources 1054 meters). The height of continuous free fall is 807 meters.
32. This waterfall is located in the tropical forests of the Venezuelan state of Bolivar, in the Canaim National Park. Canaim Park was included in the list of UNESCO national heritage sites in 1994.
33. The Venezuelan health care system includes a large number of public and private hospitals and clinics. However, despite the fact that medical care in this state is better than in other South American countries, it is far from ideal.
34. There are still long queues of patients in public hospitals, there is a shortage of qualified personnel, who, by the way, have rather low wages.
35. This state has rather low defense spending, approximately 1.5% of the country's GDP. The Venezuelan army has about 80,000 soldiers who serve in the navy, ground forces and aviation.
36. Local Lake Maracaibo is the largest in South America.
37. In every city here you can see the square of Simon Bolivar - the man thanks to whom Venezuela gained independence.
38. The Venezuelan currency, the sovereign bolivar, was named after Bolivar.
39.Also, the airport in Venezuela is named after Simon Bolivar.
40. Statues of Simon Bolivar are found in almost all cities of the country.
41.The State provides every citizen of the country with free primary education. As for higher education, only 20-30% of the population study at universities. Higher education takes four to five years, after which you can get the degree of licenciado (Licentiate).
42. Venezuelans are famous for their sociable and cheerful nature. This is noticeable in their behavior. When meeting even strangers, Venezuelans will kiss him twice, on the right and left cheeks. Women greet both men and women in this way, while men only kiss women. A firm handshake is accepted between men, the same as we have in Russia.
43. Printed newspapers are still very popular among the citizens of Venezuela.
44. The Internet sector in Venezuela is underdeveloped. Only large companies have their own websites. Home internet here is expensive and very slow.
45. Asteroid 9357 is named after Venezuela.
46. The most popular sport in Venezuela is baseball, not football, as in all other Latin American countries.
47. At night, the movement on the streets of the cities of this country becomes extremely dangerous due to the high level of crime. In all of Venezuela, it is unlikely that you will be able to find at least one person who has never been robbed.
48. In provincial towns and villages, local residents usually deal with criminals on their own, rarely resorting to the help of the police.
49. Venezuelan girls have won more beauty pageants than girls from any other country.
50. The nature of Venezuela is amazingly beautiful, but the lack of a normal service in the European sense and the dangers that await tourists scare away most fans of eco-tourism.