Information on countries with high nuclear potential is based on data from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute and Business Insider. The nine countries that officially have weapons of mass destruction form the so-called "Nuclear Club".
The United States was the first nation to develop a nuclear bomb. The number of nuclear warheads owned by the United States increased considerably during the Cold War with the Soviet Union. At the same time, however, the Soviet Union was growing its nuclear arsenal. Russia now has 6,850 more nuclear weapons than any other country in the world.
Here are top 9 countries with nuclear arsenal in 2022:
Number of nuclear warheads: 6800
First test: 1945
Use in combat: 1945 (Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan)
Last test: 1992
The country with the strongest army in the world is also the first power to trigger a nuclear explosion and the first to use nuclear weapons in a fighting situation.
Since then, the United States has produced 66.5 thousand atomic weapons units with over 100 different modifications.
Thus, the main range of American nuclear weapons consists of ballistic missiles on submarines. However, the United States and Russia have refused to participate in negotiations on the complete surrender of nuclear weapons, which began in the spring of 2017.
At the same time, the American military doctrine states that America has enough weapons to guarantee both its own security and the security of its allies. In addition, the United States has promised not to attack non-nuclear states if they abide by the terms of the "Non-Proliferation Treaty".
Number of nuclear warheads: 7000
First test: 1949
Last test: 1990
Russia is the world's No. 1 nuclear power in 2022. Some of the weapons were inherited by Russia after the end of the USSR. Existing nuclear warheads were removed from the military bases of the former Soviet republics. According to the Russian military, they can decide whether to use nuclear weapons in response to similar actions. Or in the case of the attack with ordinary weapons, as a result of which the very existence of Russia will be threatened.
On Sunday, President Vladimir Putin ordered the "maximum alert" of Russia's nuclear deterrent forces, which has the largest nuclear arsenal in the world.
In December 2021, Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu announced that modern weapons and equipment now make up 89.1% of Russia's nuclear arsenal.
Number of nuclear warheads: 300
First test: 1960
Last test: 1995
To date, France has conducted more than 200 nuclear weapons tests, starting with an explosion in the then French colony of Algeria and ending with two atolls in French Polynesia. At the same time, France has repeatedly refused to participate in other countries' nuclear peace initiatives. It did not join the moratorium on nuclear testing in the late 1950s, did not sign the Treaty on the Prohibition of Military Nuclear Tests in the 1960s, and did not join the "Non-Proliferation Treaty" until the early 1990s.
Number of nuclear warheads: 270
First test: 1964
Last test: 1996
China is the only country that has decided not to drop nuclear bombs or threaten to launch non-nuclear states. And in early 2011, China announced that it would keep its weapons to a minimum. However, since then, China's defense engineers have invented four new types of ballistic missiles that are capable of carrying nuclear warheads. So the question of the exact quantitative expression of this "minimum level" remains open.
Number of nuclear warheads: 215
First test: 1952
Last test: 1991
The United Kingdom is the only country that has not performed tests on its territory. The British preferred to do all the nuclear explosions in Australia and the Pacific Ocean, but in 1991 it was decided to stop them. But in 2015, David Cameron sparked, acknowledging that England was ready to drop a few bombs if needed. But about whom exactly he did not say.
Number of nuclear warheads: 130-140
First test: 1998
Last test: 1998
After the 1974 explosion in India, it was only a matter of time before Islamabad developed its own weapons. The Pakistani prime minister then said: "If India creates its own nuclear weapons, we will make it our own, even if we have to eat grass."
Following India's 1998 test, Pakistan promptly carried out its own detonation, detonating several nuclear bombs at the Chagai test site.
Number of nuclear warheads: 120-130
First test: 1974
Last test: 1998
India did not officially recognize itself as a nuclear power until the end of the last century. However, after the detonation of three nuclear devices in May 1998, two days later, India announced that it was giving up testing.
Number of nuclear warheads: 80
First test: 1979
Last test: 1979
Israel has never stated that it has nuclear weapons, but has not claimed otherwise. In fact, Israel has refused to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. At the same time, Israel is vigilantly monitoring the peaceful and not-so-peaceful atom of its neighbors and, if necessary, does not hesitate to bomb nuclear power plants in other countries - as was the case with Iraq in 1981.
According to rumors, Israel has had every chance of creating a nuclear bomb since 1979, when a suspicious light resembling a nuclear explosion was recorded in the South Atlantic. It is assumed that either Israel or South Africa or both states together are responsible for this test.
Number of nuclear warheads: 10-60
First test: 2006
Last test: 2018
North Korea is also on the list of countries with nuclear weapons in 2022. Atomic activity in North Korea began in the middle of the last century, when Kim Il Sung, frightened by US plans to bomb Pyongyang, sought help from the USSR and China. The development of nuclear weapons began in the 1970s, froze as the political situation improved in the 1990s, and naturally continued to worsen. Already since 2004 the "great prosperous state" has been nuclear.
Tension also creates the fact that the exact number of North Korean nuclear warheads is not yet known. According to some data, the number of nuclear bombs would exceed 20, according to others, reaching 60 units.
It is now known which countries have nuclear weapons. Iran is not among them, but it has not reduced its work on the nuclear program, and there are rumors that it has its own nuclear weapons.
On the other hand, the Iranian authorities claim that they can build it for themselves, but for ideological reasons it is limited to the peaceful use of uranium. Iran's use of the atom is currently under IAEA control as a result of the 2015 agreement, but the status quo may soon change. As of January 6, 2020, Iran has dropped the latest restrictions on the nuclear deal to create nuclear weapons for a possible strike on the United States.
2022 statement preventing the use of countries' nuclear arsenal
On January 3, 2022, the leaders of Russia, China, the United Kingdom, France, and the United States issued a joint statement on preventing the use of nuclear weapons in war. "We declare that there can be no winners in a nuclear war and that it must never be triggered. Since the use of nuclear weapons would have far-reaching consequences, we also state that nuclear weapons - as long as they continue to exist - would "We believe that the continued proliferation of these weapons should be prevented," according to a statement posted on the Kremlin's website.
The Cold War ended over two decades ago, and many people have never lived in fear of nuclear annihilation. However, a nuclear attack is a genuine threat. Global politics is far from stable and human nature has not changed in recent years nor the last two decades. "The most constant sound in the history of mankind is the sound of the drums of war." As long as nuclear weapons exist, there is always the danger of their use.
Is it possible to survive after a nuclear war? There are only predictions: some say yes, others say no. Remember that modern thermonuclear weapons are plentiful and several thousand times more powerful than the bombs dropped on Japan. We don't fully understand what will happen when thousands of these munitions explode simultaneously. For some, especially those living in densely populated areas, trying to survive may seem ultimately futile. However, if a person stays, it will be someone who is morally and logistically prepared for such an event and lives in a very remote area of no strategic importance.
Make a plan.
If a nuclear attack occurs, you will not be able to go outside, as it will be dangerous. You should stay protected for at least 48 hours, but preferably longer. With food and medicine on hand, you can temporarily not worry about them and focus on other survival aspects.
Stock up on foods that are not perishable.
Such products can be stored for several years, so they should be available to help you survive after an attack. Choose foods high in carbs, so you get more calories for less money. Store them in a cool, dry place:
- White rice
- Powdered milk
- Dried fruits and vegetables
Build up your stock gradually. Every time you go to the grocery store, buy one or two items for your dry rations. In the end, you will stock up for several months.
Make sure you have a can opener with you.
You must have a supply of water.
Water can be stored in food-grade plastic containers. Clean them with a bleach solution and fill them with filtered and distilled water.
Your goal is to have 4 liters per person per day.
Keep ordinary chlorine bleach and potassium iodide (Lugol's solution) on hand to purify water in an attack.
You must have means of communication.
Staying up to date and being able to alert others to your location can be vital. Here's what you might need:
Radio. Try to find an option that works with a crank or solar power. If you have a radio with batteries, don't forget spares. Connect to a radio station that broadcasts 24-hour weather forecasts and emergency information.
Whistle. You can use it to call for help.
Mobile phone. Whether mobile communication will work is unknown, but you should be prepared if it does. If possible, find a solar charger for your phone model.
Read more: As president Putin of Russia is putting the Nuclear arsenal on high alert, people are asking google this 20 questions
Stock up on medicines.
Having the necessary medicines and providing first aid is life and death if you are injured in an attack. You will need:
Basic first aid kit. You can buy it ready-made or make your own. You will need sterile gauze and bandages, antibiotic ointment, latex gloves, scissors, tweezers, a thermometer, and a blanket.
First Aid Booklet. Buy a booklet from the Red Cross or another medical organization, or compile your material by printing it off the Internet. You should be able to dress wounds, perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and treat shock and burns.
Medications you take regularly. If you take a particular drug every day, try to build up a small supply.
Prepare other items.
Add the following to your survival kit:
- Flashlight and batteries
- plastic film and adhesive tape
- Garbage bags, plastic ties, and wet wipes for personal hygiene
- Wrench and pliers to turn off gas and water.
Follow the news.
A nuclear attack is unlikely to happen out of the blue. It will undoubtedly be preceded by a sharp deterioration in the political situation. Suppose a conventional war breaks out between countries with nuclear weapons and does not end quickly. In that case, it could escalate into a nuclear war. Even individual nuclear strikes in one region can escalate into an all-out nuclear conflict. Many countries have a rating system to indicate the imminence of an attack. In the USA and Canada, for example, it is called DEFCON.
Assess the risk and consider evacuation if a nuclear exchange looks realistic.
If evacuation is not an option, you should at least build a shelter for yourself. Assess your proximity to the following destinations
Airfields and naval bases, especially those hosting nuclear bombers, submarine-launched ballistic missiles, or bunkers. These places will be attacked even with a limited exchange of nuclear strikes.
Commercial ports and airstrips over 3 km long. These places are likely to be attacked even in a limited nuclear exchange and are likely to be shot in an all-out nuclear war.
Government buildings. These places are likely to be attacked even in a limited nuclear exchange and are likely to be shot in an all-out nuclear war.
Large industrial cities and most populated regions. These places are likely to be attacked in an all-out nuclear war.
Learn about the different types of nuclear weapons:
Atomic bombs are the main types of nuclear weapons and are included in other firearms classes. The power of an atomic bomb is due to the fission of heavy nuclei (plutonium and uranium) when they are irradiated with neutrons. When each atom splits, many energy and even more neutrons are released. This results in a swift nuclear chain reaction. Atomic bombs are the only type of nuclear bomb still used in warfare. If terrorists can capture and use a nuclear weapon, it will likely be an atomic bomb.
Hydrogen bombs use the ultra-high temperature of an atomic charge as a "spark plug." Under the influence of temperature and intense pressure, deuterium and tritium are formed. Their nuclei interact, and as a result, a massive release of energy occurs - a thermonuclear explosion. Hydrogen bombs are also known as thermonuclear weapons because deuterium and tritium nuclei require high temperatures to interact. Such weapons are usually hundreds of times more powerful than the bombs that destroyed Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Most of the US and Russian strategic arsenal is just such bombs.
Survival in the face of an imminent attack
Seek shelter immediately.
Aside from geopolitical warning signs, the first warning of an imminent nuclear attack is likely to be an alarm. If not, it will be the explosion itself. The bright light from the detonation of a nuclear weapon can be seen tens of kilometers from the epicenter. Suppose you find yourself close to the explosion (at the center). In that case, chances of surviving are practically zero unless you hide in a shelter that provides very (VERY!) good protection from the explosion. If you are several kilometers away, you will have about 10-15 seconds until the heat kills you and maybe 20-30 seconds until the shock wave hits. Under no circumstances should you look directly at the fireball. This can cause temporary blindness over very long distances on a clear day. However, the actual damage radius varies greatly depending on the size of the bomb, the height of the explosion, and even the weather conditions at the time of the blast.
If you can't find cover in a disaster area, find a low ravine or hole and lie face down, covering as many exposed areas of your body as possible. If there is no such cover, dig as quickly as possible. Even at a distance of 8 km, you will get third-degree thermal burns, and even at 32 km from the place of impact, the heat can burn the skin. The wave will reach 960 km / h and will not leave anything and no one alive in open space.
If this fails, hide in the building, but only if you are sure it will not suffer much from the explosion and thermal radiation. This will at least provide some protection from radiation. Whether this will help to survive depends on the design of the building and the proximity to the epicenter of the explosion. Stay away from any windows; it is preferable to find a room without them. Even if the building is not significantly damaged, a nuclear blast will blow out windows at a great distance.
If you live in Switzerland or Finland, check if your home has an atomic shelter. If not, determine where the nuclear cover is in your village/town/district and how to get there. Remember: anywhere in Switzerland, you can find an atomic shelter. When sirens sound in Switzerland, those who cannot hear them (e.g., the deaf) must be informed and then listen to the national radio company (RSR, DRS, and RTSI).
There should be nothing flammable or combustible near you. Nylon or any petroleum-based material will catch fire in the heat.
Remember that radiation exposure causes a large number of deaths.
Initial (fast) radiation. The radiation released at the moment of the explosion will be short-lived and most active at short distances. It is believed that this will kill the few who do not die in a blast of heat at the same length.
Residual radiation (radiation contamination). If the explosion was on the surface or the fireball hit the ground, a lot of dust and dirt would enter the atmosphere and then settle down, carrying dangerous radiation. The consequences could come in a deadly "black rain" that can reach extreme temperatures. Everything around will be infected.
Suppose you survived the explosion and the initial radiation (at least for now - the symptoms have an incubation period). In that case, you must find protection from the "black rain."
Understand the types of radioactive particles.
Before we continue, three different types of particles (and therefore radiation) should be mentioned:
Alpha particles. They are the weakest, and their threat practically does not emanate during the strike. Alpha particles do not live long in the air and, having traveled only a few centimeters, are absorbed by the atmosphere. Although the danger from external exposure to them is minimal, these particles will be fatal if swallowed or inhaled. Regular clothing will help you protect yourself from them.
They are faster than alpha particles and can penetrate further. Before being absorbed by the atmosphere, they have time to travel up to 10 meters. Exposure to beta particles is not fatal unless exposed for long periods. In this case, beta burns can occur, similar to painful sunburns. However, the danger to the eyes during prolonged exposure is excellent. In addition, they are dangerous if swallowed or inhaled. Regular clothing helps prevent beta burns.
Gamma rays. Gamma rays are the most dangerous. They can spread almost one and a half kilometers in the air and penetrate nearly any material. Therefore, gamma radiation causes severe damage to internal organs, even when affecting the body from the outside. Adequate protection is required.
The shelter protection index indicates how less radiation a person will receive inside the shelter than open space. For example, a score of 300 means that you will receive 300 times less radioactive radiation in a cover than in the open air.
Avoid exposure to gamma radiation. Try not to be exposed to radiation for more than 5 minutes. If you're in the countryside, try to find a cave or a fallen tree that's rotten inside that you can crawl into. Otherwise, just dig a trench lying down, leaving the excavated earth around as a fence.
Start fortifying your shelter with earth or whatever you can find.
If you're hiding in a trench, think of some sort of roof, but only if the materials are nearby: don't come out of hiding unnecessarily. Parachute silk or a tent will help protect you from radioactive fallout and debris but will not stop gamma rays. Completely protected from any radiation is impossible purely physically. You can only reduce its impact to an acceptable level. Use the following information to determine the amount of material that will allow you to minimize radiation penetration to 1/1000:
- Steel: 21 cm
- Stones: 70-100 cm
- Concrete: 66 cm
- Tree: 2.6 m
- Ground: 1 m
- Ice: 2 m
- Snow: 6 m
Plan to spend at least 200 hours (8-9 days) in your hideout.
Under no circumstances should you leave the shelter during the first forty-eight hours!
The reason is that you need to avoid the decay products produced by a nuclear explosion. The deadliest of these is radioactive iodine. Fortunately, radioactive iodine has a relatively short half-life of eight days (the time it takes for half of its natural decay into safer isotopes). Keep in mind that even after 8-9 days, there will still be a lot of radioactive iodine around, so you need to limit your exposure. It can take up to 90 days for radioactive iodine to break down to 0.1% of its original volume.
Other significant decay products are cesium and strontium. They have a long half-life: 30 and 28 years, respectively. These elements are very well absorbed by wildlife and can make food dangerous for decades. In addition, they are carried by the wind for thousands of kilometers, so if you think that you are not in danger in a remote area, you are wrong.
Handle food and water wisely.
You'll need to eat to survive, exposing yourself to radiation (unless the shelter doesn't have ample food and water supplies).
Processed foods can be eaten as long as the packaging is puncture-free and relatively intact.
Animals may be eaten, but the skin must be carefully skinned and the heart, liver, and kidneys discarded. Try not to eat meat close to the bone, as the bone marrow stores radiation.
- Eat the pigeons
- Eat wild rabbits
Plants in the affected area are edible; those that have edible root vegetables or tubers (such as carrots and potatoes) are best eaten. Check if the plant is edible.
Radioactive particles can get into open water, so it is not suitable for drinking. It is safer to take water from undergrounds, such as a spring or a well-sealed well. Think of building a solar distiller like you would when extracting drinking water in the desert. Only use water from streams and lakes as a last resort. Make a filter: Dig a hole about 30 cm from the water's edge and draw water from it as it fills up. Water can be cloudy or dirty, so it needs to be boiled to get rid of the bacteria. If you are in a building, then the water is generally safe. If the water supply is turned off (most likely), use the water left in the pipes. To do this, open the faucet at the house's highest point to let in air, and then drain the water at the lowest point of the house.
- Check out How to Get Drinkable Water from Your Water Heater in an Emergency.
- You must know how to purify water.
Dress to cover your skin as much as possible (wear a hat, gloves, goggles, a long-sleeved shirt, etc.).
This is especially important when you go outside as it helps prevent beta burns. To disinfect, constantly shake clothing and rinse exposed skin with water. Otherwise, the accumulated particles will cause burns over time.
Treat radiation and thermal burns.
Minor burns are also known as beta burns (although other particles can also cause them). Soak the burned area in cold water until the pain subsides (usually 5 minutes).
If the skin begins to blister, char, or tear, rinse with cold water to remove debris, then cover with a sterile compress to prevent infection. Don't pop bubbles!
If the skin doesn't blister, char, or tear, don't cover it, even if the burn covers most of the body (much like a sunburn). Instead, wash the burnt area and cover it with petroleum jelly or a solution of baking soda and water, if available. Moist (uncontaminated) soil will also work.
Severe burns, known as thermal burns, are caused more often by intense heat radiation than by ionizing particles (although they are also). They can be life-threatening and come with many risk factors: dehydration, shock, lung damage, infections, etc. Follow these steps to treat a severe burn.
Protect burns from further contamination.
If clothing covers the area of the burn, gently cut and remove the fabric from the burn. DO NOT attempt to remove tissue stuck or adhered to the burn. DO NOT attempt to pull clothing over the burn. DO NOT apply ointment to the burn! It is best, if possible, to seek qualified medical help.
Gently rinse the burnt area with water ONLY. DO NOT apply creams or ointments.
DO NOT use an everyday sterile medical dressing not explicitly designed for burns. Since non-adhesive burn dressings (and all other medical supplies) are likely to be in short supply, food-grade plastic wrap, which is sterile, will not stick to the burn, and is readily available, can be an alternative.
Shock must be prevented. Shock means insufficient blood flow to vital tissues and organs. If left unattended, it can be fatal. Shock can result from severe blood loss, deep burns, or even a reaction to the appearance of a wound or blood. Signs of shock are restlessness, thirst, pale skin, and a fast heartbeat. Sweating may occur even if the skin feels cool and clammy. When the condition worsens, breathing becomes frequent and intermittent, and an absent look appears. To help maintain a regular heartbeat and breathing by massaging the chest and helping the person regain calm breathing. Loosen any tight clothing and reassure the person. Be gentle but firm and confident.
Don't be afraid to help people with radiation sickness.
It is not contagious, and it all depends on the amount of radiation the person has received. The next step is an abbreviated version of the table.
Familiarize yourself with radiation units.
Gray (Gy) is an SI unit that measures the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation. 1 Gy = 100 rad. Sievert (Sv) is an SI unit that measures the effective and equivalent dose of ionizing radiation. 1 Sv = 100 rem (X-ray biological equivalent). For simplicity, it is generally assumed that 1 Gy is equivalent to 1 Sv.
Less than 0.05 Gy: no visible symptoms.
0.05-0.5 Gy: temporarily decreases the number of red blood cells.
0.5-1 Gy: reduced production of immune cells; susceptibility to infections; nausea, headache, and vomiting are common. After such exposure, you can survive without treatment.
1.5-3 Gy: 35% of those affected die within 30 days. Nausea, vomiting, and loss of hair all over the body.
3-4 Gy: severe radiation poisoning, 50% of those affected die within 30 days. Other symptoms are similar to that of a radiation dose of 2-3 Sv; after the latent phase, uncontrolled bleeding in the mouth, under the skin, and in the kidneys is observed (at a dose of 4 Sv, the probability is 50%).
4-6 Gy: acute radiation poisoning, 60% of those affected die within 30 days. Mortality increases from 60% at 4.5 Sv to 90% at 6 Sv (unless intensive medical measures are taken). Symptoms appear within half an hour to 2 hours after exposure and last up to 2 days. This is followed by 7 to 14 days of a latent phase, after which the same symptoms appear as at a dose of 3-4 Sv, but more intensely. At this dose of radiation, female infertility often occurs. Recovery takes from several months to a year.
The leading causes of death (within 2-12 weeks after exposure) are infections and internal bleeding.
6-10 Gy: In Acute radiation poisoning, mortality is almost 100% within 14 days. Survival depends on medical care. The bone marrow is virtually destroyed, so a transplant is required. The tissues of the stomach and intestines are severely damaged. Symptoms appear 15-30 minutes after exposure and last up to 2 days. This is followed by a 5 to 10-day latent phase, after which the person dies from infection or internal bleeding. Recovery will take several years and will probably never be complete. Devar Alves Ferreira received a dose of approximately 7.0 Sv during an accident in Goiania and survived due to the fractional nature of the exposure.
12-20 rem: mortality is 100%, and symptoms appear immediately. The gastrointestinal tract is destroyed. There is uncontrolled bleeding from the mouth, under the skin, and from the kidneys—fatigue and feeling unwell in general. The symptoms are similar but more pronounced. Recovery is impossible.
More than 20 rem. The same symptoms appear instantly and intensely, then stop for a few days. The gastrointestinal tract cells are rapidly destroyed with water loss and profuse bleeding. Before death, a person is delighted and falls into madness. When the brain cannot control bodily functions such as breathing or circulation, the person dies. There is no cure; medical assistance is only aimed at alleviating suffering.
Unfortunately, you have to admit that the person may soon die. Although it is hard, do not waste food and medicine on those dying from radiation sickness. Save everything you need for your health and ability to survive. Radiation sickness often affects children, the elderly, and the sick.
Try to save electrical equipment.
A nuclear explosion at a very high altitude will trigger a powerful electromagnetic pulse so strong that it can destroy electronic and electrical devices. The least you should do is unplug all appliances from electrical outlets and antennas. Place the radio and flashlights in the SEALED metal container ("Faraday Shield"). This can protect against electromagnetic pulse, provided that the devices inside do NOT come into contact with the case. The metal shield must surround the objects and must be grounded.
The devices you want to protect must be isolated from the conductive case. The electromagnetic field can induce a voltage in the boards. If you are far from the explosion, a metal rescue (thermal, space) blanket that wraps all devices, pre-wrapped in newspapers or cotton wool, can act as a Faraday shield.
Another way is to wrap the cardboard box in copper or aluminum foil. Place the appliances inside and ground the device.
Be prepared for subsequent attacks.
Most likely, a nuclear strike will not be a single one. Be ready for new strikes or the invasion of the enemy army.
Keep the shelter intact unless the materials used are necessary for survival. Gather as much clean water and food as possible.
However, if the attacking side attacks again, then most likely, this strike will fall on another part of the country. If all else fails, live in a cave.
Be sure to wash everything, especially food, even inside your shelter.
- Do not tell anyone precisely what and how much you have with you.
- Watch out for the military! Indeed the military will appear soon, people in biological protection suits, etc. Learn to distinguish tanks, planes, and other equipment of your country's armed forces from the enemy.
- Stay tuned for government information and announcements.
- Only leave the hideout if you have a hazmat suit and should be on the lookout for a new threat.
- Build a nuclear shelter in advance. A home nuclear shelter can be set up in a basement or cellar. However, new homes often do not have basements; if so, consider building a public retreat or a private one in your garden.
In 1945, nuclear weapons were created in the USA. The scientists who worked on it believed that they were creating a means of protection against Nazi Germany. However, the American imperialists saw in him, first of all, a means of intimidation and the conquest of world domination.
The United States not only immediately used the newly created atomic bombs to bombard Japanese cities, but also began to increase its reserves, counting with its help to defeat the USSR. Russia began to accumulate nuclear weapons in response.
Incidents when the nuclear war almost started
As a result, the world soon found itself in a dangerous situation in which the conflict between the Soviet Union and the United States could have turned into a nuclear war that would have killed millions of people in a matter of hours, and even countries that did not directly participate in the war would have suffered a global cooling and radioactive fallout.
There is an opinion that it was the presence of nuclear weapons that prevented the third world war. Indeed, it is foolish to start such a war, knowing that the enemy can inflict colossal, completely unacceptable damage on your country. But how real is the danger of nuclear war really, can we be sure that common sense will prevent politicians and the military from starting it? Alas, as history shows, the world has already been on the brink of nuclear war more than once, and we are very lucky that it has not yet happened.
Back in 1945, American militarists began to make plans for an attack on the USSR. They understood that they had no chance of defeating the Soviet army in a conventional war, so the main stake was placed on the use of nuclear weapons. The Americans, one by one, adopted plans for a war against the USSR, in each of which the number of atomic bombs that they were going to use was increasing. The first plan, developed at the end of 1945, envisaged 20 targets for atomic bombing on the territory of the USSR, but by the 50th their number had grown to several hundred.
Although in 1949 the USSR also created nuclear weapons, for a long time the United States significantly surpassed the country in the number of atomic bombs, as well as in their delivery capabilities. This gave rise to the confidence among the Americans that the USSR would in no way be able to harm them in return. Having accumulated a sufficient number of atomic bombs, the Americans developed the Dropshot plan, in which a specific date for the attack on the USSR was scheduled - January 1, 1957.
As part of this plan, it was supposed to use over 300 atomic bombs, as well as 250 thousand tons of conventional bombs. The bombings were supposed to destroy 85% of the industrial potential of the USSR and kill 45 million people. However, the Soviet leadership found out about the plan and took emergency measures to disrupt it. In the 1956 September, there was a system of systems to have a bomber in the worship, who was inhabited by the time of the time. Frightened by a retaliatory strike, the American leadership did not dare to put the Dropshot plan into action.
In 1962, relations between the USSR and the USA were still very tense. The Americans continued to surround the USSR with their bases with nuclear weapons, in particular, they deployed nuclear missiles in Turkey, not far from the borders of the USSR. In response, the USSR decided to deploy nuclear missiles in Cuba. But when the Americans found out about this, they raised an incredible hysteria. Part of the US military believed that the United States should immediately attack Cuba. Congress made the same recommendation to President Kennedy. The United States began preparations for the invasion of the island, and the American Navy announced a naval blockade of Cuba.
In response, the USSR stated that the blockade was illegal, and Soviet ships would not comply with it. The Soviet troops stationed in Cuba had not only medium-range missiles, but also tactical nuclear weapons, which would definitely be used in the event of a US invasion. The scenario of the beginning of the third world war became quite real, on both sides there were enough supporters of "decisive" actions.
On October 27, Soviet air defenses shot down an American aircraft over Cuba. Only at the very last moment Khrushchev and Kennedy were able to agree and prevent the war. The USSR removed the missiles from Cuba, and the USA from Turkey, while promising not to attack Cuba.
The risk management of the nuclear war is not a risk, and several incidents occurred during the Caribbean crisis on October 27-28, each of which led to a nuclear war.
Incident report B-59
At the time of the Caribbean crisis, several Soviet submarines were directed to Cuba. The American fleet, the full command of the sea blockade, the war against the country and the provocation. Just on October 27, the Kyby pod B-59 was shot down by American snipers and then dropped by a deep-seated bomb. However, the B-59 was equipped with nuclear torpedoes, and the American commander ordered them to be used. Nuclear power was only used in the first place, except for the captain of the pod, the senior commander of the group of the pod Arkhipov.
The incident U-2
And this day there was another incident. The American spy plane U-2 was supposed to intercept the test in the air near Novaya Zemlya and return to the territory of the United States. However, the pilot got lost and the plane crashed in the airspace of the USSR near Chykotkoy. It was not enough to direct two Soviet destroyers, and the Americans directed two U-2s of their own. Moreover, in connection with the crisis, the American anti-missile missile is not equipped with nuclear weapons. Only a few were destroyed, they crashed, and the U-2 pilot was able to turn around and return to the ground.
The incident in Okinawa
On October 28, a major war took place on the American base in Okinawa, and almost everything was destroyed. There have been calculations with nuclear missiles, and today the base has a multi-command command of nuclear missiles that are deployed in the USSR and China. The commander was Captain William Bassett, and the war ended only thanks to his good health. For this reason, Basset is not ready, because it is a pre-order, it is a pre-order, and it has to be prepared in the higher level.
In fact, the commanding officer expressed the view that this order could not be given directly or indirectly because of the opponents posted. I'm sorry, Bassett's request for a confirmation order is very expensive. Some of them have already fired or coded a nuclear missile. However, he ordered the captain to carry out the order, and he had to direct the automaton from the commander's calculation, to collect the nuclear missile.
The basset command just shoots it if it tries to do it. After this, the captain directly called the central administration and requested to transfer the order to bring it to a higher level of leadership, or to correct the order. In some time base, the encrypted code is sent to the command line. The United States claimed that the missile was ordered to be fired earlier this year, and information about the incident was withheld from the public until 2015.
The next incident occurred in 1967. On May 23, the U.S. base in Greenland was intercepted by the robotic radar system. The American military decided that the USSR had specially sent nuclear weapons to the United States. This was announced, strategic bombers were preparing to take off. However, someone is going to ask for a summary of solar activity. It turns out that at this time, the Sun produces a flash, cuts and destroys the radar.
At 3:00 a.m. on November 9, 1979, Zbigniew Brzezinski, who was the adviser to the president of the United States on national security, received a phone call. The representative of NORAD reported that the USSR fired 2,200 nuclear missiles at America. It was announced, how to prepare for the dry MBR, airborne missiles and a special plane for the president. No steel test satellites and systems for early warning, anti-missile, anti-missile, and police. The causes of anxiety can be eliminated and fixed.
It turned out that one of the computers connected to the NORAD network was successfully installed with a program that simulated a mass rocket launch. The incident was widely reported in the press, and Brezhnev even wrote a letter to the President of the United States, Carter, about it. Also, for the following two systems, NORAD removed several false predation or missile attacks on the side of the USSR.
Glare on the clouds
In 1983 the newest missile system of the USSR "Oko", designed for the fixation of missile missiles on the territory of the United States. At that time, the president of the USA, Reagan, who called the so-called USSR imperial evil, shut down the program "Star Wars" and broadcast it live, so that there was no direct order to bomb the USSR. Relations between the USSR and the USA were very tense. In these languages, September 26, 1983. and the Soviet command post system pre-emptive or anti-missile defense system siren.
The system consists of several MBRs with the territory of the United States. Colonel Petrov, who is in the command post, has to decide whether to pass on the information to the authorities or not. Thinking about it, he came to conclusion, that the United States has a de facto nuclear solution, it is massive, a dry rocket, it was a mistake. The exact result was that the MBR system received light from the Sun and the clouds. A in 2006 Petrov received a special award for the preparation of the nuclear war.
It is difficult to disagree with him, because since the terrible bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, nuclear weapons have become hundreds of times more powerful. Bemorepanda publishes a list of small but telling facts about the most dangerous weapons on Earth.
People are often said to be the most dangerous animal on the planet. We humans have built the deadliest weapon that can destroy all life on the planet, including ourselves. Nuclear weapons are rightfully considered the most dangerous weapons on Earth. In this article, we have compiled the 25 most important facts about nuclear weapons. It should be noted that many of these facts inspire real horror.
Nuclear weapons facts
The danger of nuclear weapons also lies in the fact that it is believed that no country will be able to ignore them, due to the destructive effect of their use. Thus, even accidental or unauthorized use of nuclear weapons will inevitably entail a response from other nuclear powers, which will lead to the death of all life on Earth.
1. Radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Today, Hiroshima and Nagasaki have normal levels of radiation because the bombs dropped on these cities exploded above the ground.
2. Lucky Yamaguchi
Tsutomu Yamaguchi is a Japanese survivor of both Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings.
3. Marathon runner Tanaka
Shigeki Tanaka, another survivor of the Hiroshima bombing, won the Boston Marathon in 1951.
4. Fat Man and Kid
The two bombs that were dropped on Japan were called "Fat Man" and "Baby".
The bomb that destroyed Nagasaki was supposed to be dropped on the Japanese city of Kokura, but clouds and fog completely obscured the Kokura munitions factory, which was the original target. Therefore, the bomber headed for the alternate target - Nagasaki.
6. Bonsai 1626
A bonsai tree that was planted in 1626 survived the Hiroshima explosion. It is currently kept in the American Museum.
7. Tsunami after the bombing
A month after the bombing, Hiroshima was hit by a tsunami that killed another 2,000 people.
8. Conversion nuclear bombs
10% of electricity in the US is generated from converted nuclear bombs.
9. Explosion in space
In 1962, the United States detonated a bomb that was 100 times more powerful than the bombs dropped on Japan. It was blown up in space, almost 400 km above the Pacific Ocean.
10. $2 billion for the war
Until 1988, the US government stored $2 billion at the Mount Pony facility in case of a nuclear war.
11. Attraction in Las Vegas
In the 1950s, ground-based nuclear testing was the main attraction in Las Vegas.
12. Explosion on the moon
The United States, during the Cold War, developed a project to detonate an atomic bomb on the moon to show off its military might.
13. Regular paperclip
The amount of active substance that caused the explosion in Hiroshima was no more than an ordinary paper clip.
14. Number of atomic bombs
Russia today has 8,400 nuclear warheads, the United States - 7,650. All other countries have dozens of times fewer nuclear bombs. There are 300 in France, 225 in the UK and 240 in China.
15. Lost Hell
As a result of the accidents, 11 American nuclear bombs were lost. They were never found.
16. Panama Canal 2
Dr. Edward Teller, the father of the hydrogen bomb, developed this terrible weapon for peaceful purposes. In particular, he suggested that a series of carefully calibrated explosions could create a channel similar to the Panama one.
17. Lost 1958
Somewhere off the coast of Georgia, USA, there is an atomic bomb that was lost by the US Air Force in 1958.
18. Computed tomography
During the CT scan, the patient's body is exposed to the same amount of radiation as if he were standing 2.5 km from the explosion in Hiroshima.
19. Atomic Bomb Museum
In New Mexico, there is an atomic bomb museum at the site of the world's first nuclear test. Trinity Site operates only 12 hours a year.
So, more than 2000 nuclear explosions. Studies conducted in the United States as early as 1961 showed that the level of strontium 90 increased in the body of children born after 1945. The level of cancer also increased.
In addition, artificial isotopes that are produced in the process of a nuclear explosion, such as cesium-137 (or radiocesium), have received unusual applications. Art historians use it to detect fakes. Rather, its presence or absence in the canvas / frame / colors confirms whether the picture was painted before 1945 or later.
20. Neutron bomb
Neutron bombs are atomic bombs designed specifically not to create a big explosion. Instead, they create colossal radioactive radiation.
21. Tsar bomb
The Tsar bomb is the largest atomic bomb, the tests of which were carried out by means of detonation. The explosion was so powerful that the seismic wave after it circled the globe three times.
22. Geography of NATO
As part of the NATO arms exchange program, American nuclear warheads are stored in Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Turkey.
23. Cesium-137 and strontium-90
One way to check if nuclear tests have been carried out is to detect cesium-137 and strontium-90. These isotopes did not exist in nature until the first use of nuclear weapons in 1945.
24. Drop Over North Carolina
In 1961, two atomic bombs were accidentally dropped from a US Air Force plane over North Carolina. Luckily they didn't explode.
25. Vela Incident
Out of more than 2,000 nuclear tests, one was carried out by an unknown person. The Vela Incident was a reported 1979 Indian Ocean 3-kiloton bomb explosion of unknown origin.
September 22, 1979 there was information about a double flash of light on the Prince Edward Islands, near Antarctica. Such flashes are characteristic of nuclear weapons. The flashes were recorded by the American Vela satellite, which was launched specifically to monitor nuclear activity.
Interestingly, and at the same time scary, no country has yet claimed responsibility for this explosion. Everyone is blamed, including Israel and South Africa, except for the USA.
There is an opinion that there was no incident at all, but there was a banal failure in the satellite equipment. Let's hope so.