How to survive a nuclear attack?
The Cold War ended over two decades ago, and many people have never lived in fear of nuclear annihilation. However, a nuclear attack is a genuine threat. Global politics is far from stable and human nature has not changed in recent years nor the last two decades. "The most constant sound in the history of mankind is the sound of the drums of war." As long as nuclear weapons exist, there is always the danger of their use.
Is it possible to survive after a nuclear war? There are only predictions: some say yes, others say no. Remember that modern thermonuclear weapons are plentiful and several thousand times more powerful than the bombs dropped on Japan. We don't fully understand what will happen when thousands of these munitions explode simultaneously. For some, especially those living in densely populated areas, trying to survive may seem ultimately futile. However, if a person stays, it will be someone who is morally and logistically prepared for such an event and lives in a very remote area of no strategic importance.
Make a plan.
If a nuclear attack occurs, you will not be able to go outside, as it will be dangerous. You should stay protected for at least 48 hours, but preferably longer. With food and medicine on hand, you can temporarily not worry about them and focus on other survival aspects.
Stock up on foods that are not perishable.
Such products can be stored for several years, so they should be available to help you survive after an attack. Choose foods high in carbs, so you get more calories for less money. Store them in a cool, dry place:
- White rice
- Powdered milk
- Dried fruits and vegetables
Build up your stock gradually. Every time you go to the grocery store, buy one or two items for your dry rations. In the end, you will stock up for several months.
Make sure you have a can opener with you.
You must have a supply of water.
Water can be stored in food-grade plastic containers. Clean them with a bleach solution and fill them with filtered and distilled water.
Your goal is to have 4 liters per person per day.
Keep ordinary chlorine bleach and potassium iodide (Lugol's solution) on hand to purify water in an attack.
You must have means of communication.
Staying up to date and being able to alert others to your location can be vital. Here's what you might need:
Radio. Try to find an option that works with a crank or solar power. If you have a radio with batteries, don't forget spares. Connect to a radio station that broadcasts 24-hour weather forecasts and emergency information.
Whistle. You can use it to call for help.
Mobile phone. Whether mobile communication will work is unknown, but you should be prepared if it does. If possible, find a solar charger for your phone model.
Read more: As president Putin of Russia is putting the Nuclear arsenal on high alert, people are asking google this 20 questions
Stock up on medicines.
Having the necessary medicines and providing first aid is life and death if you are injured in an attack. You will need:
Basic first aid kit. You can buy it ready-made or make your own. You will need sterile gauze and bandages, antibiotic ointment, latex gloves, scissors, tweezers, a thermometer, and a blanket.
First Aid Booklet. Buy a booklet from the Red Cross or another medical organization, or compile your material by printing it off the Internet. You should be able to dress wounds, perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and treat shock and burns.
Medications you take regularly. If you take a particular drug every day, try to build up a small supply.
Prepare other items.
Add the following to your survival kit:
- Flashlight and batteries
- plastic film and adhesive tape
- Garbage bags, plastic ties, and wet wipes for personal hygiene
- Wrench and pliers to turn off gas and water.
Follow the news.
A nuclear attack is unlikely to happen out of the blue. It will undoubtedly be preceded by a sharp deterioration in the political situation. Suppose a conventional war breaks out between countries with nuclear weapons and does not end quickly. In that case, it could escalate into a nuclear war. Even individual nuclear strikes in one region can escalate into an all-out nuclear conflict. Many countries have a rating system to indicate the imminence of an attack. In the USA and Canada, for example, it is called DEFCON.
Assess the risk and consider evacuation if a nuclear exchange looks realistic.
If evacuation is not an option, you should at least build a shelter for yourself. Assess your proximity to the following destinations
Airfields and naval bases, especially those hosting nuclear bombers, submarine-launched ballistic missiles, or bunkers. These places will be attacked even with a limited exchange of nuclear strikes.
Commercial ports and airstrips over 3 km long. These places are likely to be attacked even in a limited nuclear exchange and are likely to be shot in an all-out nuclear war.
Government buildings. These places are likely to be attacked even in a limited nuclear exchange and are likely to be shot in an all-out nuclear war.
Large industrial cities and most populated regions. These places are likely to be attacked in an all-out nuclear war.
Learn about the different types of nuclear weapons:
Atomic bombs are the main types of nuclear weapons and are included in other firearms classes. The power of an atomic bomb is due to the fission of heavy nuclei (plutonium and uranium) when they are irradiated with neutrons. When each atom splits, many energy and even more neutrons are released. This results in a swift nuclear chain reaction. Atomic bombs are the only type of nuclear bomb still used in warfare. If terrorists can capture and use a nuclear weapon, it will likely be an atomic bomb.
Hydrogen bombs use the ultra-high temperature of an atomic charge as a "spark plug." Under the influence of temperature and intense pressure, deuterium and tritium are formed. Their nuclei interact, and as a result, a massive release of energy occurs - a thermonuclear explosion. Hydrogen bombs are also known as thermonuclear weapons because deuterium and tritium nuclei require high temperatures to interact. Such weapons are usually hundreds of times more powerful than the bombs that destroyed Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Most of the US and Russian strategic arsenal is just such bombs.
Survival in the face of an imminent attack
Seek shelter immediately.
Aside from geopolitical warning signs, the first warning of an imminent nuclear attack is likely to be an alarm. If not, it will be the explosion itself. The bright light from the detonation of a nuclear weapon can be seen tens of kilometers from the epicenter. Suppose you find yourself close to the explosion (at the center). In that case, chances of surviving are practically zero unless you hide in a shelter that provides very (VERY!) good protection from the explosion. If you are several kilometers away, you will have about 10-15 seconds until the heat kills you and maybe 20-30 seconds until the shock wave hits. Under no circumstances should you look directly at the fireball. This can cause temporary blindness over very long distances on a clear day. However, the actual damage radius varies greatly depending on the size of the bomb, the height of the explosion, and even the weather conditions at the time of the blast.
If you can't find cover in a disaster area, find a low ravine or hole and lie face down, covering as many exposed areas of your body as possible. If there is no such cover, dig as quickly as possible. Even at a distance of 8 km, you will get third-degree thermal burns, and even at 32 km from the place of impact, the heat can burn the skin. The wave will reach 960 km / h and will not leave anything and no one alive in open space.
If this fails, hide in the building, but only if you are sure it will not suffer much from the explosion and thermal radiation. This will at least provide some protection from radiation. Whether this will help to survive depends on the design of the building and the proximity to the epicenter of the explosion. Stay away from any windows; it is preferable to find a room without them. Even if the building is not significantly damaged, a nuclear blast will blow out windows at a great distance.
If you live in Switzerland or Finland, check if your home has an atomic shelter. If not, determine where the nuclear cover is in your village/town/district and how to get there. Remember: anywhere in Switzerland, you can find an atomic shelter. When sirens sound in Switzerland, those who cannot hear them (e.g., the deaf) must be informed and then listen to the national radio company (RSR, DRS, and RTSI).
There should be nothing flammable or combustible near you. Nylon or any petroleum-based material will catch fire in the heat.
Remember that radiation exposure causes a large number of deaths.
Initial (fast) radiation. The radiation released at the moment of the explosion will be short-lived and most active at short distances. It is believed that this will kill the few who do not die in a blast of heat at the same length.
Residual radiation (radiation contamination). If the explosion was on the surface or the fireball hit the ground, a lot of dust and dirt would enter the atmosphere and then settle down, carrying dangerous radiation. The consequences could come in a deadly "black rain" that can reach extreme temperatures. Everything around will be infected.
Suppose you survived the explosion and the initial radiation (at least for now - the symptoms have an incubation period). In that case, you must find protection from the "black rain."
Understand the types of radioactive particles.
Before we continue, three different types of particles (and therefore radiation) should be mentioned:
Alpha particles. They are the weakest, and their threat practically does not emanate during the strike. Alpha particles do not live long in the air and, having traveled only a few centimeters, are absorbed by the atmosphere. Although the danger from external exposure to them is minimal, these particles will be fatal if swallowed or inhaled. Regular clothing will help you protect yourself from them.
They are faster than alpha particles and can penetrate further. Before being absorbed by the atmosphere, they have time to travel up to 10 meters. Exposure to beta particles is not fatal unless exposed for long periods. In this case, beta burns can occur, similar to painful sunburns. However, the danger to the eyes during prolonged exposure is excellent. In addition, they are dangerous if swallowed or inhaled. Regular clothing helps prevent beta burns.
Gamma rays. Gamma rays are the most dangerous. They can spread almost one and a half kilometers in the air and penetrate nearly any material. Therefore, gamma radiation causes severe damage to internal organs, even when affecting the body from the outside. Adequate protection is required.
The shelter protection index indicates how less radiation a person will receive inside the shelter than open space. For example, a score of 300 means that you will receive 300 times less radioactive radiation in a cover than in the open air.
Avoid exposure to gamma radiation. Try not to be exposed to radiation for more than 5 minutes. If you're in the countryside, try to find a cave or a fallen tree that's rotten inside that you can crawl into. Otherwise, just dig a trench lying down, leaving the excavated earth around as a fence.
Start fortifying your shelter with earth or whatever you can find.
If you're hiding in a trench, think of some sort of roof, but only if the materials are nearby: don't come out of hiding unnecessarily. Parachute silk or a tent will help protect you from radioactive fallout and debris but will not stop gamma rays. Completely protected from any radiation is impossible purely physically. You can only reduce its impact to an acceptable level. Use the following information to determine the amount of material that will allow you to minimize radiation penetration to 1/1000:
- Steel: 21 cm
- Stones: 70-100 cm
- Concrete: 66 cm
- Tree: 2.6 m
- Ground: 1 m
- Ice: 2 m
- Snow: 6 m
Plan to spend at least 200 hours (8-9 days) in your hideout.
Under no circumstances should you leave the shelter during the first forty-eight hours!
The reason is that you need to avoid the decay products produced by a nuclear explosion. The deadliest of these is radioactive iodine. Fortunately, radioactive iodine has a relatively short half-life of eight days (the time it takes for half of its natural decay into safer isotopes). Keep in mind that even after 8-9 days, there will still be a lot of radioactive iodine around, so you need to limit your exposure. It can take up to 90 days for radioactive iodine to break down to 0.1% of its original volume.
Other significant decay products are cesium and strontium. They have a long half-life: 30 and 28 years, respectively. These elements are very well absorbed by wildlife and can make food dangerous for decades. In addition, they are carried by the wind for thousands of kilometers, so if you think that you are not in danger in a remote area, you are wrong.
Handle food and water wisely.
You'll need to eat to survive, exposing yourself to radiation (unless the shelter doesn't have ample food and water supplies).
Processed foods can be eaten as long as the packaging is puncture-free and relatively intact.
Animals may be eaten, but the skin must be carefully skinned and the heart, liver, and kidneys discarded. Try not to eat meat close to the bone, as the bone marrow stores radiation.
- Eat the pigeons
- Eat wild rabbits
Plants in the affected area are edible; those that have edible root vegetables or tubers (such as carrots and potatoes) are best eaten. Check if the plant is edible.
Radioactive particles can get into open water, so it is not suitable for drinking. It is safer to take water from undergrounds, such as a spring or a well-sealed well. Think of building a solar distiller like you would when extracting drinking water in the desert. Only use water from streams and lakes as a last resort. Make a filter: Dig a hole about 30 cm from the water's edge and draw water from it as it fills up. Water can be cloudy or dirty, so it needs to be boiled to get rid of the bacteria. If you are in a building, then the water is generally safe. If the water supply is turned off (most likely), use the water left in the pipes. To do this, open the faucet at the house's highest point to let in air, and then drain the water at the lowest point of the house.
- Check out How to Get Drinkable Water from Your Water Heater in an Emergency.
- You must know how to purify water.
Dress to cover your skin as much as possible (wear a hat, gloves, goggles, a long-sleeved shirt, etc.).
This is especially important when you go outside as it helps prevent beta burns. To disinfect, constantly shake clothing and rinse exposed skin with water. Otherwise, the accumulated particles will cause burns over time.
Treat radiation and thermal burns.
Minor burns are also known as beta burns (although other particles can also cause them). Soak the burned area in cold water until the pain subsides (usually 5 minutes).
If the skin begins to blister, char, or tear, rinse with cold water to remove debris, then cover with a sterile compress to prevent infection. Don't pop bubbles!
If the skin doesn't blister, char, or tear, don't cover it, even if the burn covers most of the body (much like a sunburn). Instead, wash the burnt area and cover it with petroleum jelly or a solution of baking soda and water, if available. Moist (uncontaminated) soil will also work.
Severe burns, known as thermal burns, are caused more often by intense heat radiation than by ionizing particles (although they are also). They can be life-threatening and come with many risk factors: dehydration, shock, lung damage, infections, etc. Follow these steps to treat a severe burn.
Protect burns from further contamination.
If clothing covers the area of the burn, gently cut and remove the fabric from the burn. DO NOT attempt to remove tissue stuck or adhered to the burn. DO NOT attempt to pull clothing over the burn. DO NOT apply ointment to the burn! It is best, if possible, to seek qualified medical help.
Gently rinse the burnt area with water ONLY. DO NOT apply creams or ointments.
DO NOT use an everyday sterile medical dressing not explicitly designed for burns. Since non-adhesive burn dressings (and all other medical supplies) are likely to be in short supply, food-grade plastic wrap, which is sterile, will not stick to the burn, and is readily available, can be an alternative.
Shock must be prevented. Shock means insufficient blood flow to vital tissues and organs. If left unattended, it can be fatal. Shock can result from severe blood loss, deep burns, or even a reaction to the appearance of a wound or blood. Signs of shock are restlessness, thirst, pale skin, and a fast heartbeat. Sweating may occur even if the skin feels cool and clammy. When the condition worsens, breathing becomes frequent and intermittent, and an absent look appears. To help maintain a regular heartbeat and breathing by massaging the chest and helping the person regain calm breathing. Loosen any tight clothing and reassure the person. Be gentle but firm and confident.
Don't be afraid to help people with radiation sickness.
It is not contagious, and it all depends on the amount of radiation the person has received. The next step is an abbreviated version of the table.
Familiarize yourself with radiation units.
Gray (Gy) is an SI unit that measures the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation. 1 Gy = 100 rad. Sievert (Sv) is an SI unit that measures the effective and equivalent dose of ionizing radiation. 1 Sv = 100 rem (X-ray biological equivalent). For simplicity, it is generally assumed that 1 Gy is equivalent to 1 Sv.
Less than 0.05 Gy: no visible symptoms.
0.05-0.5 Gy: temporarily decreases the number of red blood cells.
0.5-1 Gy: reduced production of immune cells; susceptibility to infections; nausea, headache, and vomiting are common. After such exposure, you can survive without treatment.
1.5-3 Gy: 35% of those affected die within 30 days. Nausea, vomiting, and loss of hair all over the body.
3-4 Gy: severe radiation poisoning, 50% of those affected die within 30 days. Other symptoms are similar to that of a radiation dose of 2-3 Sv; after the latent phase, uncontrolled bleeding in the mouth, under the skin, and in the kidneys is observed (at a dose of 4 Sv, the probability is 50%).
4-6 Gy: acute radiation poisoning, 60% of those affected die within 30 days. Mortality increases from 60% at 4.5 Sv to 90% at 6 Sv (unless intensive medical measures are taken). Symptoms appear within half an hour to 2 hours after exposure and last up to 2 days. This is followed by 7 to 14 days of a latent phase, after which the same symptoms appear as at a dose of 3-4 Sv, but more intensely. At this dose of radiation, female infertility often occurs. Recovery takes from several months to a year.
The leading causes of death (within 2-12 weeks after exposure) are infections and internal bleeding.
6-10 Gy: In Acute radiation poisoning, mortality is almost 100% within 14 days. Survival depends on medical care. The bone marrow is virtually destroyed, so a transplant is required. The tissues of the stomach and intestines are severely damaged. Symptoms appear 15-30 minutes after exposure and last up to 2 days. This is followed by a 5 to 10-day latent phase, after which the person dies from infection or internal bleeding. Recovery will take several years and will probably never be complete. Devar Alves Ferreira received a dose of approximately 7.0 Sv during an accident in Goiania and survived due to the fractional nature of the exposure.
12-20 rem: mortality is 100%, and symptoms appear immediately. The gastrointestinal tract is destroyed. There is uncontrolled bleeding from the mouth, under the skin, and from the kidneys—fatigue and feeling unwell in general. The symptoms are similar but more pronounced. Recovery is impossible.
More than 20 rem. The same symptoms appear instantly and intensely, then stop for a few days. The gastrointestinal tract cells are rapidly destroyed with water loss and profuse bleeding. Before death, a person is delighted and falls into madness. When the brain cannot control bodily functions such as breathing or circulation, the person dies. There is no cure; medical assistance is only aimed at alleviating suffering.
Unfortunately, you have to admit that the person may soon die. Although it is hard, do not waste food and medicine on those dying from radiation sickness. Save everything you need for your health and ability to survive. Radiation sickness often affects children, the elderly, and the sick.
Try to save electrical equipment.
A nuclear explosion at a very high altitude will trigger a powerful electromagnetic pulse so strong that it can destroy electronic and electrical devices. The least you should do is unplug all appliances from electrical outlets and antennas. Place the radio and flashlights in the SEALED metal container ("Faraday Shield"). This can protect against electromagnetic pulse, provided that the devices inside do NOT come into contact with the case. The metal shield must surround the objects and must be grounded.
The devices you want to protect must be isolated from the conductive case. The electromagnetic field can induce a voltage in the boards. If you are far from the explosion, a metal rescue (thermal, space) blanket that wraps all devices, pre-wrapped in newspapers or cotton wool, can act as a Faraday shield.
Another way is to wrap the cardboard box in copper or aluminum foil. Place the appliances inside and ground the device.
Be prepared for subsequent attacks.
Most likely, a nuclear strike will not be a single one. Be ready for new strikes or the invasion of the enemy army.
Keep the shelter intact unless the materials used are necessary for survival. Gather as much clean water and food as possible.
However, if the attacking side attacks again, then most likely, this strike will fall on another part of the country. If all else fails, live in a cave.
Be sure to wash everything, especially food, even inside your shelter.
- Do not tell anyone precisely what and how much you have with you.
- Watch out for the military! Indeed the military will appear soon, people in biological protection suits, etc. Learn to distinguish tanks, planes, and other equipment of your country's armed forces from the enemy.
- Stay tuned for government information and announcements.
- Only leave the hideout if you have a hazmat suit and should be on the lookout for a new threat.
- Build a nuclear shelter in advance. A home nuclear shelter can be set up in a basement or cellar. However, new homes often do not have basements; if so, consider building a public retreat or a private one in your garden.
Read more: As president Putin of Russia is putting the Nuclear arsenal on high alert, people are asking google this 20 questions
The dog was tied to a stone and thrown into the river to die, but good people saved it, and this is how its fate developed
Dogs are only a part of our life, but for them we are their whole life. Saying goodbye to a dog is always very difficult, because over time they become full-fledged family members. Unfortunately, sometimes dogs get to people with a stone heart, and if they somehow "tolerate" young dogs, they can deal with them in the most heartless way when they get old. This is the story of Bella, a 10-year-old German shepherd from the UK, who was tied to a large rock by her former owners and thrown into the water, hoping she would drown.
Former owners tied Bella's leash to a large rock and threw it into the water, hoping she would drown.
Dog struggling to survive spotted by Jane Harper and her friend Joanne Bellamy
People walked by, walking their dogs
This is the stone that Bella's leash was tied to.
After being pulled out of the water, Bella was immediately taken to the local veterinarian.
Later she was placed in the care of the charity RSPCA (Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals)
Bella was lucky to survive in icy water with a stone tied to her neck.
But the physical examination also revealed that she had other health problems.
Bella was cared for by the kind and helpful staff of the Radcliffe Animal Center in Nottingham, UK
Animal welfare charity and local police have launched an investigation to find those responsible for the atrocities against the dog
Bela spent 15 months under the care of a charitable organization, and during this time she completely recovered and changed a lot.
She found a new home, and retired couple Maggie Mellish and Charlie Douglas became its new owners.
The couple used to keep herding-type dogs, and now they are ready to give all their love to Bella, since their last dog passed away a couple of years ago.
Jane Harper and Joanne Bellamy, who rescued Bella, visited her to see how she was doing.
Bella is now 11 years old, and you could hardly find better owners for her than a couple of retired dog lovers
The story told by Maggie, Bella's new owner:
“Over the past 30 years, there have been 3 shepherd-type dogs in our family. Two years ago we lost our dogs Tia and Luna, and this year - my daughter Flame's dog. We missed them a lot. But a few weeks ago we saw Bella's story in the press and learned that she needed a new home, so my daughter Claire Luscher advised us to apply for her adoption.
We know she will need regular veterinary visits and are willing to pay for them. We know she's old, but we just want to offer her the loving home she deserves after everything she's been through. We are both retired, so we will always be there for her, and this is what she really needs, and it will also be great for ourselves. "
Me getting over someone I never dated
How Elephants And Rhinos Survive In A Pandemic - African Unprotected Wildlife
Environmental organizations, national parks, and wildlife shelters in Africa are gearing up for the worst. The borders are closed, there are no tourists, which means that most of the projects for the conservation of rare and endangered species of animals were left without money, Izvestia reports.
The rhinoceros shelter in the southern African province of Limpopo remained virtually without personnel due to the pandemic.
Mostly foreigners worked here, changing every three months, but because of the coronavirus their visas were canceled. Four full-time employees had to withstand 72-hour shifts, sleeping only 2-3 hours per night.
Caring for little orphaned rhinos is hard work. They demand milk at any time of the day or night and scream loudly, calling on the mother, who was killed before their eyes by poachers.
The founder and shelter manager, 66-year-old retired teacher, Arri van Deventer, had to look for local volunteers through social networks.
Of the several hundred who responded, he chose only two. The location of such shelters is kept secret in order to avoid attacks by poachers. Mokgopong facility has been attacked twice already.
Mapimpi was orphaned when he was seven days old. Poachers killed his mother to cut off the horn, which is used as medicine and for jewelry.
His body was very dehydrated, his skin was dry, he tried to eat sand. The baby was fed milk mixture from a bottle. At the age of five, like other grown rhinos, he will be released into the wild.
Dozens of visitors usually gathered to feed an orphan elephant from a bottle in a David Sheldrick shelter near Kenyan Nairobi.
Now he eats alone: on March 15, the institution was closed, after the country revealed the first case of coronavirus.
The shelter lives on online donations and from ticket sales. Before the pandemic, up to 500 people visited its territory daily, each paying about $ 5 for entry.
Now you can attend the elephant calf feeding procedure or watch how he sleeps, only online. On social media, live broadcasts are at 11:00 and 17:00 local time.
Elephant calves in East Africa very often remain orphaned by poachers. The smallest most often die without breast milk.
The David Sheldrick Foundation has special teams to combat poachers and several mobile veterinary teams that patrol the area from air and land. These events were organized thanks to tourists and donnors.
According to the UN, last year Africa was visited by about 70 million tourists. In order to survive in a pandemic, reserves, shelters, national parks throughout Africa suspend all third-party projects, stop building infrastructure and cut staff salaries
Ah yes he survived 8 rounds
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